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April 9 tragedy

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The April 9 tragedy (also known as Tbilisi massacre or Tbilisi tragedy) refers to the events in Tbilisi, Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic, on April 9, 1989, when an anti-Soviet demonstration was dispersed by the Soviet Army, resulting in 21 deaths and hundreds of injuries. [1]

43 relations: Abkhazians, Anatoly Sobchak, Anti-Sovietism, Armoured personnel carrier, Autopsy, Black January, Colonel general, Congress of People's Deputies of the Soviet Union, CS gas, Democratic Republic of Georgia, Entrenching tool, Georgian independence referendum, 1991, Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic, Georgians, Giorgi Chanturia, Igor Rodionov, Ilia II of Georgia, January Events (Lithuania), Jeltoqsan, Jumber Patiashvili, Merab Kostava, Mikhail Gorbachev, Militsiya, Moscow, Nervous system, Novocherkassk massacre, Perestroika, Phenacyl chloride, Public holidays in Georgia, Revolutions of 1989, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Rustaveli Avenue, Soviet Army, Soviet Union, Spetsnaz, Stampede, Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia, Tbilisi, Transcaucasian Military District, Viktor Suvorov, Zviad Gamsakhurdia, 1956 Georgian demonstrations, 1978 Georgian demonstrations.

Abkhazians

Abkhazians or the Abkhaz (Abkhaz: Аҧсуа, Apswa; აფხაზები) are a Northwest Caucasian ethnic group, mainly living in Abkhazia, a disputed region on the Black Sea coast.

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Anatoly Sobchak

Anatoly Aleksandrovich Sobchak (p, 10 August 1937 – 20 February 2000) was a Russian politician, a co-author of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the first democratically elected mayor of Saint Petersburg, and a mentor and teacher of both Vladimir Putin and Dmitry Medvedev.

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Anti-Sovietism

Anti-Sovietism and anti-Soviet refer to persons and activities actually or allegedly aimed against the Soviet Union or government power within the Soviet Union.

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Armoured personnel carrier

An armoured personnel carrier (APC) is a type of armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) designed to transport infantry to the battlefield.

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Autopsy

An autopsy (post-mortem examination, obduction, necropsy, or autopsia cadaverum) is a highly specialized surgical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse by dissection to determine the cause and manner of death or to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present for research or educational purposes.

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Black January

Black January (Qara Yanvar), also known as Black Saturday or the January Massacre, was a violent crackdown in Baku on 19–20 January 1990, pursuant to a state of emergency during the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

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Christmas

Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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Christmas and holiday season

The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.

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Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.

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Christmas traditions

Christmas traditions vary from country to country.

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Colonel general

Colonel general is a three or four-star rank in some armies, usually equivalent to that of a full general in other armies.

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Congress of People's Deputies of the Soviet Union

The Congress of People's Deputies of the Soviet Union (Sʺezd narodnykh deputatov SSSR) was the highest body of state authority of the Soviet Union from 1989 to 1991.

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CS gas

The compound 2-chlorobenzalmalononitrile (also called o-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile; chemical formula: C10H5ClN2), a cyanocarbon, is the defining component of a tear gas commonly referred to as CS gas, which is used as a riot control agent.

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Democratic Republic of Georgia

The Democratic Republic of Georgia (DRG; საქართველოს დემოკრატიული რესპუბლიკა) existed from May 1918 to February 1921 and was the first modern establishment of a Republic of Georgia. The DRG was created after the collapse of the Russian Empire that began with the Russian Revolution of 1917. Its established borders were with the Kuban People's Republic and the Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus in the north, the Ottoman Empire and the First Republic of Armenia in the south, and the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic in the southeast. It had a total land area of roughly 107,600 km2 (by comparison, the total area of today's Georgia is 69,700 km2), and a population of 2.5 million. The republic's capital was Tbilisi, and its state language was Georgian. Proclaimed on May 26, 1918, on the break-up of the Transcaucasian Federation, it was led by the Georgian Social Democratic Party (also known as the Georgian Menshevik Party). Facing permanent internal and external problems, the young state was unable to withstand invasion by the Russian SFSR Red Armies, and collapsed between February and March 1921 to become a Soviet republic.

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Entrenching tool

An entrenching tool, E-tool, or trenching tool is a collapsible spade used by military forces for a variety of military purposes.

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Georgian independence referendum, 1991

An independence referendum was held in the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic on 31 March 1991.

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Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic

Georgia, formally the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic (Georgian SSR; tr; Gruzinskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), was one of the republics of the Soviet Union from its inception in 1922 to its breakup in 1991.

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Georgians

The Georgians or Kartvelians (tr) are a nation and Caucasian ethnic group native to Georgia.

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Giorgi Chanturia

Giorgi Chanturia (გიორგი ჭანტურია,; 19 August 1959, Tbilisi - 3 December 1994) was a Georgian politician and the National Democratic Party leader who was murdered in Tbilisi, Georgia in December 1994.

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Igor Rodionov

Igor Nikolayevich Rodionov (Игорь Николаевич Родионов; 1 December 1936 – 19 December 2014) was a Russian general and Duma deputy.

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Ilia II of Georgia

Ilia II (ილია II), also transliterated as Ilya or Elijah (born January 4, 1933), is the current Catholicos-Patriarch of All Georgia and the spiritual leader of the Georgian Orthodox Church.

