227 relations: Ab Urbe Condita Libri, Achaea (Roman province), Aedile, Aemilia (gens), Agamemnon, Ambitus, Ambrosius Aurelianus, Ammianus Marcellinus, Ancient Carthage, Ancient Rome, Annals (Tacitus), Annia Galeria Aurelia Faustina, Anthony Birley, Antiochus III the Great, Antoninus Pius, Appian, Appius Claudius Pulcher (consul 212 BC), Asconius Pedianus, Asia (Roman province), Augustan History, Aulus Cornelius Celsus, Aurelia Cotta, Aurelian, Aurelius and Natalia, Aurelius Opilius, Aurelius Valerius Tullianus Symmachus, Aurelius Victor, Battle of Arausio, Benet Salway, Biga (chariot), Bithynia and Pontus, Boethius, Boiorix, Brutus (Cicero), Capri, Caracalla, Carus, Cassius Dio, Catiline, Catiline Orations, Centaur, Cicero, Cimbri, Classical Association, Clodius Albinus, Clytemnestra, Codex Theodosianus, Cognomen, Columella, Commentarii de Bello Civili, ..., Commodus, Constantine the Great, Constitutio Antoniniana, Contarini, Cornelius Nepos, Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, De Legibus, De Officiis, De Oratore, De viris illustribus, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, Digest (Roman law), Divinatio in Caecilium, Domitian, Epistulae ad Atticum, Epistulae ad Familiares, Erinyes, Eutropius (historian), Factorum ac dictorum memorabilium libri IX, Fadilla, Fasti Capitolini, Fasti Potentini, Faustina the Younger, First Catilinarian conspiracy, First Punic War, Flavius Aetius, Frontinus, Gaius (praenomen), Gaius Aurelius Cotta, Gaius Duilius, Gaius Gracchus, Gaius Julius Caesar, Gaius Julius Caesar (proconsul), Gaius Marius, Gaius Norbanus, Galen, Gallia Narbonensis, Gauls, Gens, Germania (book), Gnaeus (praenomen), Gnaeus Aufidius Orestes, Gnaeus Claudius Severus (consul 167), Gratian, Hadrian, Herodian, Himera, Hispania Citerior, Historicity of King Arthur, Histories (Tacitus), Horace, In Verrem, Institutio Oratoria, Jan Gruter, Joannes Zonaras, Johann Christian Wernsdorf, Joseph Hilarius Eckhel, Julius Caesar, L'Année épigraphique, Latin, Legatus, Legio III Gallica, Legislative assemblies of the Roman Republic, Lex Aurelia iudiciaria, Ligures, Lipari, List of Roman gentes, List of Roman moneyers during the Republic, Livy, Lucilla, Lucius (praenomen), Lucius Antistius Burrus, Lucius Aurelius Avianius Symmachus, Lucius Aurelius Commodus Pompeianus, Lucius Aurelius Cotta (consul 119 BC), Lucius Aurelius Cotta (consul 144 BC), Lucius Aurelius Cotta (consul 65 BC), Lucius Aurelius Gallus (suffect consul), Lucius Aurelius Orestes (consul 157 BC), Lucius Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus, Lucius Furius Purpureo, Lucius Verus, Ludovico Antonio Muratori, Magister equitum, Mamercus Aemilius Lepidus Livianus, Marcus (praenomen), Marcus Aurelius, Marcus Aurelius Cleander, Marcus Aurelius Cotta (consul 74 BC), Marcus Aurelius Cotta Maximus Messalinus, Marcus Aurelius Scaurus, Marcus Caelius Rufus, Marcus Peducaeus Plautius Quintillus, Marcus Valerius Messalla Corvinus, Marcus Velleius Paterculus, Martyrs of Córdoba, Michael Crawford (historian), Military tribune, Mithridates VI of Pontus, Moesia, Moneyer, Mycenae, Natural History (Pliny), Nîmes, Nemesianus, Nero, Optimates, Orestes, Orosius, Ovid, Palmyrene Empire, Patrician (ancient Rome), Paul the Deacon, Philip V of Macedon, Philippicae, Plebs, Pliny the Elder, Pozzuoli, Praefectus annonae, Praenomen, Praetor, Proconsul, Prudentius, Publius (praenomen), Publius Rutilius Rufus, Quintilian, Quintus (praenomen), Quintus Aurelius Memmius Symmachus, Quintus Aurelius Pactumeius Fronto, Quintus Aurelius Polus Terentianus, Quintus Aurelius Symmachus, Quintus Cornificius, Quintus Fabius Memmius Symmachus, Quintus Servilius Caepio, Roman censor, Roman citizenship, Roman consul, Roman dictator, Roman Empire, Roman Republic, Roman Senate, Roman triumph, Sabines, Saint, Saint Aurelius, Sallust, Sardinia and Corsica, Satires (Horace), Scipio Aemilianus, Severan dynasty, Severus Alexander, Sextus Julius Caesar (consul 157 BC), Sextus Pompeius Festus, Sicilia (Roman province), Smyrna, Social War (91–88 BC), Suetonius, Sulla, Tacitus, The Twelve Caesars, Theodor Mommsen, Thomas Robert Shannon Broughton, Tiberius, Tiberius Claudius Pompeianus, Tiberius Claudius Severus Proculus, Titus (praenomen), Titus Aurelius Fulvus, Toga, Tribune of the Plebs, Vaballathus, Valentinian I, Valerius Maximus, Verres, Vespasian, Vibia Aurelia Sabina, Viriathus, William Smith (lexicographer). Expand index (177 more) » « Shrink index
Livy's History of Rome, sometimes referred to as Ab Urbe Condita, is a monumental history of ancient Rome, written in Latin, between 27 and 9 BC.
Achaea or Achaia (Ἀχαΐα Achaïa), was a province of the Roman Empire, consisting of the Peloponnese, eastern Central Greece, and parts of Thessaly.
Aedile (aedīlis, from aedes, "temple edifice") was an office of the Roman Republic.
The gens Aemilia, originally written Aimilia, was one of the greatest patrician families at Rome.
In Greek mythology, Agamemnon (Ἀγαμέμνων, Ἀgamémnōn) was the son of King Atreus and Queen Aerope of Mycenae, the brother of Menelaus, the husband of Clytemnestra and the father of Iphigenia, Electra or Laodike (Λαοδίκη), Orestes and Chrysothemis.
In ancient Roman law, ambitus was a crime of political corruption, mainly a candidate's attempt to influence the outcome of an election through bribery or other forms of soft power.
Ambrosius Aurelianus (Emrys Wledig; Anglicised as Ambrose Aurelian and called Aurelius Ambrosius in the Historia Regum Britanniae and elsewhere) was a war leader of the Romano-British who won an important battle against the Anglo-Saxons in the 5th century, according to Gildas.
Ammianus Marcellinus (born, died 400) was a Roman soldier and historian who wrote the penultimate major historical account surviving from Antiquity (preceding Procopius).
Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the Phoenician state, including, during the 7th–3rd centuries BC, its wider sphere of influence, known as the Carthaginian Empire.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
The Annals (Annales) by Roman historian and senator Tacitus is a history of the Roman Empire from the reign of Tiberius to that of Nero, the years AD 14–68.
Annia Galeria Aurelia Faustina (c. 151-after 165) was the eldest child of the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius and his wife, Faustina the Younger.
Anthony Richard Birley (born 8 October 1937) is a British ancient historian, archaeologist and academic.
Antiochus III the Great (Greek: Ἀντίoχoς Μέγας; c. 241187 BC, ruled 222–187 BC) was a Hellenistic Greek king and the 6th ruler of the Seleucid Empire.
Antoninus Pius (Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius; 19 September 867 March 161 AD), also known as Antoninus, was Roman emperor from 138 to 161.
Appian of Alexandria (Ἀππιανὸς Ἀλεξανδρεύς Appianòs Alexandreús; Appianus Alexandrinus) was a Greek historian with Roman citizenship who flourished during the reigns of Emperors of Rome Trajan, Hadrian, and Antoninus Pius.
Appius Claudius Pulcher (Latin: APP•CLAVDIVS•P•F•APP•N•PVLCHER) was a Roman politician of the 3rd century BC, active in the Second Punic War.
Quintus Asconius Pedianus (c. 9 BC – c. AD 76) was a Roman historian.
The Roman province of Asia or Asiana (Ἀσία or Ἀσιανή), in Byzantine times called Phrygia, was an administrative unit added to the late Republic.
The Augustan History (Latin: Historia Augusta) is a late Roman collection of biographies, written in Latin, of the Roman Emperors, their junior colleagues, designated heirs and usurpers of the period 117 to 284.
Aulus Cornelius Celsus (25 BC 50 AD) was a Roman encyclopaedist, known for his extant medical work, De Medicina, which is believed to be the only surviving section of a much larger encyclopedia.
Aurelia Cotta or Aurelia (May 21, 120 – July 31, 54 BC) was the mother of Roman dictator Gaius Julius Caesar (100 – 44 BC).
Aurelian (Lucius Domitius Aurelianus Augustus; 9 September 214 or 215September or October 275) was Roman Emperor from 270 to 275.
Aurelius and Natalie (died 852) were Christian martyrs who were put to death during the reign of Abd ar-Rahman II, Emir of Córdoba, and are counted among the Martyrs of Córdoba.
Opilius Aurelius was a Roman physician who taught at Rome, first philosophy, then rhetoric, then grammar.
Marcus Aurelius Valerius Tullianus Symmachus Phosphorius (fl. 280-330) was a Consul of the Roman Empire in 330.
Sextus Aurelius Victor (c. 320 – c. 390) was a historian and politician of the Roman Empire.
The Battle of Arausio took place on 6 October 105 BC, at a site between the town of Arausio (modern day Orange, Vaucluse) and the Rhône River.
Richard William Benet Salway is a senior lecturer in ancient history at University College London.
The biga (Latin, plural bigae) is the two-horse chariot as used in ancient Rome for sport, transportation, and ceremonies.
Bithynia and Pontus (Provincia Bithynia et Pontus) was the name of a province of the Roman Empire on the Black Sea coast of Anatolia (Turkey).
Anicius Manlius Severinus Boëthius, commonly called Boethius (also Boetius; 477–524 AD), was a Roman senator, consul, magister officiorum, and philosopher of the early 6th century.
Boiorix was a king of the Cimbri tribe during the Cimbrian War.
Cicero's Brutus (also known as De claris oratibus) is a history of Roman oratory.
Capri (usually pronounced by English speakers) is an island located in the Tyrrhenian Sea off the Sorrentine Peninsula, on the south side of the Gulf of Naples in the Campania region of Italy.
Caracalla (Latin: Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus Augustus; 4 April 188 – 8 April 217), formally known as Antoninus, was Roman emperor from 198 to 217 AD.
Carus (Marcus Aurelius Carus Augustus; c. 222 – July or August 283) was Roman Emperor from 282 to 283, and was 60 at ascension.
Cassius Dio or Dio Cassius (c. 155 – c. 235) was a Roman statesman and historian of Greek origin.
Lucius Sergius Catilina, known in English as Catiline (108–62 BC), was a Roman Senator of the 1st century BC best known for the second Catilinarian conspiracy, an attempt to overthrow the Roman Republic and, in particular, the power of the aristocratic Senate.
The Catiline or Catilinarian Orations is a set of speeches to the Roman Senate given by Marcus Tullius Cicero, one of the year's consuls, accusing a Senator, Lucius Sergius Catilina (Catiline), of leading a plot to overthrow the Roman government.
A centaur (Κένταυρος, Kéntauros), or occasionally hippocentaur, is a mythological creature with the upper body of a human and the lower body and legs of a horse.
Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.
The Cimbri were an ancient tribe.
The Classical Association is a British learned society in the field of classics, and a registered charity.
Clodius Albinus (Decimus Clodius Septimius Albinus Augustus; c. 150 – 19 February 197) was a Roman usurper who was proclaimed emperor by the legions in Britain and Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula, comprising modern Spain and Portugal) after the murder of Pertinax in 193 (known as the "Year of the Five Emperors"), and who proclaimed himself emperor again in 196, before his final defeat the following year.
Clytemnestra (Κλυταιμνήστρα, Klytaimnḗstra) was the wife of Agamemnon and queen of Mycenae (or sometimes Argos) in ancient Greek legend.
The Codex Theodosianus (Eng. Theodosian Code) was a compilation of the laws of the Roman Empire under the Christian emperors since 312.
A cognomen (Latin plural cognomina; from con- "together with" and (g)nomen "name") was the third name of a citizen of ancient Rome, under Roman naming conventions.
Lucius Junius Moderatus Columella (4 – c. 70 AD) was a prominent writer on agriculture in the Roman empire.
Commentarii de Bello Civili (Commentaries on the Civil War), or Bellum Civile, is an account written by Julius Caesar of his war against Gnaeus Pompeius and the Senate.
Commodus (31 August 161– 31 December 192AD), born Lucius Aurelius Commodus and died Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus, was Roman emperor with his father Marcus Aurelius from177 to his father's death in 180, and solely until 192.
Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian and Greek origin from 306 to 337 AD.
The Constitutio Antoniniana (Latin for: "Constitution of Antoninus") (also called the Edict of Caracalla or the Antonine Constitution) was an edict issued in 212, by the Roman Emperor Caracalla declaring that all free men in the Roman Empire were to be given theoretical Roman citizenship and that all free women in the Empire were to be given the same rights as Roman women.
Contarini is one of the founding families of Venicehttps://archive.org/details/teatroaraldicose02tett, Leone Tettoni.
Cornelius Nepos (c. 110 BC – c. 25 BC) was a Roman biographer.
The Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum (CIL) is a comprehensive collection of ancient Latin inscriptions.
The De Legibus (On the Laws) is a dialogue written by Marcus Tullius Cicero during the last years of the Roman Republic.
De Officiis (On Duties or On Obligations) is a treatise by Marcus Tullius Cicero divided into three books, in which Cicero expounds his conception of the best way to live, behave, and observe moral obligations.
De Oratore (On the Orator; not to be confused with Orator) is a dialogue written by Cicero in 55 BCE.
De viris illustribus, meaning "On Illustrious / Famous Men", represents a trope of ancient Roman exemplary literature that was revived during the Italian Renaissance and inspired the assembly or commissioning of series of portraits of outstanding men—and sometimes, by the sixteenth century, of outstanding women as well—with a high didactic purpose.
The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology (1849, originally published 1844 under a slightly different title) is an encyclopedia/biographical dictionary.
The Digest, also known as the Pandects (Digesta seu Pandectae, adapted from πανδέκτης pandéktēs, "all-containing"), is a name given to a compendium or digest of juristic writings on Roman law compiled by order of the Eastern Roman emperor Justinian I in the 6th century CE (530–533).
Cicero's Divinatio in Caecilium is his oration against Quintus Caecilius in the process for selecting a prosecutor of Gaius Verres (70 BCE).
Domitian (Titus Flavius Caesar Domitianus Augustus; 24 October 51 – 18 September 96 AD) was Roman emperor from 81 to 96.
Epistulae ad Atticum (Latin for "Letters to Atticus") is a collection of letters from Roman politician and orator Marcus Tullius Cicero to his close friend Titus Pomponius Atticus.
Epistulae ad Familiares (Letters to Friends) is a collection of letters between Roman politician and orator Marcus Tullius Cicero and various public and private figures.
In Greek mythology the Erinyes (sing. Erinys; Ἐρῑνύες, pl. of Ἐρῑνύς, Erinys), also known as the Furies, were female chthonic deities of vengeance; they were sometimes referred to as "infernal goddesses" (χθόνιαι θεαί).
Flavius Eutropius was an Ancient Roman historian who flourished in the latter half of the 4th century AD.
Factorum ac dictorum memorabilium libri IX ("nine books of memorable deeds and sayings", also known as De factis dictisque memorabilibus or Facta et dicta memorabilia) by Valerius Maximus (c. 20 BCE – c. CE 50) was written around CE 30 or 31.
Annia Aurelia Fadilla, most commonly known as Fadilla (159-died after 211) was an influential Roman Princess and was one of the daughters born to Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius and Roman Empress Faustina the Younger.
The Fasti Capitolini, or Capitoline Fasti, are a list of the chief magistrates of the Roman Republic, extending from the early fifth century BC down to the reign of Augustus, the first Roman emperor.
The Fasti Potentini are a fragmentary list of Roman consuls from AD 86 to 118, originally erected at Potentia in Lucania, a region of southern Italy.
Annia Galeria Faustina Minor (Minor is Latin for the Younger), Faustina Minor or Faustina the Younger (born probably 21 September CE, died in winter of 175 or spring of 176 CE) was a daughter of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius and Roman Empress Faustina the Elder.
The first Catilinarian conspiracy was a plot to murder the consuls of 65 BC and seize power.
The First Punic War (264 to 241 BC) was the first of three wars fought between Ancient Carthage and the Roman Republic, the two great powers of the Western Mediterranean.
Flavius Aetius (Flavius Aetius; 391–454), dux et patricius, commonly called simply Aetius or Aëtius, was a Roman general of the closing period of the Western Roman Empire.
Sextus Julius Frontinus (c. 40 – 103 AD) was a prominent Roman civil engineer, author, and politician of the late 1st century AD.
Gaius is a Latin praenomen, or personal name, which was one of the most common names throughout Roman history.
Gaius Aurelius Cotta (ca. 124 BC – 73 BC) was a Roman statesman and orator; not to be confused with Gaius Aurelius Cotta who was twice Consul both times with Publius Servilius Geminus.
Gaius Duilius (lived 3rd century BC) was a Roman politician and admiral involved in the First Punic War.
Gaius Sempronius Gracchus (154–121 BC) was a Roman Popularis politician in the 2nd century BC and brother of the reformer Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus.
Gaius Julius Caesar was the name of several members of the gens Julia in ancient Rome.
Gaius Julius Caesar (ca. 140 BC – 85 BC) was a Roman senator, a supporter of his brother-in-law, Gaius Marius, and the father of Gaius Julius Caesar.
Gaius MariusC·MARIVS·C·F·C·N is how Marius was termed in official state inscriptions in Latin: "Gaius Marius, son of Gaius, grandson of Gaius" (157 BC – January 13, 86 BC) was a Roman general and statesman.
Gaius Norbanus (died 82 BC), (possibly surnamed Balbus or Bulbus), was a Roman politician who was elected consul in 83 BC alongside Lucius Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus Asiagenus.
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.
Gallia Narbonensis (Latin for "Gaul of Narbonne", from its chief settlement) was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France.
The Gauls were Celtic people inhabiting Gaul in the Iron Age and the Roman period (roughly from the 5th century BC to the 5th century AD).
In ancient Rome, a gens, plural gentes, was a family consisting of all those individuals who shared the same nomen and claimed descent from a common ancestor.
The Germania, written by the Roman historian Publius Cornelius Tacitus around 98 and originally entitled On the Origin and Situation of the Germans (De Origine et situ Germanorum), was a historical and ethnographic work on the Germanic tribes outside the Roman Empire.
Gnaeus is a Latin praenomen, or personal name, which was common throughout the period of the Roman Republic, and well into imperial times.
Gnaeus Aufidius Orestes (died 1st century BC) was a Roman politician who was elected consul in 71 BC.
Gnaeus Claudius Severus was a Roman senator and philosopher who lived in the Roman Empire during the 2nd century.
Gratian (Flavius Gratianus Augustus; Γρατιανός; 18 April/23 May 359 – 25 August 383) was Roman emperor from 367 to 383.
Hadrian (Publius Aelius Hadrianus Augustus; 24 January 76 – 10 July 138 AD) was Roman emperor from 117 to 138.
Herodian or Herodianus (Ἡρωδιανός) of Syria, sometimes referred to as "Herodian of Antioch" (c. 170 – c. 240), was a minor Roman civil servant who wrote a colourful history in Greek titled History of the Empire from the Death of Marcus (τῆς μετὰ Μάρκον βασιλείας ἱστορία) in eight books covering the years 180 to 238.
Himera (Greek: Ἱμέρα), was an important ancient Greek city of Sicily, situated on the north coast of the island, at the mouth of the river of the same name (the modern Grande), between Panormus (modern Palermo) and Cephaloedium (modern Cefalù).
Hispania Citerior (English: "Hither Iberia", or "Nearer Iberia") was a Roman Province in Hispania during the Roman Republic.
The historical basis for King Arthur is a source of considerable debate among historians.
Histories (Historiae) is a Roman historical chronicle by Tacitus.
Quintus Horatius Flaccus (December 8, 65 BC – November 27, 8 BC), known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus (also known as Octavian).
In Verrem ("Against Verres") is a series of speeches made by Cicero in 70 BC, during the corruption and extortion trial of Gaius Verres, the former governor of Sicily.
Institutio Oratoria (English: Institutes of Oratory) is a twelve-volume textbook on the theory and practice of rhetoric by Roman rhetorician Quintilian.
Jan Gruter or Gruytère, Latinized as Janus Gruterus (3 December 1560 – 20 September 1627), was a Flemish-born philologist, scholar, and librarian.
Joannes or John Zonaras (Ἰωάννης Ζωναρᾶς, Iōánnēs Zōnarâs; fl. 12th century) was a Byzantine chronicler and theologian who lived in Constantinople.
Johann Christian Wernsdorf I (6 November 1723 in Wittenberg – 25 August 1793 in Helmstedt) was a German writer, poet, and rhetorician.
Joseph Hilarius Eckhel (13 January 1737 – 16 May 1798) was an Austrian Jesuit priest and numismatist.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
L'Année épigraphique (The Epigraphic Year, standard abbreviation AE) is a French publication on epigraphy.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
A legatus (anglicized as legate) was a high ranking Roman military officer in the Roman Army, equivalent to a modern high ranking general officer.
Legio tertia Gallica ("Gallic Third Legion") was a legion of the Imperial Roman army founded around 49 BC by Gaius Julius Caesar for his civil war against The Republicans led by Pompey.
The legislative assemblies of the Roman Republic were political institutions in the ancient Roman Republic.
The lex Aurelia iudicaiaria was a Roman law, introduced by the praetor Lucius Aurelius Cotta in 70 BC.
The Ligures (singular Ligus or Ligur; English: Ligurians, Greek: Λίγυες) were an ancient Indo-European people who appear to have originated in, and gave their name to, Liguria, a region of north-western Italy.
Lipari (Lìpari, Lipara, Μελιγουνίς Meligounis or Λιπάρα Lipara) is the largest of the Aeolian Islands in the Tyrrhenian Sea off the northern coast of Sicily, southern Italy; it is also the name of the island's main town and comune, which is administratively part of the Metropolitan City of Messina.
The gens (plural gentes) was a Roman, Italic, or Etruscan family, consisting of all those individuals who shared the same nomen and claimed descent from a common ancestor.
During the Roman Republic, moneyers were called tresviri aere argento auro flando feriundo, literally "three men for casting (and) striking bronze, silver (and) gold (coins)".
Titus Livius Patavinus (64 or 59 BCAD 12 or 17) – often rendered as Titus Livy, or simply Livy, in English language sources – was a Roman historian.
Annia Aurelia Galeria Lucilla or Lucilla (March 7, 148 or 150–182) was the second daughter and third child of Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius and Roman Empress Faustina the Younger and an elder sister to later Emperor Commodus.
Lucius is a Latin praenomen, or personal name, which was one of the most common names throughout Roman history.
Lucius Antistius Burrus Adventus (–188) of the gens Antistia was a Roman Senator that lived in the 2nd century.
Lucius Aurelius Avianius Symmachus signo Phosphorius (died 376) was an aristocrat of the Roman Empire, and father of Quintus Aurelius Symmachus.
Lucius Aurelius Commodus Pompeianus (c.177-211/212) was a Roman senator active in the early 3rd century.
Lucius Aurelius Cotta (fl. 2nd century BCE) was a Roman Senator and military commander who was elected Roman consul in 119 BC.
Lucius Aurelius Cotta was a Roman magistrate, tribune of the plebs in 154 BC, and consul in 144 BC.
Lucius Aurelius Cotta was a Roman politician from an old noble family who held the offices of praetor (70 BC), consul (65 BC) and censor (64 BC).
Lucius Aurelius Gallus was a Roman senator, who held a series of appointments during the first half of the second century AD.
Lucius Aurelius Orestes (Latin, Lucius Aurelius L. f. L. n. Orestes) was a magistrate and consul in the service of the Roman Republic.
Lucius Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus (3rd century BC–aft. 183 BC) was a Roman general and statesman.
Lucius Furius Purpureo was a Roman politician and general, becoming consul in the year 196 BC.
Lucius Verus (Lucius Aurelius Verus Augustus; 15 December 130 – 23 January 169 AD) was the co-emperor of Rome with his adoptive brother Marcus Aurelius from 161 until his own death in 169.
Ludovico Antonio Muratori (21 October 1672 – 23 January 1750) was an Italian historian, notable as a leading scholar of his age, and for his discovery of the Muratorian fragment, the earliest known list of New Testament books.
The Magister equitum, in English Master of the Horse or Master of the Cavalry, was a Roman magistrate appointed as lieutenant to a dictator.
Mamercus Aemilius Lepidus Livianus (died c. 62 BC) was a Roman politician and military commander who was consul in 77 BC.
Marcus is a Latin praenomen, or personal name, which was one of the most common names throughout Roman history.
Marcus Aurelius (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180 AD) was Roman emperor from, ruling jointly with his adoptive brother, Lucius Verus, until Verus' death in 169, and jointly with his son, Commodus, from 177.
Marcus Aurelius Cleander (Μᾶρκος Αὐρήλιος Κλέανδρος; died 190), commonly known as Cleander, was a Roman freedman who gained extraordinary power as chamberlain and favourite of the emperor Commodus, rising to command the Praetorian Guard and bringing the principal offices of the Roman state into disrepute by selling them to the highest bidder.
Marcus Aurelius Cotta was a Roman politician and general who was consul in 74 BC and was one of the early Roman commanders who fought in the Third Mithridatic War.
Marcus Aurelius Cotta Maximus Messalinus (flourished second half of 1st century BC & first half of 1st century) was a Roman Senator who was a friend of the first two Roman emperors Augustus and Tiberius.
Marcus Aurelius Scaurus (died 105 BC) was a Roman politician and general during the Cimbrian War.
Marcus Caelius Rufus (28 May 82 BC – after 48 BC) was an orator and politician in the late Roman Republic.
Marcus Peducaeus Plautius Quintillus (died 205) was a Roman noble closely related by birth, adoption, and marriage to the Nerva-Antonine emperors.
Marcus Valerius Messalla Corvinus (64 BC8 AD) was a Roman general, author and patron of literature and art.
Marcus Velleius Paterculus (c. 19 BC – c. AD 31), also known as Velleius was a Roman historian.
The Martyrs of Córdoba were forty-eight Christian martyrs who were executed under the rule of Muslim conquerors in what is now southern Spain.
Professor Michael Hewson Crawford, FBA (born 7 December 1939) is a British ancient historian and numismatist.
A military tribune (Latin tribunus militum, "tribune of the soldiers", Greek chiliarchos, χιλίαρχος) was an officer of the Roman army who ranked below the legate and above the centurion.
Mithridates VI or Mithradates VI (Μιθραδάτης, Μιθριδάτης), from Old Persian Miθradāta, "gift of Mithra"; 135–63 BC, also known as Mithradates the Great (Megas) and Eupator Dionysius, was king of Pontus and Armenia Minor in northern Anatolia (now Turkey) from about 120–63 BC.
Moesia (Latin: Moesia; Μοισία, Moisía) was an ancient region and later Roman province situated in the Balkans south of the Danube River.
A moneyer is a private individual who is officially permitted to mint money.
Mycenae (Greek: Μυκῆναι Mykēnai or Μυκήνη Mykēnē) is an archaeological site near Mykines in Argolis, north-eastern Peloponnese, Greece.
The Natural History (Naturalis Historia) is a book about the whole of the natural world in Latin by Pliny the Elder, a Roman author and naval commander who died in 79 AD.
Nîmes (Provençal Occitan: Nimes) is a city in the Occitanie region of southern France.
Marcus Aurelius Olympius Nemesianus was a Roman poet thought to have been a native of Carthage and flourished about AD 283.
Nero (Latin: Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 15 December 37 – 9 June 68 AD) was the last Roman emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty.
The Optimates (optimates, "best ones", singular; also known as boni, "good men") were the traditionalist Senatorial majority of the late Roman Republic.
In Greek mythology, Orestes (Ὀρέστης) was the son of Clytemnestra and Agamemnon.
Paulus Orosius (born 375, died after 418 AD) — less often Paul Orosius in English — was a Gallaecian Chalcedonian priest, historian and theologian, a student of Augustine of Hippo.
Publius Ovidius Naso (20 March 43 BC – 17/18 AD), known as Ovid in the English-speaking world, was a Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus.
The Palmyrene Empire was a splinter state centered at Palmyra which broke away from the Roman Empire during the Crisis of the Third Century.
The patricians (from patricius) were originally a group of ruling class families in ancient Rome.
Paul the Deacon (720s 13 April 799 AD), also known as Paulus Diaconus, Warnefridus, Barnefridus, Winfridus and sometimes suffixed Cassinensis (i.e. "of Monte Cassino"), was a Benedictine monk, scribe, and historian of the Lombards.
Philip V (Φίλιππος; 238–179 BC) was King (Basileus) of the ancient kingdom of Macedonia from 221 to 179 BC.
The Philippicae or Philippics are a series of 14 speeches Cicero gave condemning Mark Antony in 44 and 43 BC.
The plebs were, in ancient Rome, the general body of free Roman citizens who were not patricians, as determined by the census.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Pozzuoli is a city and comune of the Metropolitan City of Naples, in the Italian region of Campania.
The praefectus annonae ("Prefect of the Provisions") was a Roman imperial official charged with the supervision of the grain supply to the city of Rome.
The praenomen (plural: praenomina) was a personal name chosen by the parents of a Roman child.
Praetor (also spelled prætor) was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army (in the field or, less often, before the army had been mustered); or, an elected magistratus (magistrate), assigned various duties (which varied at different periods in Rome's history).
A proconsul was an official of ancient Rome who acted on behalf of a consul.
Aurelius Prudentius Clemens was a Roman Christian poet, born in the Roman province of Tarraconensis (now Northern Spain) in 348.
Publius is a Latin praenomen, or personal name.
Publius Rutilius Rufus (158 BCafter 78 BC) was a Roman statesman, consul, orator and historian of the Rutilia gens, as well as great-uncle of Gaius Julius Caesar.
Marcus Fabius Quintilianus (35 – 100 AD) was a Roman rhetorician from Hispania, widely referred to in medieval schools of rhetoric and in Renaissance writing.
Quintus is a Latin praenomen, or personal name, which was common throughout all periods of Roman history.
Quintus Aurelius Memmius Symmachus (died 526) was a 6th-century Roman aristocrat, a historian and a supporter of Nicene Orthodoxy.
Quintus Aurelius Pactumeius Fronto was a Roman senator active during the first century AD.
Quintus Aurelius Polus Terentianus was a Roman senator, who held a number of offices in the imperial service.
Quintus Aurelius Symmachus (c. 345 – 402) was a Roman statesman, orator, and man of letters.
Quintus Cornificius was an ancient Roman of senatorial rank from the gens Cornificia.
Quintus Fabius Memmius Symmachus (383/384 - after 402) was a politician of the Roman empire, member of the influential family of the Symmachi.
Quintus Servilius Caepio the Elder was a Roman statesman and general, consul in 106 BC, and proconsul of Cisalpine Gaul in 105 BC.
The censor was a magistrate in ancient Rome who was responsible for maintaining the census, supervising public morality, and overseeing certain aspects of the government's finances.
Citizenship in ancient Rome was a privileged political and legal status afforded to free individuals with respect to laws, property, and governance.→.
A consul held the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic (509 to 27 BC), and ancient Romans considered the consulship the highest level of the cursus honorum (an ascending sequence of public offices to which politicians aspired).
A dictator was a magistrate of the Roman Republic, entrusted with the full authority of the state to deal with a military emergency or to undertake a specific duty.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
The Roman Senate (Senatus Romanus; Senato Romano) was a political institution in ancient Rome.
The Roman triumph (triumphus) was a civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly celebrate and sanctify the success of a military commander who had led Roman forces to victory in the service of the state or, originally and traditionally, one who had successfully completed a foreign war.
The Sabines (Sabini; Σαβῖνοι Sabĩnoi; Sabini, all exonyms) were an Italic tribe which lived in the central Apennines of ancient Italy, also inhabiting Latium north of the Anio before the founding of Rome.
A saint (also historically known as a hallow) is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of holiness or likeness or closeness to God.
Saint Aurelius was Christian saint who died around 430.
Gaius Sallustius Crispus, usually anglicised as Sallust (86 – c. 35 BC), was a Roman historian, politician, and novus homo from an Italian plebeian family.
The Province of Sardinia and Corsica (Provincia Sardinia et Corsica) was an ancient Roman province including the islands of Sardinia and Corsica.
The Satires (Satirae or Sermones) is a collection of satirical poems written by the Roman poet, Horace.
Publius Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus Africanus Numantinus (185–129 BC), also known as Scipio Aemilianus or Scipio Africanus Minor (Scipio Africanus the Younger), was a politician of the Roman Republic who served as consul twice, in 147 BC and 134 BC.
The Severan dynasty was a Roman imperial dynasty, which ruled the Roman Empire between 193 and 235.
Severus Alexander (Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander Augustus; c.207 - 19 March 235) was Roman Emperor from 222 to 235 and the last emperor of the Severan dynasty.
Sextus Julius Caesar Sex.
Sextus Pompeius Festus, usually known simply as Festus, was a Roman grammarian who probably flourished in the later 2nd century AD, perhaps at Narbo (Narbonne) in Gaul.
Sicilia was the first province acquired by the Roman Republic.
Smyrna (Ancient Greek: Σμύρνη, Smýrni or Σμύρνα, Smýrna) was a Greek city dating back to antiquity located at a central and strategic point on the Aegean coast of Anatolia.
The Social War (from socii ("allies"), thus Bellum Sociale; also called the Italian War, the War of the Allies or the Marsic War) was a war waged from 91 to 88 BC between the Roman Republic and several of the other cities in Italy, which prior to the war had been Roman allies for centuries.
Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, commonly known as Suetonius (c. 69 – after 122 AD), was a Roman historian belonging to the equestrian order who wrote during the early Imperial era of the Roman Empire.
Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (c. 138 BC – 78 BC), known commonly as Sulla, was a Roman general and statesman.
Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (–) was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire.
De vita Caesarum (Latin; literal translation: About the Life of the Caesars), commonly known as The Twelve Caesars, is a set of twelve biographies of Julius Caesar and the first 11 emperors of the Roman Empire written by Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus.
Christian Matthias Theodor Mommsen (30 November 1817 – 1 November 1903) was a German classical scholar, historian, jurist, journalist, politician and archaeologist.
Thomas Robert Shannon Broughton, FBA (17 February 1900 – 17 September 1993) was a Canadian classical scholar and leading Latin prosopographer of the twentieth century.
Tiberius (Tiberius Caesar Divi Augusti filius Augustus; 16 November 42 BC – 16 March 37 AD) was Roman emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD, succeeding the first emperor, Augustus.
Tiberius Claudius Pompeianus (c. 125 – aft. 193) was a politician and military commander during the 2nd century in the Roman Empire.
Tiberius Claudius Severus Proculus (about 163-by 218) was a Roman Senator.
Titus is a Latin praenomen, or personal name, and was one of the most common names throughout Roman history.
In the 1st century CE, there were two men with the name Titus Aurelius Fulvus.
The toga, a distinctive garment of Ancient Rome, was a roughly semicircular cloth, between in length, draped over the shoulders and around the body.
Tribunus plebis, rendered in English as tribune of the plebs, tribune of the people, or plebeian tribune, was the first office of the Roman state that was open to the plebeians, and throughout the history of the Republic, the most important check on the power of the Roman Senate and magistrates.
Lucius Julius Aurelius Septimius Vaballathus Athenodorus (Palmyrene:; وَهْبُ اللَّات) 259–74) was emperor of the Palmyrene Empire centered at Palmyra in the region of Syria. He came to power as a child under his regent, his mother Zenobia, who led a revolt against the Roman Empire and formed the independent Palmyrene Empire.
Valentinian I (Flavius Valentinianus Augustus; Οὐαλεντινιανός; 3 July 32117 November 375), also known as Valentinian the Great, was Roman emperor from 364 to 375.
Valerius Maximus was a Latin writer and author of a collection of historical anecdotes: Factorum ac dictorum memorabilium libri IX ("nine books of memorable deeds and sayings", also known as De factis dictisque memorabilibus or Facta et dicta memorabilia) Factorum ac dictorum memorabilium libri IX.
Gaius Verres (ca. 120 BC – 43 BC) was a Roman magistrate, notorious for his misgovernment of Sicily.
Vespasian (Titus Flavius Vespasianus;Classical Latin spelling and reconstructed Classical Latin pronunciation: Vespasian was from an equestrian family that rose into the senatorial rank under the Julio–Claudian emperors. Although he fulfilled the standard succession of public offices and held the consulship in AD 51, Vespasian's renown came from his military success; he was legate of Legio II ''Augusta'' during the Roman invasion of Britain in 43 and subjugated Judaea during the Jewish rebellion of 66. While Vespasian besieged Jerusalem during the Jewish rebellion, emperor Nero committed suicide and plunged Rome into a year of civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors. After Galba and Otho perished in quick succession, Vitellius became emperor in April 69. The Roman legions of Roman Egypt and Judaea reacted by declaring Vespasian, their commander, emperor on 1 July 69. In his bid for imperial power, Vespasian joined forces with Mucianus, the governor of Syria, and Primus, a general in Pannonia, leaving his son Titus to command the besieging forces at Jerusalem. Primus and Mucianus led the Flavian forces against Vitellius, while Vespasian took control of Egypt. On 20 December 69, Vitellius was defeated, and the following day Vespasian was declared emperor by the Senate. Vespasian dated his tribunician years from 1 July, substituting the acts of Rome's Senate and people as the legal basis for his appointment with the declaration of his legions, and transforming his legions into an electoral college. Little information survives about the government during Vespasian's ten-year rule. He reformed the financial system of Rome after the campaign against Judaea ended successfully, and initiated several ambitious construction projects, including the building of the Flavian Amphitheatre, better known today as the Roman Colosseum. In reaction to the events of 68–69, Vespasian forced through an improvement in army discipline. Through his general Agricola, Vespasian increased imperial expansion in Britain. After his death in 79, he was succeeded by his eldest son Titus, thus becoming the first Roman emperor to be directly succeeded by his own natural son and establishing the Flavian dynasty.
Vibia Aurelia Sabina (170 AD – before 217 AD) was a Roman Princess.
Viriathus (also spelled Viriatus; known as Viriato in Portuguese and Spanish; died 139 BC) was the most important leader of the Lusitanian people that resisted Roman expansion into the regions of western Hispania (as the Romans called it) or western Iberia (as the Greeks called it), where the Roman province of Lusitania would be finally established after the conquest.
Sir William Smith (20 May 1813 – 7 October 1893) was an English lexicographer.