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Research and development

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Research and development (R&D, R+D, or R'n'D), also known in Europe as research and technological development (RTD), refers to innovative activities undertaken by corporations or governments in developing new services or products, or improving existing services or products. [1]

61 relations: Aeronautics, Allergan, Amortizing loan, Applied science, Barack Obama, Basic research, Biotechnology, Budget, Commerce, Competition, Correlation and dependence, Credit risk, Engineer, Ericsson, Europe, Europe 2020, European environmental research and innovation policy, Fiscal year, Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development, Global R&D management, Gross profit, Gross world product, High tech, Industry, Innovation, Know-how, Laboratory, List of business and finance abbreviations, List of countries by research and development spending, Market research, Marketing, Matthew effect, Merck & Co., Mergers and acquisitions, Military technology, Neglected tropical disease research and development, New product development, Niche market, Novartis, Outsourcing, Patent, Pharmaceutical industry, Publication, R&D intensity, Research, Return on investment, Safety-critical system, Science, Science of science policy, Science policy, ..., Scientific instrument, Scientific progress, Sovereign state, Statistics, Strategic alliance, Technological revolution, Technology, Technology demonstration, Technology life cycle, UNESCO Institute for Statistics, University. Expand index (11 more) »

Aeronautics

Aeronautics (from the ancient Greek words ὰήρ āēr, which means "air", and ναυτική nautikē which means "navigation", i.e. "navigation into the air") is the science or art involved with the study, design, and manufacturing of air flight capable machines, and the techniques of operating aircraft and rockets within the atmosphere.

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Allergan

Allergan plc is a multinational company in the pharmaceutical industry that produces branded drugs and performs pharmaceutical research and development.

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Amortizing loan

In banking and finance, an amortizing loan is a loan where the principal of the loan is paid down over the life of the loan (that is, amortized) according to an amortization schedule, typically through equal payments.

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Applied science

Applied science is the application of existing scientific knowledge to practical applications, like technology or inventions.

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Barack Obama

Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.

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Basic research

Basic research, also called pure research or fundamental research, has the scientific research aim to improve scientific theories for improved understanding or prediction of natural or other phenomena.

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Biotechnology

Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).

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Budget

A budget is a financial plan for a defined period of time, usually a year.It may also include planned sales volumes and revenues, resource quantities, costs and expenses, assets, liabilities and cash flows.

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Christmas

Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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Christmas and holiday season

The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.

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Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.

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Christmas traditions

Christmas traditions vary from country to country.

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Commerce

Commerce relates to "the exchange of goods and services, especially on a large scale.” Commerce includes legal, economic, political, social, cultural and technological systems that operate in any country or internationally.

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Competition

Competition is, in general, a contest or rivalry between two or more entities, organisms, animals, individuals, economic groups or social groups, etc., for territory, a niche, for scarce resources, goods, for mates, for prestige, recognition, for awards, for group or social status, or for leadership and profit.

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Correlation and dependence

In statistics, dependence or association is any statistical relationship, whether causal or not, between two random variables or bivariate data.

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Credit risk

A credit risk is the risk of default on a debt that may arise from a borrower failing to make required payments.

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Engineer

Engineers, as practitioners of engineering, are people who invent, design, analyze, build, and test machines, systems, structures and materials to fulfill objectives and requirements while considering the limitations imposed by practicality, regulation, safety, and cost.

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Ericsson

Ericsson (Telefonaktiebolaget L. M. Ericsson) is a Swedish multinational networking and telecommunications company headquartered in Stockholm.

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Europe

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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Europe 2020

Europe 2020 is a 10-year strategy proposed by the European Commission on 3 March 2010 for advancement of the economy of the European Union.

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European environmental research and innovation policy

The European environmental research and innovation policy is a set of strategies, actions and programmes to promote more and better research and innovation for building a resource-efficient and climate resilient society and economy in sync with the natural environment.

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Fiscal year

A fiscal year (or financial year, or sometimes budget year) is the period used by governments for accounting and budget purposes, which vary between countries.

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Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development

The Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development, also called Framework Programmes or abbreviated FP1 to FP7 with "FP8" being named "Horizon 2020", are funding programmes created by the European Union/European Commission to support and foster research in the European Research Area (ERA).

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Global R&D management

Global R&D management is the discipline of designing and leading R&D processes globally, i.e. across borders, in multi-cultural and multi-lingual settings, and cutting across multiple time zones.

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Gross profit

In accounting, gross profit, gross margin, sales profit, or credit sales is the difference between revenue and the cost of making a product or providing a service, before deducting overheads, payroll, taxation, and interest payments.

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Gross world product

The gross world product (GWP) is the combined gross national product of all the countries in the world.

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High tech

High technology, often abbreviated to high tech (adjective forms high-technology, high-tech or hi-tech) is technology that is at the cutting edge: the most advanced technology available.

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Industry

Industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy.

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Innovation

Innovation can be defined simply as a "new idea, device or method".

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Know-how

Know-how (or knowhow) is a term for practical knowledge on how to accomplish something, as opposed to "know-what" (facts), "know-why" (science), or "know-who" (communication).

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Laboratory

A laboratory (informally, lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed.

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List of business and finance abbreviations

This is a list of business and finance abbreviations.

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List of countries by research and development spending

This is a list of countries by research and development (R&D) spending in real terms and as per latest data available.

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Market research

Market research (also in some contexts known as industrial research) is any organized effort to gather information about target markets or customers.

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Marketing

Marketing is the study and management of exchange relationships.

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Matthew effect

The Matthew effect, Matthew principle, or Matthew effect of accumulated advantage can be observed in many aspects of life and fields of activity.

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Merck & Co.

Merck & Company, Inc., d.b.a. Merck Sharp & Dohme (MSD) outside the United States and Canada, is an American pharmaceutical company and one of the largest pharmaceutical companies in the world.

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Mergers and acquisitions

Mergers and acquisitions (M&A) are transactions in which the ownership of companies, other business organizations, or their operating units are transferred or consolidated with other entities.

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Military technology

Military technology is the application of technology for use in warfare.

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Neglected tropical disease research and development

Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a set of infectious diseases affecting an estimated 1.4 billion people worldwide.

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New Year

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

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New Year's Day

New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.

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New Year's Eve

In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.

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New product development

In business and engineering, new product development (NPD) covers the complete process of bringing a new product to market.

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Niche market

A niche market is the subset of the market on which a specific product is focused.

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Novartis

Novartis International AG is a Swiss multinational pharmaceutical company based in Basel, Switzerland.

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Outsourcing

In business, outsourcing is an agreement in which one company contracts its own internal activity to a different company.

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Patent

A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state or intergovernmental organization to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention.

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Pharmaceutical industry

The pharmaceutical industry (or medicine industry) is the commercial industry that discovers, develops, produces, and markets drugs or pharmaceutical drugs for use as different types of medicine and medications.

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Publication

To publish is to make content available to the general public.

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R&D intensity

Research and development intensity or simply R&D intensity, is generally defined as expenditures by a firm on its research and development (R&D) divided by the firm's sales.

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Research

Research comprises "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.

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Return on investment

Return on investment (ROI) is the ratio between the net profit and cost of investment resulting from an investment of some resource.

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Safety-critical system

A safety-critical system or life-critical system is a system whose failure or malfunction may result in one (or more) of the following outcomes.

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Science

R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.

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Science of science policy

The science of science policy (SoSP) is an emerging interdisciplinary research area that seeks to develop theoretical and empirical models of the scientific enterprise.

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Science policy

Science policy is concerned with the allocation of resources for the conduct of science towards the goal of best serving the public interest.

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Scientific instrument

A scientific instrument is, broadly speaking, a device or tool used for scientific purposes, including the study of both natural phenomena and theoretical research.

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Scientific progress

Scientific progress is the idea that science increases its problem-solving ability through the application of the scientific method.

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Sovereign state

A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.

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Statistics

Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.

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Strategic alliance

A strategic alliance (also see strategic partnership) is an agreement between two or more parties to pursue a set of agreed upon objectives needed while remaining independent organizations.

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Technological revolution

Technological revolution is a relatively short period in history when one technology (or better a set of technologies) is replaced by another technology (or by the set of technologies).

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Technology

Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is first robustly defined by Jacob Bigelow in 1829 as: "...principles, processes, and nomenclatures of the more conspicuous arts, particularly those which involve applications of science, and which may be considered useful, by promoting the benefit of society, together with the emolument of those who pursue them".

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Technology demonstration

A technology demonstration or demonstrator model, informally known as a tech demo, is a prototype, rough example or an otherwise incomplete version of a conceivable product or future system, put together as proof of concept with the primary purpose of showcasing the possible applications, feasibility, performance and method of an idea for a new technology.

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Technology life cycle

The technology life-cycle (TLC) describes the commercial gain of a product through the expense of research and development phase, and the financial return during its "vital life".

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UNESCO Institute for Statistics

The UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) is the statistical office of UNESCO and is the UN depository for cross-nationally comparable statistics on education, science and technology, culture, and communication.

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University

A university (universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines.

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2018

2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.

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2019

2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.

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Redirects here:

Centre (research), Director of R&D, Director of research and development, Joint R&D, R & D, R and D, R& D, R&D, R&D alliance, R&D&I, R&d departament, R+D, RD&D, Reasearch and Development, Research & Development, Research & development, Research and Development, Research and co-development, Research and development and innovation, Research&development, Research, demonstration and development, Research, development and demonstration, Research-and-development, Technology development.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Research_and_development

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