262 relations: Acute radiation syndrome, Africa, Agence France-Presse, Aid effectiveness, Albania, Alger Hiss, Alliance for Healthy Cities, Americas, Anders Nordström, Andrija Štampar, Antimalarial medication, Arab League, Asia, Assad Hafeez, Associated Press, Barbados, BCG vaccine, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, BioMed Central, Botswana, Brazil, Brazzaville, Brock Chisholm, Bubonic plague, Bulletin of the World Health Organization, Cairo, Carissa F. Etienne, Catholic Church, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Centre national de la recherche scientifique, Chernobyl disaster, Childhood, China, Chinese Taipei, Cholera, Clinical trial, Condom, Constitution, Cook Islands, Copenhagen, Courtyard, Craig David, CRVS (Civil Registration and Vital Statistic), Death, Deutsche Post of the GDR, Developing country, Diabetes mellitus, Disease, Disease surveillance, Djibouti, ..., Dominican Republic, Drinking water quality standards, Drug, Drug resistance, Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, Ebola virus disease, Egypt, El Paso, Texas, Epidemiology, Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS, Eradication of infectious diseases, Essential medicines, European Union, Evidence-Informed Policy Network, Expanded Program on Immunization, Food and Agriculture Organization, Food safety, Food security, French language, Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, Gaza Strip, Geneva, Global health, Global mental health, Global Polio Eradication Initiative, Glyphosate, Gro Harlem Brundtland, Guinea, Guyana, Halfdan T. Mahler, Health For All, Health human resources, Health Metrics Network, Health policy, Health promotion, Health Sciences Online, Health system, Healthy city, Healthy diet, High 5s Project, HINARI, Hiroshi Nakajima, History of Libya under Muammar Gaddafi, HIV/AIDS, Holy See, Human Resources for Health, Human Rights Day, Hungary, India, Infant, Infant mortality, Infection, Influenza vaccine, Injury prevention, Insecticide, Intermittent preventive therapy, International Agency for Research on Cancer, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, International Classification of Health Interventions, International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes, International Committee of the Red Cross, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, International Health Partnership, International Health Regulations, International Labour Organization, International Monetary Fund, International Sanitary Conferences, International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Israel, Jet Li, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, Kobe, League of Nations, Lee Jong-wook, Leslie Ramsammy, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, List of most polluted cities by particulate matter concentration, List of pollution-related diseases, List of specialized agencies of the United Nations, Lists of nuclear disasters and radioactive incidents, Logo, Lyon, Malaria, Malaria vaccine, Manila, Marcolino Gomes Candau, Margaret Chan, Maternal health, Measles, Medical classification, Mental disorder, Micronesia, Middle East, Millennium Development Goals, Morocco, Mosquito net, Nancy Brinker, New Delhi, Niue, Non-communicable disease, Non-governmental organization, North Korea, Norway, Nuclear power, Observer status, Office International d'Hygiène Publique, Oman, Onchocerciasis, Open Learning for Development, Pakistan, Palace of Nations, Pan American Health Organization, Pan American Journal of Public Health, Pandemic H1N1/09 virus, Partnership for Maternal, Newborn & Child Health, Pediatric nursing, Peng Liyuan, Poliomyelitis, Pope Benedict XVI, Postage stamps and postal history of Hungary, President of Zimbabwe, Pristina, Public health, Puerto Rico, Reflecting pool, Reproductive health, Resident Coordinator, Reuters, Robert Mugabe, Rockefeller Foundation, Rod of Asclepius, Roman Curia, Rotary International, RTS,S, Russia, Safe sex, Science (journal), Serbia, Sexually transmitted infection, Sierra Leone, Smallpox, Somalia, South Korea, Sovereign Military Order of Malta, Soviet Union, Stairs, State of Palestine, Stop TB Partnership, Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health, Sudan, Sustainable development, Switzerland, Szeming Sze, Taiwan, Tajikistan, Tedros Adhanom, Telex, The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, The Guardian, The Lancet, The New York Times, Timeline of global health, Tokelau, Tropical disease, Tuberculosis, Tunisia, Turkey, UNICEF, United Nations Development Group, United Nations Development Programme, United Nations Economic and Social Council, United Nations Interagency Task Force on the Prevention and Control of NCDs, United Nations System, United States House of Representatives, Uzbekistan, Vector (epidemiology), Vienna Philharmonic, Viktor Zhdanov, Visual impairment, Washington, D.C., West Africa, West African Ebola virus epidemic, West Bank, WHO Centre for Health Development, WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization, WHO Expert Committee on Leprosy, WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme, WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean, WHO Surgical Safety Checklist, Women in Europe for a Common Future, World AIDS Day, World Bank, World Blood Donor Day, World Health Assembly, World Health Day, World Health Organization, World Health Organization Goodwill Ambassador, World Health Report, World Hepatitis Day, World Immunization Week, World Malaria Day, World No Tobacco Day, World Tuberculosis Day, World War II, Yōhei Sasakawa, Yellow fever, Zimbabwe, 1972 Yugoslav smallpox outbreak. 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Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) is a collection of health effects that are present within 24 hours of exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France.
Aid effectiveness is the effectiveness of development aid in achieving economic or human development (or development targets).
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.
Alger Hiss (November 11, 1904 – November 15, 1996) was an American government official who was accused of being a Soviet spy in 1948 and convicted of perjury in connection with this charge in 1950.
The Alliance for Healthy Cities (AFHC) is a cooperative international alliance aimed at protecting and enhancing the health and health care of city dwellers.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
Anders Nordström (born 9 March 1960) is a Swedish physician who served as Acting Director-General of the World Health Organization (WHO) from 22 May 2006 to 8 November 2006.
Andrija Štampar (1 September 1888 – 26 June 1958) was a distinguished scholar in the field of social medicine from Croatia.
Antimalarial medications, also known as antimalarials, are designed to prevent or cure malaria.
The Arab League (الجامعة العربية), formally the League of Arab States (جامعة الدول العربية), is a regional organization of Arab states in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa and Arabia.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
Barbados is an island country in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies, in the Caribbean region of North America.
Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccine is a vaccine primarily used against tuberculosis (TB).
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF), also known as the Gates Foundation, is a private foundation founded by Bill and Melinda Gates.
BioMed Central (BMC) is a United Kingdom-based, for-profit scientific open access publisher.
Botswana, officially the Republic of Botswana (Lefatshe la Botswana), is a landlocked country located in Southern Africa.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Brazzaville is the capital and largest city of the Republic of the Congo and is on the north side of the Congo River, opposite Kinshasa.
Brock Chisholm, CC, CBE, MC & Bar, ED, (18 May 1896 - 4 February 1971) was a 20th-century Canadian First World War veteran, medical practitioner, well-known psychiatrist, first Director-General of the World Health Organization (WHO), and the 13th officer to serve as the head of the Canadian Army medical service.
Bubonic plague is one of three types of plague caused by bacterium Yersinia pestis.
The Bulletin of the World Health Organization is a monthly public health journal published by the World Health Organization that was established in 1947.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
Carissa F. Etienne is a public health expert from Dominica.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
The French National Center for Scientific Research (Centre national de la recherche scientifique, CNRS) is the largest governmental research organisation in France and the largest fundamental science agency in Europe.
The Chernobyl disaster, also referred to as the Chernobyl accident, was a catastrophic nuclear accident.
Childhood is the age span ranging from birth to adolescence.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
"Chinese Taipei" is the name for Taiwan designated in the Nagoya Resolution whereby the Republic of China (ROC) and the People's Republic of China (PRC) recognize each other when it comes to the activities of the International Olympic Committee.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research.
A condom is a sheath-shaped barrier device, used during sexual intercourse to reduce the probability of pregnancy or a sexually transmitted infection (STI).
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.
The Cook Islands (Cook Islands Māori: Kūki 'Āirani) is a self-governing island country in the South Pacific Ocean in free association with New Zealand.
Copenhagen (København; Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark.
A courtyard or court is a circumscribed area, often surrounded by a building or complex, that is open to the sky.
Craig Ashley David (born 5 May 1981) is an English singer, songwriter and rapper and record producer who rose to fame in 1999, featuring on the single "Re-Rewind" by Artful Dodger.
CRVS (Civil Registration and Vital Statistic) are governmental solutions to declare and record citizen vital statistics in a centralized database.
Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.
