38 relations: Alpha helix, Amino acid, Beta sheet, Bile acid, Cholesterol, Coronary artery disease, Cushing's syndrome, Cytochrome P450, Dextrorotation and levorotation, Downregulation and upregulation, Eicosanoid, Endoplasmic reticulum, Enzyme, Farnesoid X receptor, FGF15/19, Fibrate, Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4, Gallstone, Gene, Heme, Hepatotoxicity, Ketoconazole, Levoketoconazole, Liver X receptor, Molecule, Oxidoreductase, Oxygen, Pharmacovigilance, Potency (pharmacology), Protein dimer, Rate-determining step, Small heterodimer partner, Steroidogenic enzyme, Sterol regulatory element-binding protein, Tolerability, Toxicity, Uroporphyrinogen, 7α-Hydroxycholesterol.
The alpha helix (α-helix) is a common motif in the secondary structure of proteins and is a righthand-spiral conformation (i.e. helix) in which every backbone N−H group donates a hydrogen bond to the backbone C.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
The β-sheet (also β-pleated sheet) is a common motif of regular secondary structure in proteins.
Bile acids are steroid acids found predominantly in the bile of mammals and other vertebrates.
Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.
Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.
Cushing's syndrome is a collection of signs and symptoms due to prolonged exposure to cortisol.
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.
Dextrorotation and levorotation (also spelled as laevorotation)The first word component dextro- comes from Latin word for dexter "right (as opposed to left)".
In the biological context of organisms' production of gene products, downregulation is the process by which a cell decreases the quantity of a cellular component, such as RNA or protein, in response to an external stimulus.
Eicosanoids are signaling molecules made by the enzymatic or non-enzymatic oxidation of arachidonic acid or other polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that are, similar to arachidonic acid, 20 carbon units in length.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
The bile acid receptor (BAR), also known as farnesoid X receptor (FXR) or NR1H4 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 4) is a nuclear receptor that is encoded by the NR1H4 gene in humans.
FGF15/19 refers to two orthologous fibroblast growth factors which share 50% aminoacid identity and have similar functions.
In pharmacology, the fibrates are a class of amphipathic carboxylic acids.
Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FGFR4 gene.
A gallstone is a stone formed within the gallbladder out of bile components. The term cholelithiasis may refer to the presence of gallstones or to the diseases caused by gallstones. Most people with gallstones (about 80%) never have symptoms. When a gallstone blocks the bile duct, a crampy pain in the right upper part of the abdomen, known as biliary colic (gallbladder attack) can result. This happens in 1–4% of those with gallstones each year. Complications of gallstones may include inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis), jaundice, and infection of a bile duct (cholangitis). Symptoms of these complications may include pain of more than five hours duration, fever, yellowish skin, vomiting, dark urine, and pale stools. Risk factors for gallstones include birth control pills, pregnancy, a family history of gallstones, obesity, diabetes, liver disease, or rapid weight loss. The bile components that form gallstones include cholesterol, bile salts, and bilirubin. Gallstones formed mainly from cholesterol are termed cholesterol stones, and those mainly from bilirubin are termed pigment stones. Gallstones may be suspected based on symptoms. Diagnosis is then typically confirmed by ultrasound. Complications may be detected on blood tests. The risk of gallstones may be decreased by maintaining a healthy weight through sufficient exercise and eating a healthy diet. If there are no symptoms, treatment is usually not needed. In those who are having gallbladder attacks, surgery to remove the gallbladder is typically recommended. This can be carried out either through several small incisions or through a single larger incision, usually under general anesthesia. In rare cases when surgery is not possible medication may be used to try to dissolve the stones or lithotripsy to break down the stones. In developed countries, 10–15% of adults have gallstones. Rates in many parts of Africa, however, are as low as 3%. Gallbladder and biliary related diseases occurred in about 104 million people (1.6%) in 2013 and they resulted in 106,000 deaths. Women more commonly have stones than men and they occur more commonly after the age of 40. Certain ethnic groups have gallstones more often than others. For example, 48% of Native Americans have gallstones. Once the gallbladder is removed, outcomes are generally good.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Heme or haem is a coordination complex "consisting of an iron ion coordinated to a porphyrin acting as a tetradentate ligand, and to one or two axial ligands." The definition is loose, and many depictions omit the axial ligands.
Hepatotoxicity (from hepatic toxicity) implies chemical-driven liver damage.
Ketoconazole is a synthetic imidazole antifungal drug used primarily to treat fungal infections.
Levoketoconazole (INN, USAN) (developmental code name COR-003; tentative brand name Recorlev, previously NormoCort), also known as (2S,4R)-ketoconazole, is a steroidogenesis inhibitor that is under development by Strongbridge Biopharma (formerly Cortendo AB) for the treatment of Cushing's syndrome.
The liver X receptor (LXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors and is closely related to nuclear receptors such as the PPARs, FXR and RXR.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
In biochemistry, an oxidoreductase is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of electrons from one molecule, the reductant, also called the electron donor, to another, the oxidant, also called the electron acceptor.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Pharmacovigilance (PV or PhV), also known as drug safety, is the pharmacological science relating to the collection, detection, assessment, monitoring, and prevention of adverse effects with pharmaceutical products.
In the field of pharmacology, potency is a measure of drug activity expressed in terms of the amount required to produce an effect of given intensity.
In biochemistry, a protein dimer is a macromolecular complex formed by two protein monomers, or single proteins, which are usually non-covalently bound.
In chemical kinetics, the overall rate of a reaction is often approximately determined by the slowest step, known as the rate-determining step (RDS) or rate-limiting step.
The small heterodimer partner (SHP) also known as NR0B2 (nuclear receptor subfamily 0, group B, member 2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NR0B2 gene.
Steroidogenic enzymes, or steroid-metabolizing enzymes, are enzymes that are involved in steroidogenesis and steroid metabolism.
Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) are transcription factors that bind to the sterol regulatory element DNA sequence TCACNCCAC.
Tolerability refers to the degree to which overt adverse effects of a drug can be tolerated by a patient.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
Uroporphyrinogens are cyclic tetrapyrroles with four propionic acid groups ("P" groups) and four acetic acid groups ("A" groups).
7α-Hydroxycholesterol is a precursor of bile acids, created by cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase.