300 relations: Abbreviation, Activator (genetics), Adenine, Ageing, Agriculture, Algae, Allele, Alternative splicing, Amino acid, Ancestor, Ancient Greek, Antimicrobial resistance, Archaea, Asexual reproduction, Bacillus subtilis, Bacteria, Bacteriophage MS2, Base pair, Biochemistry, Biodiversity, Biological constraints, Biological life cycle, Biological patent, Biology, Biomolecular structure, Biotechnology, Blending inheritance, Blood type, Botany, Brno, C-terminus, C. Stuart Gager, Carl Correns, Cell (biology), Cell cycle, Cell division, Cell membrane, Cell nucleus, Cellular differentiation, Cellular stress response, Central dogma of molecular biology, Centromere, Charles Darwin, Chromatid, Chromatin, Chromosome, Chromosome abnormality, Cistron, Coding region, Coding strand, ..., Complementarity (molecular biology), Consensus sequence, Conservative replacement, Conserved sequence, Copy-number variation, Covalent bond, CRC Press, Crick, Brenner et al. experiment, Cytoplasm, Cytosine, Darwinism, Dehydration, Denmark, Deoxyribose, Developmental biology, Directional selection, Directionality (molecular biology), DNA, DNA binding site, DNA polymerase, DNA repair, DNA replication, DNA sequencing, DNA supercoil, Dominance (genetics), Eduard Strasburger, Edward Tatum, Egg, Embryo, Enhancer (genetics), Environment (biophysical), Enzyme, Epigenetics, Erich von Tschermak, Escherichia coli, Eukaryote, Evolution, Exon, Expressed sequence tag, Eye color, Fission (biology), Fitness (biology), Frameshift mutation, Francis Crick, Frederick Sanger, Gamete, GENCODE, Gene dosage, Gene duplication, Gene expression, Gene family, Gene nomenclature, Gene pool, Gene product, Gene redundancy, Gene regulatory network, Gene structure, Gene therapy, Gene-centered view of evolution, Gene–environment interaction, Genetic algorithm, Genetic code, Genetic drift, Genetic engineering techniques, Genetic linkage, Genetic recombination, Genetic variation, Genetically modified organism, Geneticist, Genetics, Genome, Genome (book), Genome editing, Genome size, Genotype, George Beadle, George C. Williams (biologist), Germ cell, Gregor Mendel, Guanine, Heat shock protein, Histone, HIV, Homology (biology), Horizontal gene transfer, Host (biology), Housekeeping gene, Hugo de Vries, HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee, Human genome, Human Genome Organisation, Human Genome Project, Hydrogen bond, Hydroxy group, Infection, Intron, Invagination, James Watson, Jena, Journal of Molecular Biology, Julian Huxley, Knockout mouse, Lac operon, Lactose, Lethal allele, Life, List of gene prediction software, List of human genes, Locus (genetics), Marcel Dekker, Mature messenger RNA, Maurice Wilkins, Medicine, Meiosis, Mendelian inheritance, Messenger RNA, Metabolism, MicroRNA, Microtubule, Missense mutation, Mitochondrion, Model organism, Modern synthesis (20th century), Molecular cloning, Molecular genetics, Most recent common ancestor, Mouse, Multicellular organism, Mutant, Mutation, Mycoplasma laboratorium, N-terminus, Natural selection, Nature (journal), Neurospora crassa, Neutral mutation, Neutral theory of molecular evolution, Non-coding DNA, Non-coding RNA, Nonsense mutation, Norman Horowitz, Nuclease, Nucleic acid double helix, Nucleobase, Nucleophile, Nucleosome, Nucleotide, Nutrient, Offspring, One gene–one enzyme hypothesis, Open reading frame, Operon, Organelle, Origin of replication, Orphan gene, Oryza sativa, Pangenesis, Pea, Pentose, Peptide, Peptide bond, Phenotype, Phenotypic trait, Phosphate, Phylogenetics, Plasmid, Ploidy, Point mutation, Polygene, Polymer, Polymorphism (biology), Population, Post-transcriptional modification, Post-translational modification, Precursor mRNA, Predictive medicine, Primary transcript, Prokaryote, Promoter (genetics), Protein, Protein biosynthesis, Protein folding, Proteome, Protist, Pseudogene, Quantitative trait locus, Regulation of gene expression, Regulatory sequence, Repressor, Reproduction, Retrotransposon, Retrovirus, Reverse transcriptase, Ribose, Ribosomal RNA, Ribosome, Ribosome-binding site, Ribozyme, Richard Dawkins, RNA, RNA polymerase, RNA splicing, RNA virus, Rosalind Franklin, S phase, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Sanger sequencing, Scientific control, Semiconservative replication, Sequence alignment, Sequence homology, Sexual reproduction, Seymour Benzer, Silencer (genetics), Silent mutation, Speciation, Sperm, Stabilizing selection, Start codon, Stop codon, Survival of the fittest, Symbol, Synonymous substitution, Synthetic biology, T4 rII system, TATA box, Telomere, Terminator (genetics), The Selfish Gene, Thymine, Trans-splicing, Transcription (biology), Transcription factor, Transcriptional regulation, Transfer RNA, Translation (biology), Unit of selection, Untranslated region, Uracil, Viroid, Virulence, Virus, Walter Fiers, Whole genome sequencing, Wild type, Wilhelm Johannsen, William Bateson, X-ray crystallography, Zygosity, Zygote. Expand index (250 more) » « Shrink index
An abbreviation (from Latin brevis, meaning short) is a shortened form of a word or phrase.
A transcriptional activator is a protein (transcription factor) that increases gene transcription of a gene or set of genes.
Adenine (A, Ade) is a nucleobase (a purine derivative).
Ageing or aging (see spelling differences) is the process of becoming older.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
An allele is a variant form of a given gene.
Alternative splicing, or differential splicing, is a regulated process during gene expression that results in a single gene coding for multiple proteins.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
An ancestor is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an antecedent (i.e., a grandparent, great-grandparent, great-great-grandparent, and so forth).
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication that once could successfully treat the microbe.
Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.
Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes, and almost never changes the number of chromosomes.
Bacillus subtilis, known also as the hay bacillus or grass bacillus, is a Gram-positive, catalase-positive bacterium, found in soil and the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants and humans.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
The bacteriophage MS2 is an icosahedral, positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that infects the bacterium Escherichia coli and other members of the Enterobacteriaceae.
A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
Biological constraints are factors which make populations resistant to evolutionary change.
In biology, a biological life cycle (or just life cycle when the biological context is clear) is a series of changes in form that an organism undergoes, returning to the starting state.
A biological patent is a patent on an invention in the field of biology that by law allows the patent holder to exclude others from making, using, selling, or importing the protected invention for a limited period of time.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
Biomolecular structure is the intricate folded, three-dimensional shape that is formed by a molecule of protein, DNA, or RNA, and that is important to its function.
Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).
Blending inheritance is an obsolete theory in biology from the 19th century.
A blood type (also called a blood group) is a classification of blood based on the presence and absence of antibodies and also based on the presence or absence of inherited antigenic substances on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs).
Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology.
Brno (Brünn) is the second largest city in the Czech Republic by population and area, the largest Moravian city, and the historical capital city of the Margraviate of Moravia.
The C-terminus (also known as the carboxyl-terminus, carboxy-terminus, C-terminal tail, C-terminal end, or COOH-terminus) is the end of an amino acid chain (protein or polypeptide), terminated by a free carboxyl group (-COOH).
Charles Stuart Gager (December 23, 1872 – August 9, 1943) was an American botanist and director of the Brooklyn Botanic Garden for over 30 years.
Carl Erich Correns (19 September 1864 – 14 February 1933) was a German botanist and geneticist, who is notable primarily for his independent discovery of the principles of heredity, and for his rediscovery of Gregor Mendel's earlier paper on that subject, which he achieved simultaneously but independently of the botanists Erich Tschermak von Seysenegg and Hugo de Vries, and the agronomist William Jasper Spillman.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells.
Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.
Cellular stress response is the wide range of molecular changes that cells undergo in response to environmental stressors, including extremes of temperature, exposure to toxins, and mechanical damage.
The central dogma of molecular biology is an explanation of the flow of genetic information within a biological system.
The centromere is the specialized DNA sequence of a chromosome that links a pair of sister chromatids (a dyad).