The Deutsche Post (DP), also Deutsche Post of the GDR (German: Deutsche Post der DDR) was the state-owned postal and telecommunications monopoly of the German Democratic Republic (GDR - East Germany).
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
Disease surveillance is an epidemiological practice by which the spread of disease is monitored in order to establish patterns of progression.
Djibouti (جيبوتي, Djibouti, Jabuuti, Gabuuti), officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
The Dominican Republic (República Dominicana) is a sovereign state located in the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region.
Drinking water quality standards describes the quality parameters set for drinking water.
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.
Drug resistance is the reduction in effectiveness of a medication such as an antimicrobial or an antineoplastic in curing a disease or condition.
The Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal is a healthcare journal published by the Eastern Mediterranean Regional office of World Health Organisation of the World Health Organization.
Ebola virus disease (EVD), also known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) or simply Ebola, is a viral hemorrhagic fever of humans and other primates caused by ebolaviruses.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
El Paso (from Spanish, "the pass") is a city in and the seat of El Paso County, Texas, United States.
Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.
HIV/AIDS is a global pandemic.
Eradication is the reduction of an infectious disease's prevalence in the global host population to zero.
Essential medicines, as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), are the medicines that "satisfy the priority health care needs of the population".
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Evidence Informed Policy Network (EVIPNet) is a network, sponsored by the World Health Organization (WHO), which attempts to improve public health, especially in developing countries, by coordinating the efforts of policymakers and health researchers.
The Expanded Program on Immunization is a World Health Organization program with the goal to make vaccines available to all children.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
Food safety is a scientific discipline describing handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent food-borne illness.
Food security is a condition related to the availability of food supply, group of people such as (ethnicities, racial, cultural and religious groups) as well as individuals' access to it.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The was an energy accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Ōkuma, Fukushima Prefecture, initiated primarily by the tsunami following the Tōhoku earthquake on 11 March 2011.
The Gaza Strip (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p.761 "Gaza Strip /'gɑːzə/ a strip of territory under the control of the Palestinian National Authority and Hamas, on the SE Mediterranean coast including the town of Gaza...". قطاع غزة), or simply Gaza, is a self-governing Palestinian territory on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, that borders Egypt on the southwest for and Israel on the east and north along a border.
Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.
Global health is the health of populations in the global context; it has been defined as "the area of study, research and practice that places a priority on improving health and achieving equity in health for all people worldwide".
Global mental health is the international perspective on different aspects of mental health.
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative is an initiative created in 1988, just after the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate the disease poliomyelitis by the year 2000.
Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) is a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide and crop desiccant.
Gro Harlem Brundtland (born Gro Harlem, 20 April 1939) is a Norwegian politician, who served three terms as Prime Minister of Norway (1981, 1986–89, and 1990–96) and as Director-General of the World Health Organization from 1998 to 2003.
Guinea, officially the Republic of Guinea (République de Guinée), is a country on the western coast of Africa.
Guyana (pronounced or), officially the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, is a sovereign state on the northern mainland of South America.
Halfdan Theodor Mahler (21 April 1923 – 14 December 2016) was a Danish physician.
Health For All is a programming goal of the World Health Organization (WHO), which envisions securing the health and well being of people around the world that has been popularized since the 1970s.
Health human resources (HHR) – also known as human resources for health (HRH) or health workforce – is defined as "all people engaged in actions whose primary intent is to enhance health", according to the World Health Organization's ''World Health Report 2006''.
The Health Metrics Network (HMN) was a global health partnership focused on strengthening health information systems in low and middle income countries, launched in May 2005 during the 58th session of the and dissolved on 31 May 2013.
Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific healthcare goals within a society".
Health promotion is "any planned combination of educational, political, environmental, regulatory, or organizational mechanisms that support actions and conditions of living conducive to the health of individuals, groups, and communities".
Health Sciences Online (HSO) is a non-profit online health information resource that launched in December 2008.
A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.
Healthy city is a term used in public health and urban design to stress the impact of policy on human health.
A healthy diet is a diet that helps to maintain or improve overall health.
The High 5s Project is an international patient safety collaboration launched by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2006.
HINARI Access to Research in Health Programme was set up by the World Health Organization and major publishers to enable developing countries to access collections of biomedical and health literature.
was a Japanese doctor known chiefly for his tenure as Director-General of the World Health Organization.
Muammar Gaddafi became the de facto leader of Libya on 1 September 1969 after leading a group of young Libyan military officers against King Idris I in a bloodless coup d'état.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.
Human Resources for Health is a peer-reviewed open-access public health journal publishing original research and case studies on issues of information, planning, production, management, and governance of the health workforce, and their links with health care delivery and health outcomes, particularly as related to global health.
Human Rights Day is celebrated annually across the world on 10 December every year.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
An infant (from the Latin word infans, meaning "unable to speak" or "speechless") is the more formal or specialised synonym for "baby", the very young offspring of a human.
Infant mortality refers to deaths of young children, typically those less than one year of age.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Influenza vaccines, also known as flu shots or flu jabs, are vaccines that protect against infection by Influenza viruses.
Injury prevention is an effort to prevent or reduce the severity of bodily injuries caused by external mechanisms, such as accidents, before they occur.
Insecticides are substances used to kill insects.
Intermittent preventive therapy or intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) is a public health intervention aimed at treating and preventing malaria episodes in infants (IPTi), children (IPTc), schoolchildren (IPTsc) and pregnant women (IPTp).
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC; Centre International de Recherche sur le Cancer, CIRC) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organization of the United Nations.
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.
The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is a classification of the health components of functioning and disability.
The International Classification of Health Interventions (ICHI) is a system of classifying procedure codes being developed by the World Health Organization (WHO).
The International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (also known as the WHO Code) is an international health policy framework for breastfeeding promotion adopted by the World Health Assembly (WHA) of the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1981.
The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland, and a three-time Nobel Prize Laureate.
The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies is a worldwide humanitarian aid organization that reaches 160 million people each year through its 190-member National Societies.
The International Health Partnership (IHP+) is a group of partners committed to improving the health of citizens in developing countries.
The International Health Regulations (2005) are a legally binding instrument of international law that aim to a) assist countries to work together to save lives and livelihoods endangered by the international spread of diseases and other health risks, and b) avoid unnecessary interference with international trade and travel. The purpose and scope of IHR 2005 are to prevent, protect against, control and provide a public health response to the international spread of disease in ways that are commensurate with and restricted to public health risks, and which avoid unnecessary interference with international traffic and trade. (Art. 2, IHR (2005)).
The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a United Nations agency dealing with labour problems, particularly international labour standards, social protection, and work opportunities for all.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
The International Sanitary Conferences were a series of 14 conferences, the first of them organized by the French Government in 1851 to standardize international quarantine regulations against the spread of cholera, plague, and yellow fever.
The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the international "standard diagnostic tool for epidemiology, health management and clinical purposes." Its full official name is International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. The ICD is maintained by the World Health Organization (WHO), the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations System.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Li Lianjie (born 26 April 1963), better known by his stage name Jet Li, is a Chinese film actor, film producer, martial artist, and retired Wushu champion who was born in Beijing.
The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS) is the main advocate for accelerated, comprehensive and coordinated global action on the HIV/AIDS pandemic.
is the sixth-largest city in Japan and the capital city of Hyōgo Prefecture.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
Lee Jong-wook (12 April 1945 – 22 May 2006) was a Korean public health doctor.
Leslie Ramsammy (doctor) is a minister of agriculture in Guyana.
Liberia, officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the West African coast.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
Liechtenstein, officially the Principality of Liechtenstein (Fürstentum Liechtenstein), is a doubly landlocked German-speaking microstate in Central Europe.
This list contains the top 500 cities by PM2.5 annual mean concentration measurement whose measurement is greater than or equal to the air quality guideline (AQG) of 10 as documented by the World Health Organization covering the period from 2008 to 2015, with the majority of values being more recent than 2013.
Diseases caused by pollution lead to the deaths of about 8.4 million people each year.
Specialized agencies are autonomous organizations working with the United Nations and each other through the coordinating machinery of the United Nations Economic and Social Council at the intergovernmental level, and through the Chief Executives Board for coordination (CEB) at the inter-secretariat level.
These are lists of nuclear disasters and radioactive incidents.
A logo (abbreviation of logotype, from λόγος logos "word" and τύπος typos "imprint") is a graphic mark, emblem, or symbol used to aid and promote public identification and recognition.
Lyon (Liyon), is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
Malaria vaccine is a vaccine that is used to prevent malaria.
Manila (Maynilà, or), officially the City of Manila (Lungsod ng Maynilà), is the capital of the Philippines and the most densely populated city proper in the world.
Marcolino Gomes Candau (30 May 1911 – 23 January 1983) MPH, FRCP, M.D. was a Brazilian medical doctor and served with the United Nations.
Margaret Chan Fung Fu-chun,, JP (born August 21, 1947) is a Chinese-Canadian physician, who served as the Director-General of the World Health Organization (WHO) delegating the People's Republic of China for 2006–2017.
Maternal health is the health of women during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period.
Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the measles virus.
Medical classification, or medical coding, is the process of transforming descriptions of medical diagnoses and procedures into universal medical code numbers.
A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.
Micronesia ((); from μικρός mikrós "small" and νῆσος nêsos "island") is a subregion of Oceania, composed of thousands of small islands in the western Pacific Ocean.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were the eight international development goals for the year 2015 that had been established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium Declaration.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
A mosquito net offers protection against mosquitos, flies, and other insects, and thus against the diseases they may carry.
Nancy Goodman Brinker (born December 6, 1946) is the founder and Chair of Global Strategy of Susan G. Komen, an organization named after her only sister, Susan, who died from breast cancer in 1980 at age 36.
New Delhi is an urban district of Delhi which serves as the capital of India and seat of all three branches of Government of India.
Niue (Niuean: Niuē) is an island country in the South Pacific Ocean, northeast of New Zealand, east of Tonga, south of Samoa, and west of the Cook Islands.
A non-communicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is not caused by infectious agents (non-infectious or non-transmissible).
Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations, commonly referred to as NGOs, are usually non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations (though often funded by governments) that are active in humanitarian, educational, health care, public policy, social, human rights, environmental, and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.
Observer status is a privilege granted by some organizations to non-members to give them an ability to participate in the organization's activities.
The Office International d'Hygiène Publique (OIHP) (International Office of Public Hygiene) was an international organization founded 9 December 1907 and based in Paris, France.
Oman (عمان), officially the Sultanate of Oman (سلطنة عُمان), is an Arab country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.
Onchocerciasis, also known as river blindness, is a disease caused by infection with the parasitic worm Onchocerca volvulus.
Open learning for development describes the Open Training Platform, a UNESCO-driven online hub offering free training and learning resources on a wide range of development topics.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Palace of Nations (Palais des Nations) is the home of the United Nations Office at Geneva, located in Geneva, Switzerland.
The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO; originally the Pan-American Sanitary Bureau) is an international public health agency working to improve health and living standards of the people of the Americas.
The Pan American Journal of Public Health (Spanish: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública) is a peer-reviewed open-access public health journal covering research and case studies on issues of public health significance, mainly in areas related to national and local health systems, to improve the health of the peoples of the Americas.
The Pandemic H1N1/09 virus is a swine origin Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 virus strain responsible for the 2009 flu pandemic.
The Partnership for Maternal, Newborn & Child Health (PMNCH) is a multi-constituency partnership hosted by the World Health Organization and chaired by Graça Machel.
Pediatric nursing is the medical care of neonates and children up to adolescence, usually in an in-patient hospital or day-clinic.
Peng Liyuan (born 20 November 1962) is a Chinese contemporary folk singer and performing artist.
Poliomyelitis, often called polio or infantile paralysis, is an infectious disease caused by the poliovirus.
Pope Benedict XVI (Benedictus XVI; Benedetto XVI; Benedikt XVI; born Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger;; 16 April 1927) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 2005 until his resignation in 2013.
The postal history of Hungary is strongly linked to the history of Hungary.
The President of Zimbabwe is the head of state of Zimbabwe.
Pristina (Prishtina or Prishtinë) or Priština (Приштина), is the capital and largest city of Kosovo.
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".
Puerto Rico (Spanish for "Rich Port"), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, "Free Associated State of Puerto Rico") and briefly called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea.
A reflecting pool or reflection pool is a water feature found in gardens, parks, and at memorial sites.
Within the framework of the World Health Organization's (WHO) definition of health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, reproductive health, or sexual health/hygiene, addresses the reproductive processes, functions and system at all stages of life.
