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Open access

Index Open access

Open access (OA) refers to research outputs which are distributed online and free of cost or other barriers, and possibly with the addition of a Creative Commons license to promote reuse. [1]

150 relations: Aaron Swartz, Academic institution, Academic journal, Academic publishing, Access to Knowledge movement, African Journals OnLine, Altmetrics, Amateur astronomy, American Library Association, Article processing charge, ArXiv, Association of College and Research Libraries, Association of Research Libraries, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Attribution (copyright), Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society, Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities, Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing, Bioline International, BioMed Central, Blog, BMC Medicine, Budapest Open Access Initiative, Business model, Canada, Canadian Association of Research Libraries, Canadian Library Association, Citation impact, Citation index, CiteSeerX, Civil service, Copyright, Copyright Clearance Center, Copyright policies of academic publishers, Creative Commons, Creative Commons license, Darenet, Delayed open-access journal, Developing country, Digital rights, Directory of Open Access Journals, Disciplinary repository, Dutch universities, Elsevier, Embargo (academic publishing), European Commission, Fast Company (magazine), File Transfer Protocol, Funding of science, FUTON bias, ..., Global Open Access Forum, Google Scholar, Grant (money), Gratis versus libre, Health care, HINARI, Hindawi Publishing Corporation, Hybrid open-access journal, Impact factor, Index Copernicus, Information Today, Inc., Institutional repository, Interlibrary loan, International Mathematical Union, International Standard Serial Number, Internet, James Madison Award, Journal of Library Administration, Journalist, Junior college, Knowledge Unlatched, Laity, Latin America, Learned society, Librarian, Library publishing, List of open-access journals, List of open-access projects, Max Planck Society, Mega journal, Mental health professional, MIT Press, Modern Language Association, Monograph, NIH Public Access Policy, Nonprofit organization, OAIster, Open access, Open Access Button, Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association, Open Access Week, Open Archives Initiative, Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting, Open content, Open data, Open Journal Systems, Open publishing, Open-access mandate, Open-access monograph, Open-access repository, Open-source appropriate technology, Open-source model, Open-source software, Overlay journal, Pay-per-view, Peer review, PeerJ, Peter Suber, PLOS, PLOS Biology, PLOS One, Politician, Postprint, Predatory open-access publishing, Preprint, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Professional, Public domain, Public Knowledge, Public Knowledge Project, Publishing, PubMed Central, Redalyc, Registry of Open Access Repositories, Research, Research Papers in Economics, Right to Internet access, SAGE Publications, Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition, Sci-Hub, SciELO, Scientific journal, Scopus, Self-archiving, Serials crisis, SHERPA/RoMEO, Simmons College, Stevan Harnad, Subscription business model, Subversive Proposal, Sustainable development, The FASEB Journal, Thesis, Total cost, UNESCO, University, Web search engine, Who's Afraid of Peer Review?, World Health Organization, World Wide Web. Expand index (100 more) »

Aaron Swartz

Aaron Hillel Swartz (November 8, 1986January 11, 2013) was an American computer programmer, entrepreneur, writer, political organizer, and Internet hacktivist.

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Academic institution

Academic institution is an educational institution dedicated to education and research, which grants academic degrees.

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Academic journal

An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published.

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Academic publishing

Academic publishing is the subfield of publishing which distributes academic research and scholarship.

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Access to Knowledge movement

The Access to Knowledge (A2K) movement is a loose collection of civil society groups, governments, and individuals converging on the idea that access to knowledge should be linked to fundamental principles of justice, freedom, and economic development.

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African Journals OnLine

African Journals OnLine (AJOL) is a South African non-profit organisation dedicated to improving the online visibility of and access to the published scholarly research of African-based academics.

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Altmetrics

In scholarly and scientific publishing, altmetrics are non-traditional bibliometrics proposed as an alternative or complement to more traditional citation impact metrics, such as impact factor and ''h''-index.

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Amateur astronomy

Amateur astronomy is a hobby whose participants enjoy observing or imaging celestial objects in the sky using the unaided eye, binoculars, or telescopes.

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American Library Association

The American Library Association (ALA) is a nonprofit organization based in the United States that promotes libraries and library education internationally.

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Article processing charge

An article processing charge (APC), also known as a publication fee, is a fee which is sometimes charged to authors to make a work available open access in either an open access journal or hybrid journal.

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ArXiv

arXiv (pronounced "archive") is a repository of electronic preprints (known as e-prints) approved for publication after moderation, that consists of scientific papers in the fields of mathematics, physics, astronomy, computer science, quantitative biology, statistics, and quantitative finance, which can be accessed online.

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Association of College and Research Libraries

The Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL), a division of the American Library Association, is a professional association of academic librarians and other interested individuals.

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Association of Research Libraries

The Association of Research Libraries (ARL) is a nonprofit organization of 125 research libraries at comprehensive, research institutions in the United States and Canada that share similar missions, aspirations, and achievements.

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Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics

Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics is an open access peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the European Geosciences Union.

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Attribution (copyright)

Attribution in copyright law, is acknowledgement as credit to the copyright holder or author of a work.

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Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society

The Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society is a research center at Harvard University that focuses on the study of cyberspace.

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Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities

The Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities is an international statement on open access and access to knowledge.

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Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing

The Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing is a 2003 statement which defines the concept of open access and then supports that concept.

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Bioline International

Bioline International is a non-profit cooperative that operates an online platform for sharing works by peer-reviewed open access bioscience journals published in developing countries in Africa, Asia, and South America.

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BioMed Central

BioMed Central (BMC) is a United Kingdom-based, for-profit scientific open access publisher.

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Blog

A blog (a truncation of the expression "weblog") is a discussion or informational website published on the World Wide Web consisting of discrete, often informal diary-style text entries ("posts").

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BMC Medicine

BMC Medicine is a peer-reviewed electronic-only medical journal published since 2003 by BioMed Central which is part of Springer Nature.

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Budapest Open Access Initiative

The Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI) is a public statement of principles relating to open access to the research literature, which was released to the public February 14, 2002.

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Business model

A business model describes the rationale of how an organization creates, delivers, and captures value,Business Model Generation, Alexander Osterwalder, Yves Pigneur, Alan Smith, and 470 practitioners from 45 countries, self-published, 2010 in economic, social, cultural or other contexts.

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Canada

Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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Canadian Association of Research Libraries

The Canadian Association of Research Libraries (CARL) was established in 1976 and brings together thirty-one research libraries.

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Canadian Library Association

The Canadian Library Association (CLA) was a national, predominantly English-language association which represented 57,000 library workers across Canada.

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Citation impact

Citation impact quantifies the citation usage of scholarly works.

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Citation index

A citation index is a kind of bibliographic index, an index of citations between publications, allowing the user to easily establish which later documents cite which earlier documents.

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CiteSeerX

x or CiteSeerX but DISPLAYTITLE only allows changing an initial letter to lower case --> CiteSeerx (originally called CiteSeer) is a public search engine and digital library for scientific and academic papers, primarily in the fields of computer and information science.

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Civil service

The civil service is independent of government and composed mainly of career bureaucrats hired on professional merit rather than appointed or elected, whose institutional tenure typically survives transitions of political leadership.

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Copyright

Copyright is a legal right, existing globally in many countries, that basically grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights to determine and decide whether, and under what conditions, this original work may be used by others.

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Copyright Clearance Center

Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) is a U.S. company based in Danvers, Massachusetts, (although it is incorporated in New York State), that provides collective copyright licensing services for corporate and academic users of copyrighted materials.

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Copyright policies of academic publishers

This is a list of the different copyright policies of academic publishers.

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Creative Commons

Creative Commons (CC) is an American non-profit organization devoted to expanding the range of creative works available for others to build upon legally and to share.

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Creative Commons license

A Creative Commons (CC) license is one of several public copyright licenses that enable the free distribution of an otherwise copyrighted work.

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Darenet

DAREnet (2003 - 2007) stands for Digital Academic Repositories and is an initiative by the Dutch organisation Surf.

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Delayed open-access journal

Delayed open-access journals are traditional subscription-based journals that provide free online access upon the expiry of an embargo period following the initial publication date.

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Developing country

A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.

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Digital rights

The term digital rights describes the human rights that allow individuals to access, use, create, and publish digital media or to access and use computers, other electronic devices, or communications networks.

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Directory of Open Access Journals

The Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) is a website that lists open access journals and is maintained by Infrastructure Services for Open Access (IS4OA).

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Disciplinary repository

A disciplinary repository (or subject repository) is an online archive containing works or data associated with these works of scholars in a particular subject area.

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Dutch universities

Dutch universities are supported by state funding (with the exception of University Nyenrode) so that universities do not have to rely on private funding to facilitate tuition.

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Elsevier

Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.

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Embargo (academic publishing)

In academic publishing, an embargo is a period during which access to academic journals is not allowed to users who have not paid for access (or have access through their institution).

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European Commission

The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.

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Fast Company (magazine)

Fast Company is a monthly American business magazine published in print and online that focuses on technology, business, and design.

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File Transfer Protocol

The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used for the transfer of computer files between a client and server on a computer network.

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Funding of science

Research funding is a term generally covering any funding for scientific research, in the areas of both "hard" science and technology and social science.

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FUTON bias

FUTON bias is a term for the tendency of scholars to cite academic journals with open access—that is, journals that make their full text available on the Internet without charge—in preference to toll-access publications.

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Global Open Access Forum

The Global Open Access List (GOAL), until January 2012 the American Scientist Open Access Forum, is the longest-standing online discussion forum on Open Access (free online access to peer-reviewed research).

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Google Scholar

Google Scholar is a freely accessible web search engine that indexes the full text or metadata of scholarly literature across an array of publishing formats and disciplines.

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Grant (money)

Grants are non-repayable funds or products disbursed or gifted by one party (grant makers), often a government department, corporation, foundation or trust, to a recipient, often (but not always) a nonprofit entity, educational institution, business or an individual.

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Gratis versus libre

The English adjective free is commonly used in one of two meanings: "for free" (gratis) and "with little or no restriction" (libre).

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Health care

Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings.

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HINARI

HINARI Access to Research in Health Programme was set up by the World Health Organization and major publishers to enable developing countries to access collections of biomedical and health literature.

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Hindawi Publishing Corporation

Hindawi Publishing Corporation is a commercial publisher of scientific, technical, and medical (STM) literature.

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Hybrid open-access journal

A hybrid open-access journal is a subscription journal in which some of the articles are open access.

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Impact factor

The impact factor (IF) or journal impact factor (JIF) of an academic journal is a measure reflecting the yearly average number of citations to recent articles published in that journal.

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Index Copernicus

Index Copernicus (IC) is an online database of user-contributed information, including scientist profiles, as well as of scientific institutions, publications and projects established in 1999 in Poland, and operated by Index Copernicus International.

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Information Today, Inc.

Information Today, Inc. (ITI) is the publisher of several Internet and Technology magazines, newsletters and books all geared toward the library, information & knowledge management community.

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Institutional repository

An institutional repository is an archive for collecting, preserving, and disseminating digital copies of the intellectual output of an institution, particularly a research institution.

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Interlibrary loan

Interlibrary loan (abbreviated ILL, and sometimes called interloan, interlending, document delivery, or document supply) is a service whereby a patron of one library can borrow books, DVDs, music, etc.

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International Mathematical Union

The International Mathematical Union (IMU) is an international non-governmental organization devoted to international cooperation in the field of mathematics across the world.

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International Standard Serial Number

An International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication.

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Internet

The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.

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James Madison Award

The James Madison Award is administered by the American Library Association, which describes the award: The award named for President James Madison was established in 1989 and is presented annually on the anniversary of his birth to honor individuals or groups who have championed, protected and promoted public access to government information and the public’s right to know at the national level.

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Journal of Library Administration

The Journal of Library Administration is a peer-reviewed academic journal that covers library management.

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Journalist

A journalist is a person who collects, writes, or distributes news or other current information to the public.

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Junior college

A junior college is a post-secondary educational institution designed to prepare students for either skilled trades or for additional education at another college with more advanced academic material.

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Knowledge Unlatched

Knowledge Unlatched (KU) is an award-winning open access service provider registered as GmbH in Berlin, Germany.

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Laity

A layperson (also layman or laywoman) is a person who is not qualified in a given profession and/or does not have specific knowledge of a certain subject.

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Latin America

Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.

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Learned society

A learned society (also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic association) is an organisation that exists to promote an academic discipline, profession, or a group of related disciplines such as the arts.

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Librarian

A librarian is a person who works professionally in a library, providing access to information and sometimes social or technical programming.

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Library publishing

Library publishing, also known as campus-based publishing, is the practice of an academic library providing publishing services.

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List of open-access journals

This is a list of open-access journals by field.

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List of open-access projects

Some of the most important open-access publishing projects or lists of such projects are listed below.

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Max Planck Society

The Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science (Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e. V.; abbreviated MPG) is a formally independent non-governmental and non-profit association of German research institutes founded in 1911 as the Kaiser Wilhelm Society and renamed the Max Planck Society in 1948 in honor of its former president, theoretical physicist Max Planck.

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Mega journal

A mega journal (also mega-journal and megajournal) is a peer-reviewed academic open access journal designed to be much larger than a traditional journal by exercising low selectivity among accepted articles.

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Mental health professional

A mental health professional is a health care practitioner or community services provider who offers services for the purpose of improving an individual's mental health or to treat mental disorders.

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MIT Press

The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).

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Modern Language Association

The Modern Language Association of America, often referred to as the Modern Language Association (MLA), is the principal professional association in the United States for scholars of language and literature.

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Monograph

A monograph is a specialist work of writing (in contrast to reference works) on a single subject or an aspect of a subject, often by a single author, and usually on a scholarly subject.

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NIH Public Access Policy

The NIH Public Access Policy is an open access mandate, drafted in 2004 and mandated in 2008,National Institutes of Health,, available at https://publicaccess.nih.gov/comments.htm.

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Nonprofit organization

A non-profit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity or non-profit institution, is dedicated to furthering a particular social cause or advocating for a shared point of view.

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OAIster

OAIster is an online combined bibliographic catalogue of open access material aggregated using OAI-PMH.

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Open access

Open access (OA) refers to research outputs which are distributed online and free of cost or other barriers, and possibly with the addition of a Creative Commons license to promote reuse.

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Open Access Button

The Open Access Button is a browser bookmarklet which registers when people hit a paywall to an academic article and cannot access it.

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Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association

The Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association (OASPA) is a non-profit trade association representing the interests of open access journal publishers globally in all scientific, technical and scholarly disciplines.

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Open Access Week

Open Access Week is an annual scholarly communication event focusing on open access and related topics.

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Open Archives Initiative

The Open Archives Initiative (OAI) is an organization to develop and apply technical interoperability standards for archives to share catalog information (metadata).

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Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting

The Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH) is a protocol developed for harvesting (or collecting) metadata descriptions of records in an archive so that services can be built using metadata from many archives.

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Open content

Open content is a neologism coined by David Wiley in 1998 which describes a creative work that others can copy or modify freely, without asking for permission.

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Open data

Open data is the idea that some data should be freely available to everyone to use and republish as they wish, without restrictions from copyright, patents or other mechanisms of control.

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Open Journal Systems

Open Journal Systems (OJS) is an open-source software for the management of peer-reviewed academic journals, and is created by the Public Knowledge Project, released under the GNU General Public License.

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Open publishing

Open publishing is a process of creating news or other content that is transparent to the readers.

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Open-access mandate

An open-access mandate is a policy adopted by a research institution, research funder, or government which requires researchers—usually university faculty or research staff and/or research grant recipients—to make their published, peer-reviewed journal articles and conference papers open access (1) by self-archiving their final, peer-reviewed drafts in a freely accessible institutional repository or disciplinary repository ("Green OA") or (2) by publishing them in an open-access journal ("Gold OA") or both.

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Open-access monograph

An open-access monograph is a scholarly monograph which is made freely available with a creative commons licence.

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Open-access repository

An open-access repository or open archive is a digital platform that holds research output and provides free, immediate and permanent access to research results for anyone to use, download and distribute.

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Open-source appropriate technology

Open-source appropriate technology (OSAT) is appropriate technology designed in the same fashion as free and open-source software.

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Open-source model

The open-source model is a decentralized software-development model that encourages open collaboration.

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Open-source software

Open-source software (OSS) is a type of computer software whose source code is released under a license in which the copyright holder grants users the rights to study, change, and distribute the software to anyone and for any purpose.

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Overlay journal

An overlay journal or overlay ejournal is an open access academic journal, almost always an online electronic journal (ejournal), that does not produce its own content, but selects from texts that are already freely available online.

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Pay-per-view

Pay-per-view (PPV) is a type of pay television service by which a subscriber of a television service provider can purchase events to view via private telecast.

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Peer review

Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people of similar competence to the producers of the work (peers).

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PeerJ

PeerJ is an open access peer-reviewed scientific mega journal covering research in the biological and medical sciences.

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Peter Suber

Peter Dain Suber (born November 8, 1951) is a philosopher specializing in the philosophy of law and open access to knowledge.

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PLOS

PLOS (for Public Library of Science) is a nonprofit open access science, technology and medicine publisher, innovator and advocacy organization with a library of open access journals and other scientific literature under an open content license.

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PLOS Biology

PLOS Biology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of Biology.

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PLOS One

PLOS One (stylized PLOS ONE, and formerly PLoS ONE) is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Public Library of Science (PLOS) since 2006.

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Politician

A politician is a person active in party politics, or a person holding or seeking office in government.

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Postprint

In academic publishing, a postprint is a digital draft of a research journal article after it has been peer reviewed.

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Predatory open-access publishing

Predatory open-access publishing is an exploitative open-access academic publishing business model that involves charging publication fees to authors without providing the editorial and publishing services associated with legitimate journals (open access or not).

