95 relations: American bison, Ammunition, Ballistic coefficient, Belgian Congo, Belgium, Body armor, Bolt action, Brazil, Bullet, Caliber, Caliber (artillery), Caliber conversion sleeve, Carbon steel, Cartridge (firearms), Chauchat, Colombia, Commission Internationale Permanente pour l'Epreuve des Armes à Feu Portatives, Cupronickel, Delta L problem, Denver Federal Center, Drag (physics), ENERGA anti-tank rifle grenade, External ballistics, Firearm, FN Herstal, FN Model 1949, Free recoil, Gatling gun, Gilding metal, Handloading, Hotchkiss M1909 Benét–Mercié machine gun, Hunting, Improved Military Rifle, Indirect fire, Indonesia, Korean War, Lake City Army Ammunition Plant, Lewis gun, List of rifle cartridges, Luxembourg, M1 Garand, M1895 Colt–Browning machine gun, M1903 Springfield, M1917 Browning machine gun, M1917 Enfield, M1918 Browning Automatic Rifle, M1919 Browning machine gun, M1941 Johnson machine gun, M1941 Johnson rifle, M7 grenade launcher, ..., Machine gun, Mauser, Names for the number 0 in English, North America, Nose cone design, Ogive, Papier-mâché, Parkerizing, Percussion cap, Proof test, Rifle, Rifling, Sabot, Sambar deer, Sectional density, Semi-automatic firearm, Smokeless powder, Solomon Islands campaign, Spitzer (bullet), Standardization, Table of handgun and rifle cartridges, United States, United States Armed Forces, United States Army, United States Department of Justice, United States Marine Corps, Vietnam War, Winchester Model 1895, World War I, World War II, .30-03, .30-06 Springfield wildcat cartridges, .30-40 Krag, .303 British, .308 Winchester, 5.56×45mm NATO, 6.5×50mmSR Arisaka, 6mm Lee Navy, 7 mm caliber, 7.62×51mm NATO, 7.62×54mmR, 7.7×58mm Arisaka, 7.92×57mm Mauser, 8×50mmR Lebel, 8×64mm S. Expand index (45 more) » « Shrink index
The American bison or simply bison (Bison bison), also commonly known as the American buffalo or simply buffalo, is a North American species of bison that once roamed the grasslands of North America in massive herds.
Ammunition (informally ammo) is the material fired, scattered, dropped or detonated from any weapon.
In ballistics, the ballistic coefficient (BC) of a body is a measure of its ability to overcome air resistance in flight.
The Belgian Congo (Congo Belge,; Belgisch-Congo) was a Belgian colony in Central Africa between 1908 and 1960 in what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Body armor/armour, personal armor/armour, suits of armour or coats of armour all refer to protective clothing, designed to absorb and/or deflect slashing, bludgeoning and penetrating attacks by weapons.
Bolt action is a type of firearm action where the handling of cartridges into and out of the weapon's barrel chamber are operated by manually manipulating the bolt directly via a handle, which is most commonly placed on the right-hand side of the weapon (as most users are right-handed).
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
A bullet is a kinetic projectile and the component of firearm ammunition that is expelled from the gun barrel during shooting.
In guns, particularly firearms, caliber or calibre is the approximate internal diameter of the gun barrel, or the diameter of the projectile it shoots.
In artillery, caliber or calibredifference in British English and American English spelling is the internal diameter of a gun barrel, or by extension a relative measure of the length.
A caliber conversion sleeve or adapter sleeve is a device which can be used to non-permanently alter a firearm to allow it to fire a different cartridge than the one it was originally designed to fire.
Carbon steel is a steel with carbon content up to 2.1% by weight.
A cartridge is a type of firearm ammunition packaging a projectile (bullet, shots or slug), a propellant substance (usually either smokeless powder or black powder) and an ignition device (primer) within a metallic, paper or plastic case that is precisely made to fit within the barrel chamber of a breechloading gun, for the practical purpose of convenient transportation and handling during shooting.
The Chauchat was the standard light machine gun or "machine rifle" of the French Army during World War I (1914–18). Its official designation was "Fusil Mitrailleur Modele 1915 CSRG" ("Machine Rifle Model 1915 CSRG"). Beginning in June 1916, it was placed into regular service with French infantry, where the troops called it the FM Chauchat, after Colonel Louis Chauchat, the main contributor to its design. The Chauchat in 8mm Lebel was also extensively used in 1917–18 by the American Expeditionary Forces (A.E.F), where it was officially designated as the "Automatic Rifle, Model 1915 (Chauchat)". A total of 262,000 Chauchats were manufactured between December 1915 and November 1918, including 244,000 chambered for the 8mm Lebel service cartridge, making it the most widely manufactured automatic weapon of World War I. The armies of eight other nations – Belgium, Finland, Greece, Italy, Poland, Romania, Russia, and Serbia – also used the Chauchat machine rifle in fairly large numbers during and after World War I. The Chauchat was one of the first light, automatic rifle-caliber weapons designed to be carried and fired by a single operator and an assistant, without a heavy tripod or a team of gunners. It set a precedent for several subsequent 20th-century firearm projects, being a portable, yet full-power automatic weapon built inexpensively and in very large numbers. The Chauchat combined a pistol grip, an in-line stock, a detachable magazine, and a selective fire capability in a compact package of manageable weight (20 pounds) for a single soldier. Furthermore, it could be routinely fired from the hip and while walking (marching fire). The muddy trenches of northern France exposed a number of weaknesses in the Chauchat's design. Construction had been simplified to facilitate mass production, resulting in low quality of many metal parts. The magazines in particular were the cause of about 75% of the stoppages or cessations of fire; they were made of thin metal and open on one side, allowing for the entry of mud and dust. The weapon also ceased to function when overheated, the barrel sleeve remaining in the retracted position until the gun had cooled off. Consequently, in September 1918, barely two months before the Armistice of November 11, the A.E.F. in France had already initiated the process of replacing the Chauchat with the M1918 Browning Automatic Rifle. Shortly after World War I, the French army replaced the Chauchat with the new gas-operated Mle 1924 light machine gun. It was mass manufactured during World War I by two reconverted civilian plants: "Gladiator" and "Sidarme". Besides the 8mm Lebel version, the Chauchat machine rifle was also manufactured in U.S..30-06 Springfield and in 7.65×53mm Argentine Mauser caliber to arm the American Expeditionary Forces (A.E.F.) and the Belgian Army, respectively. The Belgian military did not experience difficulties with their Chauchats in 7.65mm Mauser and kept them in service into the early 1930s. Conversely, the Chauchat version in U.S..30-06 made by "Gladiator" for the A.E.F., the Model 1918, proved to be fundamentally defective and had to be withdrawn from service. The Chauchat is the only full-automatic weapon actuated by long recoil, a Browning-designed system already applied in 1906 to the Remington Model 8 semi-automatic rifle: extraction and ejection of the empties takes place when the barrel returns forward, while the bolt is retained in the rear position. The failure of its limited version in U.S. 30-06 (the Mle 1918) have led some modern experts to assess it as the "worst machine gun" ever fielded in the history of warfare. However the weapon did remain in active service for over two years during the First World War, was the most widely issued fully automatic light machine gun of that conflict and remained in service after the war ended with several armies.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
The Commission internationale permanente pour l'épreuve des armes à feu portatives ("Permanent International Commission for the Proof of Small Arms" – commonly abbreviated as C.I.P.) is an international organisation which sets standards for safety testing of firearms.
Cupronickel (also known as copper-nickel) is an alloy of copper that contains nickel and strengthening elements, such as iron and manganese.
The delta L problem (ΔL problem) refers to certain firearm chambers and the incompatibility of some ammunition made for that chamber.
Denver Federal Center, surrounded by Lakewood, Colorado, is part of the General Services Administration and is home to about 6,200 employees for many Federal government of the United States agencies.
In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) is a force acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid.
The Energa anti-tank rifle grenade is a rifle-launched anti-tank grenade that is propelled by a ballistite-filled blank cartridge.
External ballistics or exterior ballistics is the part of ballistics that deals with the behavior of a projectile in flight.
A firearm is a portable gun (a barreled ranged weapon) that inflicts damage on targets by launching one or more projectiles driven by rapidly expanding high-pressure gas produced by exothermic combustion (deflagration) of propellant within an ammunition cartridge.
Fabrique Nationale Herstal (French for: National Factory Herstal), self-identified as FN Herstal and often referred to as Fabrique Nationale or simply FN, is a leading firearms manufacturer located in Herstal, Belgium, and is owned by the holding company Herstal Group which is owned by the regional government of Wallonia.
The Fabrique Nationale Model 1949 (often referred to as the FN-49, SAFN or AFN) is a rifle available as both a semi-automatic rifle and as a selective fire automatic rifle designed by Dieudonné Saive and manufactured by Fabrique Nationale.
Free recoil is a vernacular term or jargon for recoil energy of a firearm not supported from behind.
The Gatling gun is one of the best-known early rapid-fire spring loaded, hand cranked weapons and a forerunner of the modern machine gun.
Gilding metal is a copper alloy, a brass, comprising 95% copper and 5% zinc.
Handloading or reloading is the process of loading firearm cartridges or shotgun shells by assembling the individual components (case/hull, primer, powder, and bullet/shot), rather than purchasing completely assembled, factory-loaded ammunition.
The Hotchkiss M1909 machine gun was a light machine gun of the early 20th century, developed and built by Hotchkiss et Cie.
Hunting is the practice of killing or trapping animals, or pursuing or tracking them with the intent of doing so.
Improved military rifle propellants are tubular nitrocellulose propellants evolved from World War I through World War II for loading military and commercial ammunition and sold to civilians for reloading rifle ammunition for hunting and target shooting.
Indirect fire is aiming and firing a projectile without relying on a direct line of sight between the gun and its target, as in the case of direct fire.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
The Korean War (in South Korean, "Korean War"; in North Korean, "Fatherland: Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States).
Lake City Army Ammunition Plant (LCAAP) is a U.S. government-owned, contractor-operated facility in northeastern Independence, Missouri, that was established by Remington Arms in 1941 to manufacture and test small caliber ammunition for the U.S. Army.
The Lewis gun (or Lewis automatic machine gun or Lewis automatic rifle) is a First World War-era light machine gun of US design that was perfected and mass-produced in the United Kingdom, and widely used by British and British Empire troops during the war.
List of rifle cartridges, by category, then by name.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.
The M1 GarandOfficially designated as U.S. rifle, caliber.30, M1, later simply called Rifle, Caliber.30, M1, also called US Rifle, Cal.
The Colt–Browning M1895, nicknamed "potato digger" because of its unusual operating mechanism, is an air-cooled, belt-fed, gas-operated machine gun that fires from a closed bolt with a cyclic rate of 450 rounds per minute.
The M1903 Springfield, formally the United States Rifle, Caliber.30-06, Model 1903, is an American five-round magazine fed, bolt-action service repeating rifle, used primarily during the first half of the 20th century.
The M1917 Browning machine gun is a heavy machine gun used by the United States armed forces in World War I, World War II, Korea, and to a limited extent in Vietnam; it has also been used by other nations.
The M1917 Enfield, the "American Enfield", formally named "United States Rifle, cal.30, Model of 1917" was an American modification and production of the.303-inch (7.7 mm) Pattern 1914 Enfield (P14) rifle (listed in British Service as Rifle No. 3) developed and manufactured during the period 1917–1918.
The Browning Automatic Rifle (BAR) is a family of American automatic rifles and machine guns used by the United States and numerous other countries during the 20th century. The primary variant of the BAR series was the M1918, chambered for the.30-06 Springfield rifle cartridge and designed by John Browning in 1917 for the U.S. Expeditionary Corps in Europe as a replacement for the French-made Chauchat and M1909 Benét–Mercié machine guns that US forces had previously been issued. The BAR was designed to be carried by infantrymen during an assault Article by Maxim Popenker, 2014. advance while supported by the sling over the shoulder, or to be fired from the hip. This is a concept called "walking fire" — thought to be necessary for the individual soldier during trench warfare.Chinn, George M.: The Machine Gun, Volume I: History, Evolution, and Development of Manual, Automatic, and Airborne Repeating Weapons, p. 175. Bureau of Ordnance, Department of the Navy, 1951. The BAR never entirely lived up to the original hopes of the war department as either a rifle or a machine gun. The U.S. Army, in practice, used the BAR as a light machine gun, often fired from a bipod (introduced on models after 1938).Bishop, Chris: The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II, p. 239. Sterling Publishing, 2002. A variant of the original M1918 BAR, the Colt Monitor Machine Rifle, remains the lightest production automatic gun to fire the.30-06 Springfield cartridge, though the limited capacity of its standard 20-round magazine tended to hamper its utility in that role. Although the weapon did see some action in World War I, the BAR did not become standard issue in the US Army until 1938, when it was issued to squads as a portable light machine gun. The BAR saw extensive service in both World War II and the Korean War and saw limited service in the Vietnam War. The US Army began phasing out the BAR in the late 1950s, when it was intended to be replaced by a squad automatic weapon (SAW) variant of the M14, and was without a portable light machine gun until the introduction of the M60 machine gun in 1957. The M60, however, was really a general-purpose machine gun (GPMG) and was used as a SAW only because the army had no other tool for the job until the M249 Squad Automatic Weapon in the mid-1980s.
