376 relations: Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi, Absolute magnitude, Achernar, Age of the universe, Al-Andalus, Al-Biruni, Albert A. Michelson, Algol, Ali ibn Ridwan, Alpha particle, Altair, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek astronomy, Ancient Greek philosophy, Ancient Greek religion, Andromeda Galaxy, Angelo Secchi, Angular diameter, Angular momentum, Annie Jump Cannon, Apparent magnitude, Arabic, Aristyllus, Asterism (astronomy), Astrology, Astronomer, Astronomical spectroscopy, Astronomical unit, Astronomy, Astronomy in the medieval Islamic world, Asymptotic giant branch, Atomic nucleus, Avempace, Babylon, Babylonian astronomy, Babylonian star catalogues, Bad Astronomy, Bayer designation, Beryllium, Beta particle, Betelgeuse, Binary star, Binary system, Binding energy, Black body, Black dwarf, Black hole, Blue dwarf (red-dwarf stage), Blue straggler, Bok globule, ..., Book of Fixed Stars, Brightness, British Library, Brocchi's Cluster, Brown dwarf, Business, Cambridge University Press, Canopus, Carbon, Carbon-12, Carbon-burning process, Catalysis, Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin, Celestial navigation, Celestial spheres, Centimetre–gram–second system of units, Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg, Cepheid variable, Chemical element, Chinese astronomy, Chromium, Chromosphere, Civilization, CNO cycle, Color index, Compact star, Concentration, Conjunction (astronomy), Constellation, Convection, Convection zone, Corona, Coronal loop, Cosmology in medieval Islam, Cosmos Redshift 7, Crab Nebula, Degeneracy, Degenerate matter, Democritus, Density, Deuterium, Disc (galaxy), Doppler effect, Dynamo theory, Earth, Ecliptic, Edmond Halley, Edward Charles Pickering, Effective temperature, Egyptian astronomy, Electromagnetic radiation, Electromagnetic spectrum, Electron capture, Electronvolt, Endothermic process, Epicurus, Epsilon Indi, Eta Carinae, Exoplanet, Fairfield University, Fakhr ad-Din ar-Razi, First magnitude star, Flamsteed designation, Flare star, Flux, Frequency, Friedrich Bessel, Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve, Fuel, G-type main-sequence star, Galactic Center, Galaxy, Gamma ray, Gas giant, 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'Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi (عبدالرحمن صوفی) (December 9, 903 in Rey, Iran – May 25, 986 in Shiraz, Iran) was a Persian astronomer also known as 'Abd ar-Rahman as-Sufi, or 'Abd al-Rahman Abu al-Husayn, 'Abdul Rahman Sufi, 'Abdurrahman Sufi and known in the west as Azophi.
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Absolute magnitude is the measure of intrinsic brightness of a celestial object.
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Achernar (α Eri, α Eridani, Alpha Eridani), sometimes spelled Achenar, is the brightest star in the constellation Eridanus and the tenth-brightest star in the night sky.
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In physical cosmology, the age of the universe is the time elapsed since the Big Bang.
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al-Andalus (الأندلس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Andalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus or Wandalus), also known as Muslim Spain or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim cultural domain and territory occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.
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Abū al-Rayhān Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Bīrūnī (Chorasmian/ابوریحان بیرونی Abū Rayḥān Bērōnī; New Persian: Abū Rayḥān Bīrūnī) (4/5 September 973 – 13 December 1048), known as Al-Biruni (البيروني) in English, was a PersianD.J. Boilot, "Al-Biruni (Beruni), Abu'l Rayhan Muhammad b. Ahmad", in Encyclopaedia of Islam (Leiden), New Ed., vol.1:1236-1238.
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Albert Abraham Michelson (surname pronunciation anglicized as "Michael-son", December 19, 1852 – May 9, 1931) was an American physicist known for his work on the measurement of the speed of light and especially for the Michelson–Morley experiment.
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Algol (Beta Per, β Persei, β Per), known colloquially as the Demon Star, is a bright star in the constellation Perseus.
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Abu'l Hasan Ali ibn Ridwan Al-Misri (c. 988 - c. 1061) was an Egyptian Muslim physician, astrologer and astronomer, born in Giza.
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Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium nucleus.
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Altair (α Aquilae, α Aql) is the brightest star in the constellation Aquila and the twelfth brightest star in the night sky.
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Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (circa 600 AD).
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Greek astronomy is astronomy written in the Greek language in classical antiquity.
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Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BCE and continued throughout the Hellenistic period and the period in which Ancient Greece was part of the Roman Empire.
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Ancient Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs, rituals, and mythology originating in ancient Greece in the form of both popular public religion and cult practices.
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The Andromeda Galaxy, also known as Messier 31, M31, or NGC 224, is a spiral galaxy approximately 780 kiloparsecs (2.5 million light-years) from Earth.
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Pietro Angelo Secchi SJ (29 June 1818 – 26 February 1878) was an Italian astronomer.
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The angular diameter or apparent size is an angular measurement describing how large a sphere or circle appears from a given point of view.
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In physics, angular momentum (rarely, moment of momentum or rotational momentum) is the rotational analog of linear momentum.
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Annie Jump Cannon (December 11, 1863 – April 13, 1941) was an American astronomer whose cataloging work was instrumental in the development of contemporary stellar classification.
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The apparent magnitude (m) of a celestial object is a measure of its brightness as seen by an observer on Earth, adjusted to the value it would have in the absence of the atmosphere.
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Arabic (العَرَبِية, or عربي,عربى) is the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century and its modern descendants excluding Maltese.
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Aristyllus (fl. ca. 261 BC) was a Greek astronomer, presumably of the school of Timocharis (c.300 BC).
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In astronomy, an asterism is a pattern of stars recognized in the Earth's night sky.
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Astrology consists of several pseudoscientific systems of divination based on the premise that there is a relationship between astronomical phenomena and events in the human world.
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An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who studies stars, planets, moons, comets, and galaxies, as well as many other celestial objects.
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Astronomical spectroscopy is the study of astronomy using the techniques of spectroscopy to measure the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, including visible light, which radiates from stars and other hot celestial objects.
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The astronomical unit (symbol au, AU or ua) is a unit of length, roughly the distance from the Earth to the Sun.
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Astronomy is a natural science which is the study of celestial objects (such as stars, galaxies, planets, moons, asteroids, comets and nebulae), the physics, chemistry, and evolution of such objects, and phenomena that originate outside the atmosphere of Earth, including supernovae explosions, gamma ray bursts, and cosmic microwave background radiation.
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Islamic astronomy comprises the astronomical developments made in the Islamic world, particularly during the Islamic Golden Age (8th–15th centuries), and mostly written in the Arabic language.
The asymptotic giant branch is the region of the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram populated by evolving low- to medium-mass stars.
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The nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom.
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Avempace (– 1138) is the Latinate form of Ibn Bâjja (ابن باجه), full name Abû Bakr Muḥammad Ibn Yaḥyà ibn aṣ-Ṣâ’igh at-Tûjîbî Ibn Bâjja al-Tujibi (أبو بكر محمد بن يحيى بن الصائغ), a medieval Andalusian polymath: his writings include works regarding mathematics, astronomy, physics, psychology, and music, as well as logic, philosophy, medicine, botany, and poetry.
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Babylon (Bābili or Babilim; بابل, Bābil) was a significant city in ancient Mesopotamia, in the fertile plain between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.
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According to Asger Aaboe, the origins of Western astronomy can be found in Mesopotamia, and all Western efforts in the exact sciences are descendants in direct line from the work of the late Babylonian astronomers.
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Babylonian astronomy collated earlier observations and divinations into sets of Babylonian star catalogues, during and after the Kassite rule over Babylonia.
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Bad Astronomy: Misconceptions and Misuses Revealed, from Astrology to the Moon Landing "Hoax" is a non-fiction book by the American astronomer Phil Plait, also known as "the Bad Astronomer".
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A Bayer designation is a stellar designation in which a specific star is identified by a Greek letter, followed by the genitive form of its parent constellation's Latin name.
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Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.
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Beta particles are high-energy, high-speed electrons or positrons emitted by certain types of radioactive nuclei, such as potassium-40.
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Betelgeuse, also known by its Bayer designation Alpha Orionis (shortened to α Orionis or α Ori), is the ninth-brightest star in the night sky and second-brightest in the constellation of Orion.
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A binary star is a star system consisting of two stars orbiting around their common center of mass.
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A binary system is a system of two objects in space (usually stars, but also brown dwarfs, planets, galaxies, or asteroids) which are so close that their gravitational interaction causes them to orbit about a common center of mass.
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Binding energy is the energy required to disassemble a whole system into separate parts.
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A black body (also blackbody) is an idealized physical body that absorbs all incident electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or angle of incidence.
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A black dwarf is a white dwarf that has cooled sufficiently that it no longer emits significant heat or light.
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A black hole is a geometrically defined region of spacetime exhibiting such strong gravitational effects that nothing—including particles and electromagnetic radiation such as light—can escape from inside it.
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A blue dwarf is a predicted class of star that develops from a red dwarf after it has exhausted much of its hydrogen fuel supply.
Blue stragglers (BSS) are main-sequence stars in open or globular clusters that are more luminous and bluer than stars at the main-sequence turn-off point for the cluster.
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In astronomy, Bok globules are dark clouds of dense cosmic dust and gas in which star formation sometimes takes place.
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The Book of Fixed Stars (كتاب صور الكواكب) is an astronomical text written by Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi (Azophi) around 964.
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Brightness is an attribute of visual perception in which a source appears to be radiating or reflecting light.
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The British Library is the national library of the United Kingdom and the largest library in the world by number of items catalogued.
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Collinder 399 (Cr 399) is a random grouping of stars located in the constellation Vulpecula near the border with Sagitta.
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Brown dwarfs are substellar objects not massive enough to sustain hydrogen-1 fusion reactions in their cores, unlike main-sequence stars.
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A business, also known as an enterprise or a firm, is an organization involved in the of goods, services, or both to consumers.
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Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
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Canopus (α Car, α Carinae, Alpha Carinae) is the brightest star in the southern constellation of Carina, and the second brightest star in the night-time sky, after Sirius.
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Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
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Carbon-12 is the more abundant carbon of the two stable isotopes, amounting to 98.93% of the element carbon; its abundance is due to the triple-alpha process by which it is created in stars.
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The carbon-burning process or carbon fusion is a set of nuclear fusion reactions that take place in massive stars (at least 8 \beginsmallmatrixM_\odot\endsmallmatrix at birth) that have used up the lighter elements in their cores.
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Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalyst.
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Cecilia Helena Payne-Gaposchkin (May 10, 1900 – December 7, 1979) was a British–American astronomer and astrophysicist who, in 1925, proposed in her Ph.D. thesis an explanation for the composition of stars in terms of the relative abundances of hydrogen and helium.
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Celestial navigation, also known as astronavigation, is the ancient art and science of position fixing that enables a navigator to transition through a space without having to rely on estimated calculations, or dead reckoning, to know their position.
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The celestial spheres, or celestial orbs, were the fundamental entities of the cosmological models developed by Plato, Eudoxus, Aristotle, Ptolemy, Copernicus and others.
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The centimetre–gram–second system of units (abbreviated CGS or cgs) is a variant of the metric system based on the centimetre as the unit of length, the gram as the unit of mass, and the second as the unit of time.
The Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg (CDS; English translation: Strasbourg Astronomical Data Center) is a data hub which collects and distributes astronomical information.
A Cepheid variable is a star that pulsates radially, varying in both temperature and diameter to produce brightness changes with a well-defined stable period and amplitude.
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A chemical element (or element) is a chemical substance consisting of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (i.e. the same atomic number, Z).
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Astronomy in China has a very long history, with historians indicating that the Chinese were the most persistent and accurate observers of celestial phenomena anywhere in the world before the Arabs.
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Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.
