315 relations: Absorbance, Acid dissociation constant, Acid strength, Adenosine monophosphate, Adenosine triphosphate, Adrenaline, African trypanosomiasis, Alamethicin, Alanine, Aliphatic compound, Alkylimino-de-oxo-bisubstitution, Alloprotein, Alpha and beta carbon, American Chemical Society, Amide, Amine, Amino acid, Amino acid dating, Amino acid transporter, Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase, Ammonia, AMP-activated protein kinase, Amphoterism, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Angewandte Chemie, Animal feed, Antibiotic, Archaea, Arginine, Aromaticity, Asparagine, Asparagus, Aspartame, Aspartic acid, Automation, Bacteria, Beta-Hydroxy beta-methylbutyric acid, Beta-Methylamino-L-alanine, Beta-peptide, Biochemistry, Biodegradable plastic, Biosynthesis, Bisphenol A, Bortezomib, Branched-chain amino acid, Cahn–Ingold–Prelog priority rules, Calcium in biology, Canavalia gladiata, Canavanine, Carbon, ..., Carbon dioxide, Carboxybenzyl, Carboxylate, Carboxylation, Carboxylic acid, Carnitine, Catabolism, Catecholamine, Catenation, Cell envelope, Cell wall, Chelation, Chemical compound, Chemical element, Chemical formula, Chemical polarity, Chemical property, Chemical structure, Chiral pool synthesis, Chirality (chemistry), Citric acid cycle, Citrulline, Coenzyme A, Collagen, Combinatorial chemistry, Condensation reaction, Cone snail, Connective tissue, Conserved sequence, Corrosion inhibitor, Cosmetics, Cyclic compound, Cysteine, Cystine, Deamination, Decarboxylation, Degron, Deprotonation, Diaper, Dietary supplement, Disulfide, DNA, Dopamine, Drug delivery, Dynamic equilibrium, EEF2, Eflornithine, EIF4E, EIF4EBP1, EIF5A, Enantiomer, Enantioselective synthesis, Environmentally friendly, Erepsin, Essential amino acid, Ester, Eukaryotic initiation factor, Expanded genetic code, Fertilizer, Flavor, Fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl chloride, Food industry, Food technology, Fouling, Franz Hofmeister, Functional group, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, Gene, Genetic code, Glucogenic amino acid, Gluconeogenesis, Glutamate–cysteine ligase, Glutamic acid, Glutamine, Glutathione, Glutathione synthetase, Glyceraldehyde, Glycine, Glycolysis, Glycoprotein, Gram-positive bacteria, Gramicidin, Hell–Volhard–Zelinsky halogenation, Heme, Hermann Emil Fischer, High-throughput screening, Histidine, Homochirality, Homocysteine, Human body, Human brain, Hydrogen, Hydrogenation, Hydrolysis, Hydron (chemistry), Hydrophile, Hydrophobe, Hydrophobicity scales, Hydroxylation, Hydroxyproline, Hyperaminoacidemia, Hypusine, Imino acid, Integral membrane protein, Ion, Isoelectric point, Isoleucine, Isomer, Β-Alanine, Keto acid, Ketone, L-DOPA, Lanthionine, Lantibiotics, Legume, Leucaena leucocephala, Leucine, Leucines, Levothyroxine, Lipid, Lipid bilayer, Lipoprotein, Louis Nicolas Vauquelin, Lysine, Macmillan Publishers (United States), Medication, Messenger RNA, Metabolic intermediate, Metabolic pathway, Methane, Methanogen, Methionine, MG132, Microorganism, Miller–Urey experiment, Mimosine, Mitochondrial biogenesis, Mitochondrion, Moiety (chemistry), Molar attenuation coefficient, Molecular mass, Monomer, MTOR, MTORC1, Muscle, Myofibril, N,N'-Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, N,N'-Diisopropylcarbodiimide, N-Formylmethionine, Neurotransmitter, Nitric oxide, Nitrogen, Non-proteinogenic amino acids, Norepinephrine, Nucleic acid, Nucleic acid notation, Nucleic acid sequence, Nucleophilic addition, Nucleophilic substitution, Nucleotide, Open-chain compound, Organic chemistry, Organic compound, Ornithine, Ornithine decarboxylase, Oxygen, P70-S6 Kinase 1, Palmitic acid, Pantothenic acid, Parkinson's disease, Peptide, Peptide bond, Peptide synthesis, Peptidoglycan, Peripheral membrane protein, PH, Phenethylamine, Phenols, Phenylalanine, Phenylpropanoid, Phosphatidic acid, Phospholipase D, Phospholipid, Photo-reactive amino acid analog, Pierre Jean Robiquet, Plant defense against herbivory, Polyamide, Polyamine, Polycarbonate, Polymer, Polymerization, Polysaccharide, Polystyrene, Porphyrin, Post-translational modification, Potassium cyanide, PPARGC1A, Proline, Prosthesis, Protecting group, Protein, Protein sequencing, Protein structure, Protein–protein interaction, Proteinogenic amino acid, Proton, Protonation, PYLIS downstream sequence, Pyrazinoic acid, Pyrrolysine, Racemic crystallography, Racemic mixture, Raw material, Red blood cell, Residue (chemistry), Reticulorumen, Ribosomal protein s6, Ribosome, Ribozyme, RNA, Ruminant, S-Adenosyl methionine, SECIS element, Selenocysteine, Selenomethionine, Serine, Serine dehydratase, Serotonin, Signal transduction, Sodium polyaspartate, Soybean, Species, Springer Science+Business Media, Stereochemistry, Stereoisomerism, Stop codon, Strecker amino acid synthesis, Substituent, Sugar substitute, Sulfur, Taurine, Tert-Butyloxycarbonyl protecting group, Tetrahedron Letters, Threonine, Tissue (biology), Trace amine, Transaminase, Transfer RNA, Translation (biology), Transsulfuration pathway, Tryptophan, Tyrocidine, Tyrosine, Urea, Urea cycle, Uric acid, Valine, Valinomycin, Weak base, William Cumming Rose, X-ray crystallography, Zwitterion, 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, 2-Aminoisobutyric acid, 5-Hydroxytryptophan. 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In chemistry, absorbance or decadic absorbance is the common logarithm of the ratio of incident to transmitted radiant power through a material, and spectral absorbance or spectral decadic absorbance is the common logarithm of the ratio of incident to transmitted spectral radiant power through a material.
An acid dissociation constant, Ka, (also known as acidity constant, or acid-ionization constant) is a quantitative measure of the strength of an acid in solution.
The strength of an acid refers to its ability or tendency to lose a proton (H+).
Adenosine monophosphate (AMP), also known as 5'-adenylic acid, is a nucleotide.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Adrenaline, also known as adrenalin or epinephrine, is a hormone, neurotransmitter, and medication.
African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness, is an insect-borne parasitic disease of humans and other animals.
Alamethicin is a channel-forming peptide antibiotic, produced by the fungus Trichoderma viride.
Alanine (symbol Ala or A) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
In organic chemistry, hydrocarbons (compounds composed of carbon and hydrogen) are divided into two classes: aromatic compounds and aliphatic compounds (G. aleiphar, fat, oil) also known as non-aromatic compounds.
Alkylimino-de-oxo-bisubstitution in organic chemistry is the organic reaction of carbonyl compounds with amines to imines.
An alloprotein is a novel synthetic protein containing one or more "non-natural" amino acids.
The alpha carbon (Cα) in organic molecules refers to the first carbon atom that attaches to a functional group, such as a carbonyl.
The American Chemical Society (ACS) is a scientific society based in the United States that supports scientific inquiry in the field of chemistry.
An amide (or or), also known as an acid amide, is a compound with the functional group RnE(O)xNR′2 (R and R′ refer to H or organic groups).
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Amino acid dating is a dating technique used to estimate the age of a specimen in paleobiology, molecular paleontology, archaeology, forensic science, taphonomy, sedimentary geology and other fields.
An amino acid transporter is a membrane transport protein that transports amino acids.
An aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS or ARS), also called tRNA-ligase, is an enzyme that attaches the appropriate amino acid onto its tRNA.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
5' AMP-activated protein kinase or AMPK or 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase is an enzyme (EC 188.8.131.52) that plays a role in cellular energy homeostasis.
In chemistry, an amphoteric compound is a molecule or ion that can react both as an acid as well as a base.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neurone disease (MND), and Lou Gehrig's disease, is a specific disease which causes the death of neurons controlling voluntary muscles.
Angewandte Chemie (meaning "Applied Chemistry") is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that is published by Wiley-VCH on behalf of the German Chemical Society (Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker).
Animal feed is food given to domestic animals in the course of animal husbandry.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.
Arginine (symbol Arg or R) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
In organic chemistry, the term aromaticity is used to describe a cyclic (ring-shaped), planar (flat) molecule with a ring of resonance bonds that exhibits more stability than other geometric or connective arrangements with the same set of atoms.
Asparagine (symbol Asn or N), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Asparagus, or garden asparagus, folk name sparrow grass, scientific name Asparagus officinalis, is a spring vegetable, a flowering perennial plant species in the genus Asparagus.
Aspartame (APM) is an artificial non-saccharide sweetener used as a sugar substitute in some foods and beverages.
Aspartic acid (symbol Asp or D; salts known as aspartates), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Automation is the technology by which a process or procedure is performed without human assistance.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
β-Hydroxy β-methylbutyric acid (HMB), otherwise known as its conjugate base,, is a naturally produced substance in humans that is used as a dietary supplement and as an ingredient in certain medical foods that are intended to promote wound healing and provide nutritional support for people with muscle wasting due to cancer or HIV/AIDS.
β-Methylamino-L-alanine, or BMAA, is a non-proteinogenic amino acid produced by cyanobacteria.
β-peptides consist of β amino acids, which have their amino group bonded to the β carbon rather than the α carbon as in the 20 standard biological amino acids.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
Biodegradable plastics are plastics that are decomposed by the action of living organisms, usually bacteria.
Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an organic synthetic compound with the chemical formula (CH3)2C(C6H4OH)2 belonging to the group of diphenylmethane derivatives and bisphenols, with two hydroxyphenyl groups.
Bortezomib (BAN, INN and USAN; marketed as Velcade by Takeda Oncology; Chemobort by Cytogen and Bortecad by Cadila Healthcare) is an anti-cancer drug and the first therapeutic proteasome inhibitor to be used in humans.
A branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) is an amino acid having aliphatic side-chains with a branch (a central carbon atom bound to three or more carbon atoms).
The Cahn–Ingold–Prelog (CIP) sequence rules, named for organic chemists Robert Sidney Cahn, Christopher Kelk Ingold, and Vladimir Prelog — alternatively termed the CIP priority rules, system, or conventions — are a standard process used in organic chemistry to completely and unequivocally name a stereoisomer of a molecule.
Calcium ions (Ca2+) play a vital role in the physiology and biochemistry of organisms and the cell.
Canavalia gladiata, usually called sword bean, is a domesticated plant species in the legume (Fabaceae) family.
L-(+)-(S)-Canavanine is a non-proteinogenic amino acid found in certain leguminous plants.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carboxybenzyl, symbol Cbz, Cbo (old symbol), or Z (in honor of its inventor Leonidas Zervas), is a carbamate which is often used as an amine protecting group in organic synthesis.
A carboxylate is a salt or ester of a carboxylic acid.
Carboxylation is a chemical reaction in which a carboxylic acid group is produced by treating a substrate with carbon dioxide.
A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.
Carnitine (β-hydroxy-γ-N-trimethylaminobutyric acid, 3-hydroxy-4-N,N,N- trimethylaminobutyrate) is a quaternary ammonium compound involved in metabolism in most mammals, plants and some bacteria. Carnitine may exist in two isomers, labeled D-carnitine and L-carnitine, as they are optically active. At room temperature, pure carnitine is a white powder, and a water-soluble zwitterion with low toxicity. Carnitine only exists in animals as the L-enantiomer, and D-carnitine is toxic because it inhibits the activity of L-carnitine. Carnitine, derived from an amino acid, is found in nearly all organisms and animal tissue. Carnitine is the generic expression for a number of compounds that include L-carnitine, acetyl-L-carnitine, and propionyl-L-carnitine. It is most accumulated in cardiac and skeletal muscles as it accounts for 0.1% of its dry matter. It was first derived from meat extracts in 1905, therefore the name carnitine is derived from Latin "carnus" or flesh. The body synthesizes enough carnitine from lysine side chains to keep up with the needs of energy production in the body as carnitine acts as a transporter of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria to be oxidized and produce energy. Some individuals with genetic or medical disorders (like preterm infants) cannot make enough, so this makes carnitine a conditionally essential nutrient for them.
Catabolism (from Greek κάτω kato, "downward" and βάλλειν ballein, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy or used in other anabolic reactions.
A catecholamine (CA) is a monoamine, an organic compound that has a catechol (benzene with two hydroxyl side groups at carbons 1 and 2) and a side-chain amine.
In chemistry, catenation is the bonding of atoms of the same element into a series, called a chain.
The cell envelope comprises the inner cell membrane and the cell wall of a bacterium, if present, plus a bacterial outer membrane (i.e. in gram-negative bacteria).
A cell wall is a structural layer surrounding some types of cells, just outside the cell membrane.
Chelation is a type of bonding of ions and molecules to metal ions.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.
In chemistry, polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment.
A chemical property is any of a material's properties that becomes evident during, or after, a chemical reaction; that is, any quality that can be established only by changing a substance's chemical identity.
A chemical structure determination includes a chemist's specifying the molecular geometry and, when feasible and necessary, the electronic structure of the target molecule or other solid.
Chiral pool synthesis is a strategy that aims to improve the efficiency of enantioselective synthesis.
Chirality is a geometric property of some molecules and ions.
The citric acid cycle (CAC) – also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle – is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
The organic compound citrulline is an α-amino acid.
Coenzyme A (CoA,SCoA,CoASH) is a coenzyme, notable for its role in the synthesis and oxidation of fatty acids, and the oxidation of pyruvate in the citric acid cycle.
Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies.
Combinatorial chemistry comprises chemical synthetic methods that make it possible to prepare a large number (tens to thousands or even millions) of compounds in a single process.
A condensation reaction is a class of an organic addition reaction that proceeds in a step-wise fashion to produce the addition product, usually in equilibrium, and a water molecule (hence named condensation).
Cone snails, cone shells, or cones are common names for a large group of small to large-sized extremely venomous predatory sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs.
Connective tissue (CT) is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue.
In evolutionary biology, conserved sequences are similar or identical sequences in nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) or proteins across species (orthologous sequences) or within a genome (paralogous sequences).
A corrosion inhibitor is a chemical compound that, when added to a liquid or gas, decreases the corrosion rate of a material, typically a metal or an alloy.
Cosmetics are substances or products used to enhance or alter the appearance of the face or fragrance and texture of the body.
A cyclic compound (ring compound) is a term for a compound in the field of chemistry in which one or more series of atoms in the compound is connected to form a ring.
Cysteine (symbol Cys or C) is a semi-essential proteinogenic amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH.
Cystine is the oxidized dimer form of the amino acid cysteine and has the formula (SCH2CH(NH2)CO2H)2.
Deamination is the removal of an amine group from a protein molecule.
Decarboxylation is a chemical reaction that removes a carboxyl group and releases carbon dioxide (CO2).
A degron is a portion of a protein that is important in regulation of protein degradation rates.
Deprotonation is the removal (transfer) of a proton (a hydrogen cation, H+) from a Brønsted–Lowry acid in an acid-base reaction.
A diaper (American English) or a nappy (Australian English and British English) is a type of underwear that allows the wearer to defecate or urinate without the use of a toilet, by absorbing or containing waste products to prevent soiling of outer clothing or the external environment.
A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid.
In chemistry, a disulfide refers to a functional group with the structure R−S−S−R′.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
Drug delivery refers to approaches, formulations, technologies, and systems for transporting a pharmaceutical compound in the body as needed to safely achieve its desired therapeutic effect.
In chemistry, a dynamic equilibrium exists once a reversible reaction ceases to change its ratio of reactants/products, but substances move between the chemicals at an equal rate, meaning there is no net change.
Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EEF2 gene.
Eflornithine, sold under the brand name Vaniqa among others, is a medication used to treat African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) and excessive hair growth on the face in women.
Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E, also known as eIF4E, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EIF4E gene.
Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (also known as 4E-BP1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EIF4EBP1 gene.
Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EIF5A gene.
In chemistry, an enantiomer, also known as an optical isomer (and archaically termed antipode or optical antipode), is one of two stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other that are non-superposable (not identical), much as one's left and right hands are the same except for being reversed along one axis (the hands cannot be made to appear identical simply by reorientation).
Enantioselective synthesis, also called asymmetric synthesis, is a form of chemical synthesis.
Environmentally friendly or environment-friendly, (also referred to as eco-friendly, nature-friendly, and green) are sustainability and marketing terms referring to goods and services, laws, guidelines and policies that claim reduced, minimal, or no harm upon ecosystems or the environment.
Erepsin is a protein fraction found in the intestinal juices and contains a group of enzymes that digest peptones into amino acids.
An essential amino acid, or indispensable amino acid, is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized ''de novo'' (from scratch) by the organism, and thus must be supplied in its diet.
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
Eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs) are proteins or protein complexes involved in the initiation phase of eukaryotic translation.
An expanded genetic code is an artificially modified genetic code in which one or more specific codons have been re-allocated to encode an amino acid that is not among the 20 common naturally-encoded proteinogenic amino acids.
A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
Flavor (American English) or flavour (British English; see spelling differences) is the sensory impression of food or other substance, and is determined primarily by the chemical senses of taste and smell.
Fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl chloride (Fmoc-Cl) is a chloroformate ester.
The food industry is a complex, global collective of diverse businesses that supplies most of the food consumed by the world population.
Food technology is a branch of food science that deals with the production processes that make foods.
Fouling is the accumulation of unwanted material on solid surfaces to the detriment of function.
Franz Hofmeister (30 August 1850, Prague – 26 July 1922, Würzburg) was an early protein scientist, and is famous for his studies of salts that influence the solubility and conformational stability of proteins.
In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.
gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) into proteins.
A glucogenic amino acid is an amino acid that can be converted into glucose through gluconeogenesis.
Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from certain non-carbohydrate carbon substrates.
Glutamate Cysteine Ligase (GCL), previously known as gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCS), is the first enzyme of the cellular glutathione (GSH) biosynthetic pathway that catalyzes the chemical reaction: L-glutamate + L-cysteine + ATP \rightleftharpoons gamma-glutamyl cysteine + ADP + Pi GSH, and by extension GCL, is critical to cell survival.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Glutamine (symbol Gln or Q) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Glutathione (GSH) is an important antioxidant in plants, animals, fungi, and some bacteria and archaea.
Glutathione synthetase (GSS) (EC 184.108.40.206) is the second enzyme in the glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis pathway.
Glyceraldehyde (glyceral) is a triose monosaccharide with chemical formula C3H6O3.
Glycine (symbol Gly or G) is the amino acid that has a single hydrogen atom as its side chain.
Glycolysis (from glycose, an older term for glucose + -lysis degradation) is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO− + H+.
Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to amino acid side-chains.
Gram-positive bacteria are bacteria that give a positive result in the Gram stain test, which is traditionally used to quickly classify bacteria into two broad categories according to their cell wall.
Gramicidin is a heterogeneous mixture of three antibiotic compounds, gramicidins A, B and C, making up 80%, 6%, and 14%, respectively, all of which are obtained from the soil bacterial species Bacillus brevis and called collectively gramicidin D. Gramicidin D contains linear pentadecapeptides, that is chains made up of 15 amino acids.
The Hell–Volhard–Zelinsky halogenation reaction halogenates carboxylic acids at the α carbon.
Heme or haem is a coordination complex "consisting of an iron ion coordinated to a porphyrin acting as a tetradentate ligand, and to one or two axial ligands." The definition is loose, and many depictions omit the axial ligands.
Hermann Emil Louis Fischer FRS FRSE FCS (9 October 1852 – 15 July 1919) was a German chemist and 1902 recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
High-throughput screening (HTS) is a method for scientific experimentation especially used in drug discovery and relevant to the fields of biology and chemistry.
Histidine (symbol His or H) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Homochirality is a uniformity of chirality, or handedness.
Homocysteine is a non-proteinogenic α-amino acid.
The human body is the entire structure of a human being.
The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydrogenation – to treat with hydrogen – is a chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen (H2) and another compound or element, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as nickel, palladium or platinum.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
In chemistry, a hydron is the general name for a cationic form of atomic hydrogen, represented with the symbol.
A hydrophile is a molecule or other molecular entity that is attracted to water molecules and tends to be dissolved by water.
In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.
Hydrophobicity scales are values that define relative hydrophobicity of amino acid residues.
Hydroxylation is a chemical process that introduces a hydroxyl group (-OH) into an organic compound.
(2S,4R)-4-Hydroxyproline, or L-hydroxyproline (C5H9O3N), is a common non-proteinogenic amino acid, abbreviated as Hyp, e.g., in Protein Data Bank.
Hyperaminoacidemia refers to the condition of having an excess of amino acids in the bloodstream.
Hypusine is an unusual amino acid found in all eukaryotes and in some archaea, but not in bacteria.
In chemistry, an imino acid is any molecule that contains both imino (>C.
An integral membrane protein (IMP) is a type of membrane protein that is permanently attached to the biological membrane.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
The isoelectric point (pI, pH(I), IEP), is the pH at which a particular molecule carries no net electrical charge or is electrically neutral in the statistical mean.
Isoleucine (symbol Ile or I) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
An isomer (from Greek ἰσομερής, isomerès; isos.
β-Alanine (or beta-alanine) is a naturally occurring beta amino acid, which is an amino acid in which the amino group is at the β-position from the carboxylate group (i.e., two atoms away, see Figure 1).
Keto acids or ketoacids (also called oxo acids or oxoacids) are organic compounds that contain a carboxylic acid group and a ketone group.
In chemistry, a ketone (alkanone) is an organic compound with the structure RC(.
L-DOPA, also known as levodopa or L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine is an amino acid that is made and used as part of the normal biology of humans, as well as some animals and plants.
Lanthionine is a nonproteinogenic amino acid with the chemical formula (HOOC-CH(NH2)-CH2-S-CH2-CH(NH2)-COOH).
