338 relations: -logy, A Clockwork Orange (novel), A Greek–English Lexicon, Accelerating change, Agriculture, Airplane, Aldous Huxley, Alexis Madrigal, Alloy, American Journal of Human Genetics, Anarcho-primitivism, Ancient Greek, Anthony Burgess, Applied science, Appropriate technology, Aqueduct (bridge), Architectural technology, Architecture, Artificial general intelligence, Australopithecus afarensis, Automation, Behavioral modernity, Bellows, Berkeley, California, Bernard Stiegler, Bill Joy, Bioethics, Biotechnology, Bipedalism, Blade Runner, Boa Vista, Roraima, Body mass index, Brass, Brave New World, British Agricultural Revolution, Bronze, Business process, Capuchin monkey, Car, Cardiac surgery, Carnegie Mellon University, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, Charcoal, Chemistry, Chimpanzee, Citizenship, Cloaca Maxima, Clock, Clothing, Communication, ..., Compass, Computer, Computer science, Conspicuous leisure, Constable & Robinson, Construction, Consumer electronics, Control of fire by early humans, Copper, Cradle of Humankind, Crete, Criticism of technology, Crow, Crowbar (tool), Current Anthropology, Darin Barney, Deforestation, Diffusion of innovations, Division of labour, Dolphin, Dow Chemical Company, DuPont, E. F. Schumacher, Economic globalization, Economy, Ecovillage, Efficiency, Electric light, Electric motor, Electrical conductor, Electricity, Electron, Encyclopædia Britannica, Energy, Energy accounting, Engadget, Engine, Engineer, Engineering, Environmental justice, Ethics, Ethics of technology, Euphrates, Eurasia, Evgeny Morozov, Fatigue, Fire, Flight, Flooding of the Nile, Foraging, Forge, Francis Fukuyama, Furnace, Gas stove, General Motors, Genetic engineering, Genetics, George Orwell, Ghost in the Shell (1995 film), Glastonbury, Goal orientation, Goethe's Faust, Gold, Gortyn, Grand Rapids, Michigan, Herbert Marcuse, Hierarchy, High tech, History, History (U.S. TV network), History of science and technology, Hominidae, Homo, Homo erectus, Horse collar, Horseshoe, Hubert Dreyfus, Human condition, Human enhancement, Hunter-gatherer, Industrial arts, Industrial Revolution, Industry, Information Age, Information technology, Infrastructure, Instrumental and intrinsic value, Integrated circuit, Internet, Internet culture, Intute, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irrigation, Jacques Ellul, Jared Bernstein, Jürgen Habermas, John Zerzan, Karl Marx, Kevin Kelly (editor), Knossos, Knowledge economy, Labour economics, Language, Law of the instrument, Lead, Lever, Lewis Mumford, List of years in science, Lithic reduction, Luddite, Machine, Machine Intelligence Research Institute, Management, Manufacturing, Martin Heidegger, Mass production, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Mathematics, Maykop culture, Medication, Medicine, Medieval technology, Mediterranean Sea, Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's English Dictionary, Mesolithic, Mesopotamia, Metallurgy, Michael J. Sandel, Michel Foucault, Middle Ages, Miniaturization, Mining, Minoan civilization, MIT Press, Moral authority, Mortar and pestle, Nanosocialism, Nanotechnology, National Academy of Engineering, National Science Foundation, Natural environment, Neil Postman, Neo-Luddism, Neolithic, Neolithic Revolution, Niche construction, Nikolas Kompridis, Nineteen Eighty-Four, Nomad, Nuclear fission, Nuclear power, Nuclear weapon, Off-the-grid, Oven, Oxford University Press, Palomar College, Paradigm, Particle accelerator, Persian Gulf, Philip K. Dick, Philosophy of technology, Physics, Political repression, Pollution, Post-scarcity economy, Posthumanism, Potter's wheel, Pre-modern human migration, Precautionary principle, Prehistory, Primates (journal), Printing press, Productivity, Productivity improving technologies, Pulley, Quarterly Journal of Economics, Radio, Ray Kurzweil, Reactionary, Renaissance technology, Richard Rhodes, Robotics, Roman aqueduct, Roman Empire, Safety, Sailing ship, Satellite, Science, Science (journal), Science and technology in Argentina, Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, Scientism, Scientist, Screw, Second Industrial Revolution, Sedentism, Semiconductor, Sewerage, Silk, Silver, Simple machine, Singularitarianism, Skyscraper, Smelting, Software, Space exploration, Space station, Spoon, Stanford University Press, State of the art, Steam engine, Steel, Stem-cell therapy, Stone tool, Strategy of Technology, Sumer, Superpower, Synthetic biology, Tap water, TechCrunch, Technics and Time, 1, Techno-progressivism, Technocapitalism, Technocentrism, Technocracy, Technocriticism, Technological convergence, Technological determinism, Technological evolution, Technological nationalism, Technological revival, Technological singularity, Technological utopianism, Technology acceptance model, Technology and society, Technology assessment, Technology life cycle, Technology management, Technology readiness level, Technology transfer, Technology tree, Technorealism, Ted Kaczynski, Telecommunication, Telegraphy, Telephone, Television, The American Prospect, The Question Concerning Technology, The Verge, Theories of technology, Thomas P. Hughes, Thomson Corporation, Thorstein Veblen, Tigris, Toilet, Tool, Transhumanism, Transistor, Transport, Travois, Unemployment, UNESCO, University of California Press, University of Chicago Press, Ur, Urban area, Ursula Franklin, Uruk, Usability, Useful art, Utility, Value (ethics), Vannevar Bush, Viking Press, W. Brian Arthur, Water wheel, Western chimpanzee, What Technology Wants, Wheel, Wheelbarrow, William Gibson, Windmill, Wired (magazine), Wood, World War II. Expand index (288 more) » « Shrink index
-logy is a suffix in the English language, used with words originally adapted from Ancient Greek ending in -λογία (-logia).
A Clockwork Orange is a dystopian satirical black comedy novel by English writer Anthony Burgess, published in 1962.
A Greek–English Lexicon, often referred to as Liddell & Scott, Liddell–Scott–Jones, or LSJ, is a standard lexicographical work of the Ancient Greek language.
In futures studies and the history of technology, accelerating change is a perceived increase in the rate of technological change throughout history, which may suggest faster and more profound change in the future and may or may not be accompanied by equally profound social and cultural change.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
An airplane or aeroplane (informally plane) is a powered, fixed-wing aircraft that is propelled forward by thrust from a jet engine, propeller or rocket engine.
Aldous Leonard Huxley (26 July 1894 – 22 November 1963) was an English writer, novelist, philosopher, and prominent member of the Huxley family.
Alexis Madrigal is an American journalist.
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.
The American Journal of Human Genetics is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal in the field of human genetics.
Anarcho-primitivism is an anarchist critique of the origins and progress of civilization.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
John Anthony Burgess Wilson, (25 February 1917 – 22 November 1993), who published under the name Anthony Burgess, was an English writer and composer.
Applied science is the application of existing scientific knowledge to practical applications, like technology or inventions.
Appropriate technology is a movement (and its manifestations) encompassing technological choice and application that is small-scale, decentralized, labor-intensive, energy-efficient, environmentally sound, and locally autonomous.
Bridges for conveying water, called aqueducts or water bridges, are constructed to convey watercourses across gaps such as valleys or ravines.
Architectural technology, or building technology, is the application of technology to the design of buildings.
Architecture is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or any other structures.
Artificial general intelligence (AGI) is the intelligence of a machine that could successfully perform any intellectual task that a human being can.
Australopithecus afarensis (Latin: "Southern ape from Afar") is an extinct hominin that lived between 3.9 and 2.9 million years ago in Africa and possibly Europe.
Automation is the technology by which a process or procedure is performed without human assistance.
Behavioral modernity is a suite of behavioral and cognitive traits that distinguishes current Homo sapiens from other anatomically modern humans, hominins, and primates.
A bellows or pair of bellows is a device constructed to furnish a strong blast of air.
Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern Alameda County, California.
Bernard Stiegler (born 1 April 1952) is a French philosopher.
William Nelson Joy (born November 8, 1954) is an American computer scientist.
Bioethics is the study of the ethical issues emerging from advances in biology and medicine.
Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).
Bipedalism is a form of terrestrial locomotion where an organism moves by means of its two rear limbs or legs.
Blade Runner is a 1982 American-Hong Kong neo-noir science fiction film directed by Ridley Scott, written by Hampton Fancher and David Peoples, and starring Harrison Ford, Rutger Hauer, Sean Young, and Edward James Olmos.
Boa Vista (Good View) is the capital of the Brazilian state of Roraima.
The body mass index (BMI) or Quetelet index is a value derived from the mass (weight) and height of an individual.
Brass is a metallic alloy that is made of copper and zinc.
Brave New World is a dystopian novel written in 1931 by English author Aldous Huxley, and published in 1932.
The British Agricultural Revolution, or Second Agricultural Revolution, was the unprecedented increase in agricultural production in Britain due to increases in labour and land productivity between the mid-17th and late 19th centuries.
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
A business process or business method is a collection of related, structured activities or tasks that in a specific sequence produces a service or product (serves a particular business goal) for a particular customer or customers.
The capuchin monkeys are New World monkeys of the subfamily Cebinae.
A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation.
Cardiac surgery, or cardiovascular surgery, is surgery on the heart or great vessels performed by cardiac surgeons.
Carnegie Mellon University (commonly known as CMU) is a private research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
The Center on Budget and Policy Priorities (CBPP) is an American think tank that analyzes the impact of federal and state government budget policies from a progressive perspective.
Charcoal is the lightweight black carbon and ash residue hydrocarbon produced by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
The taxonomical genus Pan (often referred to as chimpanzees or chimps) consists of two extant species: the common chimpanzee and the bonobo.
Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or belonging to a nation.
The Cloaca Maxima (Cloaca Massima) is one of the world's earliest sewage systems.
A clock is an instrument to measure, keep, and indicate time.
Clothing (also known as clothes and attire) is a collective term for garments, items worn on the body.
Communication (from Latin commūnicāre, meaning "to share") is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules.
A compass is an instrument used for navigation and orientation that shows direction relative to the geographic cardinal directions (or points).
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.
Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.
Conspicuous leisure is a concept introduced by the American economist and sociologist Thorstein Veblen, in The Theory of the Leisure Class (1899).
Constable & Robinson Ltd. is an imprint of Little, Brown which publishes fiction and non-fiction books and ebooks.
Construction is the process of constructing a building or infrastructure.
Consumer electronics or home electronics are electronic (analog or digital) equipments intended for everyday use, typically in private homes.
The control of fire by early humans was a turning point in the cultural aspect of human evolution.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
The Cradle of Humankind is a paleoanthropological site about northwest of Johannesburg, South Africa, in the Gauteng province.
Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.
Criticism of technology is an analysis of adverse impacts of industrial and digital technologies.
A Crow is a bird of the genus Corvus, or more broadly is a synonym for all of Corvus.
A crowbar, also called a wrecking bar, pry bar or prybar, pinch-bar, or occasionally a prise bar or prisebar, colloquially, in Britain and Australia sometimes called a jimmy (also called jimmy bar or jemmy), gooseneck, or pig foot, is a tool consisting of a metal bar with a single curved end and flattened points, often with a small fissure on one or both ends for removing nails.
Current Anthropology is a peer-reviewed anthropology academic journal published by the University of Chicago Press and sponsored by the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research.
Darin Barney is a political theorist, academic and activist whose work focuses on critical theory, the philosophy of technology, infrastructure and disruptive politics.
Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.
Diffusion of innovations is a theory that seeks to explain how, why, and at what rate new ideas and technology spread.
The division of labour is the separation of tasks in any system so that participants may specialize.
Dolphins are a widely distributed and diverse group of aquatic mammals.
The Dow Chemical Company, commonly referred to as Dow, is an American multinational chemical corporation headquartered in Midland, Michigan, United States, and the predecessor of the merged company DowDuPont.
Ernst Friedrich Schumacher (19 August 1911 – 4 September 1977) was a German statistician and economist who is best known for his proposals for human-scale, decentralised and appropriate technologies.
Economic globalization is one of the three main dimensions of globalization commonly found in academic literature, with the two others being political globalization and cultural globalization, as well as the general term of globalization.
An economy (from Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the production, distribution, or trade, and consumption of goods and services by different agents.
Ecovillages are traditional or intentional communities whose goal is to become more socially, culturally, economically and ecologically sustainable.
Efficiency is the (often measurable) ability to avoid wasting materials, energy, efforts, money, and time in doing something or in producing a desired result.
An electric light is a device that produces visible light from electric current.
An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.
In physics and electrical engineering, a conductor is an object or type of material that allows the flow of an electrical current in one or more directions.
Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
Energy accounting is a system used to measure, analyze and report the energy consumption of different activities on a regular basis.
Engadget is a multilingual technology blog network with daily coverage of gadgets and consumer electronics.
An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy.
Engineers, as practitioners of engineering, are people who invent, design, analyze, build, and test machines, systems, structures and materials to fulfill objectives and requirements while considering the limitations imposed by practicality, regulation, safety, and cost.
Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.
Environmental justice emerged as a concept in the United States in the early 1980s.
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
Ethics in technology is a sub-field of ethics addressing the ethical questions specific to the Technology Age.
The Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranuna; 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu; الفرات al-Furāt; ̇ܦܪܬ Pǝrāt; Եփրատ: Yeprat; פרת Perat; Fırat; Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.
Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.
Evgeny Morozov (Russian: Евгений Морозов; Яўгені Марозаў; born in 1984) is a writer and researcher from Belarus who studies political and social implications of technology.
Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.
Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various reaction products.
Flight is the process by which an object moves through an atmosphere (or beyond it, as in the case of spaceflight) without contact with the surface.
The flooding of the Nile has been an important natural cycle in Egypt since ancient times.
Foraging is searching for wild food resources.
A forge is a type of hearth used for heating metals, or the workplace (smithy) where such a hearth is located.
Yoshihiro Francis "Frank" Fukuyama (born October 27, 1952) is an American political scientist, political economist, and author.
A furnace is a device used for high-temperature heating.
In cooking, a gas stove is a cooker/stove which uses syngas, natural gas, propane, butane, liquefied petroleum gas or other flammable gas as a fuel source.
General Motors Company, commonly referred to as General Motors (GM), is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Detroit that designs, manufactures, markets, and distributes vehicles and vehicle parts, and sells financial services.
Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 – 21 January 1950), better known by his pen name George Orwell, was an English novelist, essayist, journalist and critic whose work is marked by lucid prose, awareness of social injustice, opposition to totalitarianism and outspoken support of democratic socialism.
Ghost in the Shell (known in Japan as) is a 1995 anime science fiction film based on the manga of the same name by Masamune Shirow.
Glastonbury is a town and civil parish in Somerset, England, situated at a dry point on the low-lying Somerset Levels, south of Bristol.
Goal orientation is an "individual disposition toward developing or validating one's ability in achievement settings".
Faust is a tragic play in two parts by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, usually known in English as Faust, Part One and Faust, Part Two.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
Gortyn, Gortys or Gortyna (Γόρτυν, Γόρτυς, or Γόρτυνα) is a municipality and an archaeological site on the Mediterranean island of Crete, 45 km away from the modern capital Heraklion.
Grand Rapids is the second-largest city in Michigan, and the largest city in West Michigan.
Herbert Marcuse (July 19, 1898 – July 29, 1979) was a German-American philosopher, sociologist, and political theorist, associated with the Frankfurt School of Critical Theory.
A hierarchy (from the Greek hierarchia, "rule of a high priest", from hierarkhes, "leader of sacred rites") is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another A hierarchy can link entities either directly or indirectly, and either vertically or diagonally.
High technology, often abbreviated to high tech (adjective forms high-technology, high-tech or hi-tech) is technology that is at the cutting edge: the most advanced technology available.
History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.
History (originally The History Channel from 1995 to 2008) is a history-based digital cable and satellite television network that is owned by A&E Networks, a joint venture between the Hearst Communications and the Disney–ABC Television Group division of the Walt Disney Company.
The history of science and technology (HST) is a field of history which examines how humanity's understanding of the natural world (science) and ability to manipulate it (technology) have changed over the centuries.
The Hominidae, whose members are known as great apes or hominids, are a taxonomic family of primates that includes eight extant species in four genera: Pongo, the Bornean, Sumatran and Tapanuli orangutan; Gorilla, the eastern and western gorilla; Pan, the common chimpanzee and the bonobo; and Homo, which includes modern humans and its extinct relatives (e.g., the Neanderthal), and ancestors, such as Homo erectus.
Homo (Latin homō "human being") is the genus that encompasses the extant species Homo sapiens (modern humans), plus several extinct species classified as either ancestral to or closely related to modern humans (depending on a species), most notably Homo erectus and Homo neanderthalensis.
Homo erectus (meaning "upright man") is an extinct species of archaic humans that lived throughout most of the Pleistocene geological epoch.
A horse collar is a part of a horse harness that is used to distribute the load around a horse's neck and shoulders when pulling a wagon or plough.
A horseshoe is a fabricated product, normally made of metal, although sometimes made partially or wholly of modern synthetic materials, designed to protect a horse's hoof from wear.
Hubert Lederer Dreyfus (October 15, 1929 – April 22, 2017) was an American philosopher and professor of philosophy at the University of California, Berkeley.
The human condition is "the characteristics, key events, and situations which compose the essentials of human existence, such as birth, growth, emotionality, aspiration, conflict, and mortality".
Human enhancement (Augment) is "any attempt to temporarily or permanently overcome the current limitations of the human body through natural or artificial means.
A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.
Industrial arts is an educational program which features fabrication of an objects in wood or metal using a variety of hand, power, or machine tools.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
Industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy.
The Information Age (also known as the Computer Age, Digital Age, or New Media Age) is a 21st century period in human history characterized by the rapid shift from traditional industry that the Industrial Revolution brought through industrialization, to an economy based on information technology.
Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.
Infrastructure is the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or other area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function.
The word "value" is both a verb and a noun, each with multiple meanings.
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
Internet culture, or cyberculture, is the culture that has emerged, or is emerging, from the use of computer networks for communication, entertainment, and business.
Intute was a free Web service aimed at students, teachers, and researchers in UK further education and higher education.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.
Jacques Ellul (January 6, 1912 – May 19, 1994) was a French philosopher, sociologist, lay theologian, and professor who was a noted Christian anarchist.
Jared Bernstein (born 1955) is a Senior Fellow at the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities.
Jürgen Habermas (born 18 June 1929) is a German sociologist and philosopher in the tradition of critical theory and pragmatism.
John Zerzan (born August 10, 1943) is an American anarchist and primitivist philosopher and author.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
Kevin Kelly (born August 14, 1952) is the founding executive editor of Wired magazine, and a former editor/publisher of the Whole Earth Review.
Knossos (also Cnossos, both pronounced; Κνωσός, Knōsós) is the largest Bronze Age archaeological site on Crete and has been called Europe's oldest city.
The knowledge economy is the use of knowledge (savoir, savoir-faire, savoir-être) to generate tangible and intangible values.
Labour economics seeks to understand the functioning and dynamics of the markets for wage labour.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
The concept known as the law of the instrument, otherwise known as the law of the hammer, Maslow's hammer (or gavel), or the golden hammer, is a cognitive bias that involves an over-reliance on a familiar tool.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
A lever is a simple machine consisting of a beam or rigid rod pivoted at a fixed hinge, or fulcrum.
Lewis Mumford (October 19, 1895 – January 26, 1990) was an American historian, sociologist, philosopher of technology, and literary critic.
The following entries cover events related to science or technology which occurred in the listed year.
In archaeology, in particular of the Stone Age, lithic reduction is the process of fashioning stones or rocks from their natural state into tools or weapons by removing some parts.
The Luddites were a radical group of English textile workers and weavers in the 19th century who destroyed weaving machinery as a form of protest.
A machine uses power to apply forces and control movement to perform an intended action.
The Machine Intelligence Research Institute (MIRI), formerly the Singularity Institute for Artificial Intelligence (SIAI), is a non-profit organization founded in 2000 to research safety issues related to the development of Strong AI.
Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body.
Manufacturing is the production of merchandise for use or sale using labour and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation.
Martin Heidegger (26 September 188926 May 1976) was a German philosopher and a seminal thinker in the Continental tradition and philosophical hermeneutics, and is "widely acknowledged to be one of the most original and important philosophers of the 20th century." Heidegger is best known for his contributions to phenomenology and existentialism, though as the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy cautions, "his thinking should be identified as part of such philosophical movements only with extreme care and qualification".
Mass production, also known as flow production or continuous production, is the production of large amounts of standardized products, including and especially on assembly lines.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
The Maykop culture (scientific transliteration: Majkop), c. 3700 BC–3000 BC, was a major Bronze Age archaeological culture in the western Caucasus region of southern Russia.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Medieval technology refers to the technology used in medieval Europe under Christian rule.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
The Merriam-Webster's Advanced Learner's English Dictionary is a dictionary that was published in 2008.
In Old World archaeology, Mesolithic (Greek: μέσος, mesos "middle"; λίθος, lithos "stone") is the period between the Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.
Michael J. Sandel (born March 5, 1953) is an American political philosopher.
Paul-Michel Foucault (15 October 1926 – 25 June 1984), generally known as Michel Foucault, was a French philosopher, historian of ideas, social theorist, and literary critic.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Miniaturization (Br.Eng.: Miniaturisation) is the trend to manufacture ever smaller mechanical, optical and electronic products and devices.
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.
The Minoan civilization was an Aegean Bronze Age civilization on the island of Crete and other Aegean Islands which flourished from about 2600 to 1600 BC, before a late period of decline, finally ending around 1100.
The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).
Moral authority is authority premised on principles, or fundamental truths, which are independent of written, or positive, laws.
A mortar and pestle is a kitchen implement used since ancient times to prepare ingredients or substances by crushing and grinding them into a fine paste or powder.
Nanosocialism refers generally to a set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the research, development and use of nanotechnology.
Nanotechnology ("nanotech") is manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale.
The National Academy of Engineering (NAE) is an American nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
The National Science Foundation (NSF) is a United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering.
The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally, meaning in this case not artificial.
Neil Postman (March 8, 1931 – October 5, 2003) was an American author, educator, media theorist and cultural critic, who is best known for his seventeen books, including Amusing Ourselves to Death (1985), Conscientious Objections (1988), ''Technopoly: The Surrender of Culture to Technology'' (1992), The Disappearance of Childhood (1994) and The End of Education: Redefining the Value of School (1995).
Neo-Luddism or new Luddism is a philosophy opposing many forms of modern technology.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
The Neolithic Revolution, Neolithic Demographic Transition, Agricultural Revolution, or First Agricultural Revolution, was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures during the Neolithic period from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making an increasingly larger population possible.
Niche construction is the process by which an organism alters its own (or another species') local environment.
Nikolas Kompridis, is a Canadian philosopher and political theorist.
Nineteen Eighty-Four, often published as 1984, is a dystopian novel published in 1949 by English author George Orwell.
A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).
Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
Off-the-grid is a system and lifestyle designed to help people function without the support of remote infrastructure, such as an electrical grid.
An oven is a thermally insulated chamber used for the heating, baking, or drying of a substance, and most commonly used for cooking.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Palomar College is a community college with one campus, three centers and four education sites in San Diego County, California, United States.
In science and philosophy, a paradigm is a distinct set of concepts or thought patterns, including theories, research methods, postulates, and standards for what constitutes legitimate contributions to a field.
A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to nearly light speed and to contain them in well-defined beams.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
Philip Kindred Dick (December 16, 1928 – March 2, 1982) was an American writer known for his work in science fiction.
The philosophy of technology is a sub-field of philosophy that studies the nature of technology and its social effects.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
Political repression is the persecution of an individual or group within society for political reasons, particularly for the purpose of restricting or preventing their ability to take part in the political life of a society thereby reducing their standing among their fellow citizens.
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change.
Post-scarcity is an economic theory in which most goods can be produced in great abundance with minimal human labor needed, so that they become available to all very cheaply or even freely.
Posthumanism or post-humanism (meaning "after humanism" or "beyond humanism") is a term with at least seven definitions according to philosopher Francesca Ferrando.
In pottery, a potter's wheel is a machine used in the shaping (known as throwing) of round ceramic ware.
Paleolithic migration prior to end of the Last Glacial Maximum spread anatomically modern humans throughout Afro-Eurasia and to the Americas.
The precautionary principle (or precautionary approach) generally defines actions on issues considered to be uncertain, for instance applied in assessing risk management.
Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools 3.3 million years ago by hominins and the invention of writing systems.
Primates is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal of primatology.
A printing press is a device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring the ink.
Productivity describes various measures of the efficiency of production.
This article is about the important technologies that have historically increased productivity and is intended to serve as the History section of Productivity from which it was moved.
A pulley is a wheel on an axle or shaft that is designed to support movement and change of direction of a taut cable or belt, or transfer of power between the shaft and cable or belt.
The Quarterly Journal of Economics is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by the Oxford University Press.
Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.
Raymond Kurzweil (born February 12, 1948) is an American author, computer scientist, inventor and futurist.
A reactionary is a person who holds political views that favor a return to the status quo ante, the previous political state of society, which they believe possessed characteristics (discipline, respect for authority, etc.) that are negatively absent from the contemporary status quo of a society.
Renaissance technology is the set of European artifacts and inventions which span the Renaissance period, roughly the 14th century through the 16th century.
Richard Lee Rhodes (born July 4, 1937) is an American historian, journalist and author of both fiction and non-fiction (which he prefers to call "verity"), including the Pulitzer Prize-winning The Making of the Atomic Bomb (1986), and most recently, Energy: A Human History (2018).
Robotics is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering and science that includes mechanical engineering, electronics engineering, computer science, and others.
The Romans constructed aqueducts throughout their Empire, to bring water from outside sources into cities and towns.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Safety is the state of being "safe" (from French sauf), the condition of being protected from harm or other non-desirable outcomes.
The term "sailing ship" is most often used to describe any large vessel that uses sails to harness the power of wind.
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
The most important aspects of science and technology in Argentina are concerned with medicine, nuclear physics, biotechnology, nanotechnology, space and rocket technology and several fields related to the country's main economic activities.
Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM), previously Science, Math, Engineering, and Technology (SMET), is a term used to group together these academic disciplines.
Scientism is the ideology of science.
A scientist is a person engaging in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge that describes and predicts the natural world.
A screw is a type of fastener, in some ways similar to a bolt (see Differentiation between bolt and screw below), typically made of metal, and characterized by a helical ridge, known as a male thread (external thread).
The Second Industrial Revolution, also known as the Technological Revolution, was a phase of rapid industrialization in the final third of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th.
In cultural anthropology, sedentism (sometimes called sedentariness; compare sedentarism) is the practice of living in one place for a long time.
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.
Sewerage is the infrastructure that conveys sewage or surface runoff (stormwater, meltwater, rainwater) using sewers.
Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
A simple machine is a mechanical device that changes the direction or magnitude of a force.
Singularitarianism is a movement defined by the belief that a technological singularity—the creation of superintelligence—will likely happen in the medium future, and that deliberate action ought to be taken to ensure that the Singularity benefits humans.
A skyscraper is a continuously habitable high-rise building that has over 40 floors and is taller than approximately.
Smelting is a process of applying heat to ore in order to melt out a base metal.
Computer software, or simply software, is a generic term that refers to a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built, that actually performs the work.
Space exploration is the discovery and exploration of celestial structures in outer space by means of evolving and growing space technology.
A space station, also known as an orbital station or an orbital space station, is a spacecraft capable of supporting crewmembers, which is designed to remain in space (most commonly as an artificial satellite in low Earth orbit) for an extended period of time and for other spacecraft to dock.
A spoon is a utensil consisting of a small shallow bowl (also known as a head), oval or round, at the end of a handle.
The Stanford University Press (SUP) is the publishing house of Stanford University.
State of the art (sometimes cutting edge) refers to the highest level of general development, as of a device, technique, or scientific field achieved at a particular time.
A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
Stem-cell therapy is the use of stem cells to treat or prevent a disease or condition.
A stone tool is, in the most general sense, any tool made either partially or entirely out of stone.
The Strategy of Technology doctrine involves a country using its advantage in technology to create and deploy weapons of sufficient power and numbers so as to overawe or beggar its opponents, forcing them to spend their limited resources on developing hi-tech countermeasures and straining their economy.
SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
Superpower is a term used to describe a state with a dominant position, which is characterised by its extensive ability to exert influence or project power on a global scale.
Synthetic biology is an interdisciplinary branch of biology and engineering.
Tap water (running water, city water, town water, municipal water, etc.) is water supplied to a tap (valve).
TechCrunch is an American online publisher of technology industry news founded in 2005 by Archimedes Ventures whose partners were Michael Arrington and Keith Teare.
Technics and Time, 1: The Fault of Epimetheus (La technique et le temps, 1: La faute d'Épiméthée) is a book by the French philosopher Bernard Stiegler, first published by Galilée in 1994.
Techno-progressivism or tech-progressivism is a stance of active support for the convergence of technological change and social change.
Technocapitalism (a portmanteau word combining "technology" and "capitalism") refers to changes in capitalism associated with the emergence of new technology sectors, the power of corporations, and new forms of organization.
Technocentrism is a value system that is centered on technology and its ability to control and protect the environment.
Technocracy is a proposed system of governance where decision-makers are selected on the basis of their expertise in their areas of responsibility, particularly scientific knowledge.
Technocriticism is a branch of critical theory devoted to the study of technological change.
This article describe science and technology convergence, with illustrations to convergence of emerging technologies (NBIC, nano-, bio-, info- and cognitive technologies) and convergence of media technology.
Technological determinism is a reductionist theory that assumes that a society's technology determines the development of its social structure and cultural values.
Technological evolution is an innovation- and technology-related theory that describes the radical transformation of society through technological development.
Technological nationalism is a way of understanding how technology affects the society and culture of a nation.
The technological revival concept, which can also be called technological reminiscence, consists in using the technology of today to bring back to life the technological contents of yesterday.
The technological singularity (also, simply, the singularity) is the hypothesis that the invention of artificial superintelligence (ASI) will abruptly trigger runaway technological growth, resulting in unfathomable changes to human civilization.
Technological utopianism (often called techno-utopian-ism or technoutopianism) is any ideology based on the premise that advances in science and technology could and should bring about a utopia, or at least help to fulfill one or another utopian ideal.
The technology acceptance model (TAM) is an information systems theory that models how users come to accept and use a technology.
Technology society and life or technology and culture refers to cyclical co-dependence, co-influence, and co-production of technology and society upon the other (technology upon culture, and vice versa).
Technology assessment (TA, German: Technikfolgenabschätzung, French: évaluation des choix scientifiques et technologiques) is a scientific, interactive, and communicative process that aims to contribute to the formation of public and political opinion on societal aspects of science and technology.
The technology life-cycle (TLC) describes the commercial gain of a product through the expense of research and development phase, and the financial return during its "vital life".
Technology management is a set of management disciplines that allows organizations to manage their technological fundamentals to create competitive advantage.
Technology readiness levels (TRL) are a method of estimating technology maturity of Critical Technology Elements (CTE) of a program during the acquisition process.
Technology transfer, also called transfer of technology (TOT), is the process of transferring (disseminating) technology from the places and ingroups of its origination to wider distribution among more people and places.
In strategy computer games, a technology, tech, or research tree is a hierarchical visual representation of the possible sequences of upgrades a player can take (most often through the act of research).
Technorealism is an attempt to expand the middle ground between techno-utopianism and Neo-Luddism by assessing the social and political implications of technologies so that people might all have more control over the shape of their future.
Theodore John Kaczynski (born May 22, 1942), also known as the Unabomber, is an American domestic terrorist.
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.
Telegraphy (from Greek: τῆλε têle, "at a distance" and γράφειν gráphein, "to write") is the long-distance transmission of textual or symbolic (as opposed to verbal or audio) messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message.
A telephone, or phone, is a telecommunications device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be heard directly.
Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in colour, and in two or three dimensions and sound.
The American Prospect is a daily online and quarterly print American political and public policy magazine dedicated to American liberalism and progressivism.
The Question Concerning Technology (Die Frage nach der Technik) is a work by Martin Heidegger, in which the author discusses the essence of technology.
The Verge is an American technology news and media network operated by Vox Media.
There are a number of theories attempting to address technology, which tend to be associated with the disciplines of science and technology studies (STS) and communication studies.
Thomas Parke Hughes (September 13, 1923 – February 3, 2014) was an American historian of technology.
The Thomson Corporation was one of the world's largest information companies.
Thorstein Bunde Veblen (born Torsten Bunde Veblen; July 30, 1857 – August 3, 1929), a Norwegian-American economist and sociologist, became famous as a witty critic of capitalism.
Batman River The Tigris (Sumerian: Idigna or Idigina; Akkadian: 𒁇𒄘𒃼; دجلة Dijlah; ܕܹܩܠܵܬ.; Տիգրիս Tigris; Դգլաթ Dglatʿ;, biblical Hiddekel) is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates.
A toilet is a piece of hardware used for the collection or disposal of human urine and feces.
A tool is any physical item that can be used to achieve a goal, especially if the item is not consumed in the process.
Transhumanism (abbreviated as H+ or h+) is an international intellectual movement that aims to transform the human condition by developing and making widely available sophisticated technologies to greatly enhance human intellect and physiology.
A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.
Transport or transportation is the movement of humans, animals and goods from one location to another.
A travois (Canadian French, from French travail, a frame for restraining horses; also obsolete travoy or travoise) is a historical frame structure that was used by indigenous peoples, notably the Plains Indians of North America, to drag loads over land.
Unemployment is the situation of actively looking for employment but not being currently employed.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
Ur (Sumerian: Urim; Sumerian Cuneiform: KI or URIM5KI; Akkadian: Uru; أور; אור) was an important Sumerian city-state in ancient Mesopotamia, located at the site of modern Tell el-Muqayyar (تل المقير) in south Iraq's Dhi Qar Governorate.
An urban area is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment.
Ursula Martius Franklin, (16 September 1921 – 22 July 2016), was a German-Canadian metallurgist, research physicist, author, and educator who taught at the University of Toronto for more than 40 years.
Uruk (Cuneiform: URUUNUG; Sumerian: Unug; Akkadian: Uruk; وركاء,; Aramaic/Hebrew:; Orḥoē, Ὀρέχ Oreḥ, Ὠρύγεια Ōrugeia) was an ancient city of Sumer (and later of Babylonia), situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates river, on the dried-up, ancient channel of the Euphrates, some 30 km east of modern Samawah, Al-Muthannā, Iraq.
Usability is the ease of use and learnability of a human-made object such as a tool or device.
Useful art, or useful arts or technics, is concerned with the skills and methods of practical subjects such as manufacture and craftsmanship.
Within economics the concept of utility is used to model worth or value, but its usage has evolved significantly over time.
In ethics, value denotes the degree of importance of some thing or action, with the aim of determining what actions are best to do or what way is best to live (normative ethics), or to describe the significance of different actions.
Vannevar Bush (March 11, 1890 – June 28, 1974) was an American engineer, inventor and science administrator, who during World War II headed the U.S. Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD), through which almost all wartime military R&D was carried out, including initiation and early administration of the Manhattan Project.
Viking Press is an American publishing company now owned by Penguin Random House.
William Brian Arthur (born 21 July 1946) is an economist credited with influencing and describing the modern theory of increasing returns.
A water wheel is a machine for converting the energy of flowing or falling water into useful forms of power, often in a watermill.
The western chimpanzee, or West African chimpanzee, (Pan troglodytes verus) is a subspecies of the common chimpanzee.
What Technology Wants is a 2010 nonfiction book by Kevin Kelly focused on technology as an extension of life.
A wheel is a circular component that is intended to rotate on an axle bearing.
A wheelbarrow is a small hand-propelled vehicle, usually with just one wheel, designed to be pushed and guided by a single person using two handles at the rear, or by a sail to push the ancient wheelbarrow by wind.
William Ford Gibson (born March 17, 1948) is an American-Canadian speculative fiction writer and essayist widely credited with pioneering the science fiction subgenre known as cyberpunk.
A windmill is a mill that converts the energy of wind into rotational energy by means of vanes called sails or blades.
Wired is a monthly American magazine, published in print and online editions, that focuses on how emerging technologies affect culture, the economy, and politics.
Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
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