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Preprint

In academic publishing, a preprint is a version of a scholarly or scientific paper that precedes publication in a peer-reviewed scholarly or scientific journal.

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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.

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Professional

A professional is a member of a profession or any person who earns their living from a specified professional activity.

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Public domain

The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply.

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Public Knowledge

Public Knowledge is a non-profit Washington, D.C.-based public interest group that is involved in intellectual property law, competition, and choice in the digital marketplace, and an open standards/end-to-end internet.

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Public Knowledge Project

The Public Knowledge Project is a non-profit research initiative that is focused on the importance of making the results of publicly funded research freely available through open access policies, and on developing strategies for making this possible including software solutions.

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Publishing

Publishing is the dissemination of literature, music, or information—the activity of making information available to the general public.

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PubMed Central

PubMed Central (PMC) is a free digital repository that archives publicly accessible full-text scholarly articles that have been published within the biomedical and life sciences journal literature.

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Redalyc

The Redalyc project (Red de Revistas Científicas de América Latina y El Caribe, España y Portugal) is a bibliographic database and a digital library of Open Access journals, supported by the Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México with the help of numerous other higher education institutions and information systems.

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Registry of Open Access Repositories

The Registry of Open Access Repositories (ROAR) is a searchable international database indexing the creation, location and growth of open access institutional repositories and their contents.

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Research

Research comprises "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.

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Research Papers in Economics

Research Papers in Economics (RePEc) is a collaborative effort of hundreds of volunteers in many countries to enhance the dissemination of research in economics.

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Right to Internet access

The right to Internet access, also known as the right to broadband or freedom to connect, is the view that all people must be able to access the Internet in order to exercise and enjoy their rights to freedom of expression and opinion and other fundamental human rights, that states have a responsibility to ensure that Internet access is broadly available, and that states may not unreasonably restrict an individual's access to the Internet.

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SAGE Publications

SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.

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Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition

The Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) is an international alliance of academic and research libraries developed by the Association of Research Libraries in 1998 which promotes open access to scholarship.

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Sci-Hub

Sci-Hub is a website with over 69 million academic papers and articles available for direct download.

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SciELO

SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online) is a bibliographic database, digital library, and cooperative electronic publishing model of open access journals.

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Scientific journal

In academic publishing, a scientific journal is a periodical publication intended to further the progress of science, usually by reporting new research.

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Scopus

Scopus is Elsevier’s abstract and citation database launched in 2004.

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Self-archiving

Self-archiving is the act of (the author's) depositing a free copy of an electronic document online in order to provide open access to it.

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Serials crisis

The term serials crisis has become a common shorthand to describe the chronic subscription cost increases of many serial publications such as scholarly journals.

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SHERPA/RoMEO

SHERPA/RoMEO is a service run by SHERPA to show the copyright and open access self-archiving policies of academic journals.

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Simmons College

No description.

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Stevan Harnad

Stevan Robert Harnad (Hernád István Róbert, Hesslein István, born June 2, 1945, Budapest) is a cognitive scientist.

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Subscription business model

The subscription business model is a business model where a customer must pay a subscription price to have access to a product or service.

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Subversive Proposal

The "Subversive Proposal" was an Internet posting by Stevan Harnad on June 27 1994 (presented at the 1994 Network Services Conference in London) calling on all authors of "esoteric" research writings to archive their articles for free for everyone online (in anonymous FTP archives or websites).

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Sustainable development

Sustainable development is the organizing principle for meeting human development goals while at the same time sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services upon which the economy and society depend.

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The FASEB Journal

The FASEB Journal is a scientific journal related to experimental biosciences, promoting scientific progress and education.

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Thesis

A thesis or dissertation is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings.

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Total cost

In economics and cost accounting, total cost (TC) describes the total economic cost of production and is made up of variable costs, which vary according to the quantity of a good produced and include inputs such as labor and raw materials, plus fixed costs, which are independent of the quantity of a good produced and include inputs (capital) that cannot be varied in the short term, such as buildings and machinery.

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UNESCO

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.

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University

A university (universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines.

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Web search engine

A web search engine is a software system that is designed to search for information on the World Wide Web.

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Who's Afraid of Peer Review?

"Who's Afraid of Peer Review?" is an article written by ''Science'' correspondent John Bohannon that describes his investigation of peer review among fee-charging open-access journals.

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.

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World Wide Web

The World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or the Web) is an information space where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators (URLs), interlinked by hypertext links, and accessible via the Internet.

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Redirects here:

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_access

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