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
A chromatid (Greek khrōmat- 'color' + -id) is one copy of a newly copied chromosome which is still joined to the original chromosome by a single centromere.
Chromatin is a complex of macromolecules found in cells, consisting of DNA, protein, and RNA.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
A chromosome abnormality, disorder, anomaly, aberration, or mutation is a missing, extra, or irregular portion of chromosomal DNA.
A cistron is an alternative term to a gene.
The coding region of a gene, also known as the CDS (from CoDing Sequence), is that portion of a gene's DNA or RNA that codes for protein.
When referring to DNA transcription, the coding strand is the DNA strand whose base sequence corresponds to the base sequence of the RNA transcript produced (although with thymine replaced by uracil).
In molecular biology, complementarity describes a relationship between two structures each following the lock-and-key principle.
In molecular biology and bioinformatics, the consensus sequence (or canonical sequence) is the calculated order of most frequent residues, either nucleotide or amino acid, found at each position in a sequence alignment.
A conservative replacement (also called a conservative mutation or a conservative substitution) is an amino acid replacement that changes a given amino acid to a different amino acid with similar biochemical properties (e.g. charge, hydrophobicity and size).
In evolutionary biology, conserved sequences are similar or identical sequences in nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) or proteins across species (orthologous sequences) or within a genome (paralogous sequences).
Copy number variation (CNV) is a phenomenon in which sections of the genome are repeated and the number of repeats in the genome varies between individuals in the human population.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.
The Crick, Brenner et al.
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.
Cytosine (C) is one of the four main bases found in DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
Darwinism is a theory of biological evolution developed by the English naturalist Charles Darwin (1809–1882) and others, stating that all species of organisms arise and develop through the natural selection of small, inherited variations that increase the individual's ability to compete, survive, and reproduce.
In physiology, dehydration is a deficit of total body water, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processes.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
Deoxyribose, or more precisely 2-deoxyribose, is a monosaccharide with idealized formula H−(C.
Developmental biology is the study of the process by which animals and plants grow and develop.
In population genetics, directional selection is a mode of natural selection in which an extreme phenotype is favored over other phenotypes, causing the allele frequency to shift over time in the direction of that phenotype.
Directionality, in molecular biology and biochemistry, is the end-to-end chemical orientation of a single strand of nucleic acid.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
DNA binding sites are a type of binding site found in DNA where other molecules may bind.
DNA polymerases are enzymes that synthesize DNA molecules from deoxyribonucleotides, the building blocks of DNA.
DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome.
In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.
DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule.
DNA supercoiling refers to the over- or under-winding of a DNA strand, and is an expression of the strain on that strand.
Dominance in genetics is a relationship between alleles of one gene, in which the effect on phenotype of one allele masks the contribution of a second allele at the same locus.
Eduard Adolf Strasburger (1 February 1844 – 18 May 1912) was a Polish-German professor and one of the most famous botanists of the 19th century.
Edward Lawrie Tatum (December 14, 1909 – November 5, 1975) was an American geneticist.
An egg is the organic vessel containing the zygote in which an animal embryo develops until it can survive on its own; at which point the animal hatches.
An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.
In genetics, an enhancer is a short (50–1500 bp) region of DNA that can be bound by proteins (activators) to increase the likelihood that transcription of a particular gene will occur.
A biophysical environment is a biotic and abiotic surrounding of an organism or population, and consequently includes the factors that have an influence in their survival, development, and evolution.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene function that do not involve changes in the DNA sequence.
Erich Tschermak, Edler von Seysenegg (15 November 1871 – 11 October 1962) was an Austrian agronomist who developed several new disease-resistant crops, including wheat-rye and oat hybrids.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
An exon is any part of a gene that will encode a part of the final mature RNA produced by that gene after introns have been removed by RNA splicing.
In genetics, an expressed sequence tag (EST) is a short sub-sequence of a cDNA sequence.
Eye color is a polygenic phenotypic character determined by two distinct factors: the pigmentation of the eye's iris and the frequency-dependence of the scattering of light by the turbid medium in the stroma of the iris.
Fission, in biology, is the division of a single entity into two or more parts and the regeneration of those parts into separate entities resembling the original.
Fitness (often denoted w or ω in population genetics models) is the quantitative representation of natural and sexual selection within evolutionary biology.
