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Marcus Aurelius

Index Marcus Aurelius

Marcus Aurelius (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180 AD) was Roman emperor from, ruling jointly with his adoptive brother, Lucius Verus, until Verus' death in 169, and jointly with his son, Commodus, from 177. [1]

277 relations: Ab epistulis, Aelius Aristides, Aerarium, Alan Cameron (classical scholar), Alec Guinness, Alexander of Abonoteichus, Alexander of Cotiaeum, Alexander the Great, Alsium, American Journal of Philology, Annia Cornificia Faustina, Annia Cornificia Faustina Minor, Annia Galeria Aurelia Faustina, Antonine Plague, Antoninus Pius, Apollonius of Chalcedon, Aquileia, Arethas of Caesarea, Artaxata, Arulenus Rusticus, Arval Brethren, Auctoritas, Augur, Augustan History, Augustus, Aulus Platorius Nepos, Aurelian, Aurelian Honor Society, Avidius Cassius, Óc Eo, İstanbul Archaeology Museums, Baiae, Bakur, Barthold Georg Niebuhr, Bill Clinton, Bithynia, Bleeding, Brindisi, Britannicus, Caelian Hill, Caligula, Campania, Campus Martius, Cappadocia, Carpathian Mountains, Cassius Dio, Castel Sant'Angelo, Castra Praetoria, Córdoba, Spain, Chang'an, ..., Chatti, Chinese language, Christian, Christina, Queen of Sweden, Cicero, Cirta, Classical Latin, Claudius, Cleanthes, Codex Justinianus, Codicil (will), Column of Marcus Aurelius, Comes, Commodus, Consul, Corset, Costoboci, Cousin marriage, Ctesiphon, Cyrrhus, Cyzicus, Dacia, Danube, Daqin, Denarius, Diadochi, Digest (Roman law), Domitia Lucilla, Domitian, Edessa, Edward Champlin, Edward Gibbon, Egypt (Roman province), Eloquence, Encomium, Ephesus, Epigraphy, Epiphanius of Salamis, Epulones, Equites, Espejo, Spain, Etruria, Eusebius, Eutychius Proclus, Fadilla, Fall of the Western Roman Empire, Faustina the Elder, Faustina the Younger, Flamen, Frederick the Great, Funan, Gaius Caesar, Galen, Gaul, Germania Superior, Germanic peoples, Gladiator (2000 film), Golden Chersonese, Greek language, Guangzhou, Hadrian, Hadrian's Villa, Hadrian's Wall, Han dynasty, Herodes Atticus, Hispania Baetica, History of silk, Homer, Iain King, Iliad, Imperator, Imperium, Indo-Roman trade relations, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Jiaozhi, Jim Mattis, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Stuart Mill, Julian (emperor), Junius Rusticus, Jurisprudence, Justin Martyr, Kingdom of Armenia (antiquity), Lanuvium, Laodicea in Syria, Lateran Palace, Legatus, Legio I Minervia, Legio II Adiutrix, Legio III Gallica, Legio IX Hispana, Legio V Macedonica, Legio X Gemina, Libo Rupilius Frugi, Limes Germanicus, List of governors of Roman Egypt, List of Roman consuls, List of Roman emperors, Lombards, Lorium, Lucilla, Lucius Aelius, Lucius Caesar, Lucius Catilius Severus, Lucius Coelius Antipater, Lucius Dasumius Tullius Tuscus, Lucius Plautius Lamia Silvanus, Lucius Verus, Macedonia (Roman province), Malaise, Malay Peninsula, Marcomanni, Marcomannic Wars, Marcus Annius Libo (consul 161), Marcus Annius Verus, Marcus Annius Verus (praetor), Marcus Annius Verus Caesar, Marcus Cornelius Fronto, Marcus Jallius Bassus, Marcus Nonius Macrinus, Marcus Sedatius Severianus, Marcus Statius Priscus, Marius Maximus, Matthew Arnold, Mausoleum, Measles, Meditations, Military tribune, Moesia, Moravia, Nero, Nerva–Antonine dynasty, Nicaea, Numismatics, Oclatinia (gens), Oderzo, On Weights and Measures, Osroene, Palaestra, Pallium (Roman cloak), Pandemic, Pannonia, Parthian Empire, Pater familias, Patrician (ancient Rome), Pax Romana, Philosopher king, Pliny the Younger, Pontifex maximus, Pontiff, Pozzuoli, Praetor, Praetorian Guard, Praetorian prefect, Ptolemy, Punitive expedition, Quadi, Quadriga, Quaestor, Quindecimviri sacris faciundis, Quintus Antonius Isauricus, Quintus Camurinus Numisius Junior, Raetia, Ravenna, Richard Harris, Roman currency, Roman emperor, Roman Empire, Roman glass, Roman Republic, Roman Senate, Roman triumph, Rome, Ronald J. Mellor, Rupilia, Sack of Rome (410), Salonia Matidia, Sarmatians, Second Sophistic, Secret society, Seleucia, Seleucid Empire, Seneca the Younger, Sestertius, Sidonius Apollinaris, Silk Road, Sino-Roman relations, Sirmium, Slovakia in the Roman era, Smallpox, Sohaemus of Armenia, South China Sea, Stoic Opposition, Stoicism, Suda, Synonym, Taunus, Temple of Antoninus and Faustina, Temple of Marcus Aurelius, The Fall of the Roman Empire (film), Tiber, Tiberius, Tiberius Gemellus, Tisza, Titus, Tivoli, Lazio, Tribune, Triumvir Monetalis, Trosius Aper, Tyrian purple, Vatican Library, Vespasian, Vexillum, Vibia Aurelia Sabina, Vibia Sabina, Vienna, Vietnam, Vindobona, Visigoths, Vologases IV, Warwick Ball, Wen Jiabao, Wilhelm Xylander, William O. Stephens, Xi'an, Yale University, Zeno of Citium. Expand index (227 more) »

Ab epistulis

Ab epistulis was the chancellor's office in the Roman Empire whose task was the emperor's correspondence.

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Aelius Aristides

Publius Aelius Aristides Theodorus (Αἴλιος Ἀριστείδης; 117–181 CE) was a Greek orator and author considered to be a prime example of the Second Sophistic, a group of celebrated and highly influential orators who flourished from the reign of Nero until c. 230 CE.

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Aerarium (from Latin "aes", in its derived sense of "money") was the name (in full, "aerarium stabulum" - treasure-house) given in Ancient Rome to the public treasury, and in a secondary sense to the public finances.

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Alan Cameron (classical scholar)

Alan Douglas Edward Cameron, FBA (13 March 1938 – 31 July 2017) was a British classicist and academic.

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Alec Guinness

Sir Alec Guinness, (born Alec Guinness de Cuffe; 2 April 1914 – 5 August 2000) was an English actor.

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Alexander of Abonoteichus

Alexander of Abonoteichus (Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Ἀβωνοτειχίτης Alexandros ho Abonoteichites), also called Alexander the Paphlagonian (CE), was a Greek mystic and oracle, and the founder of the Glycon cult that briefly achieved wide popularity in the Roman world.

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Alexander of Cotiaeum

Alexander (Ἀλέξανδρος; 70–80 AD – 150) of Cotiaeum was a Greek grammarian, who is mentioned among the instructors of the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius.

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Alexander the Great

Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.

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Alsium (Ἄλσιον; modern: Palo) was an ancient city on the coast of Etruria, between Pyrgi and Fregenae, at the distance of from the Portus Augusti (mod. Porto) at the mouth of the Tiber (Itin. Ant. p. 301.), on the Via Aurelia, by which it is about 35 km from Rome.

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American Journal of Philology

The American Journal of Philology is a quarterly academic journal established in 1880 by the classical scholar Basil Lanneau Gildersleeve, published by the Johns Hopkins University Press.

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Annia Cornificia Faustina

Annia Cornificia Faustina (122/123-between 152-158) was the youngest child and only daughter to the praetor Marcus Annius Verus and Domitia Lucilla.

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Annia Cornificia Faustina Minor

Annia Cornificia Faustina Minor (Minor Latin for the younger, 160–212) was a daughter of the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius and his wife, Faustina the Younger.

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Annia Galeria Aurelia Faustina

Annia Galeria Aurelia Faustina (c. 151-after 165) was the eldest child of the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius and his wife, Faustina the Younger.

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Antonine Plague

The Antonine Plague of 165–180 AD, also known as the Plague of Galen (from the name of the Greek physician living in the Roman Empire who described it), was an ancient pandemic brought back to the Roman Empire by troops returning from campaigns in the Near East.

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Antoninus Pius

Antoninus Pius (Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius; 19 September 867 March 161 AD), also known as Antoninus, was Roman emperor from 138 to 161.

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Apollonius of Chalcedon

Apollonius (Απολλώνιος) of Chalcedon was an ancient Greek Stoic who taught philosophy.

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Aquileia (Acuilee/Aquilee/Aquilea;bilingual name of Aquileja - Oglej in: Venetian: Aquiłeja/Aquiłegia; Aglar/Agley/Aquileja; Oglej) is an ancient Roman city in Italy, at the head of the Adriatic at the edge of the lagoons, about from the sea, on the river Natiso (modern Natisone), the course of which has changed somewhat since Roman times.

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Arethas of Caesarea

Arethas of Caesarea (Ἀρέθας; born c. 860 AD) was Archbishop of Caesarea Mazaca in Cappadocia (modern Kayseri, Turkey) early in the 10th century, and is considered one of the most scholarly theologians of the Greek Orthodox Church.

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Artashat (Արտաշատ); Hellenized as Artaxata (Ἀρτάξατα), was a large commercial city and the capital of ancient Armenia during the reign of king Artaxias I; the founder of the Artaxiad Dynasty of the ancient Kingdom of Armenia.

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Arulenus Rusticus

Quintus Junius Arulenus Rusticus (c. 35 – 93 AD) was a Roman Senator and a friend and follower of Thrasea Paetus, and like him an ardent admirer of Stoic philosophy.

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Arval Brethren

In ancient Roman religion, the Arval Brethren (Fratres Arvales, "Brothers of the Fields") or Arval Brothers were a body of priests who offered annual sacrifices to the Lares and gods to guarantee good harvests.

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Auctoritas is a Latin word and is the origin of English "authority".

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An augur was a priest and official in the classical Roman world.

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Augustan History

The Augustan History (Latin: Historia Augusta) is a late Roman collection of biographies, written in Latin, of the Roman Emperors, their junior colleagues, designated heirs and usurpers of the period 117 to 284.

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Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.

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Aulus Platorius Nepos

Aulus Platorius Nepos was a Roman senator who held a number of appointments in the imperial service.

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Aurelian (Lucius Domitius Aurelianus Augustus; 9 September 214 or 215September or October 275) was Roman Emperor from 270 to 275.

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Aurelian Honor Society

Established in 1910, the Aurelian Honor Society ("Aurelian") is the fifth oldest landed secret society at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut.

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Avidius Cassius

Gaius Avidius Cassius (130 – July 175 AD) was a Roman general and usurper.

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Óc Eo

Óc Eo (French, from អូរកែវ,: if the Khmer appears too small, kindly download better fonts--> O Keo, "Glass Canal") is an archaeological site in Thoại Sơn District in southern An Giang Province, Vietnam, in the Mekong River Delta.

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İstanbul Archaeology Museums

The Istanbul Archaeology Museums (İstanbul Arkeoloji Müzeleri) is a group of three archeological museums located in the Eminönü district of Istanbul, Turkey, near Gülhane Park and Topkapı Palace.

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Baiae (Baia; Baia) was an ancient Roman town situated on the northwest shore of the Gulf of Naples, and now in the comune of Bacoli.

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Bakur, also known as Pacorus or Aurelius Pacorus (Latinized: Bacurius, Aurelius Pacorus Αύρήλιος Πάκορος.) was a Parthian Prince who served as one of the Kings of Armenia in the 2nd century.

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Barthold Georg Niebuhr

Barthold Georg Niebuhr (27 August 1776 – 2 January 1831) was a Danish-German statesman, banker, and historian who became Germany's leading historian of Ancient Rome and a founding father of modern scholarly historiography.

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Bill Clinton

William Jefferson Clinton (born August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.

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Bithynia (Koine Greek: Βιθυνία, Bithynía) was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine Sea.

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Bleeding, also known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging, is blood escaping from the circulatory system.

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Brindisi (Brindisino: Brìnnisi; Brundisium; translit; Brunda) is a city in the region of Apulia in southern Italy, the capital of the province of Brindisi, on the coast of the Adriatic Sea.

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Tiberius Claudius Caesar Britannicus (c. 12 February AD 41 – 11 February AD 55), usually called Britannicus, was the son of Roman emperor Claudius and his third wife Valeria Messalina.

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Caelian Hill

The Caelian Hill (Collis Caelius; Celio) is one of the famous Seven Hills of Rome, Italy.

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Caligula (Latin: Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 31 August 12 – 24 January 41 AD) was Roman emperor from AD 37 to AD 41.

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Campania is a region in Southern Italy.

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Campus Martius

The Campus Martius (Latin for the "Field of Mars", Italian Campo Marzio), was a publicly owned area of ancient Rome about in extent.

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Cappadocia (also Capadocia; Καππαδοκία, Kappadokía, from Katpatuka, Kapadokya) is a historical region in Central Anatolia, largely in the Nevşehir, Kayseri, Kırşehir, Aksaray, and Niğde Provinces in Turkey.

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Carpathian Mountains

The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians are a mountain range system forming an arc roughly long across Central and Eastern Europe, making them the second-longest mountain range in Europe (after the Scandinavian Mountains). They provide the habitat for the largest European populations of brown bears, wolves, chamois, and lynxes, with the highest concentration in Romania, as well as over one third of all European plant species.

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Cassius Dio

Cassius Dio or Dio Cassius (c. 155 – c. 235) was a Roman statesman and historian of Greek origin.

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Castel Sant'Angelo

The Mausoleum of Hadrian, usually known as Castel Sant'Angelo (English: Castle of the Holy Angel), is a towering cylindrical building in Parco Adriano, Rome, Italy.

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Castra Praetoria

Castra Praetoria were the ancient barracks (castra) of the Praetorian Guard of Imperial Rome.

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Córdoba, Spain

Córdoba, also called Cordoba or Cordova in English, is a city in Andalusia, southern Spain, and the capital of the province of Córdoba.

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Chang'an was an ancient capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history, today known as Xi'an.

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The Chatti (also Chatthi or Catti) were an ancient Germanic tribe whose homeland was near the upper Weser.

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Chinese language

Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.

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A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.

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Christina, Queen of Sweden

Christina (– 19 April 1689) reigned as Queen of Sweden from 1632 until her abdication in 1654.

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Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.

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Cirta (from Berber: KRTN or Kirthan, Tzirta) was the capital city of the Berber Kingdom of Numidia in northern Africa (modern Algeria).

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Classical Latin

Classical Latin is the modern term used to describe the form of the Latin language recognized as standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.

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Claudius (Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 1 August 10 BC – 13 October 54 AD) was Roman emperor from 41 to 54.

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Cleanthes (Κλεάνθης Kleanthēs; c. 330 BC – c. 230 BC), of Assos, was a Greek Stoic philosopher and successor to Zeno of Citium as the second head (scholarch) of the Stoic school in Athens.

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Codex Justinianus

The Codex Justinianus (Latin for "The Code of Justinian") is one part of the Corpus Juris Civilis, the codification of Roman law ordered early in the 6th century AD by Justinian I, who was an Eastern Roman (Byzantine) emperor in Constantinople.

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Codicil (will)

A codicil is a testamentary document similar but not necessarily identical to a will.

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Column of Marcus Aurelius

The Column of Marcus Aurelius (Columna Centenaria Divorum Marci et Faustinae, Colonna di Marco Aurelio) is a Roman victory column in Piazza Colonna, Rome, Italy.

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"Comes", plural "comites", is the Latin word for "companion", either individually or as a member of a collective denominated a "comitatus", especially the suite of a magnate, being in some instances sufficiently large and/or formal to justify specific denomination, e. g. a "cohors amicorum".

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Commodus (31 August 161– 31 December 192AD), born Lucius Aurelius Commodus and died Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus, was Roman emperor with his father Marcus Aurelius from177 to his father's death in 180, and solely until 192.

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Consul (abbrev. cos.; Latin plural consules) was the title of one of the chief magistrates of the Roman Republic, and subsequently a somewhat significant title under the Roman Empire.

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A corset is a garment worn to hold and train the torso into a desired shape, traditionally a smaller waist or larger bottom, for aesthetic or medical purposes (either for the duration of wearing it or with a more lasting effect).

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The Costoboci (Costoboci, Costobocae, Castabocae, Coisstoboci, Κοστωβῶκοι, Κοστουβῶκοι or Κοιστοβῶκοι) were an ancient people located, during the Roman imperial era, between the Carpathian Mountains and the river Dniester.

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Cousin marriage

Cousin marriage is marriage between cousins (i.e. people with common grandparents or people who share other fairly recent ancestors).

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Ctesiphon (Κτησιφῶν; from Parthian or Middle Persian: tyspwn or tysfwn) was an ancient city located on the eastern bank of the Tigris, and about southeast of present-day Baghdad.

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Cyrrhus (Κύρρος Kyrrhos) was a city in ancient Syria founded by Seleucus Nicator, one of Alexander the Great's generals.

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Cyzicus (Κύζικος Kyzikos; آیدینجق, Aydıncıḳ) was an ancient town of Mysia in Anatolia in the current Balıkesir Province of Turkey.

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In ancient geography, especially in Roman sources, Dacia was the land inhabited by the Dacians.

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The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.

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Daqin (alternative transliterations include Tachin, Tai-Ch'in) is the ancient Chinese name for the Roman Empire or, depending on context, the Near East, especially Syria.

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The denarius (dēnāriī) was the standard Roman silver coin from its introduction in the Second Punic War c. 211 BC to the reign of Gordian III (AD 238-244), when it was gradually replaced by the Antoninianus.

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The Diadochi (plural of Latin Diadochus, from Διάδοχοι, Diádokhoi, "successors") were the rival generals, families, and friends of Alexander the Great who fought for control over his empire after his death in 323 BC.

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Digest (Roman law)

The Digest, also known as the Pandects (Digesta seu Pandectae, adapted from πανδέκτης pandéktēs, "all-containing"), is a name given to a compendium or digest of juristic writings on Roman law compiled by order of the Eastern Roman emperor Justinian I in the 6th century CE (530–533).

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Domitia Lucilla

Domitia Lucilla Minor (Minor, Latin for the Younger), sometimes known as Domitia Calvilla or Lucilla (died 155–161), was a noble Roman woman who lived in the 2nd century.

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Domitian (Titus Flavius Caesar Domitianus Augustus; 24 October 51 – 18 September 96 AD) was Roman emperor from 81 to 96.

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Edessa (Ἔδεσσα; الرها ar-Ruhā; Şanlıurfa; Riha) was a city in Upper Mesopotamia, founded on an earlier site by Seleucus I Nicator ca.

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Edward Champlin

Edward Champlin is a Professor of Classics, Cotsen Professor of Humanities, and former Master of Butler College at Princeton University.

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Edward Gibbon

Edward Gibbon FRS (8 May 173716 January 1794) was an English historian, writer and Member of Parliament.

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Egypt (Roman province)

The Roman province of Egypt (Aigyptos) was established in 30 BC after Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) defeated his rival Mark Antony, deposed Queen Cleopatra VII, and annexed the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt to the Roman Empire.

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Eloquence (from French eloquence from Latin eloquentia) is fluent, forcible, elegant or persuasive speaking.

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Encomium is a Latin word deriving from the Classical Greek ἐγκώμιον (enkomion) meaning "the praise of a person or thing." Encomium also refers to several distinct aspects of rhetoric.

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Ephesus (Ἔφεσος Ephesos; Efes; may ultimately derive from Hittite Apasa) was an ancient Greek city on the coast of Ionia, three kilometres southwest of present-day Selçuk in İzmir Province, Turkey.

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Epigraphy (ἐπιγραφή, "inscription") is the study of inscriptions or epigraphs as writing; it is the science of identifying graphemes, clarifying their meanings, classifying their uses according to dates and cultural contexts, and drawing conclusions about the writing and the writers.

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Epiphanius of Salamis

Epiphanius of Salamis (Ἐπιφάνιος; c. 310–320 – 403) was bishop of Salamis, Cyprus, at the end of the 4th century.

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The epulones (Latin epulōnēs, sing. epulō; "feasters") arranged feasts and public banquets at festivals and games (ludi) They constituted one of the four great religious corporations (quattuor amplissima collegia) of ancient Roman priests.

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The equites (eques nom. singular; sometimes referred to as "knights" in modern times) constituted the second of the property-based classes of ancient Rome, ranking below the senatorial class.

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Espejo, Spain

Espejo is a municipality in the province of Córdoba, Spain.

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Etruria (usually referred to in Greek and Latin source texts as Tyrrhenia Τυρρηνία) was a region of Central Italy, located in an area that covered part of what are now Tuscany, Lazio, and Umbria.

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Eusebius of Caesarea (Εὐσέβιος τῆς Καισαρείας, Eusébios tés Kaisareías; 260/265 – 339/340), also known as Eusebius Pamphili (from the Εὐσέβιος τοῦ Παμϕίλου), was a historian of Christianity, exegete, and Christian polemicist. He became the bishop of Caesarea Maritima about 314 AD. Together with Pamphilus, he was a scholar of the Biblical canon and is regarded as an extremely learned Christian of his time. He wrote Demonstrations of the Gospel, Preparations for the Gospel, and On Discrepancies between the Gospels, studies of the Biblical text. As "Father of Church History" (not to be confused with the title of Church Father), he produced the Ecclesiastical History, On the Life of Pamphilus, the Chronicle and On the Martyrs. During the Council of Antiochia (325) he was excommunicated for subscribing to the heresy of Arius, and thus withdrawn during the First Council of Nicaea where he accepted that the Homoousion referred to the Logos. Never recognized as a Saint, he became counselor of Constantine the Great, and with the bishop of Nicomedia he continued to polemicize against Saint Athanasius of Alexandria, Church Fathers, since he was condemned in the First Council of Tyre in 335.

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Eutychius Proclus

Eutychius Proclus (Εὐτύχιος Πρόκλος, Eutychios Proklos, or Tuticius Proculus in some sources) was a grammarian who flourished in the 2nd century CE.

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Annia Aurelia Fadilla, most commonly known as Fadilla (159-died after 211) was an influential Roman Princess and was one of the daughters born to Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius and Roman Empress Faustina the Younger.

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Fall of the Western Roman Empire

The Fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called Fall of the Roman Empire or Fall of Rome) was the process of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which it failed to enforce its rule, and its vast territory was divided into several successor polities.

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Faustina the Elder

Annia Galeria Faustina, sometimes referred to as Faustina I (Latin: Faustina Major; born on February 16 around 100 CE; died in October or November of 140 CE), was a Roman empress and wife of the Roman emperor Antoninus Pius.

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Faustina the Younger

Annia Galeria Faustina Minor (Minor is Latin for the Younger), Faustina Minor or Faustina the Younger (born probably 21 September CE, died in winter of 175 or spring of 176 CE) was a daughter of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius and Roman Empress Faustina the Elder.

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In ancient Roman religion, a flamen was a priest assigned to one of fifteen deities with official cults during the Roman Republic.

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Frederick the Great

Frederick II (Friedrich; 24 January 171217 August 1786) was King of Prussia from 1740 until 1786, the longest reign of any Hohenzollern king.

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Funan, (ហ្វូណន - Fonon), (Phù Nam) or Nokor Phnom (នគរភ្នំ) was the name given by Chinese cartographers, geographers and writers to an ancient Indianised state—or, rather a loose network of states (Mandala)—located in mainland Southeast Asia centered on the Mekong Delta that existed from the first to sixth century CE.

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Gaius Caesar

Gaius Caesar (Latin: Gaius Julius Caesar; 20 BC – 21 February AD 4) was consul in AD 1 and the grandson of Augustus, the first emperor of the Roman Empire.

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Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.

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Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.

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Germania Superior

Germania Superior ("Upper Germania") was an imperial province of the Roman Empire.

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Germanic peoples

The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.

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Gladiator (2000 film)

Gladiator is a 2000 epic historical drama film directed by Ridley Scott and written by David Franzoni, John Logan, and William Nicholson.

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Golden Chersonese

The Golden Chersonese or Golden Khersonese (Χρυσῆ Χερσόνησος, Chrysḗ Chersónēsos; Chersonesus Aurea), meaning the Golden Peninsula, was the name used for the Malay Peninsula by Greek and Roman geographers in classical antiquity, most famously in Claudius Ptolemy's 2nd-century Geography.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Guangzhou, also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong.

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Hadrian (Publius Aelius Hadrianus Augustus; 24 January 76 – 10 July 138 AD) was Roman emperor from 117 to 138.

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Hadrian's Villa

Hadrian's Villa (Villa Adriana in Italian) is a large Roman archaeological complex at Tivoli, Italy.

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Hadrian's Wall

Hadrian's Wall (Vallum Aelium), also called the Roman Wall, Picts' Wall, or Vallum Hadriani in Latin, was a defensive fortification in the Roman province of Britannia, begun in AD 122 in the reign of the emperor Hadrian.

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Han dynasty

The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.

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Herodes Atticus

Herodes Atticus (Ἡρῴδης ὁ Ἀττικός, Hērōidēs ho Attikos; 177), or Atticus Herodes, was a distinguished and rich Greek aristocrat and sophist who served as a Roman senator.

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Hispania Baetica

Hispania Baetica, often abbreviated Baetica, was one of three Roman provinces in Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula).

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History of silk

The production of silk originates in China in the Neolithic (Yangshao culture, 4th millennium BC).

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Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.

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Iain King

Iain Benjamin King is a British writer.

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The Iliad (Ἰλιάς, in Classical Attic; sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium) is an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer.

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The Latin word imperator derives from the stem of the verb imperare, meaning ‘to order, to command’.

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Imperium is a Latin word that, in a broad sense, translates roughly as 'power to command'.

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Indo-Roman trade relations

Indo-Roman trade relations (see also the spice trade and incense road) was trade between the Indian subcontinent and the Roman Empire in Europe and the Mediterranean.

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (IEP) is a scholarly online encyclopedia, dealing with philosophy, philosophical topics, and philosophers.

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Jiaozhi (Tai: kɛɛuA1, Wade-Giles: Chiāo-chǐh), was the name for various provinces, commanderies, prefectures, and counties in northern Vietnam from the era of the Hùng kings to the middle of the Third Chinese domination of Vietnam (–10th centuries) and again during the Fourth Chinese domination (1407–1427).

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Jim Mattis

James Norman Mattis (born September 8, 1950) is the current and 26th United States Secretary of Defense and former United States Marine Corps general who served as 11th Commander of United States Central Command during the Presidency of Barack Obama.

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Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman.

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John Stuart Mill

John Stuart Mill, also known as J.S. Mill, (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant.

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Julian (emperor)

Julian (Flavius Claudius Iulianus Augustus; Φλάβιος Κλαύδιος Ἰουλιανὸς Αὔγουστος; 331/332 – 26 June 363), also known as Julian the Apostate, was Roman Emperor from 361 to 363, as well as a notable philosopher and author in Greek.

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Junius Rusticus

Quintus Junius Rusticus (lived c. 100 – c. 170 AD), was a Roman teacher and politician.

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Jurisprudence or legal theory is the theoretical study of law, principally by philosophers but, from the twentieth century, also by social scientists.

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Justin Martyr

Justin Martyr (Latin: Iustinus Martyr) was an early Christian apologist, and is regarded as the foremost interpreter of the theory of the Logos in the 2nd century.

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Kingdom of Armenia (antiquity)

The Kingdom of Armenia, also the Kingdom of Greater Armenia, or simply Greater Armenia (Մեծ Հայք; Armenia Maior), was a monarchy in the Ancient Near East which existed from 321 BC to 428 AD.

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Lanuvium (more frequently Lanivium in Imperial Roman times, later Civita Lavinia, modern Lanuvio) is an ancient city of Latium (Lānŭuĭum or Lānĭuĭum), some southeast of Rome, a little southwest of the Via Appia.

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Laodicea in Syria

Laodicea was a port city and an important colonia of the Roman empire in ancient Syria.

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Lateran Palace

The Lateran Palace (Palatium Lateranense), formally the Apostolic Palace of the Lateran (Palatium Apostolicum Lateranense), is an ancient palace of the Roman Empire and later the main papal residence in southeast Rome.

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A legatus (anglicized as legate) was a high ranking Roman military officer in the Roman Army, equivalent to a modern high ranking general officer.

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Legio I Minervia

Legio I Minervia ("Minerva's First Legion", i.e., "devoted to the goddess Minerva") was a legion of the Imperial Roman army founded in AD 82 by emperor Domitian (r. 81–96), for his campaign against the Germanic tribe of the Chatti.

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Legio II Adiutrix

Legio secunda adiutrix ("Rescuer Second Legion"), was a legion of the Imperial Roman army founded in AD 70 by the emperor Vespasian (r. 69-79), originally composed of Roman navy marines of the classis Ravennatis.

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Legio III Gallica

Legio tertia Gallica ("Gallic Third Legion") was a legion of the Imperial Roman army founded around 49 BC by Gaius Julius Caesar for his civil war against The Republicans led by Pompey.

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Legio IX Hispana

Legio IX Hispana ("9th Legion – Spanish"), also written Legio nona Hispana or Legio VIIII Hispana, was a legion of the Imperial Roman army that existed from the 1st century BC until at least AD 120.

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Legio V Macedonica

Legio quinta Macedonica (the Fifth Macedonian Legion) was a Roman legion.

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Legio X Gemina

Legio decima Gemina ("The Twins' Tenth Legion"), was a legion of the Imperial Roman army.

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Libo Rupilius Frugi

Libo Rupilius Frugi (died 101), whose full name was Lucius Scribonius Libo Rupilius Frugi Bonus, was a Roman suffect consul and a possible ancestor of the emperor Marcus Aurelius.

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Limes Germanicus

The Limes Germanicus (Latin for Germanic frontier) was a line of frontier (limes) fortifications that bounded the ancient Roman provinces of Germania Inferior, Germania Superior and Raetia, dividing the Roman Empire and the unsubdued Germanic tribes from the years 83 to about 260 AD.

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List of governors of Roman Egypt

During the Classical Roman Empire, the governor of Roman Egypt (praefectus Aegypti) was a prefect who administered the Roman province of Egypt with the delegated authority (imperium) of the emperor.

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List of Roman consuls

This is a list of consuls known to have held office, from the beginning of the Roman Republic to the latest use of the title in Imperial times, together with those magistrates of the Republic who were appointed in place of consuls, or who superseded consular authority for a limited period.

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List of Roman emperors

The Roman Emperors were rulers of the Roman Empire, wielding power over its citizens and military.

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The Lombards or Longobards (Langobardi, Longobardi, Longobard (Western)) were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774.

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Lorium was an ancient village of what is now, the Veneto region, in the Province of Treviso, of ancient Etruria, Italy, along the Via Aurelia, 19 km west of Rome.

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Annia Aurelia Galeria Lucilla or Lucilla (March 7, 148 or 150–182) was the second daughter and third child of Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius and Roman Empress Faustina the Younger and an elder sister to later Emperor Commodus.

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Lucius Aelius

Lucius Aelius Caesar (January 13, 101 – January 1, 138) was the father of Emperor Lucius Verus.

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Lucius Caesar

Lucius Caesar (Latin: Lucius Julius Caesar; 17 BC – 20 August AD 2) was the grandson of Augustus, the first Roman emperor and founder of the Julio-Claudian dynasty.

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Lucius Catilius Severus

Lucius Catilius Severus Julianus Claudius Reginus was a Roman senator and general active during the reigns of Trajan and Hadrian.

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Lucius Coelius Antipater

Lucius Coelius Antipater was a Roman jurist and historian.

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Lucius Dasumius Tullius Tuscus

Lucius Dasumius Tullius Tuscus was a Roman senator who was an amici or trusted advisor of the emperors Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius.

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Lucius Plautius Lamia Silvanus

Lucius Plautius Lamia Silvanus (ca 110 – aft. 145) was a Roman senator, who was suffect consul for the nundinium of March-April 145 with Lucius Poblicola Priscus as his colleague.

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Lucius Verus

Lucius Verus (Lucius Aurelius Verus Augustus; 15 December 130 – 23 January 169 AD) was the co-emperor of Rome with his adoptive brother Marcus Aurelius from 161 until his own death in 169.

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Macedonia (Roman province)

The Roman province of Macedonia (Provincia Macedoniae, Ἐπαρχία Μακεδονίας) was officially established in 146 BC, after the Roman general Quintus Caecilius Metellus defeated Andriscus of Macedon, the last self-styled King of the ancient kingdom of Macedonia in 148 BC, and after the four client republics (the "tetrarchy") established by Rome in the region were dissolved.

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Malaise is a feeling of general discomfort, uneasiness or pain, often the first indication of an infection or other disease.

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Malay Peninsula

The Malay Peninsula (Tanah Melayu, تانه ملايو; คาบสมุทรมลายู,, မလေး ကျွန်းဆွယ်, 马来半岛 / 馬來半島) is a peninsula in Southeast Asia.

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The Marcomanni were a Germanic tribal confederation who eventually came to live in a powerful kingdom north of the Danube, somewhere in the region near modern Bohemia, during the peak of power of the nearby Roman Empire.

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Marcomannic Wars

The Marcomannic Wars (Latin: bellum Germanicum et Sarmaticum, "German and Sarmatian War") were a series of wars lasting over a dozen years from about 166 until 180 AD.

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Marcus Annius Libo (consul 161)

Marcus Annius Libo (died 163) was a Roman senator.

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Marcus Annius Verus

Marcus Annius Verus (50 – 138 AD) was the grandfather and adoptive father of the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius, and father-in-law of Emperor Antoninus Pius.

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Marcus Annius Verus (praetor)

Marcus Annius Verus (died 124 AD) was a distinguished Roman politician who lived in the 2nd century, served as a praetor and was the father of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius.

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Marcus Annius Verus Caesar

Marcus Annius Verus Caesar was the son of Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius and Empress Faustina the Younger, born in late 162AD, the 12th of 13 children.

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Marcus Cornelius Fronto

Marcus Cornelius Fronto (c. 100late 160s), best known as Fronto, was Roman grammarian, rhetorician, and advocate.

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Marcus Jallius Bassus

Marcus Jallius Bassus was a Roman senator, general, and literary figure who held several offices in the imperial service during the mid-second century AD.

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Marcus Nonius Macrinus

Marcus Nonius Macrinus was a Roman general and statesman in the era of the Emperors Antoninus Pius, Lucius Verus, and Marcus Aurelius.

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Marcus Sedatius Severianus

Marcus Sedatius Severianus (Latin: Marcus Sedatius C. f. Severianus Iulius Acer Metillius Nepos Rufinus Ti. Rutilianus Censor; (ILS, 1981) Ancient Greek: Μ. Σηδάτιος Σεουηριανὸς;Studia Pontica III, p.244 no.271 ca. 105-161/162) was a senator, consul, and Roman general during the 2nd-century AD, originally from Gaul.

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Marcus Statius Priscus

Marcus Statius Priscus Licinius Italicus (M. Statius M. f. Cl. Priscus Licinius Italicus)The name M. Statius M. f. Cl.

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Marius Maximus

Lucius Marius Maximus Perpetuus Aurelianus (more commonly known as Marius Maximus) (c. AD 160 – c. AD 230) was a Roman biographer, writing in Latin, who in the early decades of the 3rd century AD wrote a series of biographies of twelve Emperors, imitating and continuing Suetonius.

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Matthew Arnold

Matthew Arnold (24 December 1822 – 15 April 1888) was an English poet and cultural critic who worked as an inspector of schools.

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A mausoleum is an external free-standing building constructed as a monument enclosing the interment space or burial chamber of a deceased person or people.

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Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the measles virus.

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Meditations (Ta eis heauton, literally "things to one's self") is a series of personal writings by Marcus Aurelius, Roman Emperor from 161 to 180 AD, recording his private notes to himself and ideas on Stoic philosophy.

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Military tribune

A military tribune (Latin tribunus militum, "tribune of the soldiers", Greek chiliarchos, χιλίαρχος) was an officer of the Roman army who ranked below the legate and above the centurion.

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Moesia (Latin: Moesia; Μοισία, Moisía) was an ancient region and later Roman province situated in the Balkans south of the Danube River.

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Moravia (Morava;; Morawy; Moravia) is a historical country in the Czech Republic (forming its eastern part) and one of the historical Czech lands, together with Bohemia and Czech Silesia.

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Nero (Latin: Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 15 December 37 – 9 June 68 AD) was the last Roman emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty.

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Nerva–Antonine dynasty

The Nerva–Antonine dynasty was a dynasty of seven Roman Emperors who ruled over the Roman Empire from 96 AD to 192 AD.

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Nicaea or Nicea (Νίκαια, Níkaia; İznik) was an ancient city in northwestern Anatolia, and is primarily known as the site of the First and Second Councils of Nicaea (the first and seventh Ecumenical councils in the early history of the Christian Church), the Nicene Creed (which comes from the First Council), and as the capital city of the Empire of Nicaea following the Fourth Crusade in 1204, until the recapture of Constantinople by the Byzantines in 1261.

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Numismatics is the study or collection of currency, including coins, tokens, paper money, and related objects.

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Oclatinia (gens)

The gens Oclatinia was a minor Roman family of imperial times.

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Oderzo (Opitergium; Oderso) is a town and comune in the province of Treviso, Veneto, northern Italy.

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On Weights and Measures

On Weights and Measures is a historical, lexical, metrological, and geographical treatise compiled in 392 CE in Constantia by Epiphanius of Salamis (c. 315–403).

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Osroene, also spelled Osroëne and Osrhoene (مملكة الرها; ܡܠܟܘܬܐ ܕܒܝܬ ܐܘܪܗܝ "Kingdom of Urhay"; Ὀσροηνή) and sometimes known by the name of its capital city, Edessa (now Şanlıurfa, Turkey), was a historical kingdom in Upper Mesopotamia, which was ruled by a dynasty of Arab origin.

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The palaestra (or; also (chiefly British) palestra; παλαίστρα) was the ancient Greek wrestling school.

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Pallium (Roman cloak)

The pallium was a Roman cloak, which replaced the toga as the prescribed court garment for high ranking citizens, and especially civil officials, up to the rank of senator.

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A pandemic (from Greek πᾶν pan "all" and δῆμος demos "people") is an epidemic of infectious disease that has spread across a large region; for instance multiple continents, or even worldwide.

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Pannonia was a province of the Roman Empire bounded north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia.

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Parthian Empire

The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran and Iraq.

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Pater familias

The pater familias, also written as paterfamilias (plural patres familias), was the head of a Roman family.

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Patrician (ancient Rome)

The patricians (from patricius) were originally a group of ruling class families in ancient Rome.

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Pax Romana

The Pax Romana (Latin for "Roman Peace") was a long period of relative peace and stability experienced by the Roman Empire between the accession of Caesar Augustus, founder of the Roman principate, and the death of Marcus Aurelius, last of the "good emperors".

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Philosopher king

According to Plato, a philosopher king is a ruler who possesses both a love of knowledge, as well as intelligence, reliability, and a willingness to live a simple life.

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Pliny the Younger

Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus, born Gaius Caecilius or Gaius Caecilius Cilo (61 – c. 113), better known as Pliny the Younger, was a lawyer, author, and magistrate of Ancient Rome.

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Pontifex maximus

The Pontifex Maximus or pontifex maximus (Latin, "greatest priest") was the chief high priest of the College of Pontiffs (Collegium Pontificum) in ancient Rome.

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A pontiff (from Latin pontifex) was, in Roman antiquity, a member of the most illustrious of the colleges of priests of the Roman religion, the College of Pontiffs.

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Pozzuoli is a city and comune of the Metropolitan City of Naples, in the Italian region of Campania.

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Praetor (also spelled prætor) was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army (in the field or, less often, before the army had been mustered); or, an elected magistratus (magistrate), assigned various duties (which varied at different periods in Rome's history).

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Praetorian Guard

The Praetorian Guard (Latin: cohortes praetorianae) was an elite unit of the Imperial Roman army whose members served as personal bodyguards to the Roman emperors.

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Praetorian prefect

The praetorian prefect (praefectus praetorio, ἔπαρχος/ὕπαρχος τῶν πραιτωρίων) was a high office in the Roman Empire.

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Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.

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Punitive expedition

A punitive expedition is a military journey undertaken to punish a state or any group of persons outside the borders of the punishing state.

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The Quadi were a Suebian Germanic tribe who lived approximately in the area of modern Moravia in the time of the Roman Empire.

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A quadriga (Latin quadri-, four, and iugum, yoke) is a car or chariot drawn by four horses abreast (the Roman Empire's equivalent of Ancient Greek tethrippon).

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A quaestor (investigator) was a public official in Ancient Rome.

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Quindecimviri sacris faciundis

In ancient Rome, the quindecimviri sacris faciundis were the fifteen (quindecim) members of a college (''collegium'') with priestly duties.

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Quintus Antonius Isauricus

Quintus Antonius Isauricus was a Roman Legate, who commanded the 6th Legion in Britain during the AD 130s under Hadrian.

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Quintus Camurinus Numisius Junior

Quintus Camurinus Numisius Junior was a Roman senator active during the later second century AD.

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Raetia (also spelled Rhaetia) was a province of the Roman Empire, named after the Rhaetian (Raeti or Rhaeti) people.

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Ravenna (also locally; Ravèna) is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna, in the Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy.

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Richard Harris

Richard St.

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Roman currency

Roman currency for most of Roman history consisted of gold, silver, bronze, orichalcum and copper coinage.

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Roman emperor

The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC).

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Roman glass

Roman glass objects have been recovered across the Roman Empire in domestic, industrial and funerary contexts.

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Roman Republic

The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.

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Roman Senate

The Roman Senate (Senatus Romanus; Senato Romano) was a political institution in ancient Rome.

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Roman triumph

The Roman triumph (triumphus) was a civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly celebrate and sanctify the success of a military commander who had led Roman forces to victory in the service of the state or, originally and traditionally, one who had successfully completed a foreign war.

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Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).

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Ronald J. Mellor

Ronald J. Mellor (born September 30, 1940) is a distinguished professor of history at the University of California, Los Angeles.

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Rupilia Faustina (circa. 87 A.D. – before 138 A.D.) was an influential Roman noblewoman.

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Sack of Rome (410)

The Sack of Rome occurred on 24 August 410.

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Salonia Matidia

Salonia Matidia (4 July 68 CE – 23 December 119 CE) was the daughter and only child of Ulpia Marciana and wealthy praetor Gaius Salonius Matidius Patruinus.

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The Sarmatians (Sarmatae, Sauromatae; Greek: Σαρμάται, Σαυρομάται) were a large Iranian confederation that existed in classical antiquity, flourishing from about the 5th century BC to the 4th century AD.

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Second Sophistic

The Second Sophistic is a literary-historical term referring to the Greek writers who flourished from the reign of Nero until c. 230 CE and who were catalogued and celebrated by Philostratus in his Lives of the Sophists.

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Secret society

A secret society is a club or an organization whose activities, events, inner functioning, or membership are concealed from non-members.

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Seleucia, also known as or, was a major Mesopotamian city of the Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanian empires.

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Seleucid Empire

The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.

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Seneca the Younger

Seneca the Younger AD65), fully Lucius Annaeus Seneca and also known simply as Seneca, was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and—in one work—satirist of the Silver Age of Latin literature.

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The sestertius (plural sestertii), or sesterce (plural sesterces), was an ancient Roman coin.

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Sidonius Apollinaris

Gaius Sollius Modestus Apollinaris Sidonius, better known as Saint Sidonius Apollinaris (5 November of an unknown year, 430 – August 489 AD), was a poet, diplomat, and bishop.

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Silk Road

The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.

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Sino-Roman relations

Sino-Roman relations comprised the mostly indirect contact, flow of trade goods, information, and occasional travellers between the Roman Empire and Han Empire of China, as well as between the later Eastern Roman Empire and various Chinese dynasties.

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Sirmium was a city in the Roman province of Pannonia.

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Slovakia in the Roman era

Slovakia was partly occupied by Roman legions for a short period of time.

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Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.

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Sohaemus of Armenia

Gaius Julius Sohaemus,Birley, Septimius Severus: the African emperor, p.224 also known as Sohaemus of Armenia and Sohaemovan den Hout, A commentary on the Letters of M. Cornelius Fronto, pp. 301-2 (Սոհեմոս., Γάϊος Ἰούλιος Σόαιμος.) was a Roman Client King of Armenia.

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South China Sea

The South China Sea is a marginal sea that is part of the Pacific Ocean, encompassing an area from the Karimata and Malacca Straits to the Strait of Taiwan of around.

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Stoic Opposition

The Stoic Opposition is the name given to a group of Stoic philosophers who actively opposed the autocratic rule of certain emperors in the 1st-century, particularly Nero and Domitian.

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Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early 3rd century BC.

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The Suda or Souda (Soûda; Suidae Lexicon) is a large 10th-century Byzantine encyclopedia of the ancient Mediterranean world, formerly attributed to an author called Soudas (Σούδας) or Souidas (Σουίδας).

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A synonym is a word or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word or phrase in the same language.

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The Taunus is a mountain range in Hesse, Germany located north of Frankfurt.

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Temple of Antoninus and Faustina

The Temple of Antoninus and Faustina is an ancient Roman temple in Rome, adapted as a Roman Catholic church, namely, the Chiesa di San Lorenzo in Miranda or simply "San Lorenzo in Miranda".

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Temple of Marcus Aurelius

The Temple of Marcus Aurelius was a temple in Rome dedicated to the deified Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius by his son Commodus.

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The Fall of the Roman Empire (film)

The Fall of the Roman Empire is a 1964 American epic film directed by Anthony Mann and produced by Samuel Bronston, with a screenplay by Ben Barzman, Basilio Franchina and Philip Yordan.

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The Tiber (Latin Tiberis, Italian Tevere) is the third-longest river in Italy, rising in the Apennine Mountains in Emilia-Romagna and flowing through Tuscany, Umbria and Lazio, where it is joined by the river Aniene, to the Tyrrhenian Sea, between Ostia and Fiumicino.

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Tiberius (Tiberius Caesar Divi Augusti filius Augustus; 16 November 42 BC – 16 March 37 AD) was Roman emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD, succeeding the first emperor, Augustus.

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Tiberius Gemellus

Tiberius Julius Caesar Nero Gemellus, known as Tiberius Gemellus (Latin: Tiberius Caesar Drusus filius Tiberius Augustus nepos divus Augustus pronepos; 10 October AD 19–37/38) was the son of Drusus and Livilla, the grandson of the Emperor Tiberius, and the second cousin of the Emperor Caligula.

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The Tisza or Tisa is one of the main rivers of Central Europe.

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Titus (Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus Augustus; 30 December 39 – 13 September 81 AD) was Roman emperor from 79 to 81.

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Tivoli, Lazio

Tivoli (Tibur) is a town and comune in Lazio, central Italy, about east-north-east of Rome, at the falls of the Aniene river where it issues from the Sabine hills.

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Tribune was the title of various elected officials in ancient Rome.

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Triumvir Monetalis

A Triumvir Monetalis was one of three moneyers appointed in Ancient Rome to oversee the minting of coins.

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Trosius Aper

Trosius Aper was a grammarian of ancient Rome who served as one of two Latin tutors for the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius, along with Tuticius Proculus.

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Tyrian purple

Tyrian purple (Greek, πορφύρα, porphyra, purpura), also known as Tyrian red, Phoenician purple, royal purple, imperial purple or imperial dye, is a reddish-purple natural dye.

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Vatican Library

The Vatican Apostolic Library (Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana), more commonly called the Vatican Library or simply the Vat, is the library of the Holy See, located in Vatican City.

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Vespasian (Titus Flavius Vespasianus;Classical Latin spelling and reconstructed Classical Latin pronunciation: Vespasian was from an equestrian family that rose into the senatorial rank under the Julio–Claudian emperors. Although he fulfilled the standard succession of public offices and held the consulship in AD 51, Vespasian's renown came from his military success; he was legate of Legio II ''Augusta'' during the Roman invasion of Britain in 43 and subjugated Judaea during the Jewish rebellion of 66. While Vespasian besieged Jerusalem during the Jewish rebellion, emperor Nero committed suicide and plunged Rome into a year of civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors. After Galba and Otho perished in quick succession, Vitellius became emperor in April 69. The Roman legions of Roman Egypt and Judaea reacted by declaring Vespasian, their commander, emperor on 1 July 69. In his bid for imperial power, Vespasian joined forces with Mucianus, the governor of Syria, and Primus, a general in Pannonia, leaving his son Titus to command the besieging forces at Jerusalem. Primus and Mucianus led the Flavian forces against Vitellius, while Vespasian took control of Egypt. On 20 December 69, Vitellius was defeated, and the following day Vespasian was declared emperor by the Senate. Vespasian dated his tribunician years from 1 July, substituting the acts of Rome's Senate and people as the legal basis for his appointment with the declaration of his legions, and transforming his legions into an electoral college. Little information survives about the government during Vespasian's ten-year rule. He reformed the financial system of Rome after the campaign against Judaea ended successfully, and initiated several ambitious construction projects, including the building of the Flavian Amphitheatre, better known today as the Roman Colosseum. In reaction to the events of 68–69, Vespasian forced through an improvement in army discipline. Through his general Agricola, Vespasian increased imperial expansion in Britain. After his death in 79, he was succeeded by his eldest son Titus, thus becoming the first Roman emperor to be directly succeeded by his own natural son and establishing the Flavian dynasty.

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The vexillum (plural vexilla) was a flag-like object used as a military standard by units in the Ancient Roman army.

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Vibia Aurelia Sabina

Vibia Aurelia Sabina (170 AD – before 217 AD) was a Roman Princess.

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Vibia Sabina

Vibia Sabina (83–136/137) was a Roman Empress, wife and second cousin, once removed, to Roman Emperor Hadrian.

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Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.

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Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.

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Vindobona (from Gaulish windo- "white" and bona "base/bottom") was a Roman military camp on the site of the modern city of Vienna in Austria.

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The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi; Visigoti) were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths.

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Vologases IV

Vologases IV of Parthia (Parthian: Walagash, بلاش, Balāsh) was the ruler of the Parthian Empire from 147 to 191.

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Warwick Ball

Warwick Ball is an Australian-born near-eastern archeologist.

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Wen Jiabao

Wen Jiabao (born 15 September 1942) was the sixth Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, serving as China's head of government for a decade between 2003 and 2013.

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Wilhelm Xylander

Wilhelm Xylander (born Wilhelm Holtzman, graecized to Xylander; 26 December 153210 February 1576) was a German classical scholar and humanist.

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William O. Stephens

William O. Stephens (born 10 June 1962), a scholar of Stoicism, is Professor of Philosophy and Classics at Creighton University, Omaha, NE.

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Xi'an is the capital of Shaanxi Province, China.

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Yale University

Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.

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Zeno of Citium

Zeno of Citium (Ζήνων ὁ Κιτιεύς, Zēnōn ho Kitieus; c. 334 – c. 262 BC) was a Hellenistic thinker from Citium (Κίτιον, Kition), Cyprus, and probably of Phoenician descent.

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Redirects here:

Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus, Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus, M. Aelius Antoninus, M. Aurelius Antoninus, Marc Aurel, Marc Aureli, Marc Aureliu, Marc Aurelius, Marc Aurèle, Marc Aurèli, Marc-Aurèle, Marcu Aureliu, Marcus Aelius Antoninus, Marcus Annius Catilius Severus, Marcus Arelias, Marcus Aureleus, Marcus Aurelianus, Marcus Aurelias, Marcus Aurelias Antoninus, Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus, Marcus Aurelius Antonius, Marcus Aurelius Verus, Marcus arelius, Marcus aurelius antoninus, Marcus severus, Marek Aureliusz, Mark Aurel, Mark Avreli, Mark Avrelij, Markas Aurelijus, Marko Aurelije, Marko Aurelio, Marko Aŭrelio, Marks Aurēlijs, Markus Aurelius, Markús Árelíus, Μάρκος Αυρήλιος.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marcus_Aurelius

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