362 relations: Aeronautics, Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate, Aerospace, Airlock, Alan Shepard, Alexei Kosygin, Ames Research Center, Andriyan Nikolayev, Antares (rocket), Apogee Books, Apollo (spacecraft), Apollo 1, Apollo 11, Apollo 17, Apollo 8, Apollo Command/Service Module, Apollo program, Apollo Telescope Mount, Ares V, Armstrong Flight Research Center, Army Ballistic Missile Agency, Assembly of the International Space Station, Asteroid belt, Asteroid Redirect Mission, Astronaut, Astronaut badge, Astronomical object, Astronomy Picture of the Day, Astrophysics, Atlas LV-3B, Atlas V, Atmosphere of Mars, Atmospheric entry, Automated Transfer Vehicle, Avionics, Awards and decorations of the United States government, Ballistics, Balls 8, Barack Obama, Bell X-1, Big Bang, Bigelow Aerospace, Bill Clinton, Biofuel, Boeing B-52 Stratofortress, Budget of NASA, Buzz Aldrin, California Institute of Technology, Canadian Space Agency, Canberra Deep Space Communication Complex, ..., Cassini–Huygens, Charles Bolden, Chinese space program, Christopher C. Kraft Jr. Mission Control Center, Circumlunar trajectory, Citizenship of the United States, Climate, Columbus (ISS module), Combustion, Commercial Crew Development, Communications satellite, Constellation program, CST-100 Starliner, Curiosity (rover), Cygnus (spacecraft), Cygnus Orb-D1, Daniel Goldin, DARPA, Dawn (spacecraft), Delta IV Heavy, Democratic Party (United States), Department of Defense Manned Space Flight Support Office, Docking and berthing of spacecraft, Donald Trump, Dragon 2, Dragon C2+, Drop test, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Earth, Earth Observing System, Europa Clipper, European Space Agency, Exploration Flight Test 1, Exploration Mission 1, Explorer 1, Extravehicular activity, Facebook, Falcon 9, Falcon 9 v1.1, Fédération Aéronautique Internationale, Federal government of the United States, Federal Register, Flight airspeed record, Frederick D. Gregory, French space program, Galileo (spacecraft), Gas giant, Gemini 3, George H. W. Bush, Glenn Research Center, Goddard Space Flight Center, Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex, Gordon Cooper, Gravity assist, Great Observatories program, Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite, Gus Grissom, Guyford Stever, H-II Transfer Vehicle, Harry S. Truman, Heat transfer, Heliophysics, Houston, HowStuffWorks, Hubble Space Telescope, Hugh Latimer Dryden, Human mission to Mars, Human spaceflight, Hydrazine, Hypergolic propellant, Hypersonic speed, In situ resource utilization, Independent agencies of the United States government, InSight, Integrated Truss Structure, Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph, International Geophysical Year, International Space Station, Ion thruster, James C. Fletcher, James E. Webb, James Webb Space Telescope, JAXA, Jeff DeWit, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Jim Bridenstine, Jimmy Carter, John C. Stennis Space Center, John F. Kennedy, John Glenn, John Young (astronaut), Johnson Space Center, Joseph A. Walker, Juno (spacecraft), Jupiter, Kalam SAT, Kennedy Space Center, Kerosene, Kibo (ISS module), LADEE, Landfill gas, Langley Research Center, Launch Control Center, Launch Services Program, Liquid hydrogen, Liquid oxygen, List of Administrators and Deputy Administrators of NASA, List of Apollo astronauts, List of government space agencies, List of International Space Station expeditions, List of International Space Station visitors, List of NASA aircraft, List of NASA missions, List of United States rockets, Lists of space exploration milestones, 1957–1969, Lockheed Martin X-59 QueSST, Low Earth orbit, Lunar Laser Ranging experiment, Lunar orbit, Lunar Orbital Platform-Gateway, Lunar outpost (NASA), Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Lyndon B. Johnson, Madrid Deep Space Communications Complex, Magellan (spacecraft), Magnetic field, Man in Space Soonest, Manhattan Project, Mariner 10, Mariner 2, Mariner 4, Mariner 5, Mariner 6 and 7, Mariner 9, Mariner program, Mars, Mars 2020, Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Pathfinder, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars Science Laboratory, Mars Scout Program, Marshall Space Flight Center, MAVEN, Mercury (planet), Mercury Seven, Mercury-Atlas 6, Mercury-Atlas 9, Mercury-Redstone 3, Mercury-Redstone Launch Vehicle, MESSENGER, Meteoroid, Michael Collins (astronaut), Michoud Assembly Facility, Micro-g environment, Mile, Mir, Mir-2, Moon, Moon landing, Multi-mission radioisotope thermoelectric generator, NASA Advanced Space Transportation Program, NASA Astronaut Corps, NASA Authorization Act of 2010, NASA Deep Space Network, NASA Headquarters, NASA insignia, NASA Railroad, NASA Research Park, NASA Sustainability Base, NASA TV, NASAcast, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, National Aeronautics and Space Act, National Air and Space Museum, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Reconnaissance Office, National security, Nautilus-X, NEAR Shoemaker, Near-Earth object, Neil Armstrong, Neil deGrasse Tyson, Neptune, New Horizons, New Horizons 2, Next Space Technologies for Exploration Partnerships, Nikita Khrushchev, North American Aviation, North American X-15, Opportunity (rover), Orbit, Orbital Sciences Corporation, Orion (spacecraft), OSIRIS-REx, Outline of space science, Outline of space technology, Parker Solar Probe, Pavel Popovich, Photovoltaic system, Pioneer 10, Pioneer 11, Pluto, Premier of the Soviet Union, President of the United States, Progress (spacecraft), Project Vanguard, Proton (rocket family), Radioisotope thermoelectric generator, Reaction control system, Reaction Motors, Republican Party (United States), Request for proposal, Review of United States Human Space Flight Plans Committee, Richard H. Truly, Richard Nixon, Robert H. Goddard, Robert M. Lightfoot Jr., Robert Smith Walker, Robotic spacecraft, Rocket-powered aircraft, Ronald Reagan, Roscosmos, Russia, Russian Orbital Segment, Satellite, Saturn, Saturn (rocket family), Saturn IB, Saturn V, Seismology, Sergei Korolev, Shuttle Carrier Aircraft, Shuttle–Mir Program, Skylab, Small Explorer program, Soil mechanics, Solar Dynamics Observatory, Solar System, Solar wind, Soviet space program, Soviet Union, Soyuz (rocket family), Soyuz (spacecraft), Space capsule, Space exploration, Space Exploration Initiative, Space Launch System, Space policy of the Barack Obama administration, Space Race, Space rendezvous, Space Shuttle, Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, Space Shuttle Columbia, Space Shuttle Columbia disaster, Space Shuttle Endeavour, Space Shuttle main engine, Space Shuttle program, Space station, Space Station Freedom, Space suit, Spacelab, Spaceplane, SpaceX, SpaceX Dragon, Spirit (rover), Sputnik 1, Sputnik crisis, STEREO, STS-107, STS-31, STS-61, T. Keith Glennan, Technology, TechPort (NASA), The New York Times, Thomas O. Paine, Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite, Ulysses (spacecraft), United States, United States Air Force, United States Congress, United States Environmental Protection Agency, United States federal executive departments, United States Naval Research Laboratory, United States Senate, United States Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, Uranus, US Orbital Segment, V-2 rocket, Vehicle Assembly Building, Venus, Viking 1, Viking 2, Voskhod (spacecraft), Vostok 1, Vostok 3, Vostok 4, Vostok programme, Voyager 1, Voyager 2, Voyager program, Wallops Flight Facility, Washington, D.C., We choose to go to the Moon, Wernher von Braun, White Sands Test Facility, Xenon, Yahoo! Tech, Yuri Gagarin, 2001 Mars Odyssey, 2012 National Reconnaissance Office space telescope donation to NASA. Expand index (312 more) » « Shrink index
Aeronautics (from the ancient Greek words ὰήρ āēr, which means "air", and ναυτική nautikē which means "navigation", i.e. "navigation into the air") is the science or art involved with the study, design, and manufacturing of air flight capable machines, and the techniques of operating aircraft and rockets within the atmosphere.
The Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) is one of four mission directorates within NASA, the other three being the Human Exploration and Operations Directorate, the Science Directorate, and the Space Technology Directorate.
Aerospace is the human effort in science, engineering and business to fly in the atmosphere of Earth (aeronautics) and surrounding space (astronautics).
An airlock is a device which permits the passage of people and objects between a pressure vessel and its surroundings while minimizing the change of pressure in the vessel and loss of air from it.
Rear Admiral Alan Bartlett Shepard Jr. (November 18, 1923 – July 21, 1998) was an American astronaut, naval aviator, test pilot, and businessman.
Alexei Nikolayevich Kosygin (p; – 18 December 1980) was a Soviet-Russian statesman during the Cold War.
Ames Research Center (ARC), also known as NASA Ames, is a major NASA research center at Moffett Federal Airfield in California's Silicon Valley.
Andriyan Grigoryevich Nikolayev (Chuvash and Андриян Григорьевич Николаев; 5 September 1929 – 3 July 2004) was a Soviet cosmonaut.
Antares, known during early development as Taurus II, is an expendable launch system developed by Orbital Sciences Corporation (now part of Northrop Grumman Innovation System after Northrop Grumman acquired Orbital ATK) and the Yuzhnoye Design Bureau to launch the Cygnus spacecraft to the International Space Station as part of NASA's COTS and CRS programs.
Apogee Books is an imprint of Canadian publishing house Collector's Guide Publishing.
The Apollo spacecraft was composed of three parts designed to accomplish the American Apollo program's goal of landing astronauts on the Moon by the end of the 1960s and returning them safely to Earth.
Apollo 1, initially designated AS-204, was the first manned mission of the United States Apollo program, the program to land the first men on the Moon.
Apollo 11 was the spaceflight that landed the first two humans on the Moon.
Apollo 17 was the final mission of NASA's Apollo program.
Apollo 8, the second manned spaceflight mission in the United States Apollo space program, was launched on December 21, 1968, and became the first manned spacecraft to leave Earth orbit, reach the Earth's Moon, orbit it and return safely to Earth.
The Command/Service Module (CSM) was one of the two United States '''Apollo''' spacecraft, used for the Apollo program which landed astronauts on the Moon between 1969 and 1972.
The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished landing the first humans on the Moon from 1969 to 1972.
The Apollo Telescope Mount, or ATM, was a solar observatory attached to Skylab, the first American space station.
The Ares V (formerly known as the Cargo Launch Vehicle or CaLV) was the planned cargo launch component of the cancelled NASA Constellation program, which was to have replaced the Space Shuttle after its retirement in 2011.
The NASA, Neil A. Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) is an aeronautical research center operated by NASA.
The Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA) was formed to develop the U.S. Army's first large ballistic missile.
The process of assembling the International Space Station (ISS) has been under way since the 1990s.
The asteroid belt is the circumstellar disc in the Solar System located roughly between the orbits of the planets Mars and Jupiter.
The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), also known as the Asteroid Retrieval and Utilization (ARU) mission and the Asteroid Initiative, was a space mission proposed by NASA in 2013.
An astronaut or cosmonaut is a person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft.
The astronaut badge is a badge of the United States, awarded to military pilots, naval flight officers, navigators/combat systems officers (this badge can also be awarded to USAF officer astronauts who are not navigators/CSOs, but who wear the same insignia while designated as astronaut-qualified Air Force "observers"), flight surgeons, and civilian pilots who have completed training and performed a successful spaceflight.
An astronomical object or celestial object is a naturally occurring physical entity, association, or structure that exists in the observable universe.
Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD) is a website provided by NASA and Michigan Technological University (MTU).
Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that employs the principles of physics and chemistry "to ascertain the nature of the astronomical objects, rather than their positions or motions in space".
The Atlas LV-3B, Atlas D Mercury Launch Vehicle or Mercury-Atlas Launch Vehicle, was a human-rated expendable launch system used as part of the United States Project Mercury to send astronauts into low Earth orbit.
Atlas V ("V" is pronounced "Five") is an expendable launch system in the Atlas rocket family.
The atmosphere of the planet Mars is composed mostly of carbon dioxide.
Atmospheric entry is the movement of an object from outer space into and through the gases of an atmosphere of a planet, dwarf planet or natural satellite.
The Automated Transfer Vehicle, originally Ariane Transfer Vehicle or ATV, was an expendable cargo spacecraft developed by the European Space Agency (ESA).
Avionics are the electronic systems used on aircraft, artificial satellites, and spacecraft.
Awards and decorations of the United States government are civilian awards of the U.S. federal government which are typically issued for sustained meritorious service, in a civilian capacity, while serving in the U.S. federal government.
Ballistics is the field of mechanics that deals with the launching, flight, behavior, and effects of projectiles, especially bullets, unguided bombs, rockets, or the like; the science or art of designing and accelerating projectiles so as to achieve a desired performance.
Balls 8 is a NASA Boeing NB-52B mothership, retired in 2004 after almost 50 years of flying service with NASA.
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
The Bell X-1 was a rocket engine–powered aircraft, designated originally as the XS-1, and was a joint National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics–U.S. Army Air Forces–U.S. Air Force supersonic research project built by Bell Aircraft.
The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.
Bigelow Aerospace is an American space technology startup company based in North Las Vegas, Nevada, that manufactures and develops expandable space station modules.
William Jefferson Clinton (born August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
A biofuel is a fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes, such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion, rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum, from prehistoric biological matter.
The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress is an American long-range, subsonic, jet-powered strategic bomber.
As a federal agency, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) receives its funding from the annual federal budget passed by the United States Congress.
Buzz Aldrin (born Edwin Eugene Aldrin Jr.; January 20, 1930) is an American engineer, former astronaut, and Command Pilot in the United States Air Force.
The California Institute of Technology (abbreviated Caltech)The university itself only spells its short form as "Caltech"; other spellings such as.
The Canadian Space Agency (CSA; Agence spatiale canadienne, ASC) was established by the Canadian Space Agency Act which received Royal Assent on May 10, 1990.
The Canberra Deep Space Communication Complex (CDSCC) is an Earth station in Australia located at Tidbinbilla in the Australian Capital Territory.
The Cassini–Huygens mission, commonly called Cassini, was a collaboration between NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Italian Space Agency (ASI) to send a probe to study the planet Saturn and its system, including its rings and natural satellites.
Charles Frank Bolden Jr. (born August 19, 1946) is a former Administrator of NASA, a retired United States Marine Corps Major General, and a former NASA astronaut.
The space program of the People's Republic of China is directed by the China National Space Administration (CNSA).
NASA's Christopher C. Kraft Jr.
A circumlunar trajectory, trans-lunar trajectory or lunar free return is a type of free return trajectory which takes a spacecraft from Earth, around the far side of the Moon, and back to Earth using only gravity once the initial trajectory is set.
Citizenship of the United States is a status that entails specific rights, duties and benefits.
Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.
Columbus is a science laboratory that is part of the International Space Station (ISS) and is the largest single contribution to the ISS made by the European Space Agency (ESA).
Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.
Commercial Crew Development (CCDev) is a multiphase, space technology development program that is funded by the U.S. government and administered by NASA.
A communications satellite is an artificial satellite that relays and amplifies radio telecommunications signals via a transponder; it creates a communication channel between a source transmitter and a receiver at different locations on Earth.
The Constellation Program (abbreviated CxP) is a cancelled manned spaceflight program developed by NASA, the space agency of the United States, from 2005 to 2009.
The CST-100 Starliner (Crew Space Transportation) crew capsule is a spacecraft design under construction by Boeing in collaboration with Bigelow Aerospace as their entry for NASA's Commercial Crew Development (CCDev) program.
Curiosity is a car-sized rover designed to explore Gale Crater on Mars as part of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory mission (MSL).
The Cygnus spacecraft is an American automated cargo spacecraft developed by Orbital ATK as part of NASA's Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) developmental program.
Cygnus Orb-D1, also known as Cygnus 1 and Orbital Sciences COTS Demo Flight, was the first flight of the Cygnus unmanned resupply spacecraft developed by Orbital Sciences Corporation.
Daniel Saul Goldin (born July 23, 1940) served as the 9th and longest-tenured Administrator of NASA from April 1, 1992, to November 17, 2001.
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of emerging technologies for use by the military.
Dawn is a space probe launched by NASA in September 2007 with the mission of studying two of the three known protoplanets of the asteroid belt, Vesta and Ceres.
The Delta IV Heavy (Delta 9250H) is an expendable heavy-lift launch vehicle, the largest type of the Delta IV family, and is the world's second highest-capacity rocket in operation, with a payload capacity half of SpaceX's Falcon Heavy rocket.
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party (nicknamed the GOP for Grand Old Party).
The Department of Defense Manned Space Flight Support Office (DDMS) coordinated all United States Department of Defense (DoD) contingency support to United States NASA manned space flight programs.
Docking and berthing of spacecraft is the joining of two space vehicles.
Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is the 45th and current President of the United States, in office since January 20, 2017.
Dragon 2 (also Crew Dragon, Dragon V2, or formerly DragonRider) is the second version of the SpaceX Dragon spacecraft, which will be a human-rated vehicle.
Dragon C2+, also known as SpaceX COTS Demo Flight 2 (COTS 2), was the second test-flight for SpaceX's uncrewed Dragon cargo spacecraft, launched on the third flight of the company's two-stage Falcon 9 launch vehicle.
A drop test is a method of testing the in-flight characteristics of prototype or experimental aircraft and spacecraft by raising the test vehicle to a specific altitude and then releasing it.
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a program of NASA comprising a series of artificial satellite missions and scientific instruments in Earth orbit designed for long-term global observations of the land surface, biosphere, atmosphere, and oceans of the Earth.
Europa Clipper is an interplanetary mission in development by NASA comprising an orbiter.
The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.
Exploration Flight Test 1 or EFT-1 (previously known as Orion Flight Test 1 or OFT-1) was the first test flight of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle.
Exploration Mission 1 or EM-1 (previously known as Space Launch System 1 or SLS-1) is the uncrewed first planned flight of the Space Launch System and the second flight of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle.
Explorer 1 was the first satellite of the United States, launched as part of its participation in the International Geophysical Year.
Extravehicular activity (EVA) is any activity done by an astronaut or cosmonaut outside a spacecraft beyond the Earth's appreciable atmosphere.
Facebook is an American online social media and social networking service company based in Menlo Park, California.
Falcon 9 is a family of two-stage-to-orbit medium lift launch vehicles, named for its use of nine Merlin first-stage engines, designed and manufactured by SpaceX.
Falcon 9 v1.1 was the second version of SpaceX's Falcon 9 orbital launch vehicle.
The Fédération aéronautique internationale (FAI; The World Air Sports Federation), is the world governing body for air sports.
The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.
The Federal Register (FR or sometimes Fed. Reg.) is the official journal of the federal government of the United States that contains government agency rules, proposed rules, and public notices.
An air speed record is the highest airspeed attained by an aircraft of a particular class.
Frederick Drew Gregory (born January 7, 1941), (Col, USAF, Ret.), is a former United States Air Force pilot, military engineer, test pilot, and NASA astronaut as well as former NASA Deputy Administrator.
The French space program includes both civil and military spaceflight activities.
Galileo was an American unmanned spacecraft that studied the planet Jupiter and its moons, as well as several other Solar System bodies.
A gas giant is a giant planet composed mainly of hydrogen and helium.
Gemini 3 was the first manned mission in NASA's Gemini program, the second American manned space program.
George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 41st President of the United States from 1989 to 1993.
NASA John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field is a NASA center, located within the cities of Brook Park and Cleveland between Cleveland Hopkins International Airport and the Rocky River Reservation of Cleveland Metroparks, with a subsidiary facility in Sandusky, Ohio.
The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is a major NASA space research laboratory located approximately northeast of Washington, D.C. in Greenbelt, Maryland, United States.
The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC), commonly called the Goldstone Observatory, is located in the Mojave Desert near Barstow in the U.S. state of California.
Leroy Gordon "Gordo" Cooper Jr. (March 6, 1927 – October 4, 2004), (Col, USAF), was an American aerospace engineer, test pilot, United States Air Force pilot, and the youngest of the seven original astronauts in Project Mercury, the first manned space program of the United States.
In orbital mechanics and aerospace engineering, a gravitational slingshot, gravity assist maneuver, or swing-by is the use of the relative movement (e.g. orbit around the Sun) and gravity of a planet or other astronomical object to alter the path and speed of a spacecraft, typically to save propellant and reduce expense.
NASA's series of Great Observatories satellites are four large, powerful space-based astronomical telescopes.
The Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSat), also known as, is an Earth observation satellite and the world's first satellite dedicated to greenhouse-gas-monitoring.
Lieutenant Colonel Virgil Ivan "Gus" Grissom (April 3, 1926 – January 27, 1967) was one of the original NASA Project Mercury astronauts, a United States Air Force test pilot, and a mechanical engineer.
Horton Guyford Stever (October 24, 1916 – April 9, 2010) was an American administrator, physicist, educator, and engineer.
The H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV), also called, is an automated cargo spacecraft used to resupply the ''Kibō'' Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) and the International Space Station (ISS).
Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was an American statesman who served as the 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953), taking office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Heat transfer is a discipline of thermal engineering that concerns the generation, use, conversion, and exchange of thermal energy (heat) between physical systems.
The term heliophysics means "physics of the Sun" (the prefix "helio", from Attic Greek hḗlios, means Sun), and appears to have been used only in that sense until quite recently.
Houston is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Texas and the fourth most populous city in the United States, with a census-estimated 2017 population of 2.312 million within a land area of.
HowStuffWorks is an American commercial educational website founded by Marshall Brain to provide its target audience an insight into the way many things work.
The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a space telescope that was launched into low Earth orbit in 1990 and remains in operation.
Hugh Latimer Dryden (July 2, 1898 – December 2, 1965) was an American aeronautical scientist and civil servant.
A human mission to Mars has been the subject of science fiction, aerospace engineering, and scientific proposals since the 19th century.
Human spaceflight (also referred to as crewed spaceflight or manned spaceflight) is space travel with a crew or passengers aboard the spacecraft.
Hydrazine is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula (also written), called diamidogen, archaically.
A hypergolic propellant combination used in a rocket engine is one whose components spontaneously ignite when they come into contact with each other.
In aerodynamics, a hypersonic speed is one that is highly supersonic.
In space exploration, in situ resource utilization (ISRU) is defined as "the collection, processing, storing and use of materials encountered in the course of human or robotic space exploration that replace materials that would otherwise be brought from Earth." ISRU is the practice of leveraging resources found or manufactured on other astronomical objects (the Moon, Mars, asteroids, etc.) to fulfill or enhance the requirements and capabilities of a space mission.
Independent agencies of the United States federal government are those agencies that exist outside the federal executive departments (those headed by a Cabinet secretary) and the Executive Office of the President.
InSight is a robotic lander designed to study the interior of the planet Mars.
The Integrated Truss Structure (ITS) of the International Space Station (ISS) consists of a linear arranged sequence of connected trusses on which various unpressurized components are mounted such as logistics carriers, radiators, solar arrays, and other equipment.
The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS), also called Explorer 94, is a NASA solar observation satellite.
The International Geophysical Year (IGY; Année géophysique internationale) was an international scientific project that lasted from July 1, 1957, to December 31, 1958.
The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.
An ion thruster or ion drive is a form of electric propulsion used for spacecraft propulsion.
James Chipman Fletcher (June 5, 1919 – December 22, 1991) served as the 4th and 7th Administrator of NASA, first from April 27, 1971 to May 1, 1977, under President Richard M. Nixon, and again from May 12, 1986 to April 8, 1989, under President Ronald Reagan.
James Edwin Webb (October 7, 1906 – March 27, 1992) was an American government official who served as the second administrator of NASA from February 14, 1961 to October 7, 1968.
The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a space telescope developed in collaboration between NASA, the European Space Agency, and the Canadian Space Agency that will be the scientific successor to the Hubble Space Telescope.
The is the Japanese national aerospace and space agency.
Jeffrey DeWit (born 1972 or 1973) is an American businessman and politician from the state of Arizona.
The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is a federally funded research and development center and NASA field center in Pasadena, California, United States, with large portions of the campus in La Cañada Flintridge, California.
James Frederick Bridenstine (born June 15, 1975) is an American politician and the administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
James Earl Carter Jr. (born October 1, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 39th President of the United States from 1977 to 1981.
The John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) is a NASA rocket testing facility.
John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.
Colonel John Herschel Glenn Jr. (July 18, 1921 – December 8, 2016) was a United States Marine Corps aviator, engineer, astronaut, and United States Senator from Ohio.
John Watts Young (September 24, 1930 – January 5, 2018) was an American astronaut, naval officer and aviator, test pilot, and aeronautical engineer.
The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Manned Spacecraft Center, where human spaceflight training, research, and flight control are conducted.
Joseph Albert "Joe" Walker (February 20, 1921 – June 8, 1966) flew the world's first two spaceplane flights in 1963, thereby becoming the United States' seventh man in space.
Juno is a NASA space probe orbiting the planet Jupiter.
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.
Kalam SAT is a Femto Satellite and widely claimed to be the world's lightest satellite.
The John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is one of ten National Aeronautics and Space Administration field centers.
Kerosene, also known as paraffin, lamp oil, and coal oil (an obsolete term), is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid which is derived from petroleum.
The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), nicknamed, is a Japanese science module for the International Space Station (ISS) developed by JAXA.
The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) was a NASA lunar exploration and technology demonstration mission.
Landfill gas is a complex mix of different gases created by the action of microorganisms within a landfill.
Langley Research Center (LaRC or NASA Langley) located in Hampton, Virginia, United States, is the oldest of NASA's field centers.
The Launch Control Center (LCC) is a four-story building located at NASA's Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island, Florida used for the supervision of launches from Launch Complex 39.
Launch Services Program (LSP) is responsible for NASA oversight of launch operations and countdown management, providing added quality and mission assurance in lieu of the requirement for the launch service provider to obtain a commercial launch license.
Liquid hydrogen (LH2 or LH2) is the liquid state of the element hydrogen.
Liquid oxygen—abbreviated LOx, LOX or Lox in the aerospace, submarine and gas industries—is one of the physical forms of elemental oxygen.
The Administrator and Deputy Administrator of NASA are the highest-ranked officials of NASA, the space agency of the United States Federal Government.
Thirty-two astronauts were assigned to fly in the Apollo manned lunar landing program.
This is a list of government agencies engaged in activities related to outer space and space exploration.
This is a chronological list of expeditions to the International Space Station (ISS).
This is a list of all of the visitors to the International Space Station (ISS), including long-term crew, short-term visitors, and space tourists, in alphabetical order.
This is a list of NASA aircraft.
This is a list of NASA missions, both manned and unmanned, since its establishment in 1958.
List of various rockets used by NASA and other American entities.
Lists of relevant milestones in the period 1957–1969 include.
The Lockheed Martin X-59 is an American experimental supersonic aircraft being developed for NASA's Low-Boom Flight Demonstrator program.
A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit around Earth with an altitude of or less, and with an orbital period of between about 84 and 127 minutes.
The ongoing Lunar Laser Ranging experiment measures the distance between Earth and the Moon using laser ranging.
In astronomy, lunar orbit (also known as a selenocentric orbit) is the orbit of an object around the Moon.
The Lunar Orbital Platform-Gateway (LOP-G) is a planned lunar-orbit space station, that will have a power and propulsion system, a small habitat for the crew, a docking capability, an airlock, and logistics modules.
A lunar outpost was an element of the George W. Bush era Vision for Space Exploration, which has been replaced with President Barack Obama's space policy.
The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is a NASA robotic spacecraft currently orbiting the Moon in an eccentric polar mapping orbit.
Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after having served as the 37th Vice President of the United States from 1961 to 1963.
The Madrid Deep Space Communications Complex (MDSCC) is a ground station located in Robledo de Chavela, Spain, and operated by the Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA).
The Magellan spacecraft, also referred to as the Venus Radar Mapper, was a robotic space probe launched by NASA of the United States, on May 4, 1989, to map the surface of Venus by using synthetic aperture radar and to measure the planetary gravitational field.
A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.
Man In Space Soonest (MISS) was a United States Air Force (USAF) program to put a man into outer space before the Soviet Union.
The Manhattan Project was a research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons.
Mariner 10 was an American robotic space probe launched by NASA on November 3, 1973, to fly by the planets Mercury and Venus.
Mariner 2 (Mariner-Venus 1962), an American space probe to Venus, was the first robotic space probe to conduct a successful planetary encounter.
Mariner 4 (together with Mariner 3 known as Mariner–Mars 1964) was the fourth in a series of spacecraft intended for planetary exploration in a flyby mode.
Mariner 5 (Mariner Venus 1967) was a spacecraft of the Mariner program that carried a complement of experiments to probe Venus' atmosphere by radio occultation, measure the hydrogen Lyman-alpha (hard ultraviolet) spectrum, and sample the solar particles and magnetic field fluctuations above the planet.
As part of NASA's wider Mariner program, Mariner 6 and Mariner 7 (Mariner Mars 69A and Mariner Mars 69B) completed the first dual mission to Mars in 1969.
Mariner 9 (Mariner Mars '71 / Mariner-I) was an unmanned NASA space probe that contributed greatly to the exploration of Mars and was part of the Mariner program.
The Mariner program was a 10-mission program conducted by the American space agency NASA in conjunction with Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL).
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.
Mars 2020 is a Mars rover mission by NASA's Mars Exploration Program with a planned launch in 2020.
Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) was an American robotic spacecraft developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and launched November 1996.
Mars Pathfinder (MESUR Pathfinder) is an American robotic spacecraft that landed a base station with a roving probe on Mars in 1997.
Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) is a multipurpose spacecraft designed to conduct reconnaissance and exploration of Mars from orbit.
Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is a robotic space probe mission to Mars launched by NASA on November 26, 2011, which successfully landed Curiosity, a Mars rover, in Gale Crater on August 6, 2012.
The Mars Scout Program was a NASA initiative to send a series of small, low-cost robotic missions to Mars, competitively selected from innovative proposals by the scientific community.
The George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), located in Huntsville, Alabama, is the U.S. government's civilian rocketry and spacecraft propulsion research center.
Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission (MAVEN) is a space probe developed by NASA to study the Martian atmosphere while orbiting Mars.
Mercury is the smallest and innermost planet in the Solar System.
The Mercury Seven were the group of seven Mercury astronauts announced by NASA on April 9, 1959.
Mercury-Atlas 6 (MA-6) was the third human spaceflight for the U.S. and part of Project Mercury.
Mercury-Atlas 9 was the final manned space mission of the U.S. Mercury program, launched on May 15, 1963 from Launch Complex 14 at Cape Canaveral, Florida.
Mercury-Redstone 3, or Freedom 7, was the first United States human spaceflight, on May 5, 1961, piloted by astronaut Alan Shepard.
The Mercury-Redstone Launch Vehicle, designed for NASA's Project Mercury, was the first American manned space booster.
Messenger (stylized as MESSENGER, whose backronym is "MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging", and which is a reference to the messenger of the same name from Roman mythology) was a NASA robotic spacecraft that orbited the planet Mercury between 2011 and 2015.
A meteoroid is a small rocky or metallic body in outer space.
Michael Collins (born October 31, 1930) (Major General, USAF, Ret.) is an American former astronaut and test pilot.
The Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF) is an 832-acre (337 ha) manufacturing complex owned by NASA in New Orleans East, a district within New Orleans, Louisiana, in the United States.
The term micro-g environment (also µg, often referred to by the term microgravity) is more or less a synonym for weightlessness and zero-g, but indicates that g-forces are not quite zero—just very small.
The mile is an English unit of length of linear measure equal to 5,280 feet, or 1,760 yards, and standardised as exactly 1,609.344 metres by international agreement in 1959.
Mir (Мир,; lit. peace or world) was a space station that operated in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001, operated by the Soviet Union and later by Russia.
Mir-2 was a space station project which began in February 1976.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
A Moon landing is the arrival of a spacecraft on the surface of the Moon.
The multi-mission radioisotope thermoelectric generator (MMRTG) is a type of radioisotope thermoelectric generator developed for NASA space missions such as the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), under the jurisdiction of the United States Department of Energy's Office of Space and Defense Power Systems within the Office of Nuclear Energy.
The Advanced Space Transportation Program (ASTP) is a NASA program which is developing future space transportation systems.
The NASA Astronaut Corps is a unit of the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) that selects, trains, and provides astronauts as crew members for U.S. and international space missions.
The NASA Authorization Act of 2010 is a U.S. law authorizing NASA appropriations for fiscal years 2011, 2012, 2013 with the same top-line budget values as requested by US President Barack Obama.
The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) is a worldwide network of US spacecraft communication facilities, located in the United States (California), Spain (Madrid), and Australia (Canberra), that supports NASA's interplanetary spacecraft missions.
Two Independence Square, better known as NASA Headquarters, is a low-rise building in the two-building Independence Square complex at 300 E Street SW in Washington D.C. The building houses NASA leadership who provide overall guidance and direction to the US government executive branch agency NASA, under the leadership of the NASA administrator.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) logo has three main official designs, although the one with stylized red curved text (the "worm") has been retired from official use since 1992.
The NASA Railroad was a Class III industrial short-line railroad at the Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Florida.
NASA Research Park is a research park run by NASA which is developing a world-class, shared-use research and development campus in association with government entities, academia, industry and non-profit organisations.
NASA Sustainability Base is a building at the Ames Research Center in Mountain View, California that was designed to exhibit and test the latest energy-saving technologies as part of the federal government's drive to eliminate fossil-fuel consumption in all new government buildings by 2030.
NASA TV (originally NASA Select) is the television service of the United States government agency NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration).
NASAcast is the official audio and video podcast of the NASA website.
The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) was a U.S. federal agency founded on March 3, 1915, to undertake, promote, and institutionalize aeronautical research.
The National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 is the United States federal statute that created the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).
The National Air and Space Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, also called the NASM, is a museum in Washington, D.C..
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; pronounced, like "Noah") is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.
The National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) is a member of the United States Intelligence Community and an agency of the United States Department of Defense.
National security refers to the security of a nation state, including its citizens, economy, and institutions, and is regarded as a duty of government.
Nautilus-X (Non-Atmospheric Universal Transport Intended for Lengthy United States Exploration) is a multi-mission space exploration vehicle (MMSEV) concept developed by engineers Mark Holderman and Edward Henderson of the Technology Applications Assessment Team of NASA.
The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous – Shoemaker (NEAR Shoemaker), renamed after its 1996 launch in honor of planetary scientist Eugene Shoemaker, was a robotic space probe designed by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory for NASA to study the near-Earth asteroid Eros from close orbit over a period of a year.
A near-Earth object (NEO) is any small Solar System body whose orbit can bring it into proximity with Earth.
Neil Alden Armstrong (August 5, 1930 – August 25, 2012) was an American astronaut and aeronautical engineer who was the first person to walk on the Moon.
Neil deGrasse Tyson (born October 5, 1958) is an American astrophysicist, author, and science communicator.
Neptune is the eighth and farthest known planet from the Sun in the Solar System.
New Horizons is an interplanetary space probe that was launched as a part of NASA's New Frontiers program.
New Horizons 2 (also New Horizons II, NHII, or NH2) was a proposed mission to the trans-Neptunian objects by NASA.
Next Space Technologies for Exploration Partnerships (NextSTEP) is a NASA program using a public-private partnership model that seeks commercial development of deep space exploration capabilities to support more extensive human space flight missions in the Proving Ground around and beyond cislunar space—the space near Earth that extends just beyond the moon.
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.
North American Aviation (NAA) was a major American aerospace manufacturer, responsible for a number of historic aircraft, including the T-6 Texan trainer, the P-51 Mustang fighter, the B-25 Mitchell bomber, the F-86 Sabre jet fighter, the X-15 rocket plane, and the XB-70, as well as Apollo Command and Service Module, the second stage of the Saturn V rocket, the Space Shuttle orbiter and the B-1 Lancer.
The North American X-15 was a hypersonic rocket-powered aircraft operated by the United States Air Force and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration as part of the X-plane series of experimental aircraft.
Opportunity, also known as MER-B (Mars Exploration Rover – B) or MER-1, is a robotic rover active on Mars since 2004.
In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an object, such as the trajectory of a planet around a star or a natural satellite around a planet.
Orbital Sciences Corporation (commonly referred to as Orbital) was an American company specializing in the design, manufacture and launch of small- and medium- class space and rocket systems for commercial, military and other government customers.
The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (Orion MPCV) is an American interplanetary spacecraft intended to carry a crew of four astronauts to destinations at or beyond low Earth orbit (LEO).
The OSIRIS-REx (Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security, Regolith Explorer) is a NASA asteroid study and sample-return mission.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to space science: Space science encompasses all of the scientific disciplines that involve space exploration and study natural phenomena and physical bodies occurring in outer space, such as space medicine and astrobiology.
Space technology is technology developed by space science or the aerospace industry for use in spaceflight, satellites, or space exploration.
Parker Solar Probe (previously Solar Probe, Solar Probe Plus, or Solar Probe+) is a planned NASA robotic spacecraft to probe the outer corona of the Sun.
Pavel Romanovich Popovich (Па́вел Рома́нович Попо́вич, Павло Романович Попович, Pavlo Romanovych Popovych) (October 5, 1930 – September 29, 2009) was a Soviet cosmonaut.
A photovoltaic system, also PV system or solar power system, is a power system designed to supply usable solar power by means of photovoltaics.
Pioneer 10 (originally designated Pioneer F) is an American space probe, launched in 1972 and weighing, that completed the first mission to the planet Jupiter.
Pioneer 11 (also known as Pioneer G) is a robotic space probe launched by NASA on April 6, 1973 to study the asteroid belt, the environment around Jupiter and Saturn, solar wind and cosmic rays.
Pluto (minor planet designation: 134340 Pluto) is a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, a ring of bodies beyond Neptune.
The Premier of the Soviet Union (Глава Правительства СССР) was the head of government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
The Progress (Прогресс) is a Russian expendable cargo spacecraft.
Project Vanguard was a program managed by the United States Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), which intended to launch the first artificial satellite into Earth orbit using a Vanguard rocket as the launch vehicle from Cape Canaveral Missile Annex, Florida.
Proton (Russian: Протон) (formal designation: UR-500) is an expendable launch system used for both commercial and Russian government space launches.
A Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG, RITEG) is an electrical generator that uses an array of thermocouples to convert the heat released by the decay of a suitable radioactive material into electricity by the Seebeck effect.
A reaction control system (RCS) is a spacecraft system that uses thrusters to provide attitude control, and sometimes translation.
Reaction Motors, Inc. (RMI) was an early American maker of liquid-fueled rocket engines, located in New Jersey.
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party.
A request for proposal (RFP) is a document that solicits proposal, often made through a bidding process, by an agency or company interested in procurement of a commodity, service, or valuable asset, to potential suppliers to submit business proposals.
The Review of United States Human Space Flight Plans Committee (also known as the HSF Committee, Augustine Commission or Augustine Committee) was a group reviewing the human spaceflight plans of the United States.
Richard Harrison Truly (born November 12, 1937) is a retired Vice Admiral in the United States Navy, a former fighter pilot, former astronaut for both the United States Air Force and NASA, and was the eighth Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) from 1989 to 1992.
Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974, when he resigned from office, the only U.S. president to do so.
Robert Hutchings Goddard (October 5, 1882 – August 10, 1945) was an American engineer, professor, physicist, and inventor who is credited with creating and building the world's first liquid-fueled rocket.
Robert M. Lightfoot Jr. (born 1963) is an engineer and former Acting Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), serving from January 20, 2017 until April 23, 2018, making him the longest-serving Acting Administrator in NASA history.
Robert Smith Walker (born December 23, 1942) is a former American politician who represented Pennsylvania in the United States House of Representatives as a Republican from 1977 until his retirement in 1997.
A robotic spacecraft is an uncrewed spacecraft, usually under telerobotic control.
A rocket-powered aircraft or rocket plane is an aircraft that uses a rocket engine for propulsion, sometimes in addition to airbreathing jet engines.
Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
The Roscosmos State Corporation for Space Activities (Государственная корпорация по космической деятельности «Роскосмос»), commonly known as Roscosmos (Роскосмос), is a state corporation responsible for the space flight and cosmonautics program for the Russian Federation.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Orbital Segment (ROS) is the name given to the components of the International Space Station (ISS) constructed in Russia and operated by the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos).
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.
Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter.
The Saturn family of American rocket boosters was developed by a team of mostly German rocket scientists led by Wernher von Braun to launch heavy payloads to Earth orbit and beyond.
The Saturn IB (pronounced "one B", also known as the Uprated Saturn I) was an American launch vehicle commissioned by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for the Apollo program.
The Saturn V (pronounced "Saturn five") was an American human-rated expendable rocket used by NASA between 1967 and 1973.
Seismology (from Ancient Greek σεισμός (seismós) meaning "earthquake" and -λογία (-logía) meaning "study of") is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth or through other planet-like bodies.
Sergei Pavlovich Korolev (a,, also transliterated as Sergey Pavlovich Korolyov, Сергій Павлович Корольов Serhiy Pavlovych Korolyov; – 14 January 1966) worked as the lead Soviet rocket engineer and spacecraft designer during the Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union in the 1950s and 1960s.
The Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) are two extensively modified Boeing 747 airliners that NASA used to transport Space Shuttle orbiters.
The Shuttle–Mir Program was a collaborative space program between Russia and the United States, which involved American Space Shuttles visiting the Russian space station Mir, Russian cosmonauts flying on the shuttle, and an American astronaut flying aboard a Soyuz spacecraft to engage in long-duration expeditions aboard Mir.
Skylab was the United States' space station that orbited the Earth from 1973 to 1979, when it fell back to Earth amid huge worldwide media attention.
The Small Explorer program (SMEX) is an effort within NASA to fund space exploration missions that cost no more than.
Soil mechanics is a branch of soil physics and applied mechanics that describes the behavior of soils.
The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) is a NASA mission which has been observing the Sun since 2010.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
The solar wind is a stream of charged particles released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun, called the corona.
The Soviet space program (Russian: Космическая программа СССР, Kosmicheskaya programma SSSR) comprised several of the rocket and space exploration programs conducted by the Soviet Union (USSR) from the 1930s until its collapse in 1991.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Soyuz (Союз, meaning "union", GRAU index 11A511) is a family of expendable launch systems developed by OKB-1 and manufactured by Progress Rocket Space Centre in Samara, Russia.
Soyuz is a series of spacecraft designed for the Soviet space program by the Korolev Design Bureau (now RKK Energia) in the 1960s that remains in service today.
A space capsule is an often manned spacecraft which has a simple shape for the main section, without any wings or other features to create lift during atmospheric reentry.
Space exploration is the discovery and exploration of celestial structures in outer space by means of evolving and growing space technology.
The Space Exploration Initiative was a 1989–1993 space public policy initiative of the George H. W. Bush administration.
The Space Launch System (SLS) is an American Space Shuttle-derived heavy-lift expendable launch vehicle.
The space policy of the Barack Obama administration was announced by U.S. President Barack Obama on April 15, 2010, at a major space policy speech at Kennedy Space Center.
The Space Race refers to the 20th-century competition between two Cold War rivals, the Soviet Union (USSR) and the United States (US), for dominance in spaceflight capability.
A space rendezvous is an orbital maneuver during which two spacecraft, one of which is often a space station, arrive at the same orbit and approach to a very close distance (e.g. within visual contact).
The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), as part of the Space Shuttle program.
On January 28, 1986, the NASA shuttle orbiter mission STS-51-L and the tenth flight of (OV-99) broke apart 73 seconds into its flight, killing all seven crew members, which consisted of five NASA astronauts and two payload specialists.
Space Shuttle Columbia (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-102) was the first space-rated orbiter in NASA's Space Shuttle fleet.
On February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle ''Columbia'' disintegrated upon reentering Earth's atmosphere, killing all seven crew members.
Space Shuttle Endeavour (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-105) is a retired orbiter from NASA's Space Shuttle program and the fifth and final operational shuttle built.
The Aerojet Rocketdyne RS-25, otherwise known as the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME), is a liquid-fuel cryogenic rocket engine that was used on NASA's Space Shuttle and is planned to be used on its successor, the Space Launch System.
The Space Shuttle program was the fourth human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished routine transportation for Earth-to-orbit crew and cargo from 1981 to 2011.
A space station, also known as an orbital station or an orbital space station, is a spacecraft capable of supporting crewmembers, which is designed to remain in space (most commonly as an artificial satellite in low Earth orbit) for an extended period of time and for other spacecraft to dock.
Space Station Freedom was a NASA project to construct a permanently manned Earth-orbiting space station in the 1980s.
A space suit is a garment worn to keep a human alive in the harsh environment of outer space, vacuum and temperature extremes.
Spacelab was a reusable laboratory used on certain spaceflights flown by the Space Shuttle.
A spaceplane is an aerospace vehicle that operates as an aircraft in Earth's atmosphere, as well as a spacecraft when it is in space.
Space Exploration Technologies Corp., doing business as SpaceX, is a private American aerospace manufacturer and space transportation services company headquartered in Hawthorne, California.
Dragon is a reusable spacecraft developed by SpaceX, an American private space transportation company based in Hawthorne, California.
Spirit, also known as MER-A (Mars Exploration Rover – A) or MER-2, is a robotic rover on Mars, active from 2004 to 2010.
Sputnik 1 (or; "Satellite-1", or "PS-1", Простейший Спутник-1 or Prosteyshiy Sputnik-1, "Elementary Satellite 1") was the first artificial Earth satellite.
The Sputnik crisis was a period of public fear and anxiety in Western nations about the perceived technological gap between the United States and Soviet Union caused by the Soviets' launch of Sputnik 1, the world's first artificial satellite.
STEREO (Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory) is a solar observation mission.
STS-107 was the 113th flight of the Space Shuttle program, and the final flight of Space Shuttle ''Columbia''.
STS-31 was the thirty-fifth mission of the American Space Shuttle program, which launched the Hubble Space Telescope astronomical observatory into Earth orbit.
STS-61 was the first Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission, and the fifth flight of the Space Shuttle ''Endeavour''.
Thomas Keith Glennan (September 8, 1905 – April 11, 1995) was the first Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, serving from August 19, 1958 to January 20, 1961.
Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is first robustly defined by Jacob Bigelow in 1829 as: "...principles, processes, and nomenclatures of the more conspicuous arts, particularly those which involve applications of science, and which may be considered useful, by promoting the benefit of society, together with the emolument of those who pursue them".
TechPort is a Technology Portfolio System for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Thomas Otten Paine (November 9, 1921 – May 4, 1992), an American scientist and advocate of Space exploration, was the third Administrator of NASA, serving from March 21, 1969 to September 15, 1970.
The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) is a space telescope for NASA's Explorers program, designed to search for exoplanets using the transit method in an area 400 times larger than that covered by the Kepler mission.
Ulysses is a decommissioned robotic space probe whose primary mission was to orbit the Sun and study it at all latitudes.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
The United States federal executive departments are the primary units of the executive branch of the Federal government of the United States.
The United States Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is the corporate research laboratory for the United States Navy and the United States Marine Corps.
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprise the legislature of the United States.
The United States Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation is a standing committee of the United States Senate.
Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun.
The US Orbital Segment (USOS) is the name given to the components of the International Space Station (ISS) constructed and operated by the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), European Space Agency (ESA), Canadian Space Agency (CSA) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA).
The V-2 (Vergeltungswaffe 2, "Retribution Weapon 2"), technical name Aggregat 4 (A4), was the world's first long-range guided ballistic missile.
The Vehicle (originally Vertical) Assembly Building, or VAB, at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is a building designed to assemble large space vehicles, such as the massive Saturn V and the Space Shuttle.
Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.
Viking 1 was the first of two spacecraft (along with Viking 2) sent to Mars as part of NASA's Viking program.
The Viking 2 mission was part of the American Viking program to Mars, and consisted of an orbiter and a lander essentially identical to that of the Viking 1 mission.
The Voskhod ("Sunrise") was a spacecraft built by the Soviet Union's space program for human spaceflight as part of the Voskhod programme.
Vostok 1 (Восто́к, East or Orient 1) was the first spaceflight of the Vostok programme and the first manned spaceflight in history.
Vostok 3 (Восток-3, Orient 3 or East 3) was a spaceflight of the Soviet space program intended to determine the ability of the human body to function in conditions of weightlessness and test the endurance of the Vostok 3KA spacecraft over longer flights.
Vostok 4 (Восток-4, Orient 4 or East 4) was a mission in the Soviet space program.
The Vostok programme (Восто́к,, Orient or East) was a Soviet human spaceflight project to put the first Soviet citizens into low Earth orbit and return them safely.
Voyager 1 is a space probe launched by NASA on September 5, 1977.
Voyager 2 is a space probe launched by NASA on August 20, 1977, to study the outer planets.
The Voyager program is an American scientific program that employs two robotic probes, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2, to study the outer Solar System.
Wallops Flight Facility (WFF), located on the Eastern Shore of Virginia, United States, approximately north-northeast of Norfolk, is operated by the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, primarily as a rocket launch site to support science and exploration missions for NASA and other Federal agencies.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
"We choose to go to the Moon" is the famous tagline of a speech about the effort to reach the Moon delivered by President John F. Kennedy to a large crowd gathered at Rice Stadium in Houston, Texas on September 12, 1962.
Wernher Magnus Maximilian Freiherr von Braun (March 23, 1912 – June 16, 1977) was a German (and, later, American) aerospace engineer and space architect.
White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) is a U.S. government rocket engine test facility and a resource for testing and evaluating potentially hazardous materials, space flight components, and rocket propulsion systems.
Xenon is a chemical element with symbol Xe and atomic number 54.
Yahoo! Tech is a technology news web site operated by Yahoo!.
Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (p; 9 March 1934 – 27 March 1968) was a Soviet pilot and cosmonaut.
2001 Mars Odyssey is a robotic spacecraft orbiting the planet Mars.
The 2012 National Reconnaissance Office space telescope donation to NASA was the declassification and donation to NASA of two identical space telescopes by the United States National Reconnaissance Office.
American Space Agency, American space program, History of NASA, History of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, N. A. S. A., N.A.S.A, N.A.S.A., NASA Advisory Council, NASA Applied Sciences, NASA Applied Sciences Program, NASA Center for Autonomous Control Engineering, NASA Grand Prize, Nasa, Nasa.gov, National Aeronautic and Space Administration, National Aeronautics & Space Administration, National Aeronautics Space Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Agency, National Aeronautics and Space Association, National American Space Agency, North American Space Agency, Space In Stereo, Space Systems Center, Space programme of the United States, The National Aeronautics and Space Administration, U. S. space program, U.S. Space Program, U.S. space program, US Space Program, US space program, USA National Aeronautics and Space Administration, USA Space Agency, USA Space Program.