Lantibiotics are a class of polycyclic peptide antibiotics that contain the characteristic thioether amino acids lanthionine or methyllanthionine, as well as the unsaturated amino acids dehydroalanine, and 2-aminoisobutyric acid.
A legume is a plant or its fruit or seed in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae).
Leucaena leucocephala is a small fast-growing mimosoid tree native to southern Mexico and northern Central America (Belize and Guatemala) and is now naturalized throughout the tropics.
Leucine (symbol Leu or L) is an essential amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
The leucines are primarily the four isomeric amino acids: leucine, isoleucine, ''tert''-leucine and norleucine.
Levothyroxine, also known as -thyroxine, is a manufactured form of the thyroid hormone, thyroxine (T4).
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
The lipid bilayer (or phospholipid bilayer) is a thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid molecules.
A lipoprotein is a biochemical assembly whose purpose is to transport hydrophobic lipid (a.k.a. fat) molecules in water, as in blood or extracellular fluid.
Louis Nicolas Vauquelin (16 May 1763 – 14 November 1829) was a French pharmacist and chemist.
Lysine (symbol Lys or K) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Macmillan Publishers USA was the former name of a now mostly defunct American publishing company.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.
Metabolic intermediates are molecules which are the precursors or metabolites of biologically significant molecules.
In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a linked series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
Methanogens are microorganisms that produce methane as a metabolic byproduct in anoxic conditions.
Methionine (symbol Met or M) is an essential amino acid in humans.
MG132 is a potent, reversible, and cell-permeable proteasome inhibitor (Ki.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
The Miller–Urey experiment (or Miller experiment) was a chemical experiment that simulated the conditions thought at the time to be present on the early Earth, and tested the chemical origin of life under those conditions.
Mimosine or leucenol is a toxic non-protein amino acid chemically similar to tyrosine, that was first isolated from Mimosa pudica.
Mitochondrial biogenesis is the process by which cells increase their individual mitochondrial mass and copy number to increase the production of ATP as a response to greater energy expenditure.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
In organic chemistry, a moiety is a part of a molecule.
The molar attenuation coefficient is a measurement of how strongly a chemical species attenuates light at a given wavelength.
Relative Molecular mass or molecular weight is the mass of a molecule.
A monomer (mono-, "one" + -mer, "part") is a molecule that "can undergo polymerization thereby contributing constitutional units to the essential structure of a macromolecule".
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), also known as the mechanistic target of rapamycin and FK506-binding protein 12-rapamycin-associated protein 1 (FRAP1), is a kinase that in humans is encoded by the MTOR gene.
mTORC1, also known as mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 or mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1, is a protein complex that functions as a nutrient/energy/redox sensor and controls protein synthesis.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
A myofibril (also known as a muscle fibril) is a basic rod-like unit of a muscle cell.
N,N'-Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide is an organic compound with the chemical formula C13H22N2 whose primary use is to couple amino acids during artificial peptide synthesis.
N,N′-Diisopropylcarbodiimide is a carbodiimide used in peptide synthesis.
N-Formylmethionine (fMet) is a derivative of the amino acid methionine in which a formyl group has been added to the amino group.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Nitric oxide (nitrogen oxide or nitrogen monoxide) is a colorless gas with the formula NO.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
In biochemistry, non-coded or non-proteinogenic amino acids are those not naturally encoded or found in the genetic code of any organism.
Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.
Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.
The nucleic acid notation currently in use was first formalized by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) in 1970.
A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.
In organic chemistry, a nucleophilic addition reaction is an addition reaction where a chemical compound with an electron-deficient or electrophilic double or triple bond, a π bond, reacts with electron-rich reactant, termed a nucleophile, with disappearance of the double bond and creation of two new single, or σ, bonds.
In organic and inorganic chemistry, nucleophilic substitution is a fundamental class of reactions in which an electron rich nucleophile selectively bonds with or attacks the positive or partially positive charge of an atom or a group of atoms to replace a leaving group; the positive or partially positive atom is referred to as an electrophile.
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
In chemistry, an open-chain compound (also spelled as open chain compound) or acyclic compound (Greek prefix "α", without and "κύκλος", cycle) is a compound with a linear structure, rather than a cyclic one.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Ornithine is a non-proteinogenic amino acid that plays a role in the urea cycle.
The enzyme ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) catalyzes the decarboxylation of ornithine (a product of the urea cycle) to form putrescine.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Ribosomal protein S6 kinase beta-1 (S6K1), also known as p70S6 kinase (p70S6K, p70-S6K), is an enzyme (specifically, a protein kinase) that in humans is encoded by the RPS6KB1 gene.
