85 relations: Active heave compensation, Actuator, Algorithm, Angular momentum, Antenna (radio), Apollo (spacecraft), Attitude control, Autonomous underwater vehicle, Cassini–Huygens, Celestial sphere, Computer hardware, Computer program, Cosmic microwave background, Couple (mechanics), Deadband, Direction cosine, Directional antenna, Directional stability, Dynamic positioning, Earth, Earth's magnetic field, Electric motor, Electrodynamic tether, Electromagnetic coil, Euler angles, Galileo (spacecraft), Gimbal, Gravity gradiometry, Gravity-gradient stabilization, Gyrocompass, Gyroscope, Hemispherical resonator gyroscope, Inertial frame of reference, Inertial measurement unit, International Space Station, Ion thruster, Longitudinal static stability, Low Earth orbit, Magnet, Magnetic bearing, Magnetic field, Magnetometer, Magnetorquer, Mariner 10, Multibeam echosounder, Nadir, NASA, Orbital decay, Pendulum, Photodetector, ..., PID controller, Pioneer 10, Pioneer 11, Project Gemini, Project Mercury, Proportional control, Quaternion, Reaction control system, Reaction wheel, Remotely operated underwater vehicle, Ring laser gyroscope, Sensor, Six degrees of freedom, Software, Solar cell, Soyuz (spacecraft), Space Shuttle, Space tether, Specific impulse, Star, Star tracker, Sun, Sun sensor, Telemetry, Telescope, Thermographic camera, Three-dimensional space, Tidal force, Translation (geometry), Vernier thruster, Vostok (spacecraft), Voyager 1, Voyager 2, Voyager program, Yo-yo de-spin. Expand index (35 more) » « Shrink index
Active heave compensation (AHC) is a technique used on lifting equipment to reduce the influence of waves upon offshore operations.
An actuator is a component of a machine that is responsible for moving and controlling a mechanism or system, for example by opening a valve.
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.
In physics, angular momentum (rarely, moment of momentum or rotational momentum) is the rotational equivalent of linear momentum.
In radio, an antenna is the interface between radio waves propagating through space and electric currents moving in metal conductors, used with a transmitter or receiver.
The Apollo spacecraft was composed of three parts designed to accomplish the American Apollo program's goal of landing astronauts on the Moon by the end of the 1960s and returning them safely to Earth.
Attitude control is controlling the orientation of an object with respect to an inertial frame of reference or another entity like the celestial sphere, certain fields, and nearby objects, etc.
An autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) is a robot that travels underwater without requiring input from an operator.
The Cassini–Huygens mission, commonly called Cassini, was a collaboration between NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Italian Space Agency (ASI) to send a probe to study the planet Saturn and its system, including its rings and natural satellites.
In astronomy and navigation, the celestial sphere is an abstract sphere with an arbitrarily large radius concentric to Earth.
Computer hardware includes the physical parts or components of a computer, such as the central processing unit, monitor, keyboard, computer data storage, graphic card, sound card and motherboard.
A computer program is a collection of instructions for performing a specific task that is designed to solve a specific class of problems.
The cosmic microwave background (CMB, CMBR) is electromagnetic radiation as a remnant from an early stage of the universe in Big Bang cosmology.
In mechanics, a couple refers to two parallel forces that are equal in magnitude, opposite in sense and do not share a line of action.
A deadband (sometimes called a neutral zone or dead zone) is a band of input values in the domain of a transfer function in a control system or signal processing system where the output is zero (the output is 'dead' - no action occurs).
In analytic geometry, the direction cosines (or directional cosines) of a vector are the cosines of the angles between the vector and the three coordinate axes.
A directional antenna or beam antenna is an antenna which radiates or receives greater power in specific directions allowing increased performance and reduced interference from unwanted sources.
Directional stability is stability of a moving body or vehicle about an axis which is perpendicular to its direction of motion.
Dynamic positioning (DP) is a computer-controlled system to automatically maintain a vessel's position and heading by using its own propellers and thrusters.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Earth's magnetic field, also known as the geomagnetic field, is the magnetic field that extends from the Earth's interior out into space, where it meets the solar wind, a stream of charged particles emanating from the Sun.
An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.
Electrodynamic tethers (EDTs) are long conducting wires, such as one deployed from a tether satellite, which can operate on electromagnetic principles as generators, by converting their kinetic energy to electrical energy, or as motors, converting electrical energy to kinetic energy.
An electromagnetic coil is an electrical conductor such as a wire in the shape of a coil, spiral or helix.
The Euler angles are three angles introduced by Leonhard Euler to describe the orientation of a rigid body with respect to a fixed coordinate system.
Galileo was an American unmanned spacecraft that studied the planet Jupiter and its moons, as well as several other Solar System bodies.
A gimbal is a pivoted support that allows the rotation of an object about a single axis.
Gravity gradiometry is the study and measurement of variations in the acceleration due to gravity.
Gravity-gradient stabilization (a.k.a. "tidal stabilization") is a method of stabilizing artificial satellites or space tethers in a fixed orientation using only the orbited body's mass distribution and gravitational field.
A gyrocompass is a type of non-magnetic compass which is based on a fast-spinning disc and the rotation of the Earth (or another planetary body if used elsewhere in the universe) to find geographical direction automatically.
A gyroscope (from Ancient Greek γῦρος gûros, "circle" and σκοπέω skopéō, "to look") is a device used for measuring or maintaining orientation and angular velocity.
The Hemispherical Resonator Gyroscope (HRG), also called wine-glass gyroscope or mushroom gyro, is made using a thin solid-state hemispherical shell, anchored by a thick stem.
An inertial frame of reference in classical physics and special relativity is a frame of reference in which a body with zero net force acting upon it is not accelerating; that is, such a body is at rest or it is moving at a constant speed in a straight line.
An inertial measurement unit (IMU) is an electronic device that measures and reports a body's specific force, angular rate, and sometimes the magnetic field surrounding the body, using a combination of accelerometers and gyroscopes, sometimes also magnetometers.
The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.
An ion thruster or ion drive is a form of electric propulsion used for spacecraft propulsion.
In flight dynamics, longitudinal static stability is the stability of an aircraft in the longitudinal, or pitching, plane under steady flight conditions.
A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit around Earth with an altitude of or less, and with an orbital period of between about 84 and 127 minutes.
A magnet is a material or object that produces a magnetic field.
A magnetic bearing is a type of bearing that supports a load using magnetic levitation.
A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.
A magnetometer is an instrument that measures magnetism—either the magnetization of a magnetic material like a ferromagnet, or the direction, strength, or relative change of a magnetic field at a particular location.
A magnetorquer or magnetic torquer (also known as torque rod) is a satellite system for attitude control, detumbling, and stabilization built from electromagnetic coils.
Mariner 10 was an American robotic space probe launched by NASA on November 3, 1973, to fly by the planets Mercury and Venus.
A multibeam echosounder is a type of sonar that is used to map the seabed.
The nadir (from نظير / ALA-LC: naẓīr, meaning "counterpart") is the direction pointing directly below a particular location; that is, it is one of two vertical directions at a specified location, orthogonal to a horizontal flat surface there.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
In orbital mechanics, decay is a process that leads to gradual decrease of the distance between two orbiting bodies at their closest approach (the periapsis) over many orbital periods.
A pendulum is a weight suspended from a pivot so that it can swing freely.
Photosensors or photodetectors are sensors of light or other electromagnetic energy.
A proportional–integral–derivative controller (PID controller or three term controller) is a control loop feedback mechanism widely used in industrial control systems and a variety of other applications requiring continuously modulated control.
Pioneer 10 (originally designated Pioneer F) is an American space probe, launched in 1972 and weighing, that completed the first mission to the planet Jupiter.
Pioneer 11 (also known as Pioneer G) is a robotic space probe launched by NASA on April 6, 1973 to study the asteroid belt, the environment around Jupiter and Saturn, solar wind and cosmic rays.
Project Gemini was NASA's second human spaceflight program.
Project Mercury was the first human spaceflight program of the United States, running from 1958 through 1963.
Proportional control, in engineering and process control, is a type of linear feedback control system in which a correction is applied to the controlled variable which is proportional to the difference between the desired value (set point, SP) and the measured value (process value, PV).
In mathematics, the quaternions are a number system that extends the complex numbers.
A reaction control system (RCS) is a spacecraft system that uses thrusters to provide attitude control, and sometimes translation.
A reaction wheel (RW) is a type of flywheel used primarily by spacecraft for three axis attitude control, which doesn't require rockets or external applicators of torque.
A remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROV) is a tethered underwater mobile device.
A ring laser gyroscope (RLG) consists of a ring laser having two independent counter-propagating resonant modes over the same path; the difference in the frequencies is used to detect rotation.
In the broadest definition, a sensor is a device, module, or subsystem whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment and send the information to other electronics, frequently a computer processor.
Six degrees of freedom (6DoF) refers to the freedom of movement of a rigid body in three-dimensional space.
Computer software, or simply software, is a generic term that refers to a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built, that actually performs the work.
A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell, is an electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect, which is a physical and chemical phenomenon.
Soyuz is a series of spacecraft designed for the Soviet space program by the Korolev Design Bureau (now RKK Energia) in the 1960s that remains in service today.
The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), as part of the Space Shuttle program.
Space tethers are long cables which can be used for propulsion, momentum exchange, stabilization and attitude control, or maintaining the relative positions of the components of a large dispersed satellite/spacecraft sensor system.
Specific impulse (usually abbreviated Isp) is a measure of how effectively a rocket uses propellant or jet engine uses fuel.
A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.
A star tracker is an optical device that measures the positions of stars using photocells or a camera.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
A sun sensor is a navigational instrument used by spacecraft to detect the position of the sun.
Telemetry is an automated communications process by which measurements and other data are collected at remote or inaccessible points and transmitted to receiving equipment for monitoring.
A telescope is an optical instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light).
A thermographic camera (also called an infrared camera or thermal imaging camera) is a device that forms an image using infrared radiation, similar to a common camera that forms an image using visible light.
Three-dimensional space (also: 3-space or, rarely, tri-dimensional space) is a geometric setting in which three values (called parameters) are required to determine the position of an element (i.e., point).
The tidal force is an apparent force that stretches a body towards the center of mass of another body due to a gradient (difference in strength) in gravitational field from the other body; it is responsible for the diverse phenomena, including tides, tidal locking, breaking apart of celestial bodies and formation of ring systems within Roche limit, and in extreme cases, spaghettification of objects.
In Euclidean geometry, a translation is a geometric transformation that moves every point of a figure or a space by the same distance in a given direction.
A vernier thruster is a rocket engine used on a spacecraft for fine adjustments to the attitude or velocity of a spacecraft.
The Vostok (Восток, translated as "East") was a type of spacecraft built by the Soviet Union.
Voyager 1 is a space probe launched by NASA on September 5, 1977.
Voyager 2 is a space probe launched by NASA on August 20, 1977, to study the outer planets.
The Voyager program is an American scientific program that employs two robotic probes, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2, to study the outer Solar System.
A yo-yo de-spin mechanism is a device used to reduce the spin of satellites, typically right after launch.
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