A frameshift mutation (also called a framing error or a reading frame shift) is a genetic mutation caused by indels (insertions or deletions) of a number of nucleotides in a DNA sequence that is not divisible by three.
Francis Harry Compton Crick (8 June 1916 – 28 July 2004) was a British molecular biologist, biophysicist, and neuroscientist, most noted for being a co-discoverer of the structure of the DNA molecule in 1953 with James Watson, work which was based partly on fundamental studies done by Rosalind Franklin, Raymond Gosling and Maurice Wilkins.
Frederick Sanger (13 August 1918 – 19 November 2013) was a British biochemist who twice won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, one of only two people to have done so in the same category (the other is John Bardeen in physics), the fourth person overall with two Nobel Prizes, and the third person overall with two Nobel Prizes in the sciences.
A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete from gamein "to marry") is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce.
GENCODE is a scientific project in genome research and part of the ENCODE (ENCyclopedia Of DNA Elements) scale-up project.
Gene dosage is the number of copies of a particular gene present in a genome.
Gene duplication (or chromosomal duplication or gene amplification) is a major mechanism through which new genetic material is generated during molecular evolution.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
A gene family is a set of several similar genes, formed by duplication of a single original gene, and generally with similar biochemical functions.
Gene nomenclature is the scientific naming of genes, the units of heredity in living organisms.
The gene pool is the set of all genes, or genetic information, in any population, usually of a particular species.
A gene product is the biochemical material, either RNA or protein, resulting from expression of a gene.
Gene redundancy is the existence of multiple genes in the genome of an organism that perform the same function.
A gene (or genetic) regulatory network (GRN) is a collection of molecular regulators that interact with each other and with other substances in the cell to govern the gene expression levels of mRNA and proteins.
Gene structure is the organisation of specialised sequence elements within a gene.
In the medicine field, gene therapy (also called human gene transfer) is the therapeutic delivery of nucleic acid into a patient's cells as a drug to treat disease.
The gene-centered view of evolution, gene's eye view, gene selection theory, or selfish gene theory holds that adaptive evolution occurs through the differential survival of competing genes, increasing the allele frequency of those alleles whose phenotypic trait effects successfully promote their own propagation, with gene defined as "not just one single physical bit of DNA all replicas of a particular bit of DNA distributed throughout the world".
Gene–environment interaction (or genotype–environment interaction or G×E) is when two different genotypes respond to environmental variation in different ways.
In computer science and operations research, a genetic algorithm (GA) is a metaheuristic inspired by the process of natural selection that belongs to the larger class of evolutionary algorithms (EA).
The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) into proteins.
Genetic drift (also known as allelic drift or the Sewall Wright effect) is the change in the frequency of an existing gene variant (allele) in a population due to random sampling of organisms.
Genetic engineering has involved to encompass multiple techniques.
Genetic linkage is the tendency of DNA sequences that are close together on a chromosome to be inherited together during the meiosis phase of sexual reproduction.
Genetic recombination (aka genetic reshuffling) is the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent.
Genetic variation means that biological systems – individuals and populations – are different over space.
A genetically modified organism (GMO) is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques (i.e., a genetically engineered organism).
A geneticist is a biologist who studies genetics, the science of genes, heredity, and variation of organisms.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
Genome: The Autobiography of a Species in 23 Chapters is a 1999 popular science book by the science writer Matt Ridley, published by Fourth Estate.
Genome editing, or genome engineering is a type of genetic engineering in which DNA is inserted, deleted, modified or replaced in the genome of a living organism.
Genome size is the total amount of DNA contained within one copy of a single genome.
The genotype is the part of the genetic makeup of a cell, and therefore of an organism or individual, which determines one of its characteristics (phenotype).
George Wells Beadle (October 22, 1903 – June 9, 1989) was an American scientist in the field of genetics, and Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Nobel laureate who with Edward Tatum discovered the role of genes in regulating biochemical events within cells in 1958.
George Christopher Williams (May 12, 1926 – September 8, 2010) was an American evolutionary biologist.
A germ cell is any biological cell that gives rise to the gametes of an organism that reproduces sexually.