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The chromosphere (literally, "sphere of color") is the second of the three main layers in the Sun's atmosphere and is roughly 2,000 kilometers deep.
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A civilization (US) or civilisation (UK) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification, symbolic communication forms (typically, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.
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The CNO cycle (for carbon–nitrogen–oxygen) is one of the two (known) sets of fusion reactions by which stars convert hydrogen to helium, the other being the proton–proton chain reaction.
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In astronomy, the color index is a simple numerical expression that determines the color of an object, which in the case of a star gives its temperature.
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In astronomy, the term compact star (sometimes compact object) is used to refer collectively to white dwarfs, neutron stars, other exotic dense stars, and black holes.
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In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.
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A conjunction occurs when two astronomical objects have either the same right ascension or the same ecliptical longitude, normally when observed from the Earth.
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In modern astronomy, a constellation is a specific area of the celestial sphere as defined by the International Astronomical Union (IAU).
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Convection is the concerted, collective movement of groups or aggregates of molecules within fluids (e.g., liquids, gases) and rheids, through advection or through diffusion or as a combination of both of them.
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The convection zone of a star is the range of radii in which energy is transported primarily by convection.
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A corona (Latin, 'crown') is an aura of plasma that surrounds the sun and other celestial bodies.
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Coronal loops form the basic structure of the lower corona and transition region of the Sun.
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Islamic cosmology refers to cosmology in Islamic societies.
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Cosmos Redshift 7 (also known as COSMOS Redshift 7, Galaxy Cosmos Redshift 7, Galaxy CR7 or CR7) is a high-redshift Lyman-alpha emitter galaxy (meaning CR7 is one of the oldest, most distant galaxies), in the constellation Sextans, about 12.9 billion light travel distance years from Earth, reported to contain the first stars (first generation; Population III)—formed soon after the Big Bang during the reionisation epoch (redshift, z ∼ 6−7), when the Universe was about 800 million years old—to have provided the chemical elements (like oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, calcium and iron) needed for the later formation of planets and life as we know it.
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The Crab Nebula (catalogue designations M1, NGC 1952, Taurus A) is a supernova remnant and pulsar wind nebula in the constellation of Taurus.
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Degeneracy may refer to.
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Degenerate matter in physics is a collection of free, non-interacting particles with a pressure and other physical characteristics determined by quantum mechanical effects.
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Democritus (Δημόκριτος Dēmókritos, meaning "chosen of the people") was an influential Ancient Greek pre-Socratic philosopher primarily remembered today for his formulation of an atomic theory of the universe.
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The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
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Deuterium (symbol or, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen.
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A disc is a component of disc galaxies, such as spiral galaxies, or lenticular galaxies.
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The Doppler effect (or Doppler shift) is the change in frequency of a wave (or other periodic event) for an observer moving relative to its source.
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In physics, the dynamo theory proposes a mechanism by which a celestial body such as Earth or a star generates a magnetic field.
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Earth (also the world, in Greek: Gaia, or in Latin: Terra), is the third planet from the Sun, the densest planet in the Solar System, the largest of the Solar System's four terrestrial planets, and the only astronomical object known to accommodate life.
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The ecliptic is the apparent path of the Sun on the celestial sphere, and is the basis for the ecliptic coordinate system.
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Edmond (or Edmund) Halley, FRS (pronounced; 8 November 1656 – 14 January 1742) was an English astronomer, geophysicist, mathematician, meteorologist, and physicist who is best known for computing the orbit of the eponymous Halley's Comet.
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Edward Charles Pickering (July 19, 1846 – February 3, 1919) was an American astronomer and physicist as well as the older brother of William Henry Pickering.
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The effective temperature of a body such as a star or planet is the temperature of a black body that would emit the same total amount of electromagnetic radiation.
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Egyptian astronomy begins in prehistoric times, in the Predynastic Period.
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Electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) is the radiant energy released by certain electromagnetic processes.
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The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of all possible frequencies of electromagnetic radiation.
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Electron capture (K-electron capture, also K-capture, or L-electron capture, L-capture) is a process in which the proton-rich nucleus of an electrically neutral atom absorbs an inner atomic electron, usually from the K or L electron shell.
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In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV; also written electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately 160 zeptojoules (symbol zJ) or joules (symbol J).
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In thermodynamics, the term endothermic process describes a process or reaction in which the system absorbs energy from its surroundings; usually, but not always, in the form of heat.
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Epicurus (or; Ἐπίκουρος, Epíkouros, "ally, comrade"; 341–270 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher as well as the founder of the school of philosophy called Epicureanism.
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Epsilon Indi (ε Indi, ε Ind) is a star system approximately 12 light-years from Earth in the constellation of Indus consisting of a K-type main-sequence star, ε Indi A, and two brown dwarfs, ε Indi Ba and ε Indi Bb, in a wide orbit around it.
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Eta Carinae (abbreviated to η Carinae or η Car), formerly known as Eta Argus, is a stellar system containing at least two stars with a combined luminosity over five million times that of the Sun, located around 7500 light-years (2300 parsecs) distant in the direction of the constellation Carina.
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An exoplanet or extrasolar planet is a planet that orbits a star other than the Sun.
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Fairfield University is a private, co-educational undergraduate and master's level teaching-oriented university located in Fairfield, Connecticut, in the New England region of the United States.
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Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Umar ibn al-Husayn at-Taymi al-Bakri at-Tabaristani Fakhr ad-Din ar-Razi (Arabic:أبو عبدالله محمد بن عمر بن الحسن بن الحسين بن علي التيمي البكري فخرالدین الرازی), most commonly known as Fakhr ad-Din ar-Razi or Fakhruddin Razi, was a Persian Sunni Muslim theologian and philosopher who wrote in Arabic.
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First magnitude stars are the brightest stars on the night sky.
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Flamsteed designations for stars are similar to Bayer designations, except that they use numbers instead of Greek and Roman letters.
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A flare star is a variable star that can undergo unpredictable dramatic increases in brightness for a few minutes.
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In the various subfields of physics, there exist two common usages of the term flux, each with rigorous mathematical frameworks.
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Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit time.
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Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel (22 July 1784 – 17 March 1846) was a German astronomer, mathematician, physicist and geodesist.
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Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve (Vasily Yakovlevich Struve) (April 15, 1793 – November 23, 1864 (Julian calendar: November 11)) was a German astronomer from a famous dynasty.
Fuels are any materials that store potential energy in forms that can be practicably released and used for work or as heat energy.
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A G-type main-sequence star (Spectral type: G-V), often (and imprecisely) called a yellow dwarf, or G dwarf star, is a main-sequence star (luminosity class V) of spectral type G. Such a star has about 0.8 to 1.2 solar masses and surface temperature of between 5,300 and 6,000 K., G. M. H. J. Habets and J. R. W. Heintze, Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement 46 (November 1981), pp.
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The Galactic Center is the rotational center of the Milky Way.
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A galaxy is a gravitationally bound system of stars, stellar remnants, interstellar gas and dust, and dark matter.
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Gamma radiation, also known as gamma rays, and denoted by the Greek letter γ, refers to electromagnetic radiation of an extremely high frequency and therefore consists of high-energy photons.
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A gas giant is a giant planet composed mainly of hydrogen and helium.
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Geminiano Montanari. Geminiano Montanari (June 1, 1633 – October 13, 1687) was an Italian astronomer, lens-maker, and proponent of the experimental approach to science.
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A giant star is a star with substantially larger radius and luminosity than a main-sequence (or dwarf) star of the same surface temperature.
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Giordano Bruno (Iordanus Brunus Nolanus; 1548 – 17 February 1600), born Filippo Bruno, was an Italian Dominican friar, philosopher, mathematician, poet, and astrologer.
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A globular cluster is a spherical collection of stars that orbits a galactic core as a satellite.
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In mathematics, the gradient is a generalization of the usual concept of derivative of a function in one dimension to a function in several dimensions.
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Gravitational collapse is the inward fall of an astronomical object due to the influence of its own gravity which tends to draw the object toward its center of mass.
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Gravitational microlensing is an astronomical phenomenon due to the gravitational lens effect.
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Gravity or gravitation is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass are brought towards (or 'gravitate' towards) one another including stars, planets, galaxies and even light and sub-atomic particles.
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Greek mythology is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices.
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The Gregorian calendar, also called the Western calendar and the Christian calendar, is internationally the most widely used civil calendar.
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An H II region is a large, low-density cloud of partially ionized gas in which star formation has recently taken place.
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The Hayashi track is a luminosity–temperature relationship obeyed by infant stars of less than in the pre-main-sequence phase of stellar evolution.
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HD 140283, informally nicknamed Methuselah star, is a metal-poor subgiant star about 190 light years away from the Earth in the constellation Libra.
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The heliosphere is the bubble-like region of space dominated by the Sun, which extends far beyond the orbit of Pluto.
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Helium is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
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A helium flash is a very brief thermal runaway nuclear fusion of large quantities of helium into carbon through the triple-alpha process in the core of low mass stars (between 0.8 solar masses and 2.0) during their red giant phase (the Sun is predicted to experience a flash 1.2 billion years after it leaves the main sequence).
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Helium-3 (He-3) is a light, non-radioactive isotope of helium with two protons and one neutron, in contrast with two neutrons in common helium.
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Helium-4 is a non-radioactive isotope of the element helium.
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The Henyey track is a path taken by pre-main-sequence stars with masses >0.5 Solar mass in the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram after the end of Hayashi track.
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A Herbig Ae/Be star (HABe) is a pre-main-sequence star – a young (V. Mannings & A. Sargent (2000) High-resolution studies of gas and dust around young intermediate-mass stars: II. observations of an additional sample of Herbig Ae/Be systems. Astrophysical Journal, vol. 529, p. 391 Hydrogen and calcium emission lines are observed in their spectra. They are 2-8 Solar mass objects, still existing in the star formation (gravitational contraction) stage and approaching the main sequence (i.e. they are not burning hydrogen in their center). In the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram these stars are located to the right of the main sequence. They are named after the American astronomer George Herbig, who first distinguished them from other stars in 1960. The original Herbig criteria were.
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Herbig–Haro (HH) objects are small patches of nebulosity associated with newly born stars, and are formed when narrow jets of gas ejected by young stars collide with clouds of gas and dust nearby at speeds of several hundred kilometres per second.
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The Hertzsprung–Russell diagram, abbreviated H–R diagram or HRD, is a scatter graph of stars showing the relationship between the stars' absolute magnitudes or luminosities versus their spectral classifications or effective temperatures.
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Hipparchus of Nicaea (Ἵππαρχος, Hipparkhos), was a Greek astronomer, geographer, and mathematician.
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The horizontal branch (HB) is a stage of stellar evolution that immediately follows the red giant branch in stars whose masses are similar to the Sun's.
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The human eye is an organ that reacts to light and has several purposes.
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Hydrogen is a chemical element with chemical symbol H and atomic number 1.
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The hydrogen line, 21 centimetre line or HI line refers to the electromagnetic radiation spectral line that is created by a change in the energy state of neutral hydrogen atoms.
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In continuum mechanics, a fluid is said to be in hydrostatic equilibrium or hydrostatic balance when it is at rest, or when the flow velocity at each point is constant over time.
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A hypergiant (luminosity class 0 or Ia+) is a star with an enormous luminosity showing signs of a very high rate of mass loss.
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Infrared (IR) is invisible radiant energy, electromagnetic radiation with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, extending from the nominal red edge of the visible spectrum at 700 nanometers (frequency 430 THz) to 1 mm (300 GHz) (although people can see infrared up to at least 1050 nm in experiments).
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Interferometry is a family of techniques in which waves, usually electromagnetic, are superimposed in order to extract information about the waves.
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The International Astronomical Union (IAU; Union astronomique internationale, UAI) is a collection of professional astronomers, at the PhD level and beyond, active in professional research and education in astronomy.
