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The Arkhangelsk-Astrakhan line, or A-A line for short, was the military goal of Operation Barbarossa.
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Alan John Percivale "A.
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The Campaigns in Inner Mongolia from 1933-1936 were part of the ongoing invasion of northern China by the Empire of Japan prior to the official start of hostilities in the Second Sino-Japanese War.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician who was the leader of the Nazi Party (NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and Führer ("leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
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Adolf Hitler's rise to power began in Germany in September 1919 when Hitler joined the political party known as the Deutsche Arbeiterpartei – DAP (German Workers' Party); the name was changed in 1920 to the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei – NSDAP (National Socialist German Workers' Party, commonly known as the Nazi Party).
Aerial warfare is the use of military aircraft and other flying machines in warfare.
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Aeronautics (from the ancient Greek words ὰήρ āēr, which means "air", and ναυτική nautikē which means "navigation", i.e. "navigation of the air") is the science or art involved with the study, design, and manufacturing of air flight capable machines, and the techniques of operating aircraft and rockets within the atmosphere.
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The aftermath of World War I saw drastic political, cultural, and social change across Europe, Asia, Africa, and even in areas outside those that were directly involved.
The aftermath of World War II was the beginning of a new era.
Allied forces conducted many air raids on Japan during World War II, causing extensive destruction to the country's cities and killing between 241,000 and 900,000 people.
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Air supremacy is a position in war where a side holds complete control of air warfare and air power over opposing forces.
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Air University Press is a division of the Air University Research Institute Maxwell AFB, Alabama, supporting Air University.
The air warfare of World War II was a major component in all theatres and, together with anti-air attack, consumed a large fraction of the industrial output of the major powers.
An airlift is the organized delivery of military supplies or military personnel primarily via military transport aircraft.
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The Albanian Kingdom (Albanian: Mbretnija Shqiptare, German: Königreich Albanien) existed as a de jure independent country, between 1943 and 1944.
Berthold Konrad Hermann Albert Speer (March 19, 1905 – September 1, 1981) was a German architect who was, for a part of World War II, Minister of Armaments and War Production for Nazi Germany.
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The Aleutian Islands Campaign was a struggle over the Aleutian Islands, part of the Alaska Territory, in the American theater and the Pacific theater of World War II starting on 3 June 1942.
Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. (pronounced, with an audible k and silent p) is an award-winning New York publishing house that was founded by Alfred A. Knopf Sr. in 1915.
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Allen & Unwin is an Australian independent publishing company, established in Australia in 1976 as a subsidiary of the British firm George Allen & Unwin Ltd., which was founded by Sir Stanley Unwin in August 1914 and went on to become one of the leading publishers of the twentieth century.
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The Allied advance from Paris to the Rhine was a phase in the Western European Campaign of World War II.
The Allied invasion of Italy was the Allied landing on mainland Italy on 3 September 1943 during the Second World War, by British General Harold Alexander's 15th Army Group (comprising Lieutenant General Mark Clark's United States Fifth Army and General Bernard Montgomery's British Eighth Army).
The Allied invasion of Sicily, codenamed Operation Husky, was a major World War II campaign, in which the Allies took Sicily from the Axis Powers (Italy and Nazi Germany).
The Allied leaders of World War II listed below comprise the important political and military figures who fought for or supported the Allies during World War II.
The Industrial plans for Germany were designs the Allies considered imposing on Germany in the aftermath of World War II to reduce and manage Germany's industrial capacity.
Allied submarines were used extensively during the Pacific War and were a key contributor to the defeat of the Empire of Japan.
The Allied occupation of Austria lasted from 1945 to 1955.
The Allied powers who defeated Nazi Germany in World War II asserted governmental authority over all territory of the German Reich which lay west of the Oder–Neisse line, having formally abolished the German government of Adolf Hitler.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that opposed the Axis powers together during the Second World War (1939–1945).
The American Theater describes a series of mostly minor areas of operations during World War II.
Amphibious warfare is a type of offensive military operation that uses naval ships to project ground and air power onto a hostile or potentially hostile shore at a designated landing beach.
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The Anglo-German Naval Agreement of June 18, 1935, was a naval agreement between Britain and Germany regulating the size of the Kriegsmarine in relation to the Royal Navy.
The Anglo–Iraqi War was the British campaign against the rebel government of Rashid Ali in the Kingdom of Iraq during the Second World War.
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The Anglo-Soviet Agreement was a formal military alliance signed by the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union against Germany on July 12, 1941; shortly after the German invasion of the latter.
The Anglo-Soviet Invasion of Iran was the invasion of the Empire of Iran during World War II by Soviet, British and other Commonwealth armed forces.
Annexation (Latin ad, to, and nexus, joining) is the forcible acquisition of a state's territory by another state.
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The Anschluss (or Connection) was the Nazi propaganda term for the invasion and forced incorporation of Austria by Nazi Germany in March 1938.
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Robert Anthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon, (12 June 1897 – 14 January 1977) was a British Conservative politician who served three periods as Foreign Secretary and then a relatively brief term as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1955 to 1957.
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Anti-aircraft warfare or counter-air defence is defined by NATO as "all measures designed to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air action."AAP-6 They include ground-and air-based weapon systems, associated sensor systems, command and control arrangements and passive measures (e.g. barrage balloons).
The Anti-Comintern Pact was an anti-communist pact concluded between Nazi Germany and the Empire of Japan (later to be joined by other, mainly fascist, governments) on November 25, 1936 and was directed against the Third (Communist) International.
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Anti-submarine warfare (ASW, or in older form A/S) is a branch of underwater warfare that uses surface warships, aircraft, or other submarines to find, track and deter, damage or destroy enemy submarines.
An anti-submarine weapon (ASW) is any one of a number of devices that are intended to act against a submarine and its crew, to destroy (sink) the vessel or reduce its capability as a weapon of war.
Anti-tank guns (towed or self-propelled) are cannons or guns designed to destroy enemy armored vehicles normally from defensive positions.
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An anti-tank mine, (abbreviated to "AT mine"), is a type of land mine designed to damage or destroy vehicles including tanks and armored fighting vehicles.
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Anti-tank warfare arose as a result of the need to develop technology and tactics to destroy tanks during the First World War.
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Antony James Beevor, FRSL (born 14 December 1946) is an English military historian, educated at Winchester College and Sandhurst.
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Antwerp (Antwerpen, Anvers) is a city in Belgium which is the capital of Antwerp province.
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Apocalypse: The Second World War (French: Apocalypse, la 2e Guerre mondiale) (2009) is a six-part French documentary by Daniel Costelle and Isabelle Clarke about the Second World War.
Appeasement in a political context is a diplomatic policy of making political or material concessions to an enemy power in order to avoid conflict.
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The Arab–Israeli conflict (الصراع العربي الإسرائيلي Al-Sira'a Al'Arabi A'Israili; הסכסוך הישראלי-ערבי Ha'Sikhsukh Ha'Yisraeli-Aravi) refers to the political tension and military conflicts between a number of Arab countries and Israel.
The Arakan Campaign of 1942–1943 was the first tentative Allied attack into Burma, following the Japanese conquest of Burma earlier in 1942.
The Ardeatine massacre, or Fosse Ardeatine massacre (Eccidio delle Fosse Ardeatine) was a mass killing carried out in Rome on 24 March 1944 by German occupation troops during the Second World War as a reprisal for a partisan attack conducted on the previous day in central Rome against the SS Police Regiment Bozen.
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The Ardennes (Ardennen; also known as Ardennes Forest) is a region of extensive forests, rough terrain, rolling hills and ridges formed by the geological features of the Ardennes mountain range and the Moselle and Meuse River basins.
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An armistice is a formal agreement of warring parties to stop fighting.
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The Armistice of 22 June 1940 was signed at 18:36.
The Armistice of Cassibile was an armistice signed on 3 September 1943 by Walter Bedell Smith and Giuseppe Castellano, and made public on 8 September, between the Kingdom of Italy and the Allies ("United Nations") of World War II.
An arms race, in its original usage, is a competition between two or more parties to have the best armed forces.
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Army Group A was the name of a number of German Army Groups during World War II.
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Army Group B was the name of three different German Army Groups that saw action during World War II.
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Army Group Center (Heeresgruppe Mitte) was the name of two distinct German strategic army groups that fought on the Eastern Front in World War II.
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Army Group E (Heeresgruppe E) was a German Army Group active during World War II.
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Army Group F (Heeresgruppe F) was a strategic command formation of the Wehrmacht during the Second World War.
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Army Group North (Heeresgruppe Nord) was a German strategic echelon formation, commanding a grouping of field armies during World War II.
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Army Group South (Heeresgruppe Süd) was the name of a number of German Army Groups during World War II.
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Army Group South Ukraine (Heeresgruppe Südukraine) was a German army group on the Eastern Front during World War II.
Asia is the Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres.
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An assault rifle is a selective fire rifle that uses an intermediate cartridge and a detachable magazine.
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The Atlantic Charter was a pivotal policy statement issued on 14 August 1941, that, early in World War II, defined the Allied goals for the post-war world.
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The United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945, during the final stage of the Second World War.
The Attack on Mers-el-Kébir, part of Operation Catapult and also known as the Battle of Mers-el-Kébir, was a British naval bombardment of the French Navy (Marine Nationale) at its base at Mers-el-Kébir on the coast of what was then French Algeria on 3 July 1940.
The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, in the United States Territory of Hawaii, on the morning of December 7, 1941.
Attrition warfare is a military strategy in which a belligerent attempts to win a war by wearing down the enemy to the point of collapse through continuous losses in personnel and materiel.
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Australia (colloquially), officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is an Oceanian country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands.
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Austria-Hungary (Österreich-Ungarn; Osztrák-Magyar Monarchia), also known by other names and often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Empire of Austria and the Kingdom of Hungary that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867, when the compromise was ratified by the Hungarian parliament.
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Avgas (aviation gasoline), also known as aviation spirit in the UK, is an aviation fuel used in spark-ignited internal-combustion engines to propel aircraft.
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The Axis leaders of World War II were important political and military figures during World War II.
The occupation of Greece by the Axis Powers (Η Κατοχή, I Katochi, meaning "The Occupation") began in April 1941 after Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany invaded Greece, and lasted until Germany and its satellite Bulgaria withdrew from mainland Greece in October 1944.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte, 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku, Potenze dell'Asse), also known as the Axis, were the nations that fought in the Second World War against the Allied forces.
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Ballantine Books is a major book publisher located in the United States, founded in 1952 by Ian Ballantine with his wife, Betty Ballantine.
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The terms Baltic region, Baltic Rim countries, and Baltic Rim refer to slightly different combinations of countries in the general area surrounding the Baltic Sea.
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The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, the Baltic countries, and the North European Plain.
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The Baltic states, also known as the Baltics, Baltic nations or Baltic countries (Balti riigid, Baltimaad, Baltijas valstis, Baltijos valstybės), are the three countries in northern Europe on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.
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Basic Books is a book publisher founded in 1952 and located in New York.
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The article summarizes casualties in different theatres of World War II.
The Battle of Alam el Halfa took place between 30 August and 5 September 1942 south of El Alamein during the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War.
The Battle of Anzio was an important battle of the Italian Campaign during World War II that began on January 22, 1944, with the Allied amphibious landing known as Operation Shingle against the German forces in the area of Anzio and Nettuno.
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The Battle of Belgium or Belgian Campaign, often referred to within Belgium as the 18 Days' Campaign (Campagne des 18 jours, Achttiendaagse Veldtocht), formed part of the greater Battle of France, an offensive campaign by Germany during the Second World War.
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The Battle of Berlin, designated the Berlin Strategic Offensive Operation by the Soviet Union, was the final major offensive of the European theatre of World War II.
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The Battle of Britain (German: Luftschlacht um England, literally "Air battle for England") is the name given to the Second World War air campaign waged by the German Air Force (Luftwaffe) against the United Kingdom during the summer and autumn of 1940.
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The Battle of Buna–Gona was part of the New Guinea campaign in the Pacific Theatre during World War II.
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The Battle of Cape Matapan (Ναυμαχία του Ταίναρου) was a Second World War naval engagement fought from 27–29 March 1941.
The Battle of Changde (Battle of Changteh) was a major engagement in the Second Sino-Japanese War in and around the Chinese city of Changde (Changteh) in the province of Hunan.
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Battle of Changsha (September 17, 1939 – October 6, 1939) was the first of four attempts by Japan to take the city of Changsha (長沙市), Hunan (湖南省), during the second Sino-Japanese War.
The Battle of Changsha (6 September–8 October 1941) was Japan's second attempt at taking the city of Changsha, China, the capital of Hunan Province, as part of the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The third Battle of Changsha (24 December 1941 – 15 January 1942) was the first major offensive in China by Imperial Japanese forces following the Japanese attack on the Western Allies.
The Battle of Changsha (1944), (also known as the Battle of Hengyang or Campaign of Changsha-Hengyang) was an invasion of the Chinese province of Hunan by Japanese troops near the end of the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The Battle of Crete (Luftlandeschlacht um Kreta; Μάχη της Κρήτης) was fought during World War II on the Greek island of Crete.
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The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War, beginning on 10 May 1940, defeating primarily French forces.
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The Battle of Gazala (near modern town of Ayn al Ghazālah) was fought during the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War, around the port of Tobruk in Libya from 26 May to 21 June 1942.
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The Battle of Greece (also known as Operation Marita, Unternehmen Marita) is the common name for the invasion of Greece by Germany in April 1941.
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The Battle of Guilin–Liuzhou, also known as the Battle of Guiliu was one of the 22 major engagements between the National Revolutionary Army (NRA) and Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The Battle of Hong Kong (8–25 December 1941), also known as the Defence of Hong Kong and the Fall of Hong Kong, was one of the first battles of the Pacific campaign of World War II.
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The Battle of Imphal took place in the region around the city of Imphal, the capital of the state of Manipur in northeast India from March until July 1944.
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The Battle of Iwo Jima (19 February – 26 March 1945) was a major battle in which the U.S. Marines landed on and eventually captured the island of Iwo Jima from the Japanese Imperial Army during World War II.
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The First Battle of Kiev was the German name for the operation that resulted in a very large encirclement of Soviet troops in the vicinity of Kiev during World War II.
The Battle of Kohima was the turning point of the Japanese U Go offensive into India in 1944 in the Second World War.
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The Battle of Kursk was a Second World War engagement between German and Soviet forces on the Eastern Front near Kursk (south-west of Moscow) in the Soviet Union during July and August 1943.
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The Battle of Leyte in the Pacific campaign of World War II was the amphibious invasion of the Gulf of Leyte in the Philippines by American forces and Filipino guerrillas under the command of General Douglas MacArthur, who fought against the Imperial Japanese Army in the Philippines led by General Tomoyuki Yamashita from 17 October - 26 December 1944.
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The Battle of Leyte Gulf, formerly known as the Second Battle of the Philippine Sea, is generally considered to be the largest naval battle of World War II and, by some criteria, possibly the largest naval battle in history alongside the Battle of Red Cliffs in 208 CE and the Battle of Salamis in 480 BCE.
The Battle of Luzon was a land battle fought as part of the Pacific Theater of Operations of World War II by the Allied forces of the U.S., its colony the Philippines, and allies against forces of the Empire of Japan.
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The Battle of Madagascar was the British campaign to capture Vichy French-controlled Madagascar during World War II.
The Battle of Manila (Tagalog: Laban ng Maynila ng 1945), also known as the Liberation of Manila, fought between American plus Filipino joined forces and Japanese forces in Manila from 3 February - 3 March 1945, was part of the 1945 Philippine campaign.
The was a crucial and decisive naval battle in the Pacific Theater of World War II.
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The Battle of Mindanao was fought by United States forces and allied Filipino guerrillas against the Japanese from 10 March - 15 August 1945 at Mindanao island in the Philippine Archipelago, in a series of actions officially designated as Operation VICTOR V, and part of the campaign for the liberation of the Philippines during World War II.
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The Battle of Monte Cassino (also known as the Battle for Rome and the Battle for Cassino) was a costly series of four assaults by the Allies against the Winter Line in Italy held by Axis forces during the Italian Campaign of World War II.
The Battle of Moscow (Битва за Москву) is the name given by Soviet historians to two periods of strategically significant fighting on a sector of the Eastern Front during World War II.
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The Battle of Nanking or Battle of Nanjing was fought in early December 1937 during the Second Sino-Japanese War between the National Revolutionary Army of China and the Imperial Japanese Army for control of Nanking, the capital of the Republic of China.
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The Battle of Narva was a military campaign between the German Army Detachment "Narwa" and the Soviet Leningrad Front fought for possession of the strategically important Narva Isthmus on 2 February – 10 August 1944 during World War II.
Battle of Northern Burma and Western Yunnan (October 1943 – March 1945) was the name of the Chinese campaign with their allies in the 1943-45 Burma Campaign.
The, codenamed Operation Iceberg, was a series of battles fought in the Ryukyu Islands, centered on the island of Okinawa, and included the largest amphibious assault in the Pacific War during World War II being the 1 April 1945 invasion of the island of Okinawa itself.
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The Battle of Rehe (sometimes called the Battle of Jehol) was the second part of Operation Nekka, a campaign by which the Empire of Japan successfully captured the Inner Mongolian province of Rehe from the Chinese warlord Zhang Xueliang and annexed it to the new state of Manchukuo.
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The Battle of Shanggao was one of the 22 major engagements between the National Revolutionary Army and Imperial Japanese Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
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The Battle of Shanghai was the first of the twenty-two major engagements fought between the National Revolutionary Army (NRA) of the Republic of China (ROC) and the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) of the Empire of Japan during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
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The Battle of Singapore, also known as the Fall of Singapore, was fought in the South-East Asian theatre of the Second World War when the Empire of Japan invaded the British stronghold of Singapore.
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The First Battle of Smolensk was the first major battle during Operation Barbarossa in World War II that significantly delayed the advance of Hitler's Wehrmacht in the USSR.
The second Battle of Smolensk (7 August–2 October 1943) was a Soviet strategic offensive operation conducted by the Red Army as part of the Summer-Autumn Campaign of 1943.
The Battle of Stalingrad (23 August 1942 – 2 February 1943) was a major battle of World War II in which Nazi Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in Southern Russia, on the eastern boundary of Europe.
The Battle of Tai'erzhuang was a battle of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1938, between armies of the Republic of China and Japan.
The Battle of Taranto took place on the night of 11–12 November 1940 during the Second World War between British naval forces, under Admiral Andrew Cunningham, and Italian naval forces, under Admiral Inigo Campioni.
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The Battle of the Atlantic was the longest continuous military campaign in World War II, running from 1939 to the defeat of Germany in 1945.
The Battle of the Bulge (16 December 1944 – 25 January 1945) was a major German offensive campaign launched through the densely forested Ardennes region of Wallonia in Belgium, France, and Luxembourg on the Western Front toward the end of World War II in Europe.
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The Battle of the Coral Sea, fought during 4–8 May 1942, was a major naval battle in the Pacific Theater of World War II between the Imperial Japanese Navy and naval and air forces from the United States and Australia.
The Battle of the Dnieper was a military campaign that took place in 1943 on the Eastern Front of World War II.
The Battle of the Java Sea was a decisive naval battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II.
Battle of the Kerch Peninsula (Unternehmen Trappenjagd) (Russian Керченско-Феодосийская десантная операция (Kerchensko-Feodosiyskaya desantnaya operatsiya, 'Kerch-Feodosiya landing operation') was a World War II offensive by German and Romanian armies against the Soviet Crimean Front forces defending the Kerch Peninsula, in the eastern part of the Crimea. It was launched on 8 May 1942 and concluded around 18 May 1942 with the near complete destruction of the Soviet defending forces. The Red Army lost over 170,000 men killed or taken prisoner, and three armies (44th, 47th, and 51st) with twenty-one divisions. The operation was one of the battles immediately preceding the German summer offensive, and its successful conclusion made it possible for the Axis to launch a successful assault on Sevastopol in the following months. Some groups of Soviet survivors refused to surrender and fought on for many months, hiding in the catacombs of the quarries. Many of these soldiers were occupying the caves along with many civilians, who had fled the city of Kerch.
The Battle of the Netherlands (Slag om Nederland) was part of Case Yellow (Fall Gelb), the German invasion of the Low Countries (Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands) and France during World War II.
The Battle of the Philippine Sea (June 19–20, 1944) was a decisive naval battle of World War II which eliminated the Imperial Japanese Navy's ability to conduct large-scale carrier actions.
The Battle of the River Plate was the first naval battle in the Second World War and the first one of Battle of the Atlantic in South American waters.
Battle of Wanjialing, well known in Chinese text as the Victory of Wanjialing refers to the Chinese Army's successful engagement during the Wuhan theatre of the Second Sino-Japanese War against the Japanese 101st and 106th Divisions around the Wanjialing region in 1938.
The Battle of West Hunan (湘西會戰), also known as the Zhijiang Campaign (芷江作戰), was the Japanese invasion of west Hunan and the subsequent Chinese counterattack that occurred between 6 April and 7 June 1945, during the last months of the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The Battle of Wuhan, popularly known to the Chinese as the Defence of Wuhan, and to the Japanese as the Capture of Wuhan, was a large-scale battle of the Second Sino-Japanese War.
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The Battle of Xuzhou was fought between Japanese and Chinese forces in May 1938 during Second Sino-Japanese War.
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The Battle of Yenangyaung was fought in Burma, now Myanmar, during the Burma Campaign in World War II.
Battlefield is a documentary series initially shown in 1994 that explores the most important battles fought primarily during the Second World War and the Vietnam War.
The Battles of Khalkhyn Gol (Халхын голын дайн; ノモンハン事件; Japanese Romaji Nomon-Han Jiken; бои на реке Халхин-Гол) were the decisive engagement of the undeclared Soviet–Japanese border conflicts fought among the Soviet Union, Mongolia and the Empire of Japan in 1939.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is the public-service broadcaster of the United Kingdom, headquartered at Broadcasting House in London.
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BBC Books (also formerly known as BBC Publishing) is an imprint majority owned and managed by Penguin Random House through its Ebury Publishing division.
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The Beer Hall Putsch, also known as the Munich Putsch,Dan Moorhouse, ed.
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Belarusians (беларусы, belarusy; белорусы) are an East Slavic ethnic group who populate the majority of the Republic of Belarus.
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Belgium (België; Belgique; Belgien), officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a sovereign state in Western Europe.
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The Belgrade Offensive or the Belgrade Strategic Offensive Operation (Beogradska operacija, Београдска операција; Белградская стратегическая наступательная операция, Belgradskaya strategicheskaya nastupatel'naya operatsiya) (14 September 1944 – 24 November 1944) was a military operation in which Belgrade was liberated from the German Wehrmacht through the joint efforts of the Soviet Red Army, the Yugoslav Partisans, and the Bulgarian People's Army.
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Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician, journalist, and leader of the National Fascist Party, ruling the country as Prime Minister from 1922 until his ousting in 1943.
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Berg Publishers was an academic publishing company based in Oxford, England that was founded in 1983 by Marion Berghahn.
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Berghahn Books is a publisher of scholarly books and academic journals in the humanities and social sciences, with a special focus on social & cultural anthropology, European history, politics, and film & media studies.
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Bessarabia (Basarabia; Бессарабия Bessarabiya, Бессарабія Bessarabiya) is a historical region in Eastern Europe, bounded by the Dniester river on the east and the Prut river on the west.
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Biological warfare (BW)—also known as germ warfare—is the use of biological toxins or infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi with the intent to kill or incapacitate humans, animals or plants as an act of war.
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The Biuro Szyfrów (Polish for "Cipher Bureau") was the interwar Polish General Staff's Second Department's agency charged with both cryptography (the use of ciphers and codes) and cryptology (the study of ciphers and codes, particularly for the purpose of "breaking" them).
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‘Black May’ refers to a period (May 1943) in the Battle of the Atlantic campaign during World War II, when the German U-boat arm (U-Bootwaffe) suffered high casualties with fewer Allied ships sunk; it is considered a turning point in the Battle of the Atlantic.
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Bleiburg repatriations (see terminology) is a term encompassing events that took place after the end of World War II in Europe, when tens of thousands of soldiers and civilians associated with the Axis fleeing Yugoslavia were repatriated to that country.
Blitzkrieg (German, "lightning war") is an anglicised term, describing a method of warfare, whereby an attacking force spearheaded by a dense concentration of armoured and motorized or mechanized infantry formations with close air support, breaks through the opponent's line of defense by short, fast, powerful attacks and then dislocates the defenders, using speed and surprise to encircle them.
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The Blockade of Germany (1939–1945) also known as the Economic War, was carried out during the Second World War by Great Britain and France in order to restrict the supplies of minerals, metals, food and textiles Germany needed to sustain its war effort.
The Blue Division (División Azul, Blaue Division, officially designated as División Española de Voluntarios by the Spanish Army and 250. Infanterie-Division in the German Army) was a unit of Spanish volunteers that served in the German Army on the Eastern Front of the Second World War.
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The Boeing B-29 Superfortress is a four-engine propeller-driven heavy bomber designed by Boeing and was flown primarily by the United States during World War II and the Korean War.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from большинство bol'shinstvo, "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority") were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
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A bomber is a combat aircraft designed to attack ground and sea targets by dropping air-to-ground weaponry, firing torpedoes or deploying air-launched cruise missiles.
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The German city of Cologne was bombed in 262 separate air raids at www.koelnarchitektur.de "Internet portal for the architecture of Cologne".
The Bombing of Darwin, also known as the Battle of Darwin, on 19 February 1942 was both the first and the largest single attack ever mounted by a foreign power on Australia.
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The bombing of Dresden was a UK/US aerial bombing attack on the city of Dresden, the capital of the German state of Saxony, that took place during the Second World War in the European Theatre.
The bombing of Guernica (26 April 1937) was an aerial attack on the Basque town of Guernica during the Spanish Civil War.
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The Allied bombing of Hamburg during World War II included numerous strategic bombing missions and diversion/nuisance raids.
The, often referred to as a series of firebombing raids, was conducted as part of the air raids on Japan by the United States Army Air Forces during the Pacific campaigns of World War II.
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The Bombing of Warsaw in World War II refers to the bombing campaign of Warsaw by the German Luftwaffe during the siege of Warsaw in the Invasion of Poland in 1939.
The Borneo Campaign of 1945 was the last major Allied campaign in the South West Pacific Area during World War II.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom.
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The British occupation of the Faroe Islands in World War II, also known as Operation Valentine, was implemented immediately following the German invasion of Denmark and Norway.
The Budapest Offensive was the general attack by Soviet and Romanian Army against Nazi Germany and their Axis allies from Hungary.
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Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
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The Bulgarian coup d'état of 1944, also known as the 9 September coup d'état (Деветосептемврийски преврат, Devetoseptemvriyski prevrat) and called in pre-1989 Bulgaria the National Uprising of 9 September or the Socialist Revolution of 9 September was a change in the Kingdom of Bulgaria's administration and government carried out on the eve of 9 September 1944.
The Burma Campaign in the South-East Asian theatre of World War II was fought primarily between the forces of the British Empire and China, with support from the United States, against the forces of the Empire of Japan, Thailand, and the Indian National Army.
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The Cairo Conference (codenamed Sextant) of November 22–26, 1943, held in Cairo, Egypt, outlined the Allied position against Japan during World War II and made decisions about postwar Asia.
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Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Canada is a country, consisting of ten provinces and three territories, in the northern part of the continent of North America.
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The Caroline Islands (Islas Carolinas in Spanish, Karolinen in German) are a widely scattered archipelago of tiny islands in the western Pacific Ocean, to the north of New Guinea.
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The Casablanca Conference (codenamed SYMBOL) was held at the Anfa Hotel in Casablanca, French Morocco from January 14 to 24, 1943, to plan the Allied European strategy for the next phase of World War II.
Operation Anton or Fall Anton in German, was the codename for the military occupation of Vichy France carried out by Germany and Italy in November 1942.
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Case Blue (Fall Blau), later renamed Operation Braunschweig, was the German Armed Forces' (Wehrmacht) name for its plan for the 1942 strategic summer offensive in southern Russia between 28 June and 24 November 1942.
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Casemate Publishers, also known as Casemate, is a Philadelphia area based publishing company that specializes in producing printed military history books.
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Cash and carry was a policy requested by US President Franklin Delano Roosevelt at a special session of the United States Congress on September 21, 1939, subsequent to the outbreak of war in Europe.
The Caspian Sea (kɐˈspʲijskəjə ˈmorʲə, Xəzər dənizi, Каспий теңізі Kaspiy teñizi, دریای خزر Daryā-e Xazar,دریای کاسپین Daryā-e Kāspiyan, Hazar deňizi) is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
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The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri or Bağlaşma Devletleri; Централни сили Tsentralni sili), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).
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Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general, resistant, writer and statesman.
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Chemical warfare (CW) involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances as weapons.
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Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was a Chinese political and military leader who served as the leader of the Republic of China between 1928 and 1975.
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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a sovereign state in East Asia.
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The Chindits were a British India 'Special Force' that served in Burma and India in 1943 and 1944 during the Burma Campaign in World War II.
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The Chindwin River (ချင်းတွင်းမြစ်) is a river in Burma (Myanmar), and the largest tributary of the country's chief river the Ayeyarwady (Irrawaddy).
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The Chinese Civil War was a civil war in China fought between forces loyal to the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China, and forces loyal to the Communist Party of China (CPC).
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Chongqing (formerly Chungking) is a major city in Southwest China and one of the five national central cities in China.
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In cryptography, a cipher (or cypher) is an algorithm for performing encryption or decryption—a series of well-defined steps that can be followed as a procedure.
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A civilian under the laws of war (also known as international humanitarian law) is a person who is not a legitimate member of the armed forces to a conflict.
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Civitella in Val di Chiana (official name), often also Civitella di Val di Chiana, is a comune in the province of Arezzo, south of Arezzo in Tuscany, Italy.
Class collaboration is a principle of social organization based upon the belief that the division of society into a hierarchy of social classes is a positive and essential aspect of civilization.
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Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was a British politician who was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951 and the Leader of the Labour Party from 1935 to 1955.
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A client state is a state that is economically, politically, or militarily subordinate to another more powerful state in international affairs.
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In military tactics, close air support (CAS) is defined as air action by fixed or rotary-winged aircraft against hostile targets, that are close to friendly ground or naval forces, and which requires detailed integration of each air mission with fire and movement of these forces.
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Close combat means a violent physical confrontation between two or more opponents at short range.
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A codebook is a type of document used for gathering and storing codes.
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The Cold War was a state of political and military tension after World War II between powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others) and powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its allies in the Warsaw Pact).
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Collective security can be understood as a security arrangement, political, regional, or global, in which each state in the system accepts that the security of one is the concern of all, and therefore commits to a collective response to threats to, and breaches to peace.
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The Colonial empires began with a race of exploration between the then most advanced maritime powers, Portugal and Spain, in the 15th century.
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Colonial war is a blanket term relating to the various conflicts that arose as the result of overseas territories being settled by foreign powers creating a colony.
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Colossus was the name of a series of computers developed for British codebreakers in 1943-1945 to help in the cryptanalysis of the Lorenz cipher.
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Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.
Combined arms is an approach to warfare which seeks to integrate different combat arms of a military to achieve mutually complementary effects (for example, using infantry and armor in an urban environment, where one supports the other, or both support each other).
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Commando is a soldier or operative of an elite light infantry or special operations force often specializing in amphibious landings, parachuting or abseiling.
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The Commonwealth of Nations, commonly known as the Commonwealth (formerly the British Commonwealth), is an intergovernmental organization of 53 member states that were mostly territories of the former British Empire.
The Commonwealth of the Philippines (Komonwelt ng Pilipinas; Mancomunidad de Filipinas) was the administrative body that governed the Philippines from 1935 to 1946, aside from a period of exile in the Second World War from 1942 to 1945 when Japan occupied the country.
The Communist Party of China (CPC) is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
The Condor Legion (Legion Condor) was a unit composed of volunteers from the German Air Force (Luftwaffe) and from the German Army (Wehrmacht Heer) which served with the Nationalists during the Spanish Civil War of July 1936 to March 1939.
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Conscription, or drafting, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
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Contemporary Sociology is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal of sociology published by SAGE Publications in association with the American Sociological Association since 1972.
The Continuation War (jatkosota; fortsättningskriget; 25 June 1941 – 19 September 1944) refers to the hostilities between Finland and the Soviet Union during the Second World War, from 1941 to 1944.
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Continuum International Publishing Group was an academic publisher of books with editorial offices in London and New York City.
Conway Publishing, formerly Conway Maritime Press, is an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing.
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The Southeast Asia Program (SEAP) is an interdisciplinary program of Cornell University that focuses on the development of graduate training and research opportunities on the languages and cultures of Brunei, Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam.
A counter-offensive is the term used by the military to describe large-scale, usually strategic offensive operations by forces that had successfully halted the enemy's offensive, while occupying defensive positions.
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The Covenant of the League of Nations was the charter of the League of Nations.
The Crimea Campaign was an eight-month-long campaign by Axis forces to conquer the Crimea peninsula, and was the scene of some of the bloodiest battles on the Eastern Front during World War II.
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The Crimean Offensive (8 April – 12 May 1944), known in German sources as the Battle of the Crimea, was a series of offensives by the Red Army directed at the German-held Crimea.
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Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós, "hidden", and analýein, "to loosen" or "to untie") is the study of analyzing information systems in order to study the hidden aspects of the systems.
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Cryptography or cryptology; from Greek κρυπτός kryptós, "hidden, secret"; and γράφειν graphein, "writing", or -λογία -logia, "study", respectively is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties (called adversaries).
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The Curzon Line was put forward by the Supreme War Council after World War I as the demarcation line between the Second Polish Republic and Bolshevik Russia, and was supposed to serve as the basis for a future border.
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Customary international law are those aspects of international law that derive from custom.
The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (Czech/Slovak: Československá socialistická republika) was the official name of Czechoslovakia from 11 July 1960 until following the 1989 Velvet Revolution, when the name was changed on 23 April 1990.
Czechoslovakia or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko, in both of those languages) was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the Czech Republic and Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
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Da Capo Press is an American publishing company with headquarters in Boston, Massachusetts.
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Darwin is the capital city of the Northern Territory, Australia.
David S. Painter (born 1948) is an associate professor of international history at Georgetown University.
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Adolf Hitler killed himself by gunshot on 30 April 1945 in his Führerbunker in Berlin.
Deception, beguilement, deceit, bluff, mystification and subterfuge are acts to propagate beliefs of things that are not true, or not the whole truth (as in half-truths or omission).
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The Declaration by the United Nations was a World War II document agreed on 1 January 1942 during the Arcadia Conference by 26 governments: the Allied "Big Four" (the US, the UK, the USSR, and China), nine other American countries in North and Central America and the Caribbean, the four British Dominions, British India, and eight Allied governments-in-exile, for a total of twenty-six nations.
This is a timeline of formal Declarations of War during World War II.
The decolonization of Asia was the gradual growth of independence movements on the Asian continent, leading ultimately to the retreat of foreign powers and the creation of a number of nation-states in the region.
Decolonization (US) or decolonisation (UK) is the undoing of colonialism, where a nation establishes and maintains its domination over dependent territories.
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The decolonization of Africa followed World War II, when colonized peoples agitated for independence and colonial powers withdrew their administrators from Africa.
The Defence of the Reich (Reichsverteidigung) is the name given to the strategic defensive aerial campaign fought by the Luftwaffe over German-occupied Europe and Germany itself during World War II.
The Battle of Hengyang was the longest defense of a single city of the entire Second Sino-Japanese War.
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The Defense of the Great Wall (January 1, 1933 – May 31, 1933) was a campaign between the armies of Republic of China and Empire of Japan, which took place before the Second Sino-Japanese War officially commenced in 1937.
On 30 March 1942 Professor Frederick Lindemann, Baron Cherwell, the British government's chief scientific adviser, sent to the British Prime Minister Winston Churchill a memorandum which after it had become accepted by the Cabinet became known as the dehousing paper.
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Denazification (Entnazifizierung) was an Allied initiative to rid German and Austrian society, culture, press, economy, judiciary, and politics of any remnants of the National Socialist ideology (Nazism).
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Denis Crispin Twitchett (23 September 192524 February 2006) was a British Sinologist and scholar who specialized in Chinese history, and is well known as one of the co-editors of The Cambridge History of China.
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Denmark (Danmark) is a country in Northern Europe.
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In the Destroyers for Bases Agreement between the United States and the United Kingdom on September 2, 1940, fifty mothballed ''Caldwell'', ''Wickes'', and ''Clemson''-class US Navy destroyers were transferred to the Royal Navy from the United States Navy in exchange for land rights on British possessions.
The (German mark, abbreviated "DM") was the official currency of West Germany (1948–1990) and unified Germany (1990–2002) until the adoption of the euro in 2002.
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The Dieppe Raid, also known as the Battle of Dieppe, Operation Rutter and, later, Operation Jubilee, was an Allied attack on the German-occupied port of Dieppe during the Second World War.
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Disability is the consequence of an impairment that may be physical, cognitive, mental, sensory, emotional, developmental, or some combination of these.
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The dissolution of the Soviet Union was formally enacted on December 26, 1991, as a result of the declaration no.
The division of Korea into South Korea and North Korea was the result of the 1945 Allied victory in World War II, ending the Empire of Japan's 35-year colonial rule of Korea by General Order No. 1.
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Dominions were semi-independent polities that were nominally under the Crown, constituting the British Empire and British Commonwealth, beginning in the later part of the 19th century.
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The Don (p) is one of the major rivers of Russia.
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The Doolittle Raid, also known as the Tokyo Raid, on 18 April 1942, was an air raid by the United States on the Japanese capital Tokyo and other places on Honshu island during World War II, the first air raid to strike the Japanese Home Islands.
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Drang nach Osten (German for "yearning for the East", "thrust toward the East",Ulrich Best, Transgression as a Rule: German-Polish cross-border cooperation, border discourse and EU-enlargement, 2008, p. 58, ISBN 3-8258-0654-5, ISBN 978-3-8258-0654-5 "push eastward",Jerzy Jan Lerski, Piotr Wróbel, Richard J. Kozicki, Historical Dictionary of Poland, 966–1945, 1996, p. 118, ISBN 0-313-26007-9, ISBN 978-0-313-26007-0 "drive toward the East"Edmund Jan Osmańczyk, Anthony Mango, Encyclopedia of the United Nations and International Agreements, 2003, p. 579, ISBN 0-415-93921-6, ISBN 978-0-415-93921-8 or "desire to push East") was a term coined in the 19th century to designate German expansion into Slavic lands.
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The Dunkirk evacuation, code-named Operation Dynamo, also known as the Miracle of Dunkirk, was the evacuation of Allied soldiers from the beaches and harbour of Dunkirk, France, between 27 May and 4 June 1940, during World War II.
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The Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East Indies; Nederlands-Indië; Hindia Belanda) was a Dutch colony that became modern Indonesia following World War II.
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The Dutch East Indies campaign of 1941–42 was the conquest of the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) by forces from the Empire of Japan in the early days of the Pacific Campaign of World War II.
The East African Campaign was fought in the Horn of Africa during World War II by Allied forces, mainly British Empire forces, against Axis forces, primarily from Italy, between June 1940 and November 1941.
The was a cabinet level agency in the Empire of Japan that operated between 1938 and 1942.
East Germany, formally the German Democratic Republic or GDR (Deutsche Demokratische Republik, or DDR), was a state in the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
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The East Pomeranian Strategic Offensive operation (Восточно-Померанская наступательная операция) was an offensive by the Red Army in its fight against the German Wehrmacht on the Eastern Front.
East Prussia (Ostpreußen,; Borussia orientalis; Восточная Пруссия) was the main part of the region of Prussia along the southeastern Baltic Coast from the 13th century to the end of World War II in May 1945.
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The East Prussian Offensive was a strategic offensive by the Red Army against the German Wehrmacht on the Eastern Front (World War II).
Eastern Bloc was the name used by NATO-affiliated countries for the former communist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
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The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other allies, which encompassed Northern, Southern and Central and Eastern Europe from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.
Edward Frederick Lindley Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax, (16 April 1881 – 23 December 1959), known as Lord Irwin from 1925 until 1934 and as Viscount Halifax from 1934 until 1944, was one of the most senior British Conservative politicians of the 1930s.
Elbe Day, April 25, 1945, is the day Soviet and American troops met at the River Elbe, near Torgau in Germany, marking an important step toward the end of World War II in Europe.
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An embargo (from the Spanish embargo, meaning hindrance, obstruction, etc. in a general sense, a trading ban in trade terminology and literally "distraint" in juridic parlance) is the partial or complete prohibition of commerce and trade with a particular country or a group of countries.
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The was the historical Japanese nation-state that existed from the Meiji Restoration on January 3, 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
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The end of World War II in Asia occurred on 14 and 15 August 1945, when armed forces of Japan surrendered to the forces of the Allied Powers.
ENIAC (or; Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer) was the first electronic general-purpose computer.
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An Enigma machine was a series of electro-mechanical rotor cipher machines developed and used in the early to early-mid twentieth century for commercial and military usage.
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The escort carrier or escort aircraft carrier (hull classification symbol CVE), also called a "jeep carrier" or "baby flattop" in the United States Navy (USN) or "Woolworth Carrier" by the Royal Navy, was a small and slow type of aircraft carrier used by the Royal Navy, the Imperial Japanese Navy and Imperial Japanese Army Air Force, and the United States Navy in World War II.
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Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
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The Ethiopian Empire (የኢትዮጵያ ንጉሠ ነገሥት መንግሥተ, Mängəstä Ityop'p'ya), also known as Abyssinia, spanned a geographical area covered by present-day Eritrea and the northern half of Ethiopia.
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Europe at War 1939–1945: No Simple Victory is a history book about the World War II in Europe, written by the English historian Norman Davies.
Europe-Asia Studies is an academic peer-reviewed journal published 10 times a year by Routledge on behalf of the Institute of Central and East European Studies, University of Glasgow, and continuing (since vol. 45, 1993) the journal Soviet Studies (vols. 1-44, 1949–1992), which was renamed after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
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The European Civil War is a term of historical argumentation in the form of an overarching construct tying a series of 20th century conflicts between sovereign nations in the now most unified continent of Europe.
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European integration is the process of industrial, political, legal, economic, social and cultural integration of states wholly or partially in Europe.
The European Theatre of World War II, also known as the European War, was a huge area of heavy fighting across Europe, from Germany's and the Soviet Union's joint invasion of Poland in September 1939 until the end of the war with the Soviet Union conquering much of Europe along with the German unconditional surrender on May 8, 1945 (V-E Day).
Executive Order 9066 is a United States presidential executive order signed and issued during World War II by the United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt on February 19, 1942, authorizing the Secretary of War to prescribe certain areas as military zones.
The Falaise Pocket or Battle of the Falaise Pocket (12–21 August 1944) was the decisive engagement of the Battle of Normandy in the Second World War.
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The Federal State of Austria (Austrian German: Bundesstaat Österreich; colloquially known as the Ständestaat, "Corporate State") refers to Austria between 1934 and 1938 while it was a single-party state led by the clerico-fascist Fatherland's Front.
A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat against other aircraft, as opposed to bombers and attack aircraft, whose main mission is to attack ground targets.
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The First Battle of El Alamein (1–27 July 1942) was a battle of the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War, fought on the northern coast of Egypt between Axis forces (Germany and Italy) of the Panzer Army Africa (Panzerarmee Afrika) (also known as the Africa Corps) commanded by Field Marshal (Generalfeldmarschall) Erwin Rommel nicknamed "The Desert Fox" and Allied (specifically British Imperial) forces (Britain, British India, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand) of the Eighth Army, commanded by General Claude Auchinleck.
The 1st Battle of Kharkov so named by Wilhelm Keitel was the 1941 tactical battle for the city of Kharkov (now KharkivKharkov is the Russian language name of the city (Kharkiv the Ukrainian one); both Russian and Ukrainian were official languages in the Soviet Union (Source: & by Routledge)) (Ukrainian SSR) during the final phase of Operation ''Barbarossa'' between the German 6th Army of Army Group South and the Soviet Southwestern Front.
The First Jassy–Kishinev Offensive, named after the two major cities (Iași and Chișinău) in the area, was fought between 8 April and 6 June 1944 by the Soviets and Axis powers of World War II.
The First Vienna Award was the result of the First Vienna Arbitration, which took place at Vienna's Belvedere Palace on November 2, 1938.
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During the later stages of World War II and the post-war period the German Reichsdeutsche (German citizens) as well as persons of German ancestry were expelled from various Eastern European countries and sent to Germany and Austria.
The topic of forced labor of Hungarians in the Soviet Union in the aftermath of World War II was not researched until the fall of Communism and the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The use of forced labour in Nazi Germany and throughout German-occupied Europe during World War II took place on an unprecedented scale.
The Fordham University Press is a publishing house, a division of Fordham University, that publishes primarily in the humanities and the social sciences.
Foreign forced labor was used by the Soviet Union during and in the aftermath of World War II, which continued up to 1950s.
Francisco Franco Bahamonde (December 4, 1892 – November 20, 1975) was a Spanish general and the dictator of Spain from 1939 until his death in 1975.
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The Franco-Italian Agreement of 7 January 1935 was signed in Rome by the French Foreign Minister Pierre Laval and Italian Prime Minister Benito Mussolini.
The Franco-Polish alliance was the military alliance between Poland and France that was active between 1921 and 1940.
The Franco-Soviet Treaty of Mutual Assistance was a bilateral treaty between the two countries with the aim of encircling Nazi Germany in 1935 in order to reduce the threat from central Europe.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt (his own pronunciation, or) (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), commonly known by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States.
The Free City of Danzig (Freie Stadt Danzig; Wolne Miasto Gdańsk) was a semi-autonomous city-state that existed between 1920 and 1939, consisting of the Baltic Sea port of Danzig (now Gdańsk, Poland) and nearly 200 towns in the surrounding areas.
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Free France and its Free French Forces (French: France Libre and Forces françaises libres) were the government-in-exile led by Charles de Gaulle during the Second World War and its military forces that continued to fight against the Axis powers as an Ally after the fall of France.
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Freedom From Fear: The American People in Depression and War, 1929–1945 is a Pulitzer Prize-winning book written in 1999 by historian David M. Kennedy.
Freemasonry is a fraternal organisation that traces its origins to the local fraternities of stonemasons, which from the end of the fourteenth century regulated the qualifications of stonemasons and their interaction with authorities and clients.
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Officially, the Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon (1923−1946), (Mandat français pour la Syrie et le Liban), was a League of Nations mandate founded after the First World War and the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire.
The French Resistance (La Résistance française) is the name used to denote the collection of French resistance movements that fought against the Nazi German occupation of France and against the collaborationist Vichy régime during World War II.
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The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) governed France from 1870, when the Second French Empire collapsed, to 1940, when France's defeat by Nazi Germany led to the Vichy France government.
Gian Galeazzo Ciano, 2nd Count of Cortellazzo and Buccari (18 March 1903 – 11 January 1944) was Foreign Minister of Fascist Italy from 1936 until 1943 and Benito Mussolini's son-in-law.
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Gdańsk (English pronunciation, Danzig,, also known by other alternative names) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast, the capital of the Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland's principal seaport and the centre of the country's fourth-largest metropolitan area.
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Generalissimo (Generalissimo, Generalísimo, Generalíssimo, Generalissimus) is a military rank of the highest degree, superior to field marshal and other five-star ranks in the countries in which they are used.
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The Generalplan Ost (Master Plan East, GPO) was a secret Nazi German plan for the colonization of Central and Eastern Europe.
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Genocide is the systematic elimination of all or a significant part of a racial, ethnic, religious, cultural or national group.
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Geopolitics (from Greek γῆ ge "earth, land" and πολιτική politikē "politics") is the study of the effects of geography (human and physical) on international politics and international relations.
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The German colonial empire was the overseas territories of Imperial Germany.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich), variously referred to as the German Reich or Realm, or Imperial Germany, was the historical German nation state that existed from the unification of Germany in 1871 to the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II in November 1918, when Germany became a federal republic.
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The German Instrument of Surrender ended World War II in Europe.
The Military Administration in France (Militärverwaltung in Frankreich; Occupation de la France par l'Allemagne) was an interim occupation authority established by Nazi Germany during World War II to administer the occupied zone in areas of northern and western France.
During World War II, Nazi Germany engaged in deliberate extermination policies towards Soviet Union prisoners of war (POWs).
The German occupation of Czechoslovakia (1938–1945) began with the Nazi annexation of Czechoslovakia's northern and western border regions, known collectively as the Sudetenland, under terms outlined by the Munich Agreement.
The German rearmament (Aufrüstung) was an era of rearmament in Germany during the interwar period (1918-1939), in violation of the Treaty of Versailles.
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The German reunification (Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic (GDR/East Germany) joined the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG/West Germany) to form the reunited nation of Germany, and when Berlin reunited into a single city, as provided by its then Grundgesetz constitution Article 23.
The German Revolution or November Revolution (German: Novemberrevolution) was the politically driven civil conflict in the German Empire at the end of the First World War, which resulted in the replacement of Germany's imperial government with a republic.
Type VII U-boats were the most common type of German World War II U-boat.
The German-Soviet Frontier Treaty was a second supplementary protocol, of the 1939 Hitler-Stalin Pact (known as the German-Soviet Treaty of Nonaggression, or by its original name of the German–Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Demarcation).
The German–Polish Non-Aggression Pact (Deutsch-polnischer Nichtangriffspakt; Polsko-niemiecki pakt o nieagresji) was an international treaty between Nazi Germany and the Second Polish Republic signed on January 26, 1934.
In October and November 1940, German–Soviet Axis talks occurred concerning the Soviet Union's potential entry as a fourth Axis Power in World War II.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history, and speak the German language as their native language.
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In the Pacific Theater of World War II, the Gilbert and Marshall Islands campaign, from November 1943 through February 1944, were key strategic operations of the United States Pacific Fleet and Marine Corps in the Central Pacific.
The Gleiwitz incident (Überfall auf den Sender Gleiwitz) was a false flag operation by Nazi forces posing as Poles on 31 August 1939, against the German radio station Sender Gleiwitz in Gleiwitz, Upper Silesia, Germany (since 1945: Gliwice, Poland) on the eve of World War II in Europe.
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The Gothic Line (Gotenstellung; Linea Gotica) formed Field Marshal Albert Kesselring's last major line of defence in the Italian Campaign during the final stages of the Second World War along the summits of the northern part of the Apennine Mountains during the fighting retreat of the German forces in Italy against the Allied Armies in Italy commanded by General Sir Harold Alexander.
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The Gran Sasso raid refers to Operation Eiche (German for "Oak"), the rescue of Italian dictator Benito Mussolini by German paratroopers led by Major Otto-Harald Mors and Waffen-SS commandos in September 1943, during World War II.
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Grand admiral is a historic naval rank, generally being the highest such rank present in any particular country.
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Grand strategy, also called high strategy, comprises the "purposeful employment of all instruments of power available to a security community".
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A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.
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The Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere (大東亞共榮圏 Dai-tō-a Kyōeiken) was an imperial propaganda concept created and promulgated for occupied Asian populations during the first third of the Shōwa era by the government and military of the Empire of Japan.
The Greco-Italian War, also known as the Italo-Greek War, was a conflict between Italy and Greece, which lasted from 28 October 1940 to 23 April 1941.
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Greece (Ελλάδα), officially the Hellenic Republic (Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία) and known since ancient times as Hellas (Greek: Ελλάς), is a country located in southeastern Europe.
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In 1940, Greenland was a Danish colony.
Greenwood Publishing Group (GPG) is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.
Ground warfare or land warfare is the process of military operations eventuating in combat that take place predominantly on the land surface of the planet.
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Guadalcanal (indigenous name: Isatabu) is the principal island in Guadalcanal Province of the nation of Solomon Islands in the south-western Pacific, northeast of Australia.
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The Guadalcanal Campaign, also known as the Battle of Guadalcanal and codenamed Operation Watchtower, originally applying only to an operation to take the island of Tulagi, by Allied forces, was a military campaign fought between 7 August 1942 and 9 February 1943 on and around the island of Guadalcanal in the Pacific theater of World War II.
The Gulag (ru-Gulag.ogg) was the government agency that administered the main Soviet forced labor camp systems during the Stalin era, from the 1930s until the 1950s.
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Gulag: A History, also published as Gulag: A History of the Soviet Camps, is a non-fiction book covering the history of the Soviet Gulag system.
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was a Japanese political slogan that became popular from the Second Sino-Japanese War to World War II, and was popularized in a speech by Prime Minister of Japan Fumimaro Konoe on January 8, 1940.
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Hamish Hamilton Limited was a British book publishing house, founded in 1931 eponymously by the half-Scot half-American Jamie Hamilton (Hamish is the vocative form of the Gaelic 'Seamus', James the English form – which was also his given name, and Jamie the diminutive form).
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HarperCollins Publishers LLC is one of the world's largest publishing companies and, alongside Hachette, Holtzbrinck/Macmillan, Penguin Random House, and Simon & Schuster, is part of the "Big Five" English-language publishing companies.
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Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884December 26, 1972) was the 33rd President of the United States (1945–53).
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Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
Hawaii (locally,; Hawaii) is the 50th and most recent U.S. state to join the United States, having joined on August 21, 1959.
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The Hedgehog (also known as an Anti-Submarine Projector) was a forward-throwing anti-submarine weapon that was used during the Battle of the Atlantic in the Second World War.
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Hegemony (or, or; ἡγεμονία hēgemonía, "leadership, rule") is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others.
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Heinemann is a publishing house that was founded in 1890 in the UK.
Henan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country.
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Henrik Kauffmann (26 August 1888 – 5 June 1963) was the Danish ambassador to the United States during World War II.
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Hideki Tojo (Kyūjitai: 東條 英機; Shinjitai: 東条 英機;; December 30, 1884 – December 23, 1948) was a general of the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA), the leader of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association, and the 40th Prime Minister of Japan during much of World War II, from October 17, 1941, to July 22, 1944.
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Hippocrene Books is a US publishing press located at 171 Madison Avenue, New York City, NY 10016.
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was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from December 25, 1926, until his death on January 7, 1989.
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Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan (2000, ISBN 978-0-06-019314-0) is a book by Herbert P. Bix covering the reign of Emperor Hirohito of Japan from 1926 until his death in 1989.
tom() is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the Chūgoku region of western Honshu, the largest island of Japan.
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The history of Israel encompasses the history of the Jews in the Land of Israel, as well as the history of the modern State of Israel.
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The history of the world (or world history) describes the history of humanity (or human history) as determined by the study of archaeological and written records.
The History of United States Naval Operations in World War II is a 15-volume account of the United States Navy in World War II, written by Samuel Eliot Morison and published by Little, Brown and Company between 1947 and 1962.
History Today is an illustrated history magazine.
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The Home Army (Armia Krajowa;, abbreviated AK) was the dominant Polish resistance movement in World War II German-occupied Poland.
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The home front covers the activities of the civilians in a nation at war.
Homosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between members of the same sex or gender.
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Houghton Mifflin Harcourt is an educational and trade publisher in the United States.
Hunan (Hunanese, Shuangfeng dialect) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the south-central part of the country to the south of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and south of Lake Dongting (hence the name Hunan, which means "south of the lake").
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The Hundred Regiments Offensive (20 August – 5 December 1940) was a major campaign of the Communist Party of China's National Revolutionary Army divisions commanded by Peng Dehuai against the Imperial Japanese Army in Central China.
The Hungarian People's Republic (Magyar Népköztársaság) was a socialist state that administered Hungary from 20 August 1949 until 23 October 1989.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
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During World War II, Hungary was a member of the Axis powers.
ibiblio (formerly SunSITE.unc.edu and MetaLab.unc.edu) is a "collection of collections," and hosts a diverse range of publicly available information and open source content, including software, music, literature, art, history, science, politics, and cultural studies.
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The, literally "Army of the Greater Japanese Empire", was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan, from 1871 to 1945.
The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN; Kyūjitai: 大日本帝國海軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国海軍 or 日本海軍 Nippon Kaigun, literally "Navy of the Greater Japanese Empire") was the navy of the Empire of Japan from 1868 until 1945, when it was dissolved following Japan's defeat and surrender in World War II.
Incendiary weapons, incendiary devices or incendiary bombs are weapons designed to start fires or destroy sensitive equipment using fire (and sometimes used as anti-personnel weaponry), that use materials such as napalm, thermite, chlorine trifluoride, or white phosphorus.
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The Indian Ocean raid (known in Japan as Operation C) was a naval sortie by the fast carrier strike force of the Imperial Japanese Navy from 31 March – 10 April 1942 against Allied shipping and bases in the Indian Ocean.
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Indiana University Press, also known as IU Press, is an academic publisher at Indiana University that specializes in the humanities and social sciences.
Indirect fire is aiming and firing a projectile without relying on a direct line of sight between the gun and its target, as in the case of direct fire.
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Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to these organisms and the toxins they produce.
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The International Brigades (Brigadas Internacionales) were military units, made up of volunteers from different countries, who travelled to Spain, in order to fight for the Second Spanish Republic, in the Spanish Civil War, between 1936 and 1939.
International humanitarian law (IHL) is the law that regulates the conduct of armed conflict (jus in bello).
The International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE), also known as the Tokyo Trials, the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal, or simply the Tribunal, was convened on April 29, 1946, to try the leaders of the Empire of Japan for three types of war crimes.
International Security is a peer-reviewed academic journal in the field of international and national security.
The invasion of Iceland, codenamed Operation Fork, was a British military operation conducted by the Royal Navy and Royal Marines during World War II.
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The Invasion of Lingayen Gulf was an Allied amphibious operation in the Philippines during World War II.
The German invasion of Luxembourg was part of Case Yellow (Fall Gelb), the German invasion of the Low Countries (Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands) and France during World War II.
The Invasion of Normandy was the invasion by and establishment of Western Allied forces in Normandy, during Operation Overlord in 1944 during World War II; the largest amphibious invasion to ever take place.
The Invasion of Poland, also known as the September Campaign, or the 1939 Defensive War in Poland (Kampania wrześniowa or Wojna obronna 1939 roku), and alternatively the Poland Campaign (Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiß in Germany (Case White), was a joint invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union, and a small Slovak contingent, that marked the beginning of World War II in Europe.
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The invasion of Yugoslavia, also known as the April War or Operation 25, was a German-led attack on the Kingdom of Yugoslavia by the Axis powers which began on 6 April 1941 during World War II.
Ion Victor Antonescu (June 15, 1882 – June 1, 1946) was a Romanian soldier and authoritarian politician who, as the Prime Minister and Conducător during most of World War II, presided over two successive wartime dictatorships.
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Irredentism (from Italian irredento for "unredeemed") is any political or popular movement intended to reclaim and reoccupy a lost homeland.
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The Italian conquest of British Somaliland was a military campaign in the Horn of Africa, which took place in August 1940 between forces of Italy and those of several British Commonwealth countries.
Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana) was an Italian colony established in 1936.
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The Italian economic miracle (Italian: il miracolo economico) is the name often used by historians, economists and mass media to designate the prolonged period of sustained economic growth in Italy comprised between the end of the Second World War and late 1960s, and in particular the years 1950-63.
The Italian Empire (Italian: Impero Italiano) comprised the colonies, protectorates, concessions, dependencies and trust territories of the Kingdom of Italy and, after 1946, the Italian Republic.
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Italian Eritrea was a colony of the Kingdom of Italy in the territory of present-day Eritrea.
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Italian Fascism (Fascismo Italiano), also known simply as Fascism (Fascismo), is the original fascist ideology, as developed in Italy.
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The Italian invasion of Albania (April 7 – April 12, 1939) was a brief military campaign by the Kingdom of Italy against the Albanian Kingdom.
The Italian invasion of Egypt (Operazione E) was an Italian offensive against British, Commonwealth and Free French forces during the Western Desert Campaign (1940–1943) of the Second World War.
The Italian invasion of France, also called the Battle of the Alps (10–25 June 1940), was the first major Italian engagement of World War II and the last major engagement of the Battle of France.
Italian-occupied France was an area of south-eastern France occupied by Fascist Italy in two stages during World War II.
The Italian resistance movement (Resistenza italiana or just Resistenza) is an umbrella term for resistance groups that opposed the occupying German forces and the Italian Fascist puppet regime of the Italian Social Republic during the later years of World War II.
The Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiana, RSI), informally known as the Republic of Salò (Repubblica di Salò), was a puppet state of Nazi Germany during the later part of World War II (from 1943 until 1945).
Italian Somaliland (Somalia italiana, الصومال الإيطالي Al-Sumal Al-Italiy, Dhulka Talyaaniga ee Soomaaliya), also known as Italian Somalia, was a colony of the Kingdom of Italy in present-day northeastern, central and southern Somalia.
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Jane's Information Group (often referred to as Jane's) is a British publishing company specialising in military, aerospace and transportation topics.
The January 28 Incident or Shanghai Incident (January 28 – March 3, 1932) was a conflict between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan, before official hostilities of the Second Sino-Japanese War commenced in 1937.
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The Japanese conquest of Burma was the opening chapter of the Burma Campaign in the South-East Asian Theatre of World War II, which took place over four years from 1942 to 1945.
The Japanese Instrument of Surrender was the written agreement that formalized the surrender of the Empire of Japan, marking the end of World War II.
In September 1940, the to prevent the Republic of China from importing arms and fuel through French Indochina along the Sino-Vietnamese Railway, from the port of Haiphong through Hanoi to Kunming in Yunnan.
The Japanese Invasion of Malaya began just after midnight on 8 December 1941 (local time) before the attack on Pearl Harbor.
The Japanese invasion of Manchuria began on September 18, 1931, when the Kwantung Army of the Empire of Japan invaded Manchuria immediately following the Mukden Incident.
The vulnerability of Japanese naval codes and ciphers was crucial to the conduct of World War II, and had an important influence on foreign relations between Japan and the west in the years leading up to the war as well.
The Japanese post-war economic miracle is the name given to the historical phenomenon of Japan's record period of economic growth between post-World War II era to the end of Cold War.
Japanese war crimes occurred in many Asian and Pacific countries during the period of Japanese imperialism, primarily during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II.
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The Jassy–Kishinev Operation, named after the two major cities, Iași and Chișinău, in the staging area, was a Soviet offensive against Axis forces, which took place in Eastern Romania from 20 to 29 August 1944.
Java (Indonesian: Jawa; Javanese: ꦗꦮ) is an island of Indonesia.
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Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.
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A jet aircraft (or simply jet) is an aircraft (nearly always a fixed-wing aircraft) propelled by jet engines (jet propulsion).
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The Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation), also known as the Jewish people, are an ethnoreligious and ethno-cultural group descended from the Israelites of the Ancient Near East and originating from the historical kingdoms of Israel and Judah.
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John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing and markets its products to professionals and consumers, students and instructors in higher education, and researchers and practitioners in scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly fields.
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The Johns Hopkins University Press (also referred to as JHU Press or JHUP) is the publishing division of Johns Hopkins University.
Joseph Stalin (birth surname: Jughashvili; 18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was the leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953.
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Josip Broz Tito (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз Тито,; born Josip Broz 7 May 1892Although Tito was born on 7 May after he became president of Yugoslavia he celebrated his birthday on 25 May to mark the unsuccessful 1944 Nazi attempt on his life. The Germans found forged documents that stated 25 May was Tito's birthday and attacked him on that day. (Vinterhalter 1972, p. 43.) – 4 May 1980) was a Yugoslav revolutionary and statesman, serving in various roles from 1943 until his death in 1980.
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The Journal of Contemporary History is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering the study of history in all parts of the world since the end of the First World War.
The Junkers Ju 87 or Stuka (from Sturzkampfflugzeug, "dive bomber") was a two-man (pilot and rear gunner) German dive bomber and ground-attack aircraft.
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The Karelian Isthmus (Karelsky peresheyek; Karjalankannas) is the approximately 45–110 km wide stretch of land, situated between the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga in northwestern Russia, to the north of the River Neva (between 61°21’N, 59°46’N and 27°42’E, 31°08’E).
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Karl Dönitz (16 September 1891 – 24 December 1980), sometimes spelt Doenitz in English, was a German admiral who played a major role in the Naval history of World War II.
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The Katyn massacre (zbrodnia katyńska, mord katyński, "Katyń crime"; Катынский расстрел Katynskij ra'sstrel, "Katyn shooting") was a series of mass executions of Polish nationals carried out by the People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (NKVD), the Soviet secret police, in April and May 1940.
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Kent State University (also known as Kent, Kent State, and KSU) is a public research university in Kent, Ohio, United States.
King Michael's Coup was a coup d'état led by King Michael of Romania during World War II on 23 August 1944.
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The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state founded in 1861 when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy.
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The Klaipėda Region (Klaipėdos kraštas) or Memel Territory (Memelland or Memelgebiet) was defined by the Treaty of Versailles in 1920 and refers to the most northern part of the German province of East Prussia, when as Memelland it was put under the administration of the Council of Ambassadors.
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The Kokoda Track campaign or Kokoda Trail campaign was part of the Pacific War of World War II.
Korea, called Hanguk (한국; Hanja: 韓國) or Daehan (대한; Hanja: 大韓) in South Korea and Chosŏn (조선; Hanja: 朝鮮) in North Korea and elsewhere, is an East Asian territory that is divided into two distinct sovereign states, North Korea (also known as the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, or DPRK) and South Korea (also known as the Republic of Korea, or ROK).
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Korea under Japanese rule is the culmination of a process that began with the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1876, whereby a complex coalition of Meiji government, military, and business officials sought to integrate Korea both politically and economically into the Empire of Japan, first as a protectorate through the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1905, and then officially annexed in the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1910.
The Korean War (in South Korean Hangul: 한국전쟁, Hanja: 韓國戰爭, Hanguk Jeonjaeng, "Korean War"; in North Korean Chosungul: 조국해방전쟁, Joguk Haebang Jeonjaeng, "Fatherland Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North and South Korea, in which a United Nations force led by the United States of America fought for the South, and China fought for the North, which was also assisted by the Soviet Union.
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The Kriegsmarine (War Navy) was the navy of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945.
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Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History is an academic journal published quarterly since 2000 by Slavica publishers, a division of Indiana University.
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Kuban (Кубань; Кубань; Пшызэ) is a geographic region of Southern Russia surrounding the Kuban River, on the Black Sea between the Don Steppe, Volga Delta and the Caucasus, and separated from the Crimean Peninsula to the west by the Kerch Strait.
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The Kuomintang of China (or; KMT), or sometimes spelled as Guomindang (GMD) by its Pinyin transliteration, is a political party in the Republic of China (ROC).
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The Kuril Islands or Kurile Islands (or; p; Japanese), in Russia's Sakhalin Oblast region, form a volcanic archipelago that stretches approximately northeast from Hokkaido, Japan, to Kamchatka, Russia, separating the Sea of Okhotsk from the North Pacific Ocean.
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Kursk (p) is a city and the administrative center of Kursk Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Kur, Tuskar, and Seym Rivers.
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The Kwantung Army was an army group of the Imperial Japanese Army in the first half of the 20th century.
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A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are forced to engage in penal labor.
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The Lapland War (Lapin sota; Lapplandskriget; Lapplandkrieg) was fought between Finland and Germany from September 1944 to April 1945 in Finland's northernmost Lapland Province.
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The last battle of the German battleship Bismarck took place in the Atlantic Ocean, approximately west of Brest, France, on 26–27 May 1941.
Lawrence D. Kritzman, an American scholar, is the Willard Professor of French, Comparative Literature and Oratory at Dartmouth College.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, "Société des Nations" abbreviated as SDN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
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Lebensraum (German: “living space”) was a racist ideology that proposed the aggressive, territorial expansion of Germany.
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Left-wing politics are political positions or activities that accept or support social equality, often in opposition to social hierarchy and social inequality.
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The Leigh Light (abbreviated L/L) was a British World War II era anti-submarine device used in the Second Battle of the Atlantic.
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The Lend-Lease policy, formally titled "An Act to Promote the Defense of the United States", was a program under which the United States supplied Free France, United Kingdom, the Republic of China, and later the USSR and other Allied nations with food, oil, and materiel between 1941 and August 1945.
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The Leningrad Front (Ленинградский фронт) was formed during the 1941 German approach on Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg) by dividing the Northern Front into the Leningrad Front and Karelian Front on August 27, 1941.
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Leningrad Oblast (lʲɪnʲɪnˈgratskəjə ˈobləsʲtʲ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).
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Lerner Publishing Group, based in Minneapolis in the U.S. state of Minnesota since its founding in 1959, is one of the largest independently owned children's book publishers in the United States.
The Liberation of Paris (also known as the Battle for Paris) was a military combat that took place during World War II from 19 August 1944 until the German garrison surrendered the French capital on 25 August 1944.
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The phrase "life unworthy of life" (in "Lebensunwertes Leben") was a Nazi designation for the segments of populace which, according to the Nazi regime of the time, had no right to live.
This is a list of events for which one of the commonly accepted names includes the word "massacre".
The German trained divisions were the elite of the infantry divisions in the Chiang Kai-Shek's National Revolutionary Army (NRA) trained under Sino-German cooperation until 1941.
This is a list of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll.
This is a list of World War II battles.
This is a list of World War II conferences of the Allies of World War II.
This is a list of known World War II era codenames for military operations, and missions commonly associated with World War II.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in Northern Europe.
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The Locarno Treaties were seven agreements negotiated at Locarno, Switzerland, on 5–16 October 1925 and formally signed in London on 1 December, in which the First World War Western European Allied powers and the new states of Central and Eastern Europe sought to secure the post-war territorial settlement, and return normalizing relations with defeated Germany (which was, by this time, the Weimar Republic).
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The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the German Wehrmacht during World War II.
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The Lvov–Sandomierz Offensive or Lvov-Sandomierz Strategic Offensive Operation (Львовско-Сандомирская стратегическая наступательная операция) was a major Red Army operation to force the German troops from Ukraine and Eastern Poland.
are the findings of the Lytton Commission, entrusted in 1931 by the League of Nations in an attempt to determine the causes of the Mukden Incident, which led to the Empire of Japan’s seizure of Manchuria.
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M.E. Sharpe, Inc., an academic publisher, was founded by Myron Sharpe in 1958 with the original purpose of publishing translations from Russian in the social sciences and humanities.
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Macmillan Publishers Ltd, also known as The Macmillan Group, is a privately held international publishing company owned by Georg von Holtzbrinck Publishing Group.
Madagascar (or; Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of Southeast Africa.
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The Maginot Line (Ligne Maginot), named after the French Minister of War André Maginot, was a line of concrete fortifications, obstacles, and weapons installations that France constructed just before the border with Switzerland and the borders with Germany and Luxembourg during the 1930s.
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The Malayan Campaign was fought by Allied and Axis forces in Malaya, from 8 December 1941 – 31 January 1942 during the Second World War.
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Manchester University Press is the university press of the University of Manchester, England and a publisher of academic books and journals.
Manchukuo was a puppet state in Northeast China and Inner Mongolia, which was governed under a form of constitutional monarchy.
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The Manhattan Project was a research and development project that produced the first nuclear weapons during World War II.
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The Manstein Plan was the primary war plan of the German Army during the Battle of France in 1940.
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The Marco Polo Bridge Incident, also known as the Lugouqiao (Lugou Bridge) Incident (盧溝橋事變) or the July 7 Incident (七七事變), was a battle between the Republic of China's National Revolutionary Army and the Imperial Japanese Army, often used as the marker for the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945).
The Mariana and Palau Islands campaign, also known as Operation Forager, was an offensive launched by United States forces against Imperial Japanese forces in the Mariana Islands and Palau in the Pacific Ocean between June and November, 1944 during the Pacific War.
The Mark 24 mine (also known as FIDO or Fido) was a US air-dropped passive acoustic homing anti-submarine torpedo used during the Second World War against German and Japanese submarines.
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The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave $13 billion (approximately $130 billion in current dollar value as of August 2015) in economic support to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II.
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The Marzabotto massacre was a World War II war crime consisting in a mass murder of at least 770 civilians by Nazis, which took place in the territory around the small village of Marzabotto, in the mountainous area south of Bologna.
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Materiel (from the French matériel for equipment or hardware, related to the word material, and sometimes so spelled in English) is military technology and supplies in military and commercial supply chain management.
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Maxwell Air Force Base, officially known as Maxwell-Gunter Air Force Base, is a United States Air Force (USAF) installation under the Air Education and Training Command (AETC).
The Mediterranean and Middle East Theatre was a major theatre of operations during the Second World War.
Melvyn Paul Leffler (born May 31, 1945 in Brooklyn, New York) is an American historian and educator, currently Edward Stettinius Professor of History at the University of Virginia.
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A mental disorder, also called a mental illness, psychological disorder or psychiatric disorder, is mental or behavioral pattern that causes either suffering or a poor ability to function in ordinary life.
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The Maschinengewehr 34, or MG 34, is a German recoil-operated air-cooled machine gun, first tested in 1929, introduced in 1934, and issued to units in 1936.
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The Mid-Atlantic Gap is a geographical term attributed to an undefended area beyond the reach of land-based Coastal Command antisubmarine (A/S) aircraft during the Battle of the Atlantic in the Second World War.
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Midway Atoll (also called Midway Island and Midway Islands; Hawaiian: Pihemanu Kauihelani) is a atoll in the North Pacific Ocean.
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The military, also called the armed forces, are forces authorized to use deadly force, and weapons, to support the interests of the state and some or all of its citizens.
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Military alliances are related to collective security systems but can differ in nature.
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Military capability is defined by the Australian Defence Force as "the ability to achieve a desired effect in a specific operating environment".
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The Commonwealth of the Philippines was attacked by the Empire of Japan on December 8, 1941 nine hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor (the Philippines are on the Asian side of the international date line).
Military intelligence is a military discipline that exploits a number of information collection and analysis approaches to provide guidance and direction to commanders in support of their decisions.
Military occupation is effective provisional control of a certain ruling power over a territory which is not under the formal sovereignty of that entity, without the volition of the actual sovereign.
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A military reserve force is a military organization composed of citizens of a country who combine a military role or career with a civilian career.
The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).
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The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, named after the Soviet foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov and the German foreign minister Joachim von Ribbentrop, officially the Treaty of Non-aggression between Germany and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a non-aggression pact signed between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in Moscow on 23 August 1939.
Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠮᠤᠩᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠤᠰ in Mongolian script; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked country in east-central Asia.
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The Moscow Armistice was signed between Finland on one side and the Soviet Union and United Kingdom on the other side on September 19, 1944, ending the Continuation War.
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The Moscow Peace Treaty was signed by Finland and the Soviet Union on 12 March 1940, and the ratifications were exchanged on 21 March.
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The Mukden Incident, or Manchurian Incident, was a staged event engineered by rogue Japanese military personnel as a pretext for the Japanese invasion in 1931 of northeastern China, known as Manchuria.
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A Mulberry harbour was a portable temporary harbour developed by the British in World War II to facilitate rapid offloading of cargo onto the beaches during the Allied invasion of Normandy.
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The Munich Agreement was a settlement permitting Nazi Germany's annexation of portions of Czechoslovakia along the country's borders mainly inhabited by German speakers, for which a new territorial designation "Sudetenland" was coined.
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Myitkyina (Jinghpaw: Myitkyina) is the capital city of Kachin State in Myanmar (Burma), located from Yangon, and from Mandalay.
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() is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture on the island of Kyushu in Japan.
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The Nanking Massacre or Nanjing Massacre, also known as the Rape of Nanking or Rape of Nanjing, was an episode during the Second Sino-Japanese War of mass murder and mass rape by Japanese troops against the residents of Nanjing (then spelled Nanking), then capital of the Republic of China.
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is the third-largest city and municipality in Nordland county, Norway by population.
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A nation state is a geographical area that can be identified as deriving its political legitimacy from serving as a sovereign nation.
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Nationalism is essentially a shared group feeling in the significance of a geographical and sometimes demographic region seeking independence for its culture and/or ethnicity that holds that group together, this can be expressed as a belief or political ideology that involves an individual identifying with, or becoming attached to, one's nation.
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The Nationalist faction (Bando nacional) or Rebel faction (Bando sublevado) was a major faction in the Spanish Civil War of 1936 to 1939.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949.
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Naval warfare is combat in and on seas, oceans, or any other major bodies of water such as large lakes and wide rivers.
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Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled.
Nazi crimes against the Polish nation claimed the lives of 2.77 million ethnic Poles, and 2.7 to 2.9 million Polish Jews, according to estimates of the Polish government-affiliated Institute of National Remembrance (IPN).
Nazi Germany or the Third Reich (Drittes Reich) are common English names for the period of history in Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a dictatorship under the control of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
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The National Socialist German Workers' Party (abbreviated NSDAP), commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party, was a political party in Germany active between 1920 and 1945 that practised Nazism.
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Nazi plunder refers to art theft and other items stolen as a result of the organized looting of European countries during the time of the Third Reich by agents acting on behalf of the ruling Nazi Party of Germany.
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The Netherlands (Nederland) is the main "constituent country" (land) of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
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The Neumark, also known as the New March (Nowa Marchia) or as East Brandenburg, comprised a region of the Prussian province of Brandenburg, Germany, located east of the Oder River in territory which became part of Poland in 1945.
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The Neutrality Acts were passed by the United States Congress in the, in response to the growing turmoil in Europe and Asia that eventually led to World War II.
Sir Nevile Meyrick Henderson KCMG (10 June 1882 – 30 December 1942) was a British diplomat and Ambassador of the United Kingdom to Nazi Germany from 1937 to 1939.
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Arthur Neville Chamberlain (18 March 1869 – 9 November 1940) was a British Conservative politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from May 1937 to May 1940.
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The New Fourth Army Incident (新四軍事件), also known as the Wannan Incident (皖南事变), occurred in China in January 1941 during the Second Sino-Japanese War, during which the Chinese Civil War was in theory suspended, uniting the Communists and Nationalists against the Japanese.
The New Order (German: Neuordnung) or the New Order of Europe (German: Neuordnung Europas) was the political order which Nazi Germany wanted to impose on the conquered areas under its dominion.
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New Zealand (Aotearoa) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
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The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (Народный комиссариат внутренних дел, Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del), abbreviated NKVD (НКВД), was a law enforcement agency of the Soviet Union that directly executed the rule of power of the All Union Communist Party.
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The Normandy landings (codenamed Operation Neptune) were the landing operations on 6 June 1944 (termed D-Day) of the Allied invasion of Normandy in Operation Overlord during World War II.
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During the Second World War, the North African Campaign took place in North Africa from 10 June 1940 to 13 May 1943.
North Korea, officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), is a country in East Asia, in the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
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The Northern Expedition, was a Kuomintang (KMT) military campaign, led by Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, from 1926-28.
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Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk)), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a sovereign and unitary monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus Jan Mayen and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard.
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The Norway Debate, sometimes called the Narvik Debate, was a significant debate in the British House of Commons that took place on 7 and 8 May 1940.
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The Norwegian Campaign (9 April to 10 June 1940) was a Second World War campaign fought in Norway between the Allies and Germany after the latter's invasion of the country.
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A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or a combination of fission and fusion (thermonuclear weapon).
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The Nuremberg trials were a series of military tribunals, held by the Allied forces after World War II, which were most notable for the prosecution of prominent members of the political, military, and economic leadership of Nazi Germany who allegedly planned, carried out, or otherwise participated in The Holocaust and other war crimes.
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The Oberkommando des Heeres (OKH) was the Supreme High Command of the German Army.
The Allied occupation of Japan at the end of World War II was led by Douglas MacArthur, the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers, with support from the British Commonwealth.
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The occupation of the Baltic states refers to the military occupation of the three Baltic states—Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania—by the Soviet Union under the auspices of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact on 14 June 1940 followed by their incorporation into the USSR as constituent republics, unrecognised internationally by most countries.
The October Revolution (p), officially known as the Great October Socialist Revolution (r), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising or the Bolshevik Revolution, was a seizure of state power instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
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Odd Arne Westad FBA (born 1960) is a Norwegian historian specializing in the Cold War and contemporary East Asian history.
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The Office of Public Sector Information (OPSI) is the body