Gregor Johann Mendel (Řehoř Jan Mendel; 20 July 1822 – 6 January 1884) was a scientist, Augustinian friar and abbot of St. Thomas' Abbey in Brno, Margraviate of Moravia.
Guanine (or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
Heat shock proteins (HSP) are a family of proteins that are produced by cells in response to exposure to stressful conditions.
In biology, histones are highly alkaline proteins found in eukaryotic cell nuclei that package and order the DNA into structural units called nucleosomes.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring.
In biology and medicine, a host is an organism that harbours a parasitic, a mutualistic, or a commensalist guest (symbiont), the guest typically being provided with nourishment and shelter.
In molecular biology, housekeeping genes are typically constitutive genes that are required for the maintenance of basic cellular function, and are expressed in all cells of an organism under normal and patho-physiological conditions.
Hugo Marie de Vries ForMemRS (16 February 1848 – 21 May 1935) was a Dutch botanist and one of the first geneticists.
The HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC) is a committee of the Human Genome Organisation (HUGO) that sets the standards for human gene nomenclature.
The human genome is the complete set of nucleic acid sequences for humans, encoded as DNA within the 23 chromosome pairs in cell nuclei and in a small DNA molecule found within individual mitochondria.
The Human Genome Organisation (HUGO) is an organization involved in the Human Genome Project, a project about mapping the human genome.
The Human Genome Project (HGP) was an international scientific research project with the goal of determining the sequence of nucleotide base pairs that make up human DNA, and of identifying and mapping all of the genes of the human genome from both a physical and a functional standpoint.
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.
A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
An intron is any nucleotide sequence within a gene that is removed by RNA splicing during maturation of the final RNA product.
In developmental biology, invagination is a mechanism that takes place during gastrulation.
James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, geneticist and zoologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA in 1953 with Francis Crick and Rosalind Franklin.
Jena is a German university city and the second largest city in Thuringia.
The Journal of Molecular Biology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published weekly by Elsevier.
Sir Julian Sorell Huxley FRS (22 June 1887 – 14 February 1975) was a British evolutionary biologist, eugenicist, and internationalist.
A knockout mouse or knock-out mouse is a genetically modified mouse (Mus musculus) in which researchers have inactivated, or "knocked out", an existing gene by replacing it or disrupting it with an artificial piece of DNA.
The lac operon (lactose operon) is an operon required for the transport and metabolism of lactose in Escherichia coli and many other enteric bacteria.
Lactose is a disaccharide.
Lethal alleles (also referred to as lethal genes or lethals) are alleles that cause the death of the organism that carries them.
Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.
This is a list of software tools and web portals used for gene prediction.
Here are lists of human genes by chromosome.
A locus (plural loci) in genetics is a fixed position on a chromosome, like the position of a gene or a marker (genetic marker).
Marcel Dekker was a journal and encyclopedia publishing company with editorial boards found in New York, New York.
Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis.
Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins (15 December 1916 – 5 October 2004) was a New Zealand-born British physicist and molecular biologist, and Nobel laureate whose research contributed to the scientific understanding of phosphorescence, isotope separation, optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction, and to the development of radar.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Meiosis (from Greek μείωσις, meiosis, which means lessening) is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them.
Mendelian inheritance is a type of biological inheritance that follows the laws originally proposed by Gregor Mendel in 1865 and 1866 and re-discovered in 1900.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
A microRNA (abbreviated miRNA) is a small non-coding RNA molecule (containing about 22 nucleotides) found in plants, animals and some viruses, that functions in RNA silencing and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression.
Microtubules are tubular polymers of tubulin that form part of the cytoskeleton that provides the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells and some bacteria with structure and shape.
In genetics, a missense mutation is a point mutation in which a single nucleotide change results in a codon that codes for a different amino acid.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.
The modern synthesis was the early 20th-century synthesis reconciling Charles Darwin's theory of evolution and Gregor Mendel's ideas on heredity in a joint mathematical framework.
Molecular cloning is a set of experimental methods in molecular biology that are used to assemble recombinant DNA molecules and to direct their replication within host organisms.
Molecular genetics is the field of biology that studies the structure and function of genes at a molecular level and thus employs methods of both molecular biology and genetics.