A United Nations Resident Coordinator is the highest United Nations official and the chief of UN diplomatic mission in a country (except when there is a mission of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations or similar, in which case the Special Representative of the Secretary-General is the highest official).
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
Robert Gabriel Mugabe (born 21 February 1924) is a former Zimbabwean politician and revolutionary who served as Prime Minister of Zimbabwe from 1980 to 1987 and then as President from 1987 to 2017.
The Rockefeller Foundation is a private foundation based at 420 Fifth Avenue, New York City.
In Greek mythology, the Rod of Asclepius (Greek: Ράβδος του Ασκληπιού Rábdos tou Asklipioú; Unicode symbol: ⚕), also known as the Staff of Asclepius (sometimes also spelled Asklepios or Aesculapius) and as the asklepian, is a serpent-entwined rod wielded by the Greek god Asclepius, a deity associated with healing and medicine.
The Roman Curia is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See and the central body through which the Roman Pontiff conducts the affairs of the universal Catholic Church.
Rotary International is an international service organization whose stated purpose is to bring together business and professional leaders in order to provide humanitarian services, encourage high ethical standards in all vocations, and to advance goodwill and peace around the world.
RTS,S/AS01 — trade name Mosquirix — is a recombinant protein-based malaria vaccine.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Safe sex is sexual activity engaged in by people who have taken precautions to protect themselves against sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as HIV.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
Sexually transmitted infections (STI), also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases (STD) or venereal diseases (VD), are infections that are commonly spread by sexual activity, especially vaginal intercourse, anal sex and oral sex.
Sierra Leone, officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa.
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
The Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and of Malta (Supremus Ordo Militaris Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani Rhodius et Melitensis), also known as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM) or the Order of Malta, is a Catholic lay religious order traditionally of military, chivalrous and noble nature.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
A stairway, staircase, stairwell, flight of stairs, or simply stairs is a construction designed to bridge a large vertical distance by dividing it into smaller vertical distances, called steps.
Palestine (فلسطين), officially the State of Palestine (دولة فلسطين), is a ''de jure'' sovereign state in the Middle East claiming the West Bank (bordering Israel and Jordan) and Gaza Strip (bordering Israel and Egypt) with East Jerusalem as the designated capital, although its administrative center is currently located in Ramallah.
The Stop TB Partnership was established in 2000 to eliminate tuberculosis as a public health problem.
The Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) is run by the World Health Organization.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
Sustainable development is the organizing principle for meeting human development goals while at the same time sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services upon which the economy and society depend.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Szeming Sze (Chinese: 施思明, Pinyin: Shī Sīmíng; April 5, 1908 – October 27, 1998) was a prominent Chinese diplomat and the co-founder who helped build the World Health Organization into a specialized United Nations agency.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Tajikistan (or; Тоҷикистон), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhuriyi Tojikiston), is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an estimated population of million people as of, and an area of.
Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus (Ge'ez: ቴዎድሮስ አድሓኖም ገብረኢየሱስ; born 1965) is an Ethiopian politician, academic, and public-health authority as well as Director-General of the World Health Organization (WHO).
The telex network was a public switched network of teleprinters similar to a telephone network, for the purposes of sending text-based messages.
The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (or simply the Global Fund) is an international financing organization that aims to "ttract and disburse additional resources to prevent and treat HIV and AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria." A public-private partnership, the organization maintains its secretariat in Geneva, Switzerland.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Lancet is a weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
This page is a timeline of global health, including major conferences, interventions, cures, and crises.
Tokelau (previously known as the Union Islands, and officially as Tokelau Islands until 1976;; lit. "north-northeast") is an island country and dependent territory of New Zealand in the southern Pacific Ocean.
Tropical diseases are diseases that are prevalent in or unique to tropical and subtropical regions.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) is a United Nations (UN) program headquartered in New York City that provides humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries.
The United Nations Development Group (UNDG) is a consortium of many United Nations agencies, created by the Secretary-General of the United Nations in 1997 to improve the effectiveness of UN development activities at the country level.
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the United Nations' global development network.
The United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC; Conseil économique et social des Nations unies, CESNU) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, responsible for coordinating the economic, social, and related work of 15 UN specialized agencies, their functional commissions and five regional commissions.
The was established by the United Nations Secretary-General in 2013 in order to provide scaled up action across the UN system to support governments, in particular in low- and middle-income countries, to tackle non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, and chronic respiratory disease.
The United Nations System consists of the United Nations, and the six principal organs of the United Nations: the General Assembly, Security Council, Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), Trusteeship Council, International Court of Justice (ICJ), and the UN Secretariat, specialized agencies, and affiliated organizations.
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber.
Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.
In epidemiology, a disease vector is any agent that carries and transmits an infectious pathogen into another living organism; most agents regarded as vectors are organisms, such as intermediate parasites or microbes, but it could be an inanimate medium of infection such as dust particles.
The Vienna Philharmonic (VPO; Wiener Philharmoniker), founded in 1842, is an orchestra considered to be one of the finest in the world.
Viktor Mikhailovich Zhdanov (Виктор Михайлович Ждaнов) (13 February 1914 – 1987) was a Soviet virologist.
Visual impairment, also known as vision impairment or vision loss, is a decreased ability to see to a degree that causes problems not fixable by usual means, such as glasses.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
The West African Ebola virus epidemic (2013–2016) was the most widespread outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in history—causing major loss of life and socioeconomic disruption in the region, mainly in the countries of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone.
The West Bank (الضفة الغربية; הגדה המערבית, HaGadah HaMa'aravit) is a landlocked territory near the Mediterranean coast of Western Asia, the bulk of it now under Israeli control, or else under joint Israeli-Palestinian Authority control.
The WHO Centre for Health Development (WKC) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organisation of the United Nations, as one of the centres in the WHO Health Systems and Innovation Cluster.
WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization is a functioning body of World Health Organization.
WHO Expert Committee on Leprosy is constituted by World Health Organization to study the worldwide progress of Leprosy.
The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) is a treaty adopted by the 56th World Health Assembly held in Geneva, Switzerland on 21 May 2003.
The World Health Organization (WHO) Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES) was established in 1960 for setting norms and standards for public health pesticides.
The WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean is the regional office of the World Health Organization that serves 22 countries and territories in the Middle East, the North Africa, the Horn of Africa and Central Asia.
The World Health Organization (WHO) published the WHO Surgical Safety Checklist and Implementation Manual in 2008 in order to increase the safety of patients undergoing surgery.
Women Engage for a Common Future (former Women in Europe for a Common Future) (WECF) is a non-governmental organization established in 1994 following the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, to give women a stronger voice in the field of sustainable development and environment.
World AIDS Day, designated on 1 December every year since 1988, is an international day dedicated to raising awareness of the AIDS pandemic caused by the spread of HIV infection and mourning those who have died of the disease.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
Every year on 14 June, countries around the world celebrate World Blood Donor Day (WBDD).
The World Health Assembly (WHA) is the forum through which the World Health Organization (WHO) is governed by its 194 member states.
The World Health Day is a global health awareness day celebrated every year on 7 April, under the sponsorship of the World Health Organization (WHO), as well as other related organisations.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
WHO Goodwill Ambassadors are celebrity advocates of the World Health Organization (WHO) and use their talent and fame to advocate for health and well-being.
The World Health Report (WHR) is a series of reports produced regularly by the World Health Organization (WHO).
World Hepatitis Day, observed on July 28 every year, aims to raise global awareness of hepatitis — a group of infectious diseases known as Hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E — and encourage prevention, diagnosis and treatment.
World Immunization Week is a global public health campaign to raise awareness and increase rates of immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases around the world.
World Malaria Day (WMD) is an international observance commemorated every year on 25 April and recognizes global efforts to control malaria.
World No Tobacco Day (WNTD) is observed around the world every year on 31 May.
World Tuberculosis Day, observed on 24 March each year, is designed to build public awareness about the global epidemic of tuberculosis (TB) and efforts to eliminate the disease.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
is chairman of The Nippon Foundation, the World Health Organization Goodwill Ambassador for Leprosy Elimination, and Japan's Ambassador for the Human Rights of People Affected by leprosy.
Yellow fever is a viral disease of typically short duration.
Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of roughly million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then government and from which it withdrew from in December 2003. It is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator". The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état. On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed.
The 1972 Yugoslav smallpox outbreak was the last major outbreak of smallpox in Europe.
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