The M1919 Browning is a.30 caliber medium machine gun that was widely used during the 20th century, especially during World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War.
The M1941 Johnson Light Machine Gun, also known as the Johnson and the Johnny gun, was an American recoil-operated light machine gun designed in the late 1930s by Melvin Johnson.
The M1941 Johnson Rifle was an American short-recoil operated semi-automatic rifle designed by Melvin Johnson prior to World War II.
The M7 grenade launcher, formally rifle grenade launcher, M7, was a 22 mm rifle grenade launcher attachment for the M1 Garand rifle that saw widespread use throughout World War II and the Korean War.
A machine gun is a fully automatic mounted or portable firearm designed to fire bullets in rapid succession from an ammunition belt or magazine, typically at a rate of 300 rounds per minute or higher.
Mauser, begun as Königliche Waffen Schmieden, is a German arms manufacturer.
There are names for the number 0 in English and related concepts, and there are concomitant names for the decades whose tens column contains the number 0.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
Given the problem of the aerodynamic design of the nose cone section of any vehicle or body meant to travel through a compressible fluid medium (such as a rocket or aircraft, missile or bullet), an important problem is the determination of the nose cone geometrical shape for optimum performance.
An ogive is the roundly tapered end of a two-dimensional or three-dimensional object.
Papier-mâché (literally "chewed paper") is a composite material consisting of paper pieces or pulp, sometimes reinforced with textiles, bound with an adhesive, such as glue, starch, or wallpaper paste.
Parkerizing, bonderizing, phosphating, or phosphatizing is a method of protecting a steel surface from corrosion and increasing its resistance to wear through the application of a chemical phosphate conversion coating.
The percussion cap, introduced circa 1820, is a type of single-use ignition device used on muzzleloading firearms that enabled them to fire reliably in any weather conditions.
A proof test is a form of stress test to demonstrate the fitness of a load-bearing structure.
A rifle is a portable long-barrelled firearm designed for precision shooting, to be held with both hands and braced against the shoulder for stability during firing, and with a barrel that has a helical pattern of grooves ("rifling") cut into the bore walls.
In firearms, rifling is the helical groove pattern that is machined into the internal (bore) surface of a gun's barrel, for the purpose of exerting torque and thus imparting a spin to a projectile around its longitudinal axis during shooting.
A sabot is a structural device used in firearm or cannon ammunition to keep a sub-caliber flight projectile, such as a relatively small bullet or arrow-type projectile, in the center of the barrel when fired, if the bullet has a significantly smaller diameter than the bore diameter of the weapon used.
The sambar (Rusa unicolor) is a large deer native to the Indian subcontinent, southern China, and Southeast Asia that is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List since 2008.
Sectional density is the ratio of an object's mass to its cross-sectional area with respect to a given axis.
A semi-automatic firearm, or self-loading firearm, is one that not only fires a bullet each time the trigger is pulled, but also performs all steps necessary to prepare it to discharge again—assuming cartridges remain in the firearm's feed device.
Smokeless powder is the name given to a number of propellants used in firearms and artillery that produce negligible smoke when fired, unlike the black powder they replaced.
The Solomon Islands campaign was a major campaign of the Pacific War of World War II.
The spitzer bullet, also commonly referred to as a spire point bullet, is primarily a small arms ballistics development of the late 19th and early 20th century, driven by military desire for aerodynamic bullet designs that will give a higher degree of accuracy and kinetic efficiency, especially at extended ranges.
Standardization or standardisation is the process of implementing and developing technical standards based on the consensus of different parties that include firms, users, interest groups, standards organizations and governments Standardization can help to maximize compatibility, interoperability, safety, repeatability, or quality.