In biology and genealogy, the most recent common ancestor (MRCA, also last common ancestor (LCA), or concestor) of any set of organisms is the most recent individual from which all the organisms are directly descended.
A mouse (Mus), plural mice, is a small rodent characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, a body-length scaly tail and a high breeding rate.
Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.
In biology and especially genetics, a mutant is an organism or a new genetic character arising or resulting from an instance of mutation, which is an alteration of the DNA sequence of a gene or chromosome of an organism.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
Mycoplasma laboratorium is a designed, partially synthetic species of bacterium derived from the genome of Mycoplasma genitalium.
The N-terminus (also known as the amino-terminus, NH2-terminus, N-terminal end or amine-terminus) is the start of a protein or polypeptide referring to the free amine group (-NH2) located at the end of a polypeptide.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Neurospora crassa is a type of red bread mold of the phylum Ascomycota.
Neutral mutations are changes in DNA sequence that are neither beneficial nor detrimental to the ability of an organism to survive and reproduce.
The neutral theory of molecular evolution holds that at the molecular level most evolutionary changes and most of the variation within and between species is not caused by natural selection but by genetic drift of mutant alleles that are neutral.
In genomics and related disciplines, noncoding DNA sequences are components of an organism's DNA that do not encode protein sequences.
A non-coding RNA (ncRNA) is an RNA molecule that is not translated into a protein.
In genetics, a point-nonsense mutation is a point mutation in a sequence of DNA that results in a premature stop codon, or a point-nonsense codon in the transcribed mRNA, and in a truncated, incomplete, and usually nonfunctional protein product.
Norman Harold Horowitz (March 19, 1915 – June 1, 2005) was a geneticist at Caltech who achieved national fame as the scientist who devised experiments to determine whether life might exist on Mars.
A nuclease (also archaically known as nucleodepolymerase or polynucleotidase) is an enzyme capable of cleaving the phosphodiester bonds between monomers of nucleic acids.
In molecular biology, the term double helix refers to the structure formed by double-stranded molecules of nucleic acids such as DNA.
Nucleobases, also known as nitrogenous bases or often simply bases, are nitrogen-containing biological compounds that form nucleosides, which in turn are components of nucleotides, with all of these monomers constituting the basic building blocks of nucleic acids.
Nucleophile is a chemical species that donates an electron pair to an electrophile to form a chemical bond in relation to a reaction.
A nucleosome is a basic unit of DNA packaging in eukaryotes, consisting of a segment of DNA wound in sequence around eight histone protein cores.
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.
In biology, offspring are the young born of living organisms, produced either by a single organism or, in the case of sexual reproduction, two organisms.
The one gene–one enzyme hypothesis is the idea that genes act through the production of enzymes, with each gene responsible for producing a single enzyme that in turn affects a single step in a metabolic pathway.
In molecular genetics, an open reading frame (ORF) is the part of a reading frame that has the ability to be translated.
In genetics, an operon is a functioning unit of DNA containing a cluster of genes under the control of a single promoter.
In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live.
The origin of replication (also called the replication origin) is a particular sequence in a genome at which replication is initiated.
Orphan genes (also called ORFans, especially in microbial literature) are genes without detectable homologues in other lineages.
Oryza sativa, commonly known as Asian rice, is the plant species most commonly referred to in English as rice.
Pangenesis was Charles Darwin's hypothetical mechanism for heredity, in which he proposed that each part of the body continually emitted its own type of small organic particles called gemmules that aggregated in the gonads, contributing heritable information to the gametes.
The pea is most commonly the small spherical seed or the seed-pod of the pod fruit Pisum sativum.
A pentose is a monosaccharide with five carbon atoms.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
A peptide bond is a covalent chemical bond linking two consecutive amino acid monomers along a peptide or protein chain.
A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).
A phenotypic trait, or simply trait, is a distinct variant of a phenotypic characteristic of an organism; it may be either inherited or determined environmentally, but typically occurs as a combination of the two.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.
A plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently.
Ploidy is the number of complete sets of chromosomes in a cell, and hence the number of possible alleles for autosomal and pseudoautosomal genes.
A point mutation is a genetic mutation where a single nucleotide base is changed, inserted or deleted from a sequence of DNA or RNA.