Palmitic acid, or hexadecanoic acid in IUPAC nomenclature, is the most common saturated fatty acid found in animals, plants and microorganisms.
Pantothenic acid, also called vitamin B5 (a B vitamin), is a water-soluble vitamin.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
A peptide bond is a covalent chemical bond linking two consecutive amino acid monomers along a peptide or protein chain.
In organic chemistry, peptide synthesis is the production of peptides, compounds where multiple amino acids are linked via amide bonds, also known as peptide bonds.
Peptidoglycan, also known as murein, is a polymer consisting of sugars and amino acids that forms a mesh-like layer outside the plasma membrane of most bacteria, forming the cell wall.
Peripheral membrane proteins are membrane proteins that adhere only temporarily to the biological membrane with which they are associated.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Phenethylamine (PEA) is an organic compound, natural monoamine alkaloid, and trace amine which acts as a central nervous system stimulant in humans.
In organic chemistry, phenols, sometimes called phenolics, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (—OH) bonded directly to an aromatic hydrocarbon group.
Phenylalanine (symbol Phe or F) is an α-amino acid with the formula.
The phenylpropanoids are a diverse family of organic compounds that are synthesized by plants from the amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine.
Phosphatidic acids are phospholipids which on hydrolysis give rise to one molecule of glycerol and phosphoric acid and two molecules of fatty acids.
Phospholipase D (lipophosphodiesterase II, lecithinase D, choline phosphatase) (PLD) is an enzyme of the phospholipase superfamily.
Phospholipids are a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes.
Photo-reactive amino acid analogs are artificial analogs of natural amino acids that can be used for crosslinking of protein complexes.
Pierre Jean Robiquet (13 January 1780 – 29 April 1840) was a French chemist.
Plant defense against herbivory or host-plant resistance (HPR) describes a range of adaptations evolved by plants which improve their survival and reproduction by reducing the impact of herbivores.
A polyamide is a macromolecule with repeating units linked by amide bonds.
A polyamine is an organic compound having more than two amino groups.
Polycarbonates (PC) are a group of thermoplastic polymers containing carbonate groups in their chemical structures.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.
Polystyrene (PS) is a synthetic aromatic hydrocarbon polymer made from the monomer styrene.
Porphyrins (/phɔɹfɚɪn/ ''POUR-fer-in'') are a group of heterocyclic macrocycle organic compounds, composed of four modified pyrrole subunits interconnected at their α carbon atoms via methine bridges (.
Post-translational modification (PTM) refers to the covalent and generally enzymatic modification of proteins following protein biosynthesis.
Potassium cyanide is a compound with the formula KCN.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PPARGC1A gene.
Proline (symbol Pro or P) is a proteinogenic amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
In medicine, a prosthesis (plural: prostheses; from Ancient Greek prosthesis, "addition, application, attachment") is an artificial device that replaces a missing body part, which may be lost through trauma, disease, or congenital conditions.
A protecting group or protective group is introduced into a molecule by chemical modification of a functional group to obtain chemoselectivity in a subsequent chemical reaction.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Protein sequencing is the practical process of determining the amino acid sequence of all or part of a protein or peptide.
Protein structure is the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in an amino acid-chain molecule.
Protein–protein interactions (PPIs) are the physical contacts of high specificity established between two or more protein molecules as a result of biochemical events steered by electrostatic forces including the hydrophobic effect.
Proteinogenic amino acids are amino acids that are incorporated biosynthetically into proteins during translation.
In chemistry, protonation is the addition of a proton (H+) to an atom, molecule, or ion, forming the conjugate acid.
In biology, the PYLIS downstream sequence (PYLIS: pyrrolysine insertion sequence) is a stem-loop structure that appears on some mRNA sequences.
Pyrazinoic acid is a pyrazinamide metabolite.
Pyrrolysine (symbol Pyl or O; encoded by the 'amber' stop codon UAG) is an ɑ-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins in some methanogenic archaea and bacteria; it is not present in humans.
Racemic protein crystallography is a recently developed technique of structural biology, in which crystals of a protein molecule are grown from a mixture of an ordinary chiral protein molecule and its mirror image; where ordinary protein molecules made of 'left-handed' L-amino acids can be produced in bacteria, yeast, or other cellular expression systems, the mirror image molecule requires chemical synthesis from 'right-handed' D-amino acids.
In chemistry, a racemic mixture, or racemate, is one that has equal amounts of left- and right-handed enantiomers of a chiral molecule.
A raw material, also known as a feedstock or most correctly unprocessed material, is a basic material that is used to produce goods, finished products, energy, or intermediate materials which are feedstock for future finished products.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
In chemistry residue is whatever remains or acts as a contaminant after a given class of events.
The reticulorumen represents the first chamber in the alimentary canal of ruminant animals.
Ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) is a component of the 40S ribosomal subunit and is therefore thought to be involved in regulating translation.
The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation).
Ribozymes (ribonucleic acid enzymes) are RNA molecules that are capable of catalyzing specific biochemical reactions, similar to the action of protein enzymes.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
Ruminants are mammals that are able to acquire nutrients from plant-based food by fermenting it in a specialized stomach prior to digestion, principally through microbial actions.
S-Adenosyl methionineSAM-e, SAMe, SAM, S-Adenosyl-L-methionine, AdoMet, ademetionine is a common cosubstrate involved in methyl group transfers, transsulfuration, and aminopropylation.
In biology, the SECIS element (SECIS: selenocysteine insertion sequence) is an RNA element around 60 nucleotides in length that adopts a stem-loop structure.
Selenocysteine (symbol Sec or U, in older publications also as Se-Cys) is the 21st proteinogenic amino acid.
Selenomethionine is a naturally occurring amino acid.
Serine (symbol Ser or S) is an ɑ-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Serine dehydratase or L-serine ammonia lyase (SDH) is in the β-family of pyridoxal phosphate-dependent (PLP) enzymes.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.
Sodium polyaspartate is a sodium salt of polyaspartic acid.
The soybean (Glycine max), or soya bean, is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean, which has numerous uses.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
Stereochemistry, a subdiscipline of chemistry, involves the study of the relative spatial arrangement of atoms that form the structure of molecules and their manipulation.
In stereochemistry, stereoisomers are isomeric molecules that have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms (constitution), but differ in the three-dimensional orientations of their atoms in space.
In the genetic code, a stop codon (or termination codon) is a nucleotide triplet within messenger RNA that signals a termination of translation into proteins.
The Strecker amino acid synthesis, also known simply as the Strecker synthesis, was discovered by German chemist Adolph Strecker, and is a term used for a series of chemical reactions that synthesize an amino acid from an aldehyde or ketone.
In organic chemistry and biochemistry, a substituent is an atom or group of atoms which replaces one or more hydrogen atoms on the parent chain of a hydrocarbon, becoming a moiety of the resultant new molecule.
A sugar substitute is a food additive that provides a sweet taste like that of sugar while containing significantly less food energy.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
The tert-butyloxycarbonyl protecting group (BOC group) is a protecting group used in organic synthesis.
Tetrahedron Letters is a weekly international journal for rapid publication of full original research papers in the field of organic chemistry.
Threonine (symbol Thr or T) is an amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Trace amines are an endogenous group of trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) agonists – and hence, monoaminergic neuromodulators – that are structurally and metabolically related to classical monoamine neurotransmitters.
Transaminases or aminotransferases are enzymes that catalyze a transamination reaction between an amino acid and an α-keto acid.
A transfer RNA (abbreviated tRNA and formerly referred to as sRNA, for soluble RNA) is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length, that serves as the physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins.
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.
The transsulfuration pathway is a metabolic pathway involving the interconversion of cysteine and homocysteine, through the intermediate cystathionine.
Tryptophan (symbol Trp or W) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Tyrocidine is a mixture of cyclic decapeptides produced by the bacteria Bacillus brevis found in soil.
Tyrosine (symbol Tyr or Y) or 4-hydroxyphenylalanine is one of the 20 standard amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins.
Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.
The urea cycle (also known as the ornithine cycle) is a cycle of biochemical reactions that produces urea ((NH2)2CO) from ammonia (NH3).
Uric acid is a heterocyclic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3.
Valine (symbol Val or V) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Valinomycin is a naturally occurring dodecadepsipeptide used in the transport of potassium and as an antibiotic.
In chemistry, a weak base is a base that does not ionize fully in an aqueous solution.
William Cumming Rose (April 4, 1887 – September 25, 1985) was an American biochemist and nutritionist.
X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.
In chemistry, a zwitterion, formerly called a dipolar ion, is a molecule with two or more functional groups, of which at least one has a positive and one has a negative electrical charge and the net charge of the entire molecule is zero.
1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) is a disubstituted cyclic α-amino acid in which a three-membered cyclopropane ring is fused to the Cα atom of the amino acid.
2-Aminoisobutyric acid, or α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) or α-methylalanine or 2-methylalanine, is an amino acid with the structural formula is H2N-C(CH3)2-COOH.
5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), also known as oxitriptan, is a naturally occurring amino acid and chemical precursor as well as a metabolic intermediate in the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin.
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