Table of selected pistol/submachine gun and rifle/machine gun cartridges by common name.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Department of Justice (DOJ), also known as the Justice Department, is a federal executive department of the U.S. government, responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice in the United States, equivalent to the justice or interior ministries of other countries. The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration. The Department of Justice administers several federal law enforcement agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). The department is responsible for investigating instances of financial fraud, representing the United States government in legal matters (such as in cases before the Supreme Court), and running the federal prison system. The department is also responsible for reviewing the conduct of local law enforcement as directed by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. The department is headed by the United States Attorney General, who is nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate and is a member of the Cabinet. The current Attorney General is Jeff Sessions.
The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting amphibious operations with the United States Navy.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
The Winchester Model 1895 is a lever-action repeating firearm developed and manufactured by the Winchester Repeating Arms Company in the late 19th century, chambered for a number of full-size military and hunting cartridges such as 7.62×54mmR,.303 British,.30-03,.30 Army,.30-06,.35 Winchester,.38-72 Winchester,.40-72 Winchester and.405 Winchester.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The.30-03 was a short-lived cartridge developed by the United States in 1903, to replace the.30-40 Krag in the new Springfield 1903 rifle.
Wildcat cartridges are firearms cartridges whose dimensions are not standardized with recognized small arms standardization bodies like the Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers' Institute (SAAMI) and the Commission Internationale Permanente pour l'Epreuve des Armes à Feu Portatives (CIP).
The.30-40 Krag (also called.30 U.S., or.30 Army) was a cartridge developed in the early 1890s to provide the U.S. armed forces with a smokeless powder cartridge suited for use with modern small-bore repeating rifles to be selected in the 1892 small arm trials.
The.303 British (designated as the 303 British by the C.I.P. and SAAMI) or 7.7×56mmR, is a calibre (with the bore diameter measured between the lands as is common practice in Europe) rimmed rifle cartridge first developed in Britain as a black-powder round put into service in December 1888 for the Lee–Metford rifle.
The.308 Winchester (pronounced: "three-oh-eight") is a rimless, bottlenecked rifle cartridge and is the commercial cartridge from which the 7.62×51mm NATO round was derived.
The 5.56×45mm NATO (official NATO nomenclature 5.56 NATO) is a rimless bottlenecked intermediate cartridge family developed in Belgium by FN Herstal.
The 6.5×50mm semi-rimmed (6.5×50mmSR) Japanese cartridge, currently manufactured under the designation 6.5mm Jap, was adopted by the Imperial Japanese Army in 1897, along with the Type 30 Arisaka infantry rifle and carbine.
The 6mm Lee Navy (6×60mmSR), also known as the 6mm U.S.N.Hanson, Jim, The 6mm U.S.N. - Ahead Of Its Time, Rifle Magazine, Vol.
This article lists firearm cartridges which have a bullet in the to caliber range.
The 7.62×51mm NATO (official NATO nomenclature 7.62 NATO) is a rimless bottlenecked rifle cartridge developed in the 1950s as a standard for small arms among NATO countries.
The 7.62×54mmR is a rimmed rifle cartridge developed by the Russian Empire and introduced as a service cartridge in 1891.
The 7.7×58mm Arisaka cartridge, Type 99 rimless 7.7 mm or 7.7mm Japanese was a rifle cartridge which was used in the Imperial Japanese Army's Arisaka Type 99 rifle and machine guns, and was the standard light cartridge for the Imperial Japanese Army Air Service, such as the Type 89.
The 7.92×57mm Mauser (designated as the 8mm Mauser or 8×57mm by the SAAMI and 8 × 57 IS by the C.I.P.) is a rimless bottlenecked rifle cartridge.
The 8×50mmR Lebel (8mm Lebel) (designated as the 8 × 51 R Lebel by the C.I.P.) rifle cartridge was the first smokeless powder cartridge to be made and adopted by any country.
The 8×64mm S (also unofficially known as the 8×64mm S Brenneke) (the S means it is intended for 8.2 mm (.323 in) groove diameter bullets) is a rimless bottlenecked centerfire cartridge developed as a military service round for the German Army who never issued it.
.30 Springfield, .30-'06, .30-06, .30-`06 Springfield, 30 ought 6, 30-'06, 30-06, 30-06 Springfield, 30-06 ammunition, 30.06, 7.62 x 63 mm, 7.62 x 63mm, 7.62 x63mm, 7.62mm x 63mm, 7.62mmx63mm, 7.62x 63mm, 7.62x63 mm, 7.62x63mm, 7.62×63mm, Caliber .30, M2 Ball, Thirty Ought Six, Thirty aught six, Thirty-aught-six.