A "polygene” or "multiple gene inheritance" is a member of a group of non-epistatic genes that interact additively to influence a phenotypic trait.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
Polymorphism in biology and zoology is the occurrence of two or more clearly different morphs or forms, also referred to as alternative phenotypes, in the population of a species.
In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding.
Post-transcriptional modification or Co-transcriptional modification is the process in eukaryotic cells where primary transcript RNA is converted into mature RNA.
Post-translational modification (PTM) refers to the covalent and generally enzymatic modification of proteins following protein biosynthesis.
Precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA) is an immature single strand of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA).
Predictive medicine is a field of medicine that entails predicting the probability of disease and instituting preventive measures in order to either prevent the disease altogether or significantly decrease its impact upon the patient (such as by preventing mortality or limiting morbidity).
A primary transcript is the single-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) product synthesized by transcription of DNA, and processed to yield various mature RNA products such as mRNAs, tRNAs, and rRNAs.
A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.
In genetics, a promoter is a region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Protein synthesis is the process whereby biological cells generate new proteins; it is balanced by the loss of cellular proteins via degradation or export.
Protein folding is the physical process by which a protein chain acquires its native 3-dimensional structure, a conformation that is usually biologically functional, in an expeditious and reproducible manner.
The proteome is the entire set of proteins that is, or can be, expressed by a genome, cell, tissue, or organism at a certain time.
A protist is any eukaryotic organism that has cells with nuclei and is not an animal, plant or fungus.
Pseudogenes are segments of DNA that are related to real genes.
A quantitative trait locus (QTL) is a section of DNA (the locus) which correlates with variation in a phenotype (the quantitative trait).
Regulation of gene expression includes a wide range of mechanisms that are used by cells to increase or decrease the production of specific gene products (protein or RNA), and is informally termed gene regulation.
A regulatory sequence is a segment of a nucleic acid molecule which is capable of increasing or decreasing the expression of specific genes within an organism.
In molecular genetics, a repressor is a DNA- or RNA-binding protein that inhibits the expression of one or more genes by binding to the operator or associated silencers.
Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents".
Retrotransposons (also called transposons via RNA intermediates) are genetic elements that can amplify themselves in a genome and are ubiquitous components of the DNA of many eukaryotic organisms.
A retrovirus is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus with a DNA intermediate and, as an obligate parasite, targets a host cell.
A reverse transcriptase (RT) is an enzyme used to generate complementary DNA (cDNA) from an RNA template, a process termed reverse transcription.
Ribose is a carbohydrate with the formula C5H10O5; specifically, it is a pentose monosaccharide (simple sugar) with linear form H−(C.
Ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) is the RNA component of the ribosome, and is essential for protein synthesis in all living organisms.
The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation).
A ribosome binding site, or ribosomal binding site (RBS), is a sequence of nucleotides upstream of the start codon of an mRNA transcript that is responsible for the recruitment of a ribosome during the initiation of protein translation.
Ribozymes (ribonucleic acid enzymes) are RNA molecules that are capable of catalyzing specific biochemical reactions, similar to the action of protein enzymes.
Clinton Richard Dawkins (born 26 March 1941) is an English ethologist, evolutionary biologist, and author.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
RNA polymerase (ribonucleic acid polymerase), both abbreviated RNAP or RNApol, official name DNA-directed RNA polymerase, is a member of a family of enzymes that are essential to life: they are found in all organisms (-species) and many viruses.
In molecular biology, splicing is the editing of the nascent precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) transcript into a mature messenger RNA (mRNA).
An RNA virus is a virus that has RNA (ribonucleic acid) as its genetic material.
Rosalind Elsie Franklin (25 July 192016 April 1958) was an English chemist and X-ray crystallographer who made contributions to the understanding of the molecular structures of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), RNA (ribonucleic acid), viruses, coal, and graphite.
S phase (synthesis phase) is the part of the cell cycle in which DNA is replicated, occurring between G1 phase and G2 phase.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of yeast.
Sanger sequencing is a method of DNA sequencing first commercialized by Applied Biosystems, based on the selective incorporation of chain-terminating dideoxynucleotides by DNA polymerase during in vitro DNA replication.
A scientific control is an experiment or observation designed to minimize the effects of variables other than the independent variable.
Semiconservative replication describes the mechanism by which DNA is replicated in all known cells.