The International Star Registry (ISR) is a for-profit organization founded in 1979 for the purpose of giving the general public the novelty of unofficially naming stars.
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The International System of Units (Système International d'Unités, SI) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.
In astronomy, the interstellar medium (ISM) is the matter that exists in the space between the star systems in a galaxy.
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Inverse beta decay is a somewhat vague term referring to one of several processes related to beta decay.
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An ion is an atom or a molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving the atom or molecule a net positive or negative electrical charge.
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Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
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Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 164220 March 1726/7) was an English physicist and mathematician (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time and as a key figure in the scientific revolution.
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Isis, a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by University of Chicago Press, focuses on the history of science, history of medicine, and the history of technology, as well as on their cultural influences.
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The Islamic calendar, Muslim calendar or Hijri calendar (AH) is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 months in a year of 354 days.
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Beryllium (Be) has 12 known isotopes, but only one of these isotopes is stable and a primordial nuclide.
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Hydrogen (H) (Standard atomic mass: 1.00794 u) has three naturally occurring isotopes, sometimes denoted 1H, 2H, and 3H.
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In physics, the Jeans instability causes the collapse of interstellar gas clouds and subsequent star formation.
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Johann Bayer (1572 – 7 March 1625) was a German lawyer and uranographer (celestial cartographer).
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John Flamsteed FRS (19 August 1646 – 31 December 1719) was an English astronomer and the first Astronomer Royal.
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Sir John Frederick William Herschel, 1st Baronet (7 March 1792 – 11 May 1871) was an English polymath, mathematician, astronomer, chemist, inventor, and experimental photographer, who in some years also did valuable botanical work.
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Joseph Fraunhofer (6 March 1787 – 7 June 1826), ennobled in 1824 as Ritter von Fraunhofer, was a German optician.
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Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest planet in the Solar System.
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Karl Schwarzschild (October 9, 1873 – May 11, 1916) was a German physicist and astronomer.
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The Kassites were an ancient Near Eastern people who controlled Babylonia after the fall of the Old Babylonian Empire ca.
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The kelvin is a unit of measure for temperature based upon an absolute scale.
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The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is a nearby galaxy, and a satellite of the Milky Way.
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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
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In geography, latitude (φ) is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north-south position of a point on the Earth's surface.
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LBV 1806-20 is a candidate luminous blue variable (LBV) and likely binary star located nearly 40,000 light-years from the Sun, towards the center of the Milky Way.
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Life is a characteristic distinguishing physical entities having biological processes (such as signaling and self-sustaining processes) from those that do not,The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th edition, published by Houghton Mifflin Company, via.
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A light-year (abbreviation: ly), sometimes written light year, is a unit of length used informally to express astronomical distances.
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Limb darkening is an optical effect seen in stars (including the Sun), where the center part of the disk appears brighter than the edge or limb of the image.
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This is a list of traditional Arabic names for stars.
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Below is a list of the largest known stars by radius.
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The following are lists of stars.
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Lithium (from λίθος lithos, "stone") is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.
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The Local Group is the galaxy group that includes the Milky Way.
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Logarithmic units are abstract mathematical units that can be used to express any quantities (physical or mathematical) that are defined on a logarithmic scale, that is, as being proportional to the value of a logarithm function.
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In astronomy, luminosity is the total amount of energy emitted by a star, galaxy, or other astronomical object per unit time.
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A lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes directly behind the Earth into its umbra (shadow).
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Luyten 726-8, also known as Gliese 65, is a binary star system that is one of Earth's nearest neighbors, at about 8.7 light years from Earth in the constellation Cetus.
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A magnetic field is the magnetic effect of electric currents and magnetic materials.
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In astronomy, the main sequence is a continuous and distinctive band of stars that appears on plots of stellar color versus brightness.
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Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second smallest planet in the Solar System, after Mercury.
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In physics, mass–energy equivalence is the concept that the mass of an object or system is a measure of its energy content.
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The Maunder Minimum, also known as the "prolonged sunspot minimum", is the name used for the period starting in about 1645 and continuing to about 1715 when sunspots became exceedingly rare, as noted by solar observers of the time.
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Mercury is the smallest and closest to the Sun of the eight planets in the Solar System, with an orbital period of about 88 Earth days.
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Mesopotamia (from the Μεσοποταμία " between rivers"; بلاد الرافدين bilād ar-rāfidayn; میانرودان miyān rodān; ܒܝܬ ܢܗܪܝܢ Beth Nahrain "land of rivers") is a name for the area of the Tigris–Euphrates river system, corresponding to modern-day Iraq, Kuwait, the northeastern section of Syria, as well as parts of southeastern Turkey and of southwestern Iran.
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In astronomy and physical cosmology, the metallicity or Z, is the fraction of mass of a star or other kind of astronomical object, beyond hydrogen (X) and helium (Y).
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The Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our Solar System.
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A minute of arc (MOA), arcminute (arcmin) or minute arc is a unit of angular measurement equal to one-sixtieth of one degree.
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Mira variables, named after the prototype star Mira, are a class of pulsating variable stars characterized by very red colours, pulsation periods longer than 100 days, and amplitudes greater than one magnitude in infrared and 2.5 magnitude at visual wavelengths.
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Mizar and Alcor form a naked eye double star in the handle of the Big Dipper asterism in the constellation Ursa Major.
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A molecular cloud, sometimes called a stellar nursery (if star formation is occurring within), is a type of interstellar cloud, the density and size of which permit the formation of molecules, most commonly molecular hydrogen (H2).
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Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in astronomy and astrophysics.
The Moon (in Greek: Selene, in Latin: Luna) is Earth's only natural satellite.
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The Mount Wilson Observatory (MWO) is an astronomical observatory in Los Angeles County, California, United States.
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Mu Leonis (μ Leo, μ Leonis) is a star in the constellation Leo.
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Mythology is a collection of myths, especially one belonging to a particular religious or cultural tradition of a group of people–their collection of stories they tell to explain nature, history, and customs–or the study of such myths.
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This article lists and discusses the usage and derivation of names of large numbers, together with their possible extensions.
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A nebula (Latin for "cloud"; pl. nebulae, nebulæ, or nebulas) is an interstellar cloud of dust, hydrogen, helium and other ionized gases.
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Neon is a chemical element with symbol Ne and atomic number 10.
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The neon-burning process is a set of nuclear fusion reactions that take place in massive stars (at least 8 Solar masses).
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Neptune is the eighth and farthest planet from the Sun in the Solar System.
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A neutrino (or, in Italian) is an electrically neutral elementary particle with half-integer spin.
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A neutron star is a type of compact star that can result from the gravitational collapse of a massive star after a supernova.
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The New York City Department of Consumer Affairs (DCA) is the department of the Government of New York City responsible for enforcing the city's consumer protection laws, licensing businesses, dealing with consumer complaints, and participating in consumer education.
NGC 6397, also known as Caldwell 86, is a globular cluster in the constellation Ara.
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The term night sky refers to the sky as seen at night.
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A nova (plural novae or novas) is a cataclysmic nuclear explosion on a white dwarf, which causes a sudden brightening of the star.
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In mathematics, the nth root of a number x, where n is a positive integer, is a number r which, when raised to the power n yields x where n is the degree of the root.
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In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).
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In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a nuclear reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come very close and then collide at a very high speed and join to form a new nucleus.
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The observable universe consists of the galaxies and other matter that can, in principle, be observed from Earth at the present time because light and other signals from these objects has had time to reach the Earth since the beginning of the cosmological expansion.
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An observatory is a location used for observing terrestrial or celestial events.
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An occultation is an event that occurs when one object is hidden by another object that passes between it and the observer.
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Omicron Velorum (ο Vel, ο Velorum) is a star in the constellation Vela.
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Opacity is the measure of impenetrability to electromagnetic or other kinds of radiation, especially visible light.
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An open cluster, also known as galactic cluster, is a group of up to a few thousand stars that were formed from the same giant molecular cloud and have roughly the same age.
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In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved path of an object around a point in space, for example the orbit of a planet around the center of a star system, such as the Solar System.
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Orbital elements are the parameters required to uniquely identify a specific orbit.
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Orion is a prominent constellation located on the celestial equator and visible throughout the world.
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The Orion Nebula (also known as Messier 42, M42, or NGC 1976) is a diffuse nebula situated in the Milky Way, being south of Orion's Belt in the constellation of Orion.
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Outer space, or just space, is the void that exists between celestial bodies, including the Earth.
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The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to astronomy: Astronomy – studies the universe beyond Earth, including its formation and development, and the evolution, physics, chemistry, meteorology, and motion of celestial objects (such as galaxies, planets, etc.) and phenomena that originate outside the atmosphere of Earth (such as the cosmic background radiation).
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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
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The oxygen-burning process is a set of nuclear fusion reactions that take place in massive stars that have used up the lighter elements in their cores.
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Parallax is a displacement or difference in the apparent position of an object viewed along two different lines of sight, and is measured by the angle or semi-angle of inclination between those two lines.
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Particle radiation is the radiation of energy by means of fast-moving subatomic particles.
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In astrophysics, peculiar stars have distinctly unusual metal abundances, at least in their surface layers.
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The Persian people (Persian: پارسیان) are an Iranian people who speak the modern Persian language and closely related Iranian dialects and languages.
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The photoelectric effect is the observation that many metals emit electrons when light shines upon them.
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A photograph or photo is an image created by light falling on a light-sensitive surface, usually photographic film or an electronic medium such as a CCD or a CMOS chip.
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Before the advent of photometers which accurately measure the brightness of astronomical objects, the apparent magnitude of an object was obtained by taking a picture of it with a camera.
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A photometer, generally, is an instrument that measures light intensity or optical properties of solutions or surfaces.
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The photosphere is a star's outer shell from which light is radiated.
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Planck was a space observatory operated by the European Space Agency (ESA) from 2009 to 2013, which mapped the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at microwave and infra-red frequencies, with high sensitivity and small angular resolution.
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A planet is an astronomical object orbiting a star, brown dwarf, or stellar remnant that.
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A planetary nebula, often abbreviated as PN or plural PNe, is a kind of emission nebula consisting of an expanding glowing shell of ionized gas ejected from old red giant stars late in their lives.
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A planetary system is a set of gravitationally bound non-stellar objects in orbit around a star or star system.
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Plasma (from Greek πλάσμα, "anything formed") is one of the four fundamental states of matter, the others being solid, liquid, and gas.
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A polymath (πολυμαθής,, "having learned much")The term was first recorded in written English in the early seventeenth century is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas; such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems.
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The positron or antielectron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron.
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In physics, power is the rate of doing work.
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A pre-main-sequence star (also known as a PMS star and PMS object) is a star in the stage when it has not yet reached the main sequence.
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In atmospheric sciences (meteorology, climatology and related fields), the pressure gradient (typically of air, more generally of any fluid) is a physical quantity that describes which direction and at what rate the pressure changes the most rapidly around a particular location.
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Procyon (α CMi, α Canis Minoris, Alpha Canis Minoris) is the brightest star in the constellation Canis Minor.
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Proper motion is the astronomical measure of the observed changes in apparent positions of stars in the sky as seen from the center of mass of the Solar System, as compared to the imaginary fixed background of the more distant stars.
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The proton–proton chain reaction is one of two nuclear fusion reactions, along with the CNO cycle, by which stars convert hydrogen to helium and which dominates in stars the size of the Sun or smaller.
A protoplanetary disk is a rotating circumstellar disk of dense gas surrounding a young newly formed star, a T Tauri star, or Herbig Ae/Be star.
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A protostar is a large mass that forms by contraction out of the gas of a giant molecular cloud in the interstellar medium.
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Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos,; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Egyptian writer of Alexandria, known as a mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
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A pulsar (short for pulsating radio star) is a highly magnetized, rotating neutron star that emits a beam of electromagnetic radiation.
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Quark matter or QCD matter refers to any of a number of theorized phases of matter whose degrees of freedom include quarks and gluons.
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Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, or quantum theory), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental branch of physics concerned with processes involving, for example, atoms and photons.
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Questia is an online commercial digital library of books and articles that has an academic orientation, with a particular emphasis on books and journal articles in the humanities and social sciences.
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R Doradus (HD 29712 or P Doradus) is the name of a red giant Mira variable star in the far-southern constellation Dorado, although visually it appears more closely associated with the constellation Reticulum.
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R136 (formally known as RMC 136 from the Radcliffe Observatory Magellanic Clouds catalogue) is the central concentration of stars in the NGC 2070 star cluster, which lies at the centre of the Tarantula Nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud.
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The radial velocity of an object with respect to a given point is the rate of change of the distance between the object and the point.
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In radiometry, radiant energy is the energy of electromagnetic radiation.
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In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.
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Radiation pressure is the pressure exerted upon any surface exposed to electromagnetic radiation.
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The radiation zone or radiative zone is a layer of a star's interior where energy is primarily transported toward the exterior by means of radiative diffusion, rather than by convection.
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Radio frequency (RF): any of the electromagnetic wave frequencies that lie in the range extending from around to, which include those frequencies used for communications or radar signals.
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In classical geometry, the radius of a circle or sphere is the length of a line segment from its center to its perimeter.
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A rare earth element (REE) or rare earth metal (REM), as defined by IUPAC, is one of a set of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the fifteen lanthanides, as well as scandium and yttrium.
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The red clump is a feature in the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram of stars.
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A red dwarf is a small and relatively cool star on the main sequence, either late K or M spectral type.
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A red giant is a luminous giant star of low or intermediate mass (roughly 0.3–8 solar masses) in a late phase of stellar evolution.
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Red supergiants (RSGs) are supergiant stars (luminosity class I) of spectral type K or M. They are the largest stars in the universe in terms of volume, although they are not the most massive.
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Refraction is the change in direction of propagation of a wave due to a change in its transmission medium.
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A regulation is a legal norm intended to shape conduct that is a byproduct of imperfection.
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Richard Bentley (27 January 1662 – 14 July 1742) was an English classical scholar, critic, and theologian.
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Rigel, also known by its Bayer designation Beta Orionis (β Ori, β Orionis), is the brightest star in the constellation Orion and the seventh brightest star in the night sky, with visual magnitude 0.13.
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Right ascension (abbreviated RA; symbol α) is the angular distance measured eastward along the celestial equator from the vernal equinox to the hour circle of the point in question.
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Roald Hoffmann (born Roald Safran; July 18, 1937) is an American theoretical chemist who won the 1981 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
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Roman mythology is the body of traditional stories pertaining to ancient Rome's legendary origins and religious system, as represented in the literature and visual arts of the Romans.
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A rotation is a circular movement of an object around a center (or point) of rotation.
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Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter.
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The second (symbol: s) (abbreviated s or sec) is the base unit of time in the International System of Units (SI).
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In geometry, the major axis of an ellipse is its longest diameter: a line segment that runs through the center and both foci, with ends at the widest points of the perimeter.
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Sherburne Wesley Burnham (December 12, 1838 – March 11, 1921) was an American astronomer.
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A shock wave is a type of propagating disturbance.
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Sidereal time is a time-keeping system astronomers use to keep track of the direction to point their telescopes to view a given star in the night sky.
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Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
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In astrophysics, silicon burning is a very brief sequence of nuclear fusion reactions that occur in massive stars with a minimum of about 8–11 solar masses.
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Sirius is the brightest star (in fact, a star system) in the Earth's night sky.
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SN 1006 was a supernova, widely seen on Earth beginning in the year 1006; the Earth was about 7,200 light-years away from the supernova.
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SN 1054 is a supernova that was first observed on 4 July 1054 A.D. (hence its name), and that lasted for a period of around two years.
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SN 185 (aka RCW 86) was a supernova which appeared in the year AD 185, near the direction of Alpha Centauri, between the constellations Circinus and Centaurus, centered at RA Dec, in Circinus.
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A solar calendar is a calendar whose dates indicate the position of Earth on its revolution around the Sun or, equivalently, the apparent position of the sun moving on the celestial sphere.
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As seen from the Earth, a solar eclipse is a type of eclipse that occurs when the Moon passes between the Sun and Earth, and the Moon fully or partially blocks ("occults") the Sun.
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A solar flare is a sudden flash of brightness observed near the Sun's surface.
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The solar luminosity,, is a unit of radiant flux (power emitted in the form of photons) conventionally used by astronomers to measure the luminosity of stars.
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The solar mass is a standard unit of mass in astronomy that is used to indicate the masses of other stars, as well as clusters, nebulae and galaxies.
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Solar radius is a unit of distance used to express the size of stars in astronomy equal to the current radius of the Sun: The solar radius is approximately 695,500 kilometres (432,450 miles), which is about 10 times the average radius of Jupiter, 110 times the radius of the Earth, and 1/215th of an astronomical unit, the distance of Earth from the Sun.
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The solar wind is a stream of charged particles released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun.
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The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).
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A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from emission or absorption of light in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies.
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Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.
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In solar physics, a spicule is a dynamic jet of about 500 km diameter in the chromosphere of the Sun.
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A spiral galaxy is a certain kind of galaxy originally described by Edwin Hubble in his 1936 work The Realm of the Nebulae(pp. 124–151) and, as such, forms part of the Hubble sequence.
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The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely-accessible to internet users.
A star catalogue, or star catalog, is an astronomical catalogue that lists stars.
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A star chart or star map is a map of the night sky.
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A star clock (or nocturnal) is a method of using the stars to determine the time.
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Star clusters or star clouds are groups of stars.
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Star counts are bookkeeping surveys of stars and the statistical and geometrical methods used to correct the survey data for bias.
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Star formation is the process by which dense regions within molecular clouds in interstellar space, sometimes referred to as "stellar nurseries" or "star-forming regions", collapse to form stars.
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A star system or stellar system is a small number of stars that orbit each other, bound by gravitational attraction.
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A starburst galaxy is a galaxy undergoing an exceptionally high rate of star formation, as compared to the long-term average rate of star formation in the galaxy or the star formation rate observed in most other galaxies.
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The planetary systems of stars other than the Sun and the Solar System are a staple element in much science fiction.
Starspots are the equivalent of sunspots located on other stars.
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The stellar atmosphere is the outer region of the volume of a star, lying above the stellar core, radiation zone and convection zone.
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In astronomy, stellar classification is the classification of stars based on their spectral characteristics.
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Designations of stars (and other celestial bodies) is mediated by the International Astronomical Union (IAU).
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Stellar dynamics is the branch of astrophysics which describes in a statistical way the collective motions of stars subject to their mutual gravity.
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Stellar evolution is the process by which a star changes during its lifetime.
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Stellar kinematics is the study of the movement of stars without needing to understand how they acquired their motion.
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Stellar mass is a phrase that is used by astronomers to describe the mass of a star.
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Stellar nucleosynthesis is the process by which the natural abundances of the chemical elements within stars vary due to nuclear fusion reactions in the cores and overlying mantles of stars.
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In 1944, Walter Baade categorized groups of stars within the Milky Way from their spectra.
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A stellar wind is a flow of gas ejected from the upper atmosphere of a star.
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Students for the Exploration and Development of Space (SEDS) is an international student organization whose purpose is to promote space exploration and development through educational and engineering projects.
The Sun (in Greek: Helios, in Latin: Sol) is the star at the center of the Solar System and is by far the most important source of energy for life on Earth.
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Sunspots are temporary phenomena on the photosphere of the Sun that appear visibly as dark spots compared to surrounding regions.
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Supergiants are among the most massive and most luminous stars.
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A supernova is a stellar explosion that briefly outshines an entire galaxy, radiating as much energy as the Sun or any ordinary star is expected to emit over its entire life span, before fading from view over several weeks or months.
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Supernova nucleosynthesis is a theory of the production of many different chemical elements in supernova explosions, first advanced by Fred Hoyle in 1954.
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A supernova remnant (SNR) is the structure resulting from the explosion of a star in a supernova.
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The surface gravity, g, of an astronomical or other object is the gravitational acceleration experienced at its surface.
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T Tauri stars (TTS) are a class of variable stars named after their prototype – T Tauri.
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The Astrophysical Journal, often abbreviated ApJ (pronounced "ap jay") in references and speech, is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of astrophysics, established in 1895 by American astronomers George Ellery Hale and James Edward Keeler.
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The New York Times (NYT) is an American daily newspaper, founded and continuously published in New York City since September 18, 1851, by the New York Times Company.
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Two physical systems are in thermal equilibrium if no heat flows between them when they are connected by a path permeable to heat.
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Thermonuclear fusion is a way to achieve nuclear fusion by using extremely high temperatures.
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Timocharis of Alexandria (Τιμόχαρις; c. 320 – 260 BC) was a Greek astronomer and philosopher.
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The triple-alpha process is a set of nuclear fusion reactions by which three helium-4 nuclei (alpha particles) are transformed into carbon.
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"Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star" is a popular English lullaby.
Twinkling, or scintillation, is a generic term for variations in apparent brightness or position of a distant luminous object viewed through a medium.
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Tycho Brahe, born Tyge Ottesen Brahe (14 December 154624 October 1601), was a Danish nobleman known for his accurate and comprehensive astronomical and planetary observations.
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Ultraviolet (UV) light is an electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 400 nm to 100 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
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Unfair business practices encompass fraud, misrepresentation, and oppressive or unconscionable acts or practices by business, often against consumers and are prohibited by law in many countries.
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The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the U.S. state of California.
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Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun.
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A vacuum chamber is a rigid enclosure from which air and other gases are removed by a vacuum pump.
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Vega (α Lyr, α Lyrae, Alpha Lyrae) is the brightest star in the constellation Lyra, the fifth brightest star in the night sky and the second brightest star in the northern celestial hemisphere, after Arcturus.
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Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.
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The Virgo Cluster (VC) is a cluster of galaxies whose center is 53.8 ± 0.3 Mly (16.5 ± 0.1 Mpc) away in the constellation Virgo.
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The Virgo Supercluster (Virgo SC) or the Local Supercluster (LSC or LS) is a mass concentration of galaxies that contains the Virgo Cluster in addition to the Local Group, which in turn contains the Milky Way and Andromeda Galaxies.
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In physics, the wavelength of a sinusoidal wave is the spatial period of the wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats, and the inverse of the spatial frequency.
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A white dwarf, also called a degenerate dwarf, is a stellar remnant composed mostly of electron-degenerate matter.
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Frederick William Herschel, KH, FRS (German: Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel; 15 November 1738 – 25 August 1822) was a German-born British astronomer, composer, and brother of Caroline Herschel.
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Wolf–Rayet stars (often referred to as WR stars) are a heterogeneous set of stars with unusual spectra showing prominent broad emission lines of highly ionised helium and nitrogen or carbon.
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X-radiation (composed of X-rays) is a form of electromagnetic radiation.
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X-ray bursters are one class of X-ray binary stars exhibiting periodic and rapid increases in luminosity (typically a factor of 10 or greater) that peak in the X-ray regime of the electromagnetic spectrum.
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Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
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Zīj (زيج) is the generic name applied to Islamic astronomical books that tabulate parameters used for astronomical calculations of the positions of the Sun, Moon, stars, and planets.
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14 Herculis or 14 Her is a K-type main-sequence star approximately 57 light-years away in the constellation Hercules.
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2MASS J0523-1403 is a very-low-mass red dwarf about 40 light years from Earth in the southern constellation of Lepus.
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61 Cygni Not to be confused with 16 Cygni, a more distant system containing two G-type stars harboring the gas giant planet 16 Cygni Bb.
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