449 relations: Academy, Adobe Flash, Africa, AFRINIC, Airbnb, Alexa Internet, American Registry for Internet Numbers, Andrew Keen, Andrew Odlyzko, Apple Inc., Application layer, Arab Spring, ARPANET, ASCII, Ashburn, Virginia, Asia, Asia-Pacific, Asia-Pacific Network Information Centre, Astroturfing, Asymmetric digital subscriber line, Audience, Audit, Authentication, Avis Rent a Car, BBC News, Bing (search engine), Bit rate, Blog, Border Gateway Protocol, Botnet, Brick and mortar, Broadband, Browser game, Business-to-business, Cable modem, Cable television, Carbon copy, Caribbean, CBeebies, Censorship, Censorship in China, Censorship in North Korea, Central Asia, CERN, CERN httpd, Chat room, Chatham House, Chicago, Child grooming, Child pornography, ..., Client–server model, Cloud computing, Coaxial cable, Collaboration, Collaborative software, Colombia, Commercial Internet eXchange, Commercialization of the Internet, Communication protocol, Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act, CompuServe, Computer file, Computer graphics, Computer literacy, Computer network, Computer Networks: The Heralds of Resource Sharing, Computer security, Computer virus, Computer worm, Conference call, Consolidation (business), Content management, Content-control software, Cornell University, Cost, Crowdfunding, Crowdsourcing, CSNET, Customer, Cyberbullying, Cybercrime, Cybersectarianism, Cyberwarfare, CYCLADES, Darknet, Data (computing), Data mining, Datacard, Debkafile, Deep web, Default route, Denial-of-service attack, Developing country, Dial-up Internet access, Digital citizen, Digital divide, Digital economy, Digital signature, Discover (magazine), Display advertising, Distance education, DNS root zone, Document, Domain name, Domain Name System, Donald Davies, DonorsChoose, Douglas Engelbart, Doxing, Dynamic web page, E-commerce, Economic inequality, Education, Egyptian revolution of 2011, Electronic business, Email, Email address, Email attachment, Emergence, Emergency telephone number, Employment, Encryption, English Wikipedia, Entrepreneurship, Europe, Facebook, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Federal government of the United States, Feminism, File server, File sharing, File Transfer Protocol, Financial services, Firefox, First-person shooter, Flickr, Fragmentation (computing), Free software movement, Freenet, Game, GameSpy Arcade, GÉANT, Georgia Institute of Technology, Ghana, Global network, Global South, GlobalGiving, GLORIAD, Goldbricking, Google, Google Chrome, Google Scholar, Google Search, Government Communications Headquarters, Grant writing, Grassroots, Handheld game console, Harassment, Hate speech, Hilton Worldwide, Homework, Hotspot (Wi-Fi), Howard Dean, HTML, HTML editor, HTML5, Hyperlink, Hypertext, Hypertext Transfer Protocol, I am lonely will anyone speak to me, ICANN, Index of Internet-related articles, Informal education, Information Awareness Office, Instant messaging, Institute for Local Self-Reliance, Institute of Computer Science, Interactive kiosk, Interference theory, International Data Corporation, International Telecommunication Union, Internaut, Internet, Internet access, Internet activism, Internet addiction disorder, Internet Architecture Board, Internet café, Internet censorship, Internet Engineering Steering Group, Internet Engineering Task Force, Internet exchange point, Internet Explorer, Internet forum, Internet Governance Forum, Internet in Egypt, Internet layer, Internet metaphors, Internet pornography, Internet Protocol, Internet protocol suite, Internet Relay Chat, Internet research, Internet Research Steering Group, Internet Research Task Force, Internet service provider, Internet Society, Internet Standard, Internet transit, Internet2, Internets, Internetworking, Intranet, IP address, IP routing, IPv4, IPv4 address exhaustion, IPv6, IPv6 deployment, Iran, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, JANET, Jürgen Habermas, Kenya, Kiva (organization), Latin alphabet, Latin America, Latin America and Caribbean Network Information Centre, Leased line, Leonard Kleinrock, Letter case, LibreOffice, Lingua franca, Link layer, LinkedIn, Linux, List of countries by number of Internet users, Local area network, London, Marketing, Mashable, Massively multiplayer online role-playing game, MD5, Menlo Park, California, Merit Network, Microfinance, Microsoft, Microsoft Edge, Middle East, Ministry of Intelligence, Mobile advertising, Mobile app, Mobile broadband modem, Mobile device, Mobile Internet device, Mobile telephony, Mobile Web, Modem, Mojibake, MOO, Mozilla, MPlayer.com, MUD, Multihoming, Multimedia, Multiplayer video game, Myanmar, Myspace, Namespace, National research and education network, National Science Foundation, National Science Foundation Network, National Security Agency, National Telecommunications and Information Administration, Netizen, Network service, New York City, News aggregator, Nicholas G. Carr, Nigeria, Nokia, NORSAR, North America, NPL network, Online advertising, Online chat, Online disinhibition effect, Online gambling, Online music store, Online participation, Online shopping, Open Systems Interconnection, OpenOffice.org, Opera (web browser), Optical fiber, Orange S.A., Organization, OSCE Representative on Freedom of the Media, OSI model, Outline of the Internet, Pacific Ocean, Packet analyzer, Packet capture appliance, Packet switching, Panama Canal, Paul Baran, Payphone, Peer-to-peer, Peer-to-peer lending, Peering, Pen pal, Personal computer, Personal digital assistant, Personally identifiable information, Peter T. Kirstein, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Plain text, Podcast, Portable media player, Portmanteau, Princeton University, Prior art, Productivity software, Promotion (marketing), Proper noun, Psychological effects of Internet use, Public relations, Public sphere, Publishing, Queens, Ransomware, Reddit, Regional Internet registry, Remote Desktop Protocol, Request for Comments, Ricochet (Internet service), RIPE, Role-playing video game, Routing protocol, Routing table, Safari (web browser), Sales, San Francisco, Satellite Internet access, Saudi Arabia, Scale-free network, Science (journal), Screenshot, Search engine marketing, Search engine optimization, Server (computing), Siemens, Small business, Smartphone, Social experiment, Social media, Social networking service, Social peer-to-peer processes, Sociology of the Internet, South Africa, Spamming, Spyware, SRI International, Stockholm, Strategic planning, Streaming media, Streaming television, Submarine communications cable, Supercomputer, Supply chain, Supply chain management, System administrator, Tanum Municipality, TeamSpeak, Telecommuting, Telenet, Terrestrial television, Terrorism, The Hertz Corporation, The New York Times, The Register, Tier 1 network, Tier 2 network, Tim Berners-Lee, Toronto, Traffic analysis, Transport layer, Tunis, Twitter, Tymnet, Uber, UCLA Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science, Unicode, Uniform Resource Identifier, Uninterruptible power supply, United Arab Emirates, United States Department of Commerce, United States Patent and Trademark Office, University College London, University of California, Los Angeles, University of California, Santa Barbara, University of Illinois at Chicago, University of London, University of Utah, URL, Usenet, UUCP, Value chain, Ventrilo, Video clip, Videotelephony, Vienna, Vint Cerf, Viral marketing, Virginia, Virtual community, Virtual private network, Virtual university, Voice over IP, Walkie-talkie, Web application, Web banner, Web browser, Web feed, Web page, Web resource, Web search engine, Web server, Web service, Webcam, Webcast, Website, Wi-Fi, Wiki, Wikipedia Zero, Wireless, Wireless community network, World Summit on the Information Society, World Wide Web, WorldWideWeb, X.25, Yahoo! Search, YouTube, Zero-rating, Zidisha, 2008 submarine cable disruption, 3G, 4G. Expand index (399 more) » « Shrink index
An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, higher learning, research, or honorary membership.
Adobe Flash is a deprecated multimedia software platform used for production of animations, rich Internet applications, desktop applications, mobile applications, mobile games and embedded web browser video players.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
AFRINIC (African Network Information Centre) is the regional Internet registry (RIR) for Africa.
Airbnb is an American company which operates an online marketplace and hospitality service for people to lease or rent short-term lodging including holiday cottages, apartments, homestays, hostel beds, or hotel rooms, to participate in or facilitate experiences related to tourism such as walking tours, and to make reservations at restaurants.
Alexa Internet, Inc. is an American company based in California that provides commercial web traffic data and analytics.
The American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN) is the Regional Internet Registry (RIR) for Canada, the United States, and many Caribbean and North Atlantic islands.
Andrew Keen (born c. 1960Saracevic, Alan T. (15 October 2006). San Francisco Chronicle ("Age: 46")) is a British-American entrepreneur and author.
Andrew Michael Odlyzko (born 23 July 1949) is a mathematician and a former head of the University of Minnesota's Digital Technology Center and of the Minnesota Supercomputing Institute.
Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services.
An application layer is an abstraction layer that specifies the shared communications protocols and interface methods used by hosts in a communications network.
The Arab Spring (الربيع العربي ar-Rabīʻ al-ʻArabī), also referred to as Arab Revolutions (الثورات العربية aṯ-'awrāt al-ʻarabiyyah), was a revolutionary wave of both violent and non-violent demonstrations, protests, riots, coups, foreign interventions, and civil wars in North Africa and the Middle East that began on 18 December 2010 in Tunisia with the Tunisian Revolution.
The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) was an early packet switching network and the first network to implement the protocol suite TCP/IP.
ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.
Ashburn is a census-designated place (CDP) in Loudoun County, Virginia.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Asia-Pacific or Asia Pacific (abbreviated as APAC, Asia-Pac, AsPac, APJ, JAPA or JAPAC) is the part of the world in or near the Western Pacific Ocean.
APNIC (the Asia-Pacific Network Information Centre) is the Regional Internet address Registry (RIR) for the Asia-Pacific region.
Astroturfing is the practice of masking the sponsors of a message or organization (e.g., political, advertising, religious or public relations) to make it appear as though it originates from and is supported by a grassroots participant(s).
Asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) is a type of digital subscriber line (DSL) technology, a data communications technology that enables faster data transmission over copper telephone lines than a conventional voiceband modem can provide.
An audience is a group of people who participate in a show or encounter a work of art, literature (in which they are called "readers"), theatre, music (in which they are called "listeners"), video games (in which they are called "players"), or academics in any medium.
An audit is a systematic and independent examination of books, accounts, statutory records, documents and vouchers of an organization to ascertain how far the financial statements as well as non-financial disclosures present a true and fair view of the concern.
Authentication (from authentikos, "real, genuine", from αὐθέντης authentes, "author") is the act of confirming the truth of an attribute of a single piece of data claimed true by an entity.
Avis is an American car rental company headquartered in Parsippany, New Jersey, United States.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Bing is a web search engine owned and operated by Microsoft.
In telecommunications and computing, bit rate (bitrate or as a variable R) is the number of bits that are conveyed or processed per unit of time.
A blog (a truncation of the expression "weblog") is a discussion or informational website published on the World Wide Web consisting of discrete, often informal diary-style text entries ("posts").
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is a standardized exterior gateway protocol designed to exchange routing and reachability information among autonomous systems (AS) on the Internet.
A botnet is a number of Internet-connected devices, each of which is running one or more bots.
Brick and mortar (also bricks and mortar or B&M) refers to a physical presence of an organization or business in a building or other structure.
In telecommunications, broadband is wide bandwidth data transmission which transports multiple signals and traffic types.
A browser game is a computer game that is played over the Internet using a web browser.
Business-to-business (B2B or, in some countries, BtoB) refers to a situation where one business makes a commercial transaction with another.
A cable modem is a type of network bridge that provides bi-directional data communication via radio frequency channels on a hybrid fibre-coaxial (HFC) and radio frequency over glass (RFoG) infrastructure.
Cable television is a system of delivering television programming to paying subscribers via radio frequency (RF) signals transmitted through coaxial cables, or in more recent systems, light pulses through fiber-optic cables.
In the past, a carbon copy was the under-copy of a document created when carbon paper was placed between the original and the under-copy during the production of a document.
The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.
CBeebies is a BBC television network for British programming aimed at encouraging "learning through play in a consistently safe environment for children aged 6 or under", and providing "high quality, mostly UK-produced programmes".
Censorship is the suppression of speech, public communication, or other information, on the basis that such material is considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, or "inconvenient" as determined by government authorities.
Censorship in the People's Republic of China (PRC) is implemented or mandated by the PRC's ruling party, the Communist Party of China (CPC).
Censorship in North Korea ranks among some of the most extreme in the world, with the government able to take strict control over communications.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
The European Organization for Nuclear Research (Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (derived from the name Conseil européen pour la recherche nucléaire), is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world.
CERN httpd (later also known as W3C httpd) is an early, now discontinued, web server (HTTP) daemon originally developed at CERN from 1990 onwards by Tim Berners-Lee, Ari Luotonen and Henrik Frystyk Nielsen.
The term chat room, or chatroom, is primarily used to describe any form of synchronous conferencing, occasionally even asynchronous conferencing.
The Royal Institute of International Affairs, commonly known as Chatham House, is a non-profit, non-governmental organisation based in London whose mission is to analyse and promote the understanding of major international issues and current affairs.
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.
Child grooming is befriending and establishing an emotional connection with a child, and sometimes the family, to lower the child's inhibitions with the objective of sexual abuse.
Child pornography is pornography that exploits children for sexual stimulation.
The client–server model is a distributed application structure that partitions tasks or workloads between the providers of a resource or service, called servers, and service requesters, called clients.
Cloud computing is an information technology (IT) paradigm that enables ubiquitous access to shared pools of configurable system resources and higher-level services that can be rapidly provisioned with minimal management effort, often over the Internet.
Cross-sectional view of a coaxial cable Coaxial cable, or coax (pronounced), is a type of electrical cable that has an inner conductor surrounded by a tubular insulating layer, surrounded by a tubular conducting shield.
Collaboration occurs when two or more people or organizations work together--> to realize or achieve a goal.
Collaborative software or groupware is application software designed to help people involved in a common task to achieve their goals.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
The Commercial Internet eXchange (CIX) was an early interexchange point that allowed the free exchange of TCP/IP traffic, including commercial traffic, between ISPs.
Prior to the disestablishment 1995 commercial traffic on the Internet in the United States was limited by law, and prior to 1988 for the most part strictly forbidden, with the exception of traffic with research and defense aims.
In telecommunication, a communication protocol is a system of rules that allow two or more entities of a communications system to transmit information via any kind of variation of a physical quantity.
The Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (CALEA) is a United States wiretapping law passed in 1994, during the presidency of Bill Clinton (Pub. L. No. 103-414, 108 Stat. 4279, codified at 47 USC 1001-1010).
CompuServe (CompuServe Information Service, also known by its initialism CIS) was the first major commercial online service provider in the United States.
A computer file is a computer resource for recording data discretely in a computer storage device.
Computer graphics are pictures and films created using computers.
Computer literacy is the ability to use computers and related technology efficiently, with a range of skills covering levels from elementary use to programming and advanced problem solving.
A computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources.
Computer Networks: The Heralds of Resource Sharing is a short documentary film from 1972, produced by Steven King and directed/edited by Peter Chvany, about ARPANET, an early packet switching network and the first network to implement the protocol suite TCP/IP.
Cybersecurity, computer security or IT security is the protection of computer systems from theft of or damage to their hardware, software or electronic data, as well as from disruption or misdirection of the services they provide.
A computer virus is a type of malicious software program ("malware") that, when executed, replicates itself by modifying other computer programs and inserting its own code.
A computer worm is a standalone malware computer program that replicates itself in order to spread to other computers.
A conference call is a telephone call in which someone talks to several people at the same time.
In business, consolidation or amalgamation is the merger and acquisition of many smaller companies into a few much larger ones.
Content management (CM) is a set of processes and technologies that supports the collection, managing, and publishing of information in any form or medium.
Content-control software, commonly referred to as an internet filter, is software that restricts or controls the content an Internet user is capable to access, especially when utilised to restrict material delivered over the Internet via the Web, e-mail, or other means.
Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university located in Ithaca, New York.
In production, research, retail, and accounting, a cost is the value of money that has been used up to produce something or deliver a service, and hence is not available for use anymore.
Crowdfunding is the practice of funding a project or venture by raising small amounts of money from a large number of people, typically via the Internet.
Crowdsourcing is a sourcing model in which individuals or organizations obtain goods and services.
The Computer Science Network (CSNET) was a computer network that began operation in 1981 in the United States.
In sales, commerce and economics, a customer (sometimes known as a client, buyer, or purchaser) is the recipient of a good, service, product or an idea - obtained from a seller, vendor, or supplier via a financial transaction or exchange for money or some other valuable consideration.
Cyberbullying or cyberharassment is a form of bullying or harassment using electronic means.
Cybercrime, or computer oriented crime, is crime that involves a computer and a network.
Cybersectarianism is the phenomenon of new religious movements and other groups using the Internet for text distribution, recruitment, and information sharing.
Cyberwarfare is the use or targeting in a battlespace or warfare context of computers, online control systems and networks.
The CYCLADES computer network was a French research network created in the early 1970s.
A darknet (or dark net) is a portion of routed, allocated IP space not running any services.
Data (treated as singular, plural, or as a mass noun) is any sequence of one or more symbols given meaning by specific act(s) of interpretation.
Data mining is the process of discovering patterns in large data sets involving methods at the intersection of machine learning, statistics, and database systems.
A datacard is an electronic card for data operations (storage, transfer, transformation, input, output).
DEBKAfile (תיק דבקה) is an Israeli military intelligence website based in Jerusalem, providing commentary and analyses on terrorism, intelligence, national security, military and international relations, with a particular focus on the Middle East.
The deep web, invisible web, or hidden web are parts of the World Wide Web whose contents are not indexed by standard web search engines for any reason.
In computer networking, the default route is a setting on a computer that defines the packet forwarding rule to use when no specific route can be determined for a given Internet Protocol (IP) destination address.
In computing, a denial-of-service attack (DoS attack) is a cyber-attack in which the perpetrator seeks to make a machine or network resource unavailable to its intended users by temporarily or indefinitely disrupting services of a host connected to the Internet.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Dial-up Internet access is a form of Internet access that uses the facilities of the public switched telephone network (PSTN) to establish a connection to an Internet service provider (ISP) by dialing a telephone number on a conventional telephone line.
A digital citizen refers to a person utilizing information technology (IT) in order to engage in society, politics and government.
A digital divide is an economic and social inequality with regard to access to, use of, or impact of information and communication technologies (ICT).
Digital economy refers to an economy that is based on digital computing technologies.
A digital signature is a mathematical scheme for presenting the authenticity of digital messages or documents.
Discover is an American general audience science magazine launched in October 1980 by Time Inc.
Display advertising is advertising on websites or apps through banners or other ad formats made of text, images, flash, video, and audio.
Distance education or long-distance learning is the education of students who may not always be physically present at a school.
The DNS root zone is the top-level DNS zone in the hierarchical namespace of the Domain Name System (DNS) of the Internet.
A document is a written, drawn, presented, or memorialized representation of thought.
A domain name is an identification string that defines a realm of administrative autonomy, authority or control within the Internet.
The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical decentralized naming system for computers, services, or other resources connected to the Internet or a private network.
Donald Watts Davies, CBE, FRS (7 June 1924 – 28 May 2000) was a Welsh computer scientist who was employed at the UK National Physical Laboratory (NPL).
DonorsChoose.org is a United States–based 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization that allows individuals to donate directly to public school classroom projects.
Douglas Carl Engelbart (January 30, 1925 – July 2, 2013) was an American engineer and inventor, and an early computer and Internet pioneer.
Doxing (from dox, abbreviation of documents) or doxxing is the Internet-based practice of researching and broadcasting private or identifiable information (especially personally identifiable information) about an individual or organization.
A server-side dynamic web page is a web page whose construction is controlled by an application server processing server-side scripts.
E-commerce is the activity of buying or selling of products on online services or over the Internet.
Economic inequality is the difference found in various measures of economic well-being among individuals in a group, among groups in a population, or among countries.
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.
The Egyptian revolution of 2011, locally known as the January 25 Revolution (ثورة 25 يناير), and as the Egyptian Revolution of Dignity began on 25 January 2011 and took place across all of Egypt.
Online Business or e-business is a term which can be used for any kind of business or commercial transaction that includes sharing information across the internet.
Electronic mail (email or e-mail) is a method of exchanging messages ("mail") between people using electronic devices.
An email address identifies an email box to which email messages are delivered.
An email attachment is a computer file sent along with an email message.
In philosophy, systems theory, science, and art, emergence occurs when "the whole is greater than the sum of the parts," meaning the whole has properties its parts do not have.
In many countries the public switched telephone network has a single emergency telephone number (sometimes known as the universal emergency telephone number or the emergency services number) that allows a caller to contact local emergency services for assistance.
Employment is a relationship between two parties, usually based on a contract where work is paid for, where one party, which may be a corporation, for profit, not-for-profit organization, co-operative or other entity is the employer and the other is the employee.
In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding a message or information in such a way that only authorized parties can access it and those who are not authorized cannot.
The English Wikipedia is the English-language edition of the free online encyclopedia Wikipedia.
Entrepreneurship is the process of designing, launching and running a new business, which is often initially a small business.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Facebook is an American online social media and social networking service company based in Menlo Park, California.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), formerly the Bureau of Investigation (BOI), is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, and its principal federal law enforcement agency.
The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.
Feminism is a range of political movements, ideologies, and social movements that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve political, economic, personal, and social equality of sexes.
In computing, a file server (or fileserver) is a computer attached to a network that provides a location for shared disk access, i.e. shared storage of computer files (such as text, image, sound, video) that can be accessed by the workstations that are able to reach the computer that shares the access through a computer network.
File sharing is the practice of distributing or providing access to digital media, such as computer programs, multimedia (audio, images and video), documents or electronic books.
The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used for the transfer of computer files between a client and server on a computer network.
Financial services are the economic services provided by the finance industry, which encompasses a broad range of businesses that manage money, including credit unions, banks, credit-card companies, insurance companies, accountancy companies, consumer-finance companies, stock brokerages, investment funds, individual managers and some government-sponsored enterprises.
Mozilla Firefox (or simply Firefox) is a free and open-source web browser developed by Mozilla Foundation and its subsidiary, Mozilla Corporation.
First-person shooter (FPS) is a video game genre centered around gun and other weapon-based combat in a first-person perspective; that is, the player experiences the action through the eyes of the protagonist.
Flickr (pronounced "flicker") is an image hosting service and video hosting service.
In computer storage, fragmentation is a phenomenon in which storage space is used inefficiently, reducing capacity or performance and often both.
The free software movement (FSM) or free / open source software movement (FOSSM) or free / libre open source software (FLOSS) is a social movement with the goal of obtaining and guaranteeing certain freedoms for software users, namely the freedom to run the software, to study and change the software, and to redistribute copies with or without changes.
Freenet is a peer-to-peer platform for censorship-resistant communication.
A game is a structured form of play, usually undertaken for enjoyment and sometimes used as an educational tool.
GameSpy Arcade was a shareware multiplayer game server browsing utility.
GÉANT is the pan-European data network for the research and education community.
The Georgia Institute of Technology, commonly referred to as Georgia Tech, is a public research university and institute of technology in Atlanta, Georgia.
Ghana, officially the Republic of Ghana, is a unitary presidential constitutional democracy, located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa.
A global network is any communication network which spans the entire Earth.
The Global South is a term that has been emerging in transnational and postcolonial studies to refer to what may also be called the "Third World" (i.e., Africa, Latin America, and the developing countries in Asia), "developing countries," "less developed countries," and "less developed regions." It can also include poorer "southern" regions of wealthy "northern" countries.
GlobalGiving is 501(c)(3) non-profit organization based in the United States that provides a global crowdfunding platform for grassroots charitable projects.
GLORIAD (Global Ring Network for Advanced Application Development) is a high-speed computer network used to connect scientific organizations in Russia, China, United States, the Netherlands, Korea and Canada.
Goldbricking is the practice of doing less work than one is able to, while maintaining the appearance of working.
Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware.
Google Chrome is a freeware web browser developed by Google LLC.
Google Scholar is a freely accessible web search engine that indexes the full text or metadata of scholarly literature across an array of publishing formats and disciplines.
Google Search, commonly referred to as Google Web Search or simply Google, is a web search engine developed by Google.
The Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) is an intelligence and security organisation responsible for providing signals intelligence (SIGINT) and information assurance to the government and armed forces of the United Kingdom.
Grant writing refers to the practice of completing an application process for funding provided by an institution such as a government department, corporation, foundation or trust.
A grassroots movement (often referenced in the context of a left-wing political movement) is one which uses the people in a given district, region, or community as the basis for a political or economic movement.
A handheld game console is a small, portable self-contained video game console with a built-in screen, game controls, and speakers.
Harassment covers a wide range of behaviors of an offensive nature.
Hate speech is speech that attacks a person or group on the basis of attributes such as race, religion, ethnic origin, national origin, gender, disability, sexual orientation, or gender identity.
Hilton Worldwide Holdings Inc., formerly Hilton Hotels Corporation, is an American multinational hospitality company that manages and franchises a broad portfolio of hotels and resorts.
Homework, or a homework assignment, is a set of tasks assigned to students by their teachers to be completed outside the class.
A hotspot is a physical location where people may obtain Internet access, typically using Wi-Fi technology, via a wireless local area network (WLAN) using a router connected to an internet service provider.
Howard Brush Dean III (born November 17, 1948) is an American physician, author and retired politician who served as the 79th Governor of Vermont from 1991 to 2003 and Chair of the Democratic National Committee (DNC) from 2005 to 2009 and works as a political consultant and commentator.
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the standard markup language for creating web pages and web applications.
An HTML editor is a computer program for editing HTML, the markup of a webpage.
HTML5 is a markup language used for structuring and presenting content on the World Wide Web.
In computing, a hyperlink, or simply a link, is a reference to data that the reader can directly follow either by clicking, tapping, or hovering.
Hypertext is text displayed on a computer display or other electronic devices with references (hyperlinks) to other text that the reader can immediately access, or where text can be revealed progressively at multiple levels of detail (also called StretchText).
The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, and hypermedia information systems.
"i am lonely will anyone speak to me" is the title of a thread that was posted on the Internet forum of the video codec downloads site Moviecodec.com, and had become "the web's top hangout for lonely folk".
The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) is a nonprofit organization responsible for coordinating the maintenance and procedures of several databases related to the namespaces and numericalspaces of the Internet, ensuring the network's stable and secure operation.
This page provides an index of articles thought to be Internet or Web related topics.
Informal Education is a general term for education that can occur outside of a structured curriculum.
The Information Awareness Office (IAO) was established by the United States Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in January 2002 to bring together several DARPA projects focused on applying surveillance and information technology to track and monitor terrorists and other asymmetric threats to U.S. national security by achieving "Total Information Awareness" (TIA).
Instant messaging (IM) technology is a type of online chat that offers real-time text transmission over the Internet.
The Institute for Local Self-Reliance or ILSR is a nonprofit organization and advocacy group that provides technical assistance to communities about local solutions for sustainable community development in areas such as banking, broadband, energy, and waste through local purchasing.
The University of London Institute of Computer Science (ICS) was an Institute based in London in England.
An interactive kiosk is a computer terminal featuring specialized hardware and software that provides access to information and applications for communication, commerce, entertainment, or education.
Interference theory is a theory regarding human memory.
International Data Corporation (IDC) is a provider of market intelligence, advisory services, and events for the information technology, telecommunications, and consumer technology markets.
The International Telecommunication Union (ITU; Union Internationale des Télécommunications (UIT)), originally the International Telegraph Union (Union Télégraphique Internationale), is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is responsible for issues that concern information and communication technologies.
Internaut is a portmanteau of the words Internet and astronaut and refers to a designer, operator, or technically capable user of the Internet.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
Internet access is the ability of individuals and organizations to connect to the Internet using computer terminals, computers, and other devices; and to access services such as email and the World Wide Web.
Internet activism (also known as web activism, online activism, digital campaigning, digital activism, online organizing, electronic advocacy, cyberactivism, e-campaigning, and e-activism) is the use of electronic communication technologies such as social media, e-mail, and podcasts for various forms of activism to enable faster and more effective communication by citizen movements, the delivery of particular information to large and specific audiences as well as coordination.
Internet addiction disorder (IAD), also known as problematic Internet use or pathological Internet use, refers to excessive Internet use that interferes with daily life.
The Internet Architecture Board (IAB) is "a committee of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and an advisory body of the Internet Society (ISOC).
An Internet café, also known as a cybercafé, is a place which provides Internet access to the public, usually for a fee.
Internet censorship is the control or suppression of what can be accessed, published, or viewed on the Internet enacted by regulators, or on their own initiative.
The Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG) is a body composed of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) chair and area directors.
The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) develops and promotes voluntary Internet standards, in particular the standards that comprise the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP).
An Internet exchange point (IX or IXP) is the physical infrastructure through which Internet service providers (ISPs) and content delivery networks (CDNs) exchange Internet traffic between their networks (autonomous systems).
Internet Explorer (formerly Microsoft Internet Explorer and Windows Internet Explorer, commonly abbreviated IE or MSIE) is a series of graphical web browsers developed by Microsoft and included in the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems, starting in 1995.
An Internet forum, or message board, is an online discussion site where people can hold conversations in the form of posted messages.
The Internet Governance Forum (IGF) is a multi-stakeholder forum for policy dialogue on issues of Internet governance.
The Internet in Egypt is an important part of daily life, as a majority of the population has access to Internet, via smartphones, Internet cafes, or at home.
The internet layer is a group of internetworking methods, protocols, and specifications in the Internet protocol suite that are used to transport datagrams (packets) from the originating host across network boundaries, if necessary, to the destination host specified by an IP address.
Internet metaphors provide users and researchers of the Internet a structure for understanding and communicating its various functions, uses, and experiences.
Internet pornography is any pornography that is accessible over the Internet, primarily via websites, peer-to-peer file sharing, or Usenet newsgroups.
The Internet Protocol (IP) is the principal communications protocol in the Internet protocol suite for relaying datagrams across network boundaries.
The Internet protocol suite is the conceptual model and set of communications protocols used on the Internet and similar computer networks.
Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is an application layer protocol that facilitates communication in the form of text.
Internet research is the practice of using Internet information, especially free information on the World Wide Web, or Internet-based resources (like Internet discussion forum) in research.
The Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) is managed by the IRTF chair in consultation with the Internet Research Steering Group (IRSG).
The Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) focuses on longer term research issues related to the Internet while the parallel organization, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), focuses on the shorter term issues of engineering and standards making.
An Internet service provider (ISP) is an organization that provides services for accessing, using, or participating in the Internet.
The Internet Society (ISOC) is an American non-profit organization founded in 1992 to provide leadership in Internet-related standards, education, access, and policy.
In computer network engineering, an Internet Standard is a normative specification of a technology or methodology applicable to the Internet.
Internet transit is the service of allowing network traffic to cross or "transit" a computer network, usually used to connect a smaller Internet service provider (ISP) to the larger Internet.
Internet2 is a not-for-profit United States computer networking consortium led by members from the research and education communities, industry, and government.
"Internets", also known as "The Internets", is a Bushism-turned-catchphrase used humorously to portray the speaker as ignorant about the Internet or about technology in general, or as having a provincial or folksy attitude toward technology.
Internetworking is the practice of connecting a computer network with other networks through the use of gateways that provide a common method of routing information packets between the networks.
An intranet is a private network accessible only to an organization's staff.
An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label assigned to each device connected to a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication.
IP routing is the field of routing methodologies of Internet Protocol (IP) packets within and across IP networks.
Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) is the fourth version of the Internet Protocol (IP).
IPv4 address exhaustion is the depletion of the pool of unallocated IPv4 addresses.
Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the most recent version of the Internet Protocol (IP), the communications protocol that provides an identification and location system for computers on networks and routes traffic across the Internet.
Deployment of Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6), the next generation of the Internet Protocol, has been in progress since the mid-2000s.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.
Janet is a high-speed network for the UK research and education community provided by Jisc, a not-for-profit company set up to provide computing support for education.
Jürgen Habermas (born 18 June 1929) is a German sociologist and philosopher in the tradition of critical theory and pragmatism.
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
Kiva Microfunds (commonly known by its domain name, Kiva.org) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization that allows people to lend money via the Internet to low-income entrepreneurs and students in over 80 countries.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
The Latin America and Caribbean Network Information Centre (LACNIC, Spanish: Registro de Direcciones de Internet para América Latina y Caribe, Portuguese: Registro de Endereçamento da Internet para América Latina e Caribe) is the Regional Internet Registry for the Latin American and Caribbean regions.
A leased line is a private bidirectional or symmetric telecommunications circuit between two or more locations provided in exchange for a monthly rent.
Leonard Kleinrock (born June 13, 1934) is an American computer scientist.
Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also uppercase, capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule) and smaller lower case (also lowercase, small letters, or more formally minuscule) in the written representation of certain languages.
LibreOffice is a free and open source office suite, a project of The Document Foundation.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
In computer networking, the link layer is the lowest layer in the Internet Protocol Suite, the networking architecture of the Internet.
LinkedIn is a business and employment-oriented service that operates via websites and mobile apps.
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel.
Below is a sortable list of countries by number of Internet users as of 2016.
A local area network (LAN) is a computer network that interconnects computers within a limited area such as a residence, school, laboratory, university campus or office building.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Marketing is the study and management of exchange relationships.
Mashable is a digital media website founded by Pete Cashmore in 2005.
Massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) are a combination of role-playing video games and massively multiplayer online games in which a very large number of players interact with one another within a virtual world.
The MD5 algorithm is a widely used hash function producing a 128-bit hash value.
Menlo Park is a city at the eastern edge of San Mateo County, in the San Francisco Bay Area of California, in the United States.
Merit Network, Inc., is a nonprofit member-governed organization providing high-performance computer networking and related services to educational, government, health care, and nonprofit organizations, primarily in Michigan.
Microfinance initially had a limited definition - the provision of microloans to poor entrepreneurs and small businesses lacking access to banking and related services.
Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
Microsoft Edge (codename "Spartan") is a web browser developed by Microsoft and included in Windows 10, Windows 10 Mobile and Xbox One, replacing Internet Explorer as the default web browser on all device classes.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
The Ministry of Intelligence of the Islamic Republic of Iran (Persian: وِزارَتِ اِطّلاعات جُمهوریِ اِسلامیِ ایران Vezarat-e Ettela'at Jomhuri-ye Eslami-ye Iran) is the primary intelligence agency of the Islamic Republic of Iran and a member of the Iran Intelligence Community.
Mobile advertising is a form of advertising via mobile (wireless) phones or other mobile devices.
A mobile app is a computer program designed to run on a mobile device such as a phone/tablet or watch.
A mobile broadband modem, also known as a connect card or data card, is a type of modem that allows a personal computer or a router to receive Internet access via a mobile broadband connection instead of using telephone or cable television lines.
A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computing device small enough to hold and operate in the hand.
A mobile Internet device (MID) is a multimedia-capable mobile device providing wireless Internet access.
Mobile telephony is the provision of telephone services to phones which may move around freely rather than stay fixed in one location.
The mobile web refers to browser-based Internet services accessed from handheld mobile devices, such as smartphones or feature phones, through a mobile or other wireless network.
A modem (modulator–demodulator) is a network hardware device that modulates one or more carrier wave signals to encode digital information for transmission and demodulates signals to decode the transmitted information.
Mojibake (文字化け) is the garbled text that is the result of text being decoded using an unintended character encoding.
A MOO (MUD, object-oriented) is a text-based online virtual reality system to which multiple users (players) are connected at the same time.
Mozilla (stylized as moz://a) is a free software community founded in 1998 by members of Netscape.
Mplayer, referred to as Mplayer.com by 1998, was a free online PC gaming service and community that operated from late 1996 until early 2001.
A MUD (originally Multi-User Dungeon, with later variants Multi-User Dimension and Multi-User Domain) is a multiplayer real-time virtual world, usually text-based.
Multihoming is the practice of connecting a host or a computer network to more than one network.
Multimedia is content that uses a combination of different content forms such as text, audio, images, animations, video and interactive content.
A multiplayer video game is a video game in which more than one person can play in the same game environment at the same time, either locally or over the internet.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
Myspace (stylized as MySpace) is a social networking website offering an interactive, user-submitted network of friends, personal profiles, blogs, groups, photos, music, and videos.
In computing, a namespace is a set of symbols that are used to organize objects of various kinds, so that these objects may be referred to by name.
A National Research and Education Network (NREN) is a specialised internet service provider dedicated to supporting the needs of the research and education communities within a country.
The National Science Foundation (NSF) is a United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering.
The National Science Foundation Network (NSFNET) was a program of coordinated, evolving projects sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF) beginning in 1985 to promote advanced research and education networking in the United States.
The National Security Agency (NSA) is a national-level intelligence agency of the United States Department of Defense, under the authority of the Director of National Intelligence.
The National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) is an agency of the United States Department of Commerce that serves as the President's principal adviser on telecommunications policies pertaining to the United States' economic and technological advancement and to regulation of the telecommunications industry.
The term netizen is a portmanteau of the words Internet and citizen as in "citizen of the net".
In computer networking, a network service is an application running at the network application layer and above, that provides data storage, manipulation, presentation, communication or other capability which is often implemented using a client-server or peer-to-peer architecture based on application layer network protocols.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
In computing, a news aggregator, also termed a feed aggregator, feed reader, news reader, RSS reader or simply aggregator, is client software or a web application which aggregates syndicated web content such as online newspapers, blogs, podcasts, and video blogs (vlogs) in one location for easy viewing.
Nicholas G. Carr (born 1959) is an American writer who has published books and articles on technology, business, and culture.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
Nokia is a Finnish multinational telecommunications, information technology, and consumer electronics company, founded in 1865.
NORSAR or Norwegian Seismic Array was established in 1968 as part of the Norwegian-US agreement for the detection of earthquakes and nuclear explosions.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
The NPL Network or NPL Data Communications Network was a local area computer network operated by a team from the National Physical Laboratory in England that pioneered the concept of packet switching.
Online advertising, also called online marketing or Internet advertising or web advertising, is a form of marketing and advertising which uses the Internet to deliver promotional marketing messages to consumers.
Online chat may refer to any kind of communication over the Internet that offers a real-time transmission of text messages from sender to receiver.
Online disinhibition is the lack of restraint one feels when communicating online in comparison to communicating in-person.
Online gambling (or Internet gambling) includes poker, casinos and sports betting.
An online music store is an online business which sells audio files over the Internet, usually sound recordings of music songs or classical pieces, in which the user pays on a per-song or subscription basis.
Online participation is used to describe the interaction between users and online communities on the web.
Online shopping is a form of electronic commerce which allows consumers to directly buy goods or services from a seller over the Internet using a web browser.
The Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model) is a conceptual model that characterizes and standardizes the communication functions of a telecommunication or computing system without regard to its underlying internal structure and technology.
OpenOffice.org (OOo), commonly known as OpenOffice, is a discontinued open-source office suite.
Opera is a web browser for Windows, macOS, and Linux operating systems developed by Opera Software AS.
An optical fiber or optical fibre is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair.
Orange S.A., formerly France Télécom S.A., is a French multinational telecommunications corporation.
An organization or organisation is an entity comprising multiple people, such as an institution or an association, that has a collective goal and is linked to an external environment.
The OSCE Representative on Freedom of the Media functions as a watchdog on media developments in all 57 participating member states of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE).
The Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model) is a conceptual model that characterizes and standardizes the communication functions of a telecommunication or computing system without regard to its underlying internal structure and technology.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the Internet.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
A packet analyzer (also known as a packet sniffer) is a computer program or piece of computer hardware that can intercept and log traffic that passes over a digital network or part of a network.
A packet capture appliance is a standalone device that performs packet capture.
Packet switching is a method of grouping data which is transmitted over a digital network into packets which are made of a header and a payload.
The Panama Canal (Canal de Panamá) is an artificial waterway in Panama that connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean.
Paul Baran (April 29, 1926 – March 26, 2011) was a Polish-born Jewish American engineer who was a pioneer in the development of computer networks.
A payphone (alternative spelling: pay phone) is typically a coin-operated public telephone, often located in a telephone booth or a privacy hood, with pre-payment by inserting money (usually coins) or by billing a credit or debit card, or a telephone card.
Peer-to-peer (P2P) computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between peers.
According to some finance regulators, while a legal definition of Peer-to-Peer P2P Lending is not yet in existence, the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) the Canadian Intellectual Property Office (CIPO) and the United States Government Accountability Office (GAO) acknowledge that Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Lending (synonymous with the term Person-to-Person Lending, "Private Lending", "Cryptolending"), also known as P2P Lending is the "practice of lending/investing or borrowing money from one private individual (or person) to another private individual (or person).
In computer networking, peering is a voluntary interconnection of administratively separate Internet networks for the purpose of exchanging traffic between the users of each network.
Pen pals (or penpals, pen-pals, penfriends or pen friends) are people who regularly write to each other, particularly via postal mail.
A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.
A personal digital assistant (PDA), also known as a handheld PC, is a variety mobile device which functions as a personal information manager.
Personal information, described in United States legal fields as either personally identifiable information (PII), or sensitive personal information (SPI), as used in information security and privacy laws, is information that can be used on its own or with other information to identify, contact, or locate a single person, or to identify an individual in context.
Peter Thomas Kirstein (born 1933) is a British computer scientist who played a role in the creation of the Internet; he is "often recognized as the father of the European Internet".
Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.
Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, and is the county seat of Allegheny County.
In computing, plain text is the data (e.g. file contents) that represent only characters of readable material but not its graphical representation nor other objects (images, etc.). It may also include a limited number of characters that control simple arrangement of text, such as line breaks or tabulation characters.
A podcast, or generically netcast, is an episodic series of digital audio or video files which a user can download and listen to.
A portable media player (PMP) or digital audio player (DAP) is a portable consumer electronics device capable of storing and playing digital media such as audio, images, and video files.
A portmanteau or portmanteau word is a linguistic blend of words,, p. 644 in which parts of multiple words or their phones (sounds) are combined into a new word, as in smog, coined by blending smoke and fog, or motel, from motor and hotel.
Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey.
Prior art (state of the art or background art), in most systems of patent law, is constituted by all information that has been made available to the public in any form before a given date that might be relevant to a patent's claims of originality.
Productivity software (sometimes called personal productivity software or office productivity software) is application software dedicated to producing information, such as documents, presentations, worksheets, databases, charts, graphs, digital paintings, electronic music and digital video.
In marketing, promotion refers to any type of marketing communication used to inform or persuade target audiences of the relative merits of a product, service, brand or issue.
A proper noun is a noun that in its primary application refers to a unique entity, such as London, Jupiter, Sarah, or Microsoft, as distinguished from a common noun, which usually refers to a class of entities (city, planet, person, corporation), or non-unique instances of a specific class (a city, another planet, these persons, our corporation).
Various researchers have undertaken efforts to examine the psychological effects of Internet use.
Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing the spread of information between an individual or an organization (such as a business, government agency, or a nonprofit organization) and the public.
The public sphere (German Öffentlichkeit) is an area in social life where individuals can come together to freely discuss and identify societal problems, and through that discussion influence political action.
Publishing is the dissemination of literature, music, or information—the activity of making information available to the general public.
Queens is the easternmost and largest in area of the five boroughs of New York City.
Ransomware is a type of malicious software from cryptovirology that threatens to publish the victim's data or perpetually block access to it unless a ransom is paid.
Reddit (stylized in its logo as reddit) is an American social news aggregation, web content rating, and discussion website.
A regional Internet registry (RIR) is an organization that manages the allocation and registration of Internet number resources within a particular region of the world.
Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) is a proprietary protocol developed by Microsoft, which provides a user with a graphical interface to connect to another computer over a network connection.
In information and communications technology, a Request for Comments (RFC) is a type of publication from the technology community.
Ricochet was one of the pioneering wireless Internet access services in the United States, before Wi-Fi, 3G, and other technologies were available to the general public.
Réseaux IP Européens (RIPE, French for "European IP Networks") is a forum open to all parties with an interest in the technical development of the Internet.
A role-playing video game (commonly referred to as simply a role-playing game or an RPG as well as a computer role-playing game or a CRPG) is a video game genre where the player controls the actions of a character (and/or several party members) immersed in some well-defined world.
A routing protocol specifies how routers communicate with each other, distributing information that enables them to select routes between any two nodes on a computer network.
In computer networking a routing table, or routing information base (RIB), is a data table stored in a router or a networked computer that lists the routes to particular network destinations, and in some cases, metrics (distances) associated with those routes.
Safari is a web browser developed by Apple based on the WebKit engine.
Sales is activity related to selling or the amount of goods or services sold in a given time period.
San Francisco (initials SF;, Spanish for 'Saint Francis'), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California.
Satellite Internet access is Internet access provided through communications satellites.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
A scale-free network is a network whose degree distribution follows a power law, at least asymptotically.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
A screenshot (or screen grab) is a digital image of what should be visible on a monitor, television, or other visual output device.
Search engine marketing (SEM) is a form of Internet marketing that involves the promotion of websites by increasing their visibility in search engine results pages (SERPs) primarily through paid advertising.
Search engine optimization (SEO) is the process of affecting the online visibility of a website or a web page in a web search engine's unpaid results—often referred to as "natural", "organic", or "earned" results.
In computing, a server is a computer program or a device that provides functionality for other programs or devices, called "clients".
Siemens AG is a German conglomerate company headquartered in Berlin and Munich and the largest industrial manufacturing company in Europe with branch offices abroad.
Small businesses are privately owned corporations, partnerships, or sole proprietorships that have fewer employees and/or less annual revenue than a regular-sized business or corporation.
A smartphone is a handheld personal computer with a mobile operating system and an integrated mobile broadband cellular network connection for voice, SMS, and Internet data communication; most, if not all, smartphones also support Wi-Fi.
A social experiment is a research project conducted with human subjects in the real world.
Social media are computer-mediated technologies that facilitate the creation and sharing of information, ideas, career interests and other forms of expression via virtual communities and networks.
A social networking service (also social networking site, SNS or social media) is a web application that people use to build social networks or social relations with other people who share similar personal or career interests, activities, backgrounds or real-life connections.
Social peer-to-peer processes are interactions with a peer-to-peer dynamic.
The sociology of the Internet involves the application of sociological theory and method to the Internet as a source of information and communication.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
Electronic spamming is the use of electronic messaging systems to send an unsolicited message (spam), especially advertising, as well as sending messages repeatedly on the same site.
Spyware is software that aims to gather information about a person or organization sometimes without their knowledge, that may send such information to another entity without the consumer's consent, that asserts control over a device without the consumer's knowledge, or it may send such information to another entity with the consumer's consent, through cookies.
SRI International (SRI) is an American nonprofit research institute headquartered in Menlo Park, California.
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.
Strategic planning is an organization's process of defining its strategy, or direction, and making decisions on allocating its resources to pursue this strategy.
Streaming media is multimedia that is constantly received by and presented to an end-user while being delivered by a provider.
Streaming television (or streaming TV) is the digital distribution of television content, such as TV shows, as streaming video delivered over the Internet.
A submarine communications cable is a cable laid on the sea bed between land-based stations to carry telecommunication signals across stretches of ocean and sea.
A supercomputer is a computer with a high level of performance compared to a general-purpose computer.
A supply chain is a system of organizations, people, activities, information, and resources involved in moving a product or service from supplier to customer.
In commerce, supply chain management (SCM), the management of the flow of goods and services, involves the movement and storage of raw materials, of work-in-process inventory, and of finished goods from point of origin to point of consumption.
A system administrator, or sysadmin, is a person who is responsible for the upkeep, configuration, and reliable operation of computer systems; especially multi-user computers, such as servers.
Tanum Municipality (Tanums kommun) is a municipality in Västra Götaland County in western Sweden.
TeamSpeak is a proprietary voice-over-Internet Protocol (VoIP) application for audio communication between users on a chat channel, much like a telephone conference call.
Telecommuting, also called telework, teleworking, working from home, mobile work, remote work, and flexible workplace, is a work arrangement in which employees do not commute or travel (e.g. by bus or car) to a central place of work, such as an office building, warehouse, or store.
Telenet was an American commercial packet switched network which went into service in 1974.
Terrestrial or broadcast television is a type of television broadcasting in which the television signal is transmitted by radio waves from the terrestrial (Earth based) transmitter of a television station to a TV receiver having an antenna.
Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people; or fear to achieve a financial, political, religious or ideological aim.
The Hertz Corporation, a subsidiary of Hertz Global Holdings Inc., is an American car rental company based in Estero, Florida that operates 9,700 international corporate and franchisee locations.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Register (nicknamed El Reg) is a British technology news and opinion website co-founded in 1994 by Mike Magee, John Lettice and Ross Alderson.
A Tier 1 network is an Internet Protocol (IP) network that can reach every other network on the Internet solely via settlement-free interconnection, also known as settlement-free peering.
A Tier 2 network is an Internet service provider which engages in the practice of peering with other networks, but which also purchases IP transit to reach some portion of the Internet.
Sir Timothy John Berners-Lee (born 8 June 1955), also known as TimBL, is an English engineer and computer scientist, best known as the inventor of the World Wide Web.
Toronto is the capital city of the province of Ontario and the largest city in Canada by population, with 2,731,571 residents in 2016.
Traffic analysis is the process of intercepting and examining messages in order to deduce information from patterns in communication, which can be performed even when the messages are encrypted.
In computer networking, the transport layer is a conceptual division of methods in the layered architecture of protocols in the network stack in the Internet Protocol Suite and the OSI model.
Tunis (تونس) is the capital and the largest city of Tunisia.
Twitter is an online news and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets".
Tymnet was an international data communications network headquartered in Cupertino, California that used virtual call packet switched technology and X.25, SNA/SDLC, ASCII and BSC interfaces to connect host computers (servers) at thousands of large companies, educational institutions, and government agencies.
Uber Technologies Inc. (doing business as Uber) is a peer-to-peer ridesharing, taxi cab, food delivery, and transportation network company headquartered in San Francisco, California, with operations in 633 cities worldwide.
The UCLA Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science (HSSEAS), informally known as UCLA Engineering, is the school of engineering at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
A Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) is a string of characters designed for unambiguous identification of resources and extensibility via the URI scheme.
An uninterruptible power supply or uninterruptible power source (UPS) is an electrical apparatus that provides emergency power to a load when the input power source or mains power fails.
The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.
The United States Department of Commerce is the Cabinet department of the United States government concerned with promoting economic growth.
The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) is an agency in the U.S. Department of Commerce that issues patents to inventors and businesses for their inventions, and trademark registration for product and intellectual property identification.
University College London (UCL) is a public research university in London, England, and a constituent college of the federal University of London.
The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) is a public research university in the Westwood district of Los Angeles, United States.
The University of California, Santa Barbara (commonly referred to as UC Santa Barbara or UCSB) is a public research university and one of the 10 campuses of the University of California system.
The University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) is a public research university located in Chicago, Illinois, United States.
The University of London (abbreviated as Lond. or more rarely Londin. in post-nominals) is a collegiate and a federal research university located in London, England.
The University of Utah (also referred to as the U, U of U, or Utah) is a public coeducational space-grant research university in Salt Lake City, Utah, United States.
A Uniform Resource Locator (URL), colloquially termed a web address, is a reference to a web resource that specifies its location on a computer network and a mechanism for retrieving it.
Usenet is a worldwide distributed discussion system available on computers.
UUCP is an abbreviation of Unix-to-Unix Copy.
A value chain is a set of activities that a firm operating in a specific industry performs in order to deliver a valuable product or service for the market.
Ventrilo (or Vent for short) is a proprietary VoIP software that includes text chat.
Video clips are short clips of video, usually part of a longer recording.
Videotelephony comprises the technologies for the reception and transmission of audio-video signals by users at different locations, for communication between people in real-time.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
Vinton Gray Cerf ForMemRS, (born June 23, 1943) is an American Internet pioneer, who is recognized as one of "the fathers of the Internet", sharing this title with TCP/IP co-inventor Bob Kahn.
Viral marketing or viral advertising is a business strategy that uses existing social networks to promote a product.
Virginia (officially the Commonwealth of Virginia) is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains.
A virtual community is a social network of individuals who interact through specific social media, potentially crossing geographical and political boundaries in order to pursue mutual interests or goals.
A virtual private network (VPN) extends a private network across a public network, and enables users to send and receive data across shared or public networks as if their computing devices were directly connected to the private network.
A virtual university provides higher education programs through electronic media, typically the Internet.
Voice over Internet Protocol (also voice over IP, VoIP or IP telephony) is a methodology and group of technologies for the delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol (IP) networks, such as the Internet.
A walkie-talkie (more formally known as a handheld transceiver, or HT) is a hand-held, portable, two-way radio transceiver.
In computing, a web application or web app is a client–server computer program which the client (including the user interface and client-side logic) runs in a web browser.
A web banner or banner ad is a form of advertising on the World Wide Web delivered by an ad server.
A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a software application for accessing information on the World Wide Web.
On the World Wide Web, a web feed (or news feed) is a data format used for providing users with frequently updated content.
A web page (also written as webpage) is a document that is suitable for the World Wide Web and web browsers.
The concept of a web resource is primitive in the web architecture, and is used in the definition of its fundamental elements.
A web search engine is a software system that is designed to search for information on the World Wide Web.
Web server refers to server software, or hardware dedicated to running said software, that can serve contents to the World Wide Web.
The term web service is either.
A webcam is a video camera that feeds or streams its image in real time to or through a computer to a computer network.
A webcast is a media presentation distributed over the Internet using streaming media technology to distribute a single content source to many simultaneous listeners/viewers.
A website is a collection of related web pages, including multimedia content, typically identified with a common domain name, and published on at least one web server.
Wi-Fi or WiFi is technology for radio wireless local area networking of devices based on the IEEE 802.11 standards.
A wiki is a website on which users collaboratively modify content and structure directly from the web browser.
Wikipedia Zero was a project by the Wikimedia Foundation to provide Wikipedia free of charge on mobile phones via zero-rating, particularly in developing markets.
Wireless communication, or sometimes simply wireless, is the transfer of information or power between two or more points that are not connected by an electrical conductor.
Wireless community networks or wireless community projects are the organizations that attempt to take a grassroots approach to providing a viable alternative to municipal wireless networks for consumers.
The World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) was a two-phase United Nations-sponsored summit on information, communication and, in broad terms, the information society that took place in 2003 in Geneva and in 2005 in Tunis.
The World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or the Web) is an information space where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators (URLs), interlinked by hypertext links, and accessible via the Internet.
WorldWideWeb (later renamed to Nexus to avoid confusion between the software and the World Wide Web) was the first web browser and editor.
X.25 is an ITU-T standard protocol suite for packet switched wide area network (WAN) communication.
Yahoo! Search is a web search engine owned by Yahoo, headquartered in Sunnyvale, California.
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California.
Zero-rating is the practice of providing Internet access without financial cost under certain conditions, such as by only permitting access to certain websites or by subsidizing the service with advertising.
Zidisha is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization that allows people to lend small amounts of money directly to entrepreneurs in developing countries.
The 2008 submarine cable disruptions were three separate incidents of major damage to submarine optical communication cables around the world.
3G, short for third generation, is the third generation of wireless mobile telecommunications technology.
4G is the fourth generation of broadband cellular network technology, succeeding 3G.
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