In bioinformatics, a sequence alignment is a way of arranging the sequences of DNA, RNA, or protein to identify regions of similarity that may be a consequence of functional, structural, or evolutionary relationships between the sequences.
Sequence homology is the biological homology between DNA, RNA, or protein sequences, defined in terms of shared ancestry in the evolutionary history of life.
Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.
Seymour Benzer (October 15, 1921 – November 30, 2007) was an American physicist, molecular biologist and behavioral geneticist.
In genetics, a silencer is a DNA sequence capable of binding transcription regulation factors, called repressors.
Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not have an observable effect on the organism's phenotype.
Speciation is the evolutionary process by which populations evolve to become distinct species.
Sperm is the male reproductive cell and is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα) sperma (meaning "seed").
Stabilizing selection (not to be confused with negative or purifying selection) is a type of natural selection in which the population mean stabilizes on a particular non-extreme trait value.
The start codon is the first codon of a messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript translated by a ribosome.
In the genetic code, a stop codon (or termination codon) is a nucleotide triplet within messenger RNA that signals a termination of translation into proteins.
"Survival of the fittest" is a phrase that originated from Darwinian evolutionary theory as a way of describing the mechanism of natural selection.
A symbol is a mark, sign or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, object, or relationship.
A synonymous substitution (often called a silent substitution though they are not always silent) is the evolutionary substitution of one base for another in an exon of a gene coding for a protein, such that the produced amino acid sequence is not modified.
Synthetic biology is an interdisciplinary branch of biology and engineering.
The T4 rII system is an experimental system developed in the 1950s by Seymour Benzer for studying the substructure of the gene.
In molecular biology, the TATA box (also called the Goldberg-Hogness box) is a sequence of DNA found in the core promoter region of genes in archaea and eukaryotes.
A telomere is a region of repetitive nucleotide sequences at each end of a chromosome, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes.
In genetics, a transcription terminator is a section of nucleic acid sequence that marks the end of a gene or operon in genomic DNA during transcription.
The Selfish Gene is a 1976 book on evolution by Richard Dawkins, in which the author builds upon the principal theory of George C. Williams's Adaptation and Natural Selection (1966).
---> Thymine (T, Thy) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA that are represented by the letters G–C–A–T.
Trans-splicing is a special form of RNA processing in eukaryotes where exons from two different primary RNA transcripts are joined end to end and ligated.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.
In molecular biology and genetics, transcriptional regulation is the means by which a cell regulates the conversion of DNA to RNA (transcription), thereby orchestrating gene activity.
A transfer RNA (abbreviated tRNA and formerly referred to as sRNA, for soluble RNA) is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length, that serves as the physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins.
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.
A unit of selection is a biological entity within the hierarchy of biological organization (for example, an entity such as: a self-replicating molecule, a gene, a cell, an organism, a group, or a species) that is subject to natural selection.
In molecular genetics, an untranslated region (or UTR) refers to either of two sections, one on each side of a coding sequence on a strand of mRNA.
Uracil (U) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of RNA that are represented by the letters A, G, C and U. The others are adenine (A), cytosine (C), and guanine (G).
Viroids are the smallest infectious pathogens known.
Virulence is a pathogen's or microbe's ability to infect or damage a host.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
Walter Fiers (born 1931 in Ypres, West Flanders) is a Belgian molecular biologist.
Whole genome sequencing (also known as WGS, full genome sequencing, complete genome sequencing, or entire genome sequencing) is the process of determining the complete DNA sequence of an organism's genome at a single time.
Wild type (WT) refers to the phenotype of the typical form of a species as it occurs in nature.
Wilhelm Johannsen (3 February 1857 – 11 November 1927) was a Danish botanist, plant physiologist, and geneticist.
William Bateson (8 August 1861 – 8 February 1926) was an English biologist who was the first person to use the term genetics to describe the study of heredity, and the chief populariser of the ideas of Gregor Mendel following their rediscovery in 1900 by Hugo de Vries and Carl Correns.
X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.
Zygosity is the degree of similarity of the alleles for a trait in an organism.
A zygote (from Greek ζυγωτός zygōtos "joined" or "yoked", from ζυγοῦν zygoun "to join" or "to yoke") is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes.