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Amino acids are biologically important organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxylic acid (-COOH) functional groups, usually along with a side-chain specific to each amino acid. [1]

290 relations: Absorbance, Acid, Acid dissociation constant, Acid strength, Adenosine triphosphate, African trypanosomiasis, Alamethicin, Alanine, Aliphatic compound, Alkylimino-de-oxo-bisubstitution, Alloprotein, Alpha and beta carbon, American Chemical Society, Amide, Amine, Amino acid dating, Amino acid transporter, Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase, Ammonia, Amphoterism, Angewandte Chemie, Animal feed, Antibiotics, Archaea, Arginine, Aromatic amino acids, Aromaticity, Asparagine, Asparagus, Aspartame, Aspartic acid, Atomic mass, Automation, Bacteria, Beta-Alanine, Beta-peptide, Biochemistry, Biodegradable plastic, Biology, Biosynthesis, Bisphenol A, Bortezomib, Branched-chain amino acid, Cahn–Ingold–Prelog priority rules, Calcium in biology, Canavalia gladiata, Canavanine, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Carboxybenzyl, ..., Carboxylate, Carboxylation, Carboxylic acid, Carnitine, Catabolism, Catecholamine, Catenation, Cell (biology), Cell envelope, Cell wall, Chelation, Chemical compound, Chemical formula, Chemical polarity, Chemical property, Chemical structure, Chiral pool synthesis, Chirality (chemistry), Citric acid cycle, Citrulline, Coenzyme A, Collagen, Combinatorial chemistry, Condensation reaction, Cone snail, Connective tissue, Corrosion inhibitor, Cosmetics, Cyclic compound, Cysteine, Cystine, Deamination, Decarboxylation, Degron, Dehydroalanine, Deprotonation, Diaper, Dietary supplement, Disulfide, Dopamine, Drug, Drug delivery, Dynamic equilibrium, Eflornithine, EIF5A, Enantiomer, Enantioselective synthesis, Environmentally friendly, Epinephrine, Erepsin, Essential amino acid, Ester, Eukaryote, Eukaryotic initiation factor, Expanded genetic code, Fertilizer, Flavor, Fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl chloride, Food and Chemical Toxicology, Food industry, Food technology, Fouling, Franz Hofmeister, Functional group, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, Gene, Genetic code, Glucogenic amino acid, Gluconeogenesis, Glutamate–cysteine ligase, Glutamic acid, Glutamine, Glutathione, Glutathione synthetase, Glyceraldehyde, Glycine, Glycolysis, Glycoprotein, Hell–Volhard–Zelinsky halogenation, Heme, Hermann Emil Fischer, High-throughput screening, Histidine, Homochirality, Homocysteine, Human body, Human brain, Hydrogen, Hydrogenation, Hydrolysis, Hydron (chemistry), Hydrophile, Hydrophobe, Hydrophobicity scales, Hydroxylation, Hydroxyproline, Hyperaminoacidemia, Hypusine, Imino acid, Integral membrane protein, Isoelectric point, Isoleucine, Isomer, Keto acid, Ketone, L-DOPA, Lanthionine, Lantibiotics, Legume, Leucaena leucocephala, Leucine, Leucines, Lipid, Lipid bilayer, Lipoprotein, Louis Nicolas Vauquelin, Lysine, Macmillan Publishers, Messenger RNA, Metabolic intermediate, Metabolic pathway, Methane, Methanogen, Methionine, MG132, Microorganism, Miller–Urey experiment, Mimosine, Moiety (chemistry), Molar attenuation coefficient, Molecular mass, Monomer, Muscle, N,N'-Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, N,N'-Diisopropylcarbodiimide, N-Formylmethionine, Neurotransmitter, Nitric oxide, Nitrogen, Non-proteinogenic amino acids, Norepinephrine, Nucleic acid, Nucleic acid sequence, Nucleophilic addition, Nucleotide, Open-chain compound, Organic chemistry, Organic compound, Ornithine, Ornithine decarboxylase, Oxygen, Palmitic acid, Pantothenic acid, Parkinson's disease, Peptide, Peptide bond, Peptide synthesis, Peptidoglycan, Peripheral membrane protein, PH, Pharmaceutical drug, Phenols, Phenylalanine, Phenylpropanoid, Phospholipid, Photo-reactive amino acid analog, Pierre Jean Robiquet, Plant defense against herbivory, Polyamide, Polyamine, Polycarbonate, Polymer, Polymerization, Polysaccharide, Polystyrene, Porphyrin, Post-translational modification, Potassium cyanide, Proline, Prosthesis, Protecting group, Protein, Protein sequencing, Protein structure, Protein–protein interaction, Proteinogenic amino acid, Proton, Protonation, PYLIS downstream sequence, Pyrazinoic acid, Pyrrolysine, Racemic crystallography, Racemic mixture, Raw material, Red blood cell, Reticulorumen, Ribosome, Ribozyme, RNA, Ruminant, S-Adenosyl methionine, SECIS element, Selenocysteine, Selenomethionine, Serine, Serine dehydratase, Serotonin, Sodium polyaspartate, Soybean, Species, Springer Science+Business Media, Stereochemistry, Stereoisomerism, Stop codon, Strecker amino acid synthesis, Substituent, Sugar substitute, Sulfur, Taurine, Tert-Butyloxycarbonyl protecting group, Tetrahedron Letters, Threonine, Tissue (biology), Transaminase, Transfer RNA, Translation (biology), Transsulfuration pathway, Tryptophan, Tyrosine, Urea, Urea cycle, Uric acid, Valine, Weak base, William Cumming Rose, X-ray crystallography, Zwitterion, 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, 2-Aminoisobutyric acid, 5-Hydroxytryptophan. Expand index (240 more) »

In chemistry, absorbance or decadic absorbance is the common logarithm of the ratio of incident to transmitted radiant power through a material, and spectral absorbance or spectral decadic absorbance is the common logarithm of the ratio of incident to transmitted spectral radiant power through a material.

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An acid (from the Latin acidus/acēre meaning sour) is a chemical substance whose aqueous solutions are characterized by a sour taste, the ability to turn blue litmus red, and the ability to react with bases and certain metals (like calcium) to form salts.

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An acid dissociation constant, Ka, (also known as acidity constant, or acid-ionization constant) is a quantitative measure of the strength of an acid in solution.

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The strength of an acid refers to its ability or tendency to lose a proton (H+).

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Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a nucleoside triphosphate used in cells as a coenzyme often called the "molecular unit of currency" of intracellular energy transfer.

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African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness is a parasitic disease of humans and other animals.

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Alamethicin is a peptide antibiotic, produced by the fungus Trichoderma viride.

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Alanine (abbreviated as Ala or A) is a non-polar α-amino acid, with the formula CH3CH(NH2)COOH.

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In organic chemistry, compounds composed of carbon and hydrogen are divided into two classes: aromatic compounds and aliphatic compounds (G. aleiphar, fat, oil) also known as non-aromatic compounds.

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Alkylimino-de-oxo-bisubstitution in organic chemistry is the organic reaction of carbonyl compounds with amines to imines.

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An alloprotein is a novel synthetic protein containing one or more "non-natural" amino acids.

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The alpha carbon (α carbon) in organic molecules refers to the first carbon atom that attaches to a functional group, such as a carbonyl.

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The American Chemical Society (ACS) is a scientific society based in the United States that supports scientific inquiry in the field of chemistry.

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An amide (or or), also known as an acid amide, is a compound with the functional group RnE(O)xNR'2 (R and R' refer to H or organic groups).

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Amines (US: or, UK:, or) are organic compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.

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Amino acid dating is a dating technique used to estimate the age of a specimen in paleobiology, molecular paleontology, archaeology, forensic science, taphonomy, sedimentary geology and other fields.

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An amino acid transporter is a membrane transport protein that transports amino acids.

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An aminoacyl tRNA synthetase (aaRS) is an enzyme that attaches the appropriate amino acid onto its tRNA.

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Ammonia or azane is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.

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In chemistry, an amphoteric compound is a molecule or ion that can react as an acid as well as a base.

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Angewandte Chemie (meaning "Applied Chemistry") is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that is published by Wiley-VCH on behalf of the German Chemical Society (Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker).

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Animal feed is food given to domestic animals in the course of animal husbandry.

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Antibiotics or antibacterials are a type of antimicrobial used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infection.

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The Archaea (or or; singular archaeon) constitute a domain or kingdom of single-celled microorganisms.

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Arginine (abbreviated as Arg or R) is an α-amino acid.

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Aromatic amino acids (AAA) are amino acids that include an aromatic ring.

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In organic chemistry, the term aromaticity is formally used to describe an unusually stable nature of some flat rings of atoms.

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Asparagine (abbreviated as Asn or N) is one of the 20 most-common natural amino acids on Earth.

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Asparagus or garden asparagus, scientific name Asparagus officinalis, is a spring vegetable, a flowering perennial plant species in the genus Asparagus.

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Aspartame (APM; or) is an artificial, non-saccharide sweetener used as a sugar substitute in some foods and beverages.

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Aspartic acid (abbreviated as Asp or D).

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The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atomic particle, sub-atomic particle, or molecule.

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Automation or automatic control, is the use of various control systems for operating equipment such as machinery, processes in factories, boilers and heat treating ovens, switching on telephone networks, steering and stabilization of ships, aircraft and other applications with minimal or reduced human intervention.

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Bacteria (singular: bacterium) constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms.

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β-Alanine (or beta-alanine) is a naturally occurring beta amino acid, which is an amino acid in which the amino group is at the β-position from the carboxylate group (i.e., two atoms away, see Figure 1).

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β-peptides consist of β amino acids, which have their amino group bonded to the β carbon rather than the α carbon as in the 20 standard biological amino acids.

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Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.

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Biodegradable plastics are plastics that decompose by the action living organisms, usually bacteria.

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Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy.

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Biosynthesis (also called biogenesis or anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.

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Bisphenol A (BPA) is an organic synthetic compound with the chemical formula (CH3)2C(C6H4OH)2 belonging to the group of diphenylmethane derivatives and bisphenols, with two hydroxyphenyl groups.

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Bortezomib (BAN, INN and USAN. Originally codenamed PS-341; marketed as Velcade by Millennium Pharmaceuticals and Cytomib by Venus Remedies) is the first therapeutic proteasome inhibitor to be tested in humans.

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A branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) is an amino acid having aliphatic side-chains with a branch (a central carbon atom bound to three or more carbon atoms).

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The Cahn–Ingold–Prelog priority rules, CIP system or CIP conventions (after the scientists;Robert Sidney Cahn, Christopher Kelk Ingold and Vladimir Prelog) are a set of rules used in organic chemistry to name the stereoisomers of a molecule.

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Calcium ions (Ca2+) play a pivotal role in the physiology and biochemistry of organisms and the cell.

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Canavalia gladiata, usually called sword bean, is a domesticated plant species in the legume (Fabaceae) family.

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L-(+)-(S)-Canavanine is a non-proteinogenic α-amino acid found in certain leguminous plants.

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Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

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Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas vital to life on Earth.

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Carboxybenzyl (abbreviated as Cbz or Z) is a carbamate which is often used as an amine protecting group in organic synthesis.

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A carboxylate is a salt or ester of a carboxylic acid.

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Carboxylation in chemistry is a chemical reaction in which a carboxylic acid group is introduced in a substrate.

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A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(O)OH).

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Carnitine is a quaternary ammonium compound biosynthesized from the amino acids lysine and methionine. In eukaryotic cells, it is required for the transport of fatty acids from the intermembraneous space in the mitochondria, into the mitochondrial matrix during the breakdown of lipids (fats) for the generation of metabolic energy. It is widely available as a nutritional supplement. Carnitine was originally found as a growth factor for mealworms and labeled vitamin BT, although carnitine is not a proper vitamin. Carnitine exists in two stereoisomers: its biologically active form is L-carnitine, whereas its enantiomer, D-carnitine, is biologically inactive.

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Catabolism (from Greek κάτω kato, "downward" and βάλλειν ballein, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy, or used in other anabolic reactions.

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A catecholamine (CA) is a monoamine, an organic compound that has a catechol (benzene with two hydroxyl side groups) and a side-chain amine.

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Catenation is the linkage of atoms of the same element into longer chains.

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The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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The cell envelope comprises the inner cell membrane and the cell wall of a bacterium, if present, plus a bacterial outer membrane, if one is present (i.e. in gram-negative bacteria).

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The cell wall is a tough, flexible and sometimes rigid layer that surrounds some types of cells.

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Chelation describes a particular way that ions and molecules bind metal ions.

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A chemical compound (or just compound if used in the context of chemistry) is an entity consisting of two or more different atoms which associate via chemical bonds.

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A chemical formula is a way of expressing information about the proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound, using a single line of chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.

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In chemistry, polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment.

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A chemical property is any of a material's properties that becomes evident during, or after, a chemical reaction; that is, any quality that can be established only by changing a substance's chemical identity.

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A chemical structure determination includes a chemist's specifying the molecular geometry and, when feasible and necessary, the electronic structure of the target molecule or other solid.

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Chiral pool synthesis is a strategy that aims to improve the efficiency of chiral synthesis.

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A molecule is chiral if there is another molecule—in reality or in potential—that is of identical composition, but which is arranged in a non-superposable mirror image configuration.

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The citric acid cycle – also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle – is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to generate energy through the oxidation of acetate derived from carbohydrates, fats and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

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The organic compound citrulline is an α-amino acid.

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Coenzyme A (CoA, CoASH, or HSCoA) is a coenzyme, notable for its role in the synthesis and oxidation of fatty acids, and the oxidation of pyruvate in the citric acid cycle.

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Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animals.

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Combinatorial chemistry comprises chemical synthetic methods that make it possible to prepare a large number (tens to thousands or even millions) of compounds in a single process.

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A condensation reaction, is a chemical reaction in which two molecules or moieties (functional groups) combine to form a larger molecule, together with the loss of a small molecule.

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Cone snail is a generic term referring to a number of different genera and families of sea snails with conical shells.

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Connective tissue (CT) is one of the four types of biological tissue that support, connect, or separate different types of tissues and organs in the body.

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A corrosion inhibitor is a chemical compound that, when added to a liquid or gas, decreases the corrosion rate of a material, typically a metal or an alloy.

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Cosmetics, also known as makeup or make-up, are care substances used to enhance the appearance or odor of the human body.

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A cyclic compound (ring compound) is a term for a compound in the field of chemistry in which one or more series of atoms in the compound is connected to form a ring.

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Cysteine (abbreviated as Cys or C) is a semi-essential proteinogenic amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH.

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Cystine is the amino acid with the formula (SCH2CH(NH2)CO2H)2.

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Deamination is the removal of an amine group from a molecule.

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Decarboxylation is a chemical reaction that removes a carboxyl group and releases carbon dioxide (CO2).

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A degron is a specific sequence of amino acids in a protein that directs the starting place of degradation.

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Dehydroalanine (Cα,β-didehydroalanine, (alpha)-(beta)-di-dehydroalanine, or 2,3-didehydroalanine) is a dehydroamino acid.

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Deprotonation is the removal of a proton (H+) from a molecule, forming the conjugate base.

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A diaper (also called a nappy in South Africa, Ireland, United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia and Zimbabwe) is a type of underwear that allows one to defecate or urinate, without the use of a toilet.

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A dietary supplement is intended to provide nutrients that may otherwise not be consumed in sufficient quantities.

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In chemistry and biology a disulfide refers to a functional group with the general structure R–S–S–R.

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Dopamine is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays a number of important roles in the human brain and body, as well as elsewhere in biology.

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A drug is, in the broadest of terms, a chemical substance that has known biological effects on humans or other animals.

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Drug delivery refers to approaches, formulations, technologies, and systems for transporting a pharmaceutical compound in the body as needed to safely achieve its desired therapeutic effect.

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A dynamic equilibrium exists once a reversible reaction ceases to change its ratio of reactants/products, but substances move between the chemicals at an equal rate, meaning there is no net change.

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Eflornithine (α-difluoromethylornithine or DFMO) is a drug found to be effective in the treatment of facial hirsutism (excessive hair growth) as well as in African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness).

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Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EIF5A gene.

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In chemistry, an enantiomer is one of two stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other that are non-superposable (not identical), much as one's left and right hands are the same except for being reversed along one axis (the hands cannot be made to appear identical simply by reorientation).

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Enantioselective synthesis, also called chiral synthesis or asymmetric synthesis, is defined by IUPAC as: a chemical reaction (or reaction sequence) in which one or more new elements of chirality are formed in a substrate molecule and which produces the stereoisomeric (enantiomeric or diastereoisomeric) products in unequal amounts.

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Environmentally friendly, environment-friendly, eco-friendly, nature-friendly, and green are marketing terms referring to goods and services, laws, guidelines and policies that inflict reduced, minimal, or no harm upon ecosystems or the environment.

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Epinephrine, also known as adrenaline, is a medication, hormone and neurotransmitter.

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Erepsin is a protein fraction found in the intestinal juices and contains a group of enzymes that digest peptones into amino acids.

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An essential amino acid or indispensable amino acid is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized de novo (from scratch) by the organism being considered, and therefore must be supplied in its diet.

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In chemistry, esters are chemical compounds derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one -OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an -O-alkyl (alkoxy) group.

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A eukaryote (or or) is any organism whose cells contain a nucleus and other organelles enclosed within membranes.

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Eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs) are proteins involved in the initiation phase of eukaryotic translation.

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An expanded genetic code is an artificially modified genetic code in which one or more specific codons have been re-allocated to encode an amino acid that is not among the 22 encoded proteinogenic amino acids.

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A fertilizer (or fertiliser in British English) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues (usually leaves) to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.

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Flavor or flavour (see spelling differences) is the sensory impression of food or other substance, and is determined primarily by the chemical senses of taste and smell.

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Fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl chloride (FMOC-Cl) is a chloroformate ester.

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Food and Chemical Toxicology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering aspects of food safety, chemical safety, and other aspects of consumer product safety.

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The food industry is a complex, global collective of diverse businesses that supply most of the food consumed by the world population.

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Food Technology is a branch of food science that deals with the production processes that make foods.

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Fouling is the accumulation of unwanted material on solid surfaces to the detriment of function.

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Franz Hofmeister (30 August 1850, Prague – 26 July 1922, Würzburg) was an early protein scientist, and is famous for his studies of salts that influence the solubility and conformational stability of proteins.

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In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific groups (moieties) of atoms or bonds within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.

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γ-Aminobutyric acid (or GABA) is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.

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A gene is a locus (or region) of DNA that encodes a functional RNA or protein product, and is the molecular unit of heredity.

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The genetic code is the set of rules by which information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) is translated into proteins by living cells.

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A glucogenic amino acid is an amino acid that can be converted into glucose through gluconeogenesis.

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Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from non-carbohydrate carbon substrates such as pyruvate, lactate, glycerol, and glucogenic amino acids.

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Glutamate Cysteine Ligase (GCL), previously known as gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCS), is the first enzyme of the cellular glutathione (GSH) biosynthetic pathway that catalyzes the chemical reaction: L-glutamate + L-cysteine + ATP \rightleftharpoons gamma-glutamyl cysteine + ADP + Pi GSH, and by extension GCL, is critical to cell survival.

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Glutamic acid (abbreviated as Glu or E) is one of the 20-23 proteinogenic amino acids, and its codons are GAA and GAG.

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Glutamine (abbreviated as Gln or Q, and often called L-glutamine) is one of the 20 amino acids encoded by the standard genetic code.

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Glutathione (GSH) is an important antioxidant in plants, animals, fungi, and some bacteria and archaea, preventing damage to important cellular components caused by reactive oxygen species such as free radicals, peroxides, lipid peroxides and heavy metals.

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Glutathione synthetase (GSS) (EC 6.3.2.3) is the second enzyme in the glutathione biosynthesis pathway.

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Glyceraldehyde (glyceral) is a triose monosaccharide with chemical formula C3H6O3.

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Glycine (abbreviated as Gly or G) is the smallest of the 20 amino acids commonly found in proteins, and indeed is the smallest possible (having a hydrogen substituent as its side-chain).

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Glycolysis (from glycose, an older term for glucose + -lysis degradation) is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO− + H+.

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Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to polypeptide side-chains.

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The Hell–Volhard–Zelinsky halogenation reaction halogenates carboxylic acids at the α carbon.

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Heme (American English) or haem (British English) is a cofactor consisting of an Fe2+ (ferrous) ion contained in the centre of a large heterocyclic organic ring called a porphyrin, made up of four pyrrolic groups joined together by methine bridges.

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Hermann Emil Louis Fischer (9 October 1852 – 15 July 1919) was a German chemist and 1902 recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

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High-throughput screening (HTS) is a method for scientific experimentation especially used in drug discovery and relevant to the fields of biology and chemistry.

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Histidine (abbreviated as His or H) is an essential, α-amino acid with an imidazole functional group.

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Homochirality describes a geometric property of some materials that are composed of chiral units.

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Homocysteine is a non-protein α-amino acid.

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The human body includes the entire structure of a human being and comprises a head, neck, trunk (which includes the thorax and abdomen), arms and hands, legs and feet.

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The human brain is the main organ of the human nervous system.

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Hydrogen is a chemical element with chemical symbol H and atomic number 1.

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Hydrogenation – to treat with hydrogen – is a chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen (H2) and another compound or element, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as nickel, palladium or platinum.

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Hydrolysis usually means the cleavage of chemical bonds by the addition of water.

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In chemistry, a hydron is the general name for a cationic form of atomic hydrogen, represented with the symbol.

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A hydrophile is a molecule or other molecular entity that is attracted to, and tends to be dissolved by, water.

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In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.

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Hydrophobicity scales are values that define relative hydrophobicity of amino acid residues.

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Hydroxylation is a chemical process that introduces a hydroxyl group (-OH) into an organic compound.

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(2S,4R)-4-Hydroxyproline, or L-hydroxyproline (C5H9O3N), is a common non-proteinogenic amino acid, abbreviated as Hyp, e.g., in Protein Data Bank.

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Hyperaminoacidemia refers to the condition of having an excess of amino acids in the bloodstream.

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Hypusine is an unusual amino acid found in all eukaryotes and in some archaea, but not in bacteria.

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In chemistry, an imino acid is any molecule that contains both imino (>C.

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An integral membrane protein (IMP) is a type of membrane protein that is permanently attached to the biological membrane.

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The isoelectric point (pI, pH(I), IEP), is the pH at which a particular molecule carries no net electrical charge.

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Isoleucine (abbreviated as Ile or I) is an α-amino acid which is essential in humans (it cannot be synthesized, so it must be ingested).

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An isomer (from Greek ἰσομερής, isomerès; isos.

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Keto acids or ketoacids (also called oxo acids or oxoacids) are organic compounds that contain a carboxylic acid group and a ketone group.

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In chemistry, a ketone (alkanone) is an organic compound with the structure RC(.

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L-DOPA (alt., L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) is a chemical that is made and used as part of the normal biology of humans, some animals and plants.

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Lanthionine is a nonproteinogenic amino acid with the chemical formula (HOOC-CH(NH2)-CH2-S-CH2-CH(NH2)-COOH).

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Lantibiotics are a class of peptide antibiotics that contain the characteristic polycyclic thioether amino acids lanthionine or methyllanthionine, as well as the unsaturated amino acids dehydroalanine and 2-aminoisobutyric acid.

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A legume is a plant in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae), or the fruit or seed of such a plant.

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Leucaena leucocephala is a small, fast-growing mimosoid tree native to southern Mexico and northern Central America (Belize and Guatemala), but is now naturalized throughout the tropics.

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Leucine (abbreviated as Leu or L) is a branched-chain α-amino acid, classified hydrophobic due to the isobutyl side chain.

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The leucines are primarily the four isomeric amino acids: leucine, isoleucine, ''tert''-leucine and norleucine.

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Lipids are a group of naturally occurring molecules that include fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, phospholipids, and others.

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The lipid bilayer is a thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid molecules.

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A lipoprotein is a biochemical assembly that contains both proteins and lipids, bound to the proteins, which allow fats to move through the water inside and outside cells.

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Louis Nicolas Vauquelin (16 May 1763 – 14 November 1829), was a French pharmacist and chemist.

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Lysine (abbreviated as Lys or K) is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)(CH2)4NH2.

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Macmillan Publishers Ltd, also known as The Macmillan Group, is a privately held international publishing company owned by Georg von Holtzbrinck Publishing Group.

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Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.

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Metabolic intermediates are molecules which are the precursors or metabolites of biologically significant molecules.

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In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell.

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Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).

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Methanogens are microorganisms that produce methane as a metabolic byproduct in anoxic conditions.

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Methionine (or; abbreviated as Met or M) is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2CH2SCH3.

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MG132 is a specific, potent, reversible, and cell-permeable proteasome inhibitor (Ki.

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A microorganism (from the μικρός, mikros, "small" and ὀργανισμός, organismós, "organism") is a microscopic living organism, which may be single celled or multicellular.

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The Miller–Urey experiment (or Miller experiment) was a chemical experiment that simulated the conditions thought at the time to be present on the early Earth, and tested the chemical origin of life under those conditions.

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Mimosine or leucenol is an alkaloid, β-3-hydroxy-4 pyridone amino acid.

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In organic chemistry moiety is a term used for part of a molecule.

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The molar attenuation coefficient is a measurement of how strongly a chemical species attenuates light at a given wavelength.

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Molecular mass or molecular weight is the mass of a molecule.

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A monomer (mono-, "one" + -mer, "part") is a molecule that may bind chemically to other molecules to form a polymer.

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Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.

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N,N'-Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide is an organic compound with the chemical formula C13H22N2 whose primary use is to couple amino acids during artificial peptide synthesis.

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N,N′-Diisopropylcarbodiimide is a carbodiimide used in peptide synthesis.

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N-Formylmethionine (fMet) is a derivative of the amino acid methionine in which a formyl group has been added to the amino group.

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Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.

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Nitric oxide (nitrogen oxide, nitrogen monoxide) is a molecular, chemical compound with chemical formula of NO that is a colorless gas under standard conditions.

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Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.

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In biochemistry, non-coded, non-proteinogenic, or "unnatural" amino acids are those not naturally encoded or found in the genetic code of any organisms.

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Norepinephrine, also called noradrenaline, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the human brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.

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Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or large biomolecules, essential for all known forms of life.

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A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.

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In organic chemistry, a nucleophilic addition reaction is an addition reaction where a chemical compound with an electron-deficient or electrophilic double or triple bond, a π bond, reacts with electron-rich reactant, termed a nucleophile, with disappearance of the double bond and creation of two new single, or σ, bonds.

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Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomers, or subunits, of nucleic acids like DNA and RNA.

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In chemistry, an open-chain compound (also spelled as open chain compound) or acyclic compound (Greek prefix "α", without and "κύκλος", cycle) is a compound with a linear structure, rather than a cyclic one.

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Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.

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An organic compound is any member of a large class of gaseous, liquid, or solid chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon.

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Ornithine is an amino acid that plays a role in the urea cycle.

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The enzyme ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) catalyzes the decarboxylation of ornithine (a product of the urea cycle) to form putrescine.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Palmitic acid, or hexadecanoic acid in IUPAC nomenclature, is the most common fatty acid (saturated) found in animals, plants and microorganisms.

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Pantothenic acid, also called pantothenate or vitamin B5 (a B vitamin), is a water-soluble vitamin.

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Parkinson's disease (PD, also known as idiopathic or primary parkinsonism, hypokinetic rigid syndrome (HRS), or paralysis agitans) is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system mainly affecting the motor system.

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Peptides (from Gr. πεπτός, "digested", derived from πέσσειν, "to digest") are biologically occurring short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.

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A peptide bond (amide bond) is a covalent chemical bond formed between two amino acid molecules.

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In organic chemistry, peptide synthesis is the production of peptides, which are organic compounds in which multiple amino acids are linked via amide bonds, also known as peptide bonds.

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Peptidoglycan, also known as murein, is a polymer consisting of sugars and amino acids that forms a mesh-like layer outside the plasma membrane of most bacteria, forming the cell wall.

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Peripheral membrane proteins are proteins that adhere only temporarily to the biological membrane with which they are associated.

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In chemistry, pH is a numeric scale used to specify the acidity or alkalinity of an aqueous solution.

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A pharmaceutical drug (also referred to as a medicinal product, medicine, medication, or medicament) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

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In organic chemistry, phenols, sometimes called phenolics, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (—OH) bonded directly to an aromatic hydrocarbon group.

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Phenylalanine (abbreviated as Phe or F) is an α-amino acid with the formula C6H5CH2CH(NH2)COOH.

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The phenylpropanoids are a diverse family of organic compounds that are synthesized by plants from the amino acid phenylalanine.

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Phospholipids are a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes.

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Photo-reactive amino acid analogs are artificial analogs of natural amino acids that can be used for crosslinking of protein complexes.

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Pierre Jean Robiquet (13 January 1780 – April 1840) was a French chemist.

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Plant defense against herbivory or host-plant resistance (HPR) describes a range of adaptations evolved by plants which improve their survival and reproduction by reducing the impact of herbivores.

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A polyamide is a macromolecule with repeating units linked by amide bonds.

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A polyamine is an organic compound having two or more primary amino groups.

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Polycarbonates (PC) are a group of thermoplastic polymers containing carbonate groups in their chemical structures.

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A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "parts") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.

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In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.

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Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecule composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.

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Polystyrene (PS) is a synthetic aromatic polymer made from the monomer styrene.

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Porphyrins are a group of heterocyclic macrocycle organic compounds, composed of four modified pyrrole subunits interconnected at their α carbon atoms via methine bridges (.

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Post-translational modification (PTM) refers to the covalent and generally enzymatic modification of proteins during or after protein biosynthesis.

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Potassium cyanide is a compound with the formula KCN.

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Proline (abbreviated as Pro or P) is an α-amino acid, one of the twenty main amino acids.

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In medicine, a prosthesis (plural: prostheses; from Ancient Greek prósthesis, "addition, application, attachment") is an artificial device that replaces a missing body part, which may be lost through trauma, disease, or congenital conditions.

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A protecting group or protective group is introduced into a molecule by chemical modification of a functional group to obtain chemoselectivity in a subsequent chemical reaction.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Protein sequencing is a technique to determine the amino acid sequence of a protein, as well as which conformation the protein adopts and the extent to which it is complexed with any non-peptide molecules.

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Protein structure is the biomolecular structure of a protein molecule.

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Protein–protein interactions (PPIs) refer to physical contacts established between two or more proteins as a result of biochemical events and/or electrostatic forces.

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Proteinogenic amino acids are amino acids that are precursors to proteins, and are incorporated into proteins cotranslationally — that is, during translation.

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| magnetic_moment.

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In chemistry, protonation is the addition of a proton (H+) to an atom, molecule, or ion, forming the conjugate acid.

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In biology, the PYLIS downstream sequence (PYLIS: pyrrolysine insertion sequence) is a stem-loop structure that appears on some mRNA sequences.

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Pyrazinoic acid is a pyrazinamide metabolite.

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Pyrrolysine (abbreviated as Pyl or O) is a naturally occurring, genetically coded amino acid used by some methanogenic archaea and one known bacterium in enzymes that are part of their methane-producing metabolism.

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Racemic protein crystallography is a recently developed technique of structural biology, in which crystals of a protein molecule are grown from a mixture of an ordinary chiral protein molecule and its mirror image; the mirror image molecule requires chemical synthesis from 'left-handed' D-amino acids.

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In chemistry, a racemic mixture, or racemate, is one that has equal amounts of left- and right-handed enantiomers of a chiral molecule.

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A raw material, also known as a feedstock or most correctly unprocessed material, is a basic material that is used to produce goods, finished products, energy, or intermediate materials which are feedstock for future finished products.

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Red blood cells (RBCs), also called erythrocytes, are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate organism's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.

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The reticulorumen represents the first chamber in the alimentary canal of ruminant animals.

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The ribosome is a large and complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation).

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Ribozymes (ribonucleic acid enzymes), also termed catalytic RNA or RNAzyme, are RNA molecules that are capable of catalyzing specific biochemical reactions, similar to the action of protein enzymes.

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Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule implicated in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.

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Ruminants are mammals that are able to acquire nutrients from plant-based food by fermenting it in a specialized stomach prior to digestion, principally through bacterial actions.

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S-Adenosyl methionineSAM-e, SAMe, SAM, S-Adenosyl-L-methionine, AdoMet, ademetionine is a common cosubstrate involved in methyl group transfers, transsulfuration, and aminopropylation.

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In biology, the SECIS element (SECIS: selenocysteine insertion sequence) is an RNA element around 60 nucleotides in length that adopts a stem-loop structure.

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Selenocysteine (abbreviated as Sec or U, in older publications also as Se-Cys) is the 21st proteinogenic amino acid.

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Selenomethionine is a naturally occurring amino acid.

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Serine (abbreviated as Ser or S) is an amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2OH.

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Serine dehydratase or L-serine ammonia lyase (SDH) is in the β-family of pyridoxal phosphate-dependent (PLP) enzymes.

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Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.

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Sodium polyaspartate is a sodium salt of polyaspartic acid.

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The soybean in the US, also called the soya bean in Europe (Glycine max) is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean which has numerous uses.

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In biology, a species (abbreviated sp., with the plural form species abbreviated spp.) is one of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank.

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Springer Science+Business Media or Springer is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

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Stereochemistry, a subdiscipline of chemistry, involves the study of the relative spatial arrangement of atoms that form the structure of molecules and their manipulation.

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Stereoisomers are isomeric molecules that have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms (constitution), but differ in the three-dimensional orientations of their atoms in space.

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In the genetic code, a stop codon (or termination codon) is a nucleotide triplet within messenger RNA that signals a termination of translation.

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The Strecker amino acid synthesis, devised by Adolph Strecker, is a series of chemical reactions that synthesize an amino acid from an aldehyde or ketone.

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In organic chemistry and biochemistry, a substituent is an atom or group of atoms substituted in place of a hydrogen atom on the parent chain of a hydrocarbon.

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A sugar substitute is a food additive that provides a sweet taste like that of sugar while containing significantly less food energy.

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Sulfur or sulphur (see spelling differences) is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.

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No description.

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The tert-butyloxycarbonyl protecting group (BOC group) is a protecting group used in organic synthesis.

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Tetrahedron Letters is a weekly international journal for rapid publication of full original research papers in the field of organic chemistry.

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Threonine (abbreviated as Thr or T) is an essential, polar α-amino acid, with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH(OH)CH3.

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In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level intermediate between cells and a complete organ.

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In biochemistry, a transaminase or an aminotransferase is an enzyme that catalyzes a type of reaction between an amino acid and an α-keto acid.

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A transfer RNA (abbreviated tRNA and archaically referred to as sRNA, for soluble RNA) is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length, that serves as the physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins.

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In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which cellular ribosomes create proteins.

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The transsulfuration pathway is a metabolic pathway involving the interconversion of cysteine and homocysteine, through the intermediate cystathionine.

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Tryptophan (IUPAC-IUBMB abbreviation: Trp or W; IUPAC abbreviation: L-Trp or D-Trp; sold for medical use as Tryptan) is one of the 22 standard amino acids and an essential amino acid in the human diet.

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Tyrosine (abbreviated as Tyr or Y) or 4-hydroxyphenylalanine, is one of the 22 amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins.

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Urea or carbamide is an organic compound with the chemical formula CO(NH2)2.

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The urea cycle (also known as the ornithine cycle) is a cycle of biochemical reactions occurring in many animals that produces urea ((NH2)2CO) from ammonia (NH3).

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Uric acid is a heterocyclic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3.

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Valine (abbreviated as Val or V) is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH(CH3)2.

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In chemistry, a weak base is a chemical base that does not ionize fully in an aqueous solution.

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William Cumming Rose (April 4, 1887 – September 25, 1985) was an American biochemist and nutritionist.

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X-ray crystallography is a tool used for identifying the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.

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In chemistry, a zwitterion (from German zwitter "hybrid" and formerly called a dipolar ion) is a neutral molecule with a positive and a negative electrical charge, though multiple positive and negative charges can be present.

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1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) is a disubstituted cyclic alpha-amino acid in which a three-membered cyclopropane ring is fused to the C(alpha)-atom of the amino acid.

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2-Aminoisobutyric acid, or α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) or α-methylalanine or 2-methylalanine, is an amino acid with the structural formula is H2N-C(CH3)2-COOH.

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5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), also known as oxitriptan (INN), is a naturally occurring amino acid and chemical precursor as well as a metabolic intermediate in the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitters serotonin and melatonin from tryptophan.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amino_acid

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