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January Events (Lithuania)

The January Events (Sausio įvykiai) took place in Lithuania between 11 and 13 January 1991 in the aftermath of the Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania.

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Jeltoqsan

The Jeltoqsan (Желтоқсан көтерілісі, Jeltoqsan kóterilisi) or "December" of 1986 were riots that took place in Alma-Ata (present-day Almaty), Kazakhstan, in response to General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev's dismissal of Dinmukhamed Kunaev, the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan and an ethnic Kazakh, and his appointment of Gennady Kolbin, an outsider from the Russian SFSR.

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Jumber Patiashvili

Jumber Patiashvili (ჯუმბერ პატიაშვილი) (born January 5, 1940) is a Georgian politician.

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Merab Kostava

Merab Kostava (მერაბ კოსტავა) (May 26, 1939 – October 13, 1989) was a Georgian dissident, musician and poet; one of the leaders of the National-Liberation movement in Georgia.

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Mikhail Gorbachev

Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, GCL (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician.

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Militsiya

Militsiya (mʲɪˈlʲitsɨjə, міліцыя, miilits, միլիցիա, милиция, milicija, milicija, milicja, miliția, milicija/милиција, milica, милитсия, міліція, militsiya or милиция), often confused with militia, was the name of the police forces in the Soviet Union and several Warsaw Pact countries, as well as in the non-aligned SFR Yugoslavia, and the term is still commonly used in some of the individual former Soviet republics such as Belarus, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, as well as in the unrecognized republics of Abkhazia, South Ossetia and Transnistria.

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Moscow

Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.

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Nervous system

The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.

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New Year

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

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New Year's Day

New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.

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New Year's Eve

In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.

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Novocherkassk massacre

The Novocherkassk massacre refers to events tied to the labor strike at a locomotive building plant in Novocherkassk, a city in the Russian SFSR, Soviet Union.

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Perestroika

Perestroika (a) was a political movement for reformation within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the 1980s until 1991 and is widely associated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and his glasnost (meaning "openness") policy reform.

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Phenacyl chloride

Phenacyl chloride, also commonly known as chloroacetophenone, is a substituted acetophenone.

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Public holidays in Georgia

No description.

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Revolutions of 1989

The Revolutions of 1989 formed part of a revolutionary wave in the late 1980s and early 1990s that resulted in the end of communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe and beyond.

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Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.

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Rustaveli Avenue

Rustaveli Avenue (რუსთაველის გამზირი, Rust'avelis Gamziri), formerly known as Golovin Street, is the central avenue in Tbilisi named after the medieval Georgian poet, Shota Rustaveli.

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Soviet Army

The Soviet Army (SA; Советская Армия, Sovetskaya Armiya) is the name given to the main land-based branch of the Soviet Armed Forces between February 1946 and December 1991, when it was replaced with the Russian Ground Forces, although it was not taken fully out of service until 25 December 1993.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Spetsnaz

Spetsnaz (p), abbreviation for Войска специа́льного назначе́ния, tr. Voyska spetsialnogo naznacheniya, (Special Purpose Forces or Special Purpose Military Units), is an umbrella term for special forces in Russian and is used in numerous post-Soviet states.

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Stampede

A stampede is uncontrolled concerted running as an act of mass impulse among herd animals or a crowd of people in which the group collectively begins running, often in an attempt to escape a perceived threat.

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Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia

The Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia (საქართველოს რესპუბლიკის უზენაესი საბჭო, sakartvelos respublikis uzenaesi sabcho) was the highest unicameral legislative body in Georgia elected in the first democratic, multiparty elections in the Caucasus on October 28, 1990 while the country was still part of the Soviet Union.

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Tbilisi

Tbilisi (თბილისი), in some countries also still named by its pre-1936 international designation Tiflis, is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura River with a population of approximately 1.5 million people.

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Transcaucasian Military District

The Transcaucasian Military District, a military district of the Soviet Armed Forces, traces its history to May 1921 and the incorporation of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia into the Soviet Union.

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Viktor Suvorov

Vladimir Bogdanovich Rezun, Влади́мир Богда́нович Резу́н, born April 20, 1947, in Barabash, Primorsky Krai, and known as Viktor Suvorov (Ви́ктор Суво́ров), is a Russian writer and a former Soviet military intelligence officer who defected to the United Kingdom.

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Zviad Gamsakhurdia

Zviad Gamsakhurdia (ზვიად გამსახურდია, tr. Zviad K'onst'ant'ines dze Gamsakhurdia; Звиа́д Константи́нович Гамсаху́рдия, tr. Zviad Konstantinovich Gamsakhurdiya; March 31, 1939 – December 31, 1993) was a Georgian politician, dissident, scholar, and writer who became the first democratically elected President of Georgia in the post-Soviet era.

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1956 Georgian demonstrations

The March 1956 demonstrations (also known as the 1956 Tbilisi riots or 9 March massacre) in the Georgian SSR were a series of protests against Nikita Khrushchev's revisionist de-Stalinization policy, which shocked Georgian supporters of Marxist–Leninist ideology.

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1978 Georgian demonstrations

On 14 April 1978, demonstrations in Tbilisi, capital of the Georgian SSR, took place in response to an attempt by the Soviet government to change the constitutional status of languages in Georgia.

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2018

2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.

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2019

2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.

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Redirects here:

9 April tragedy, April 9 Tragedy, April 9, 1989 Massacre, Tbilisi Massacre, Tbilisi massacre, Tbilisi tragedy.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/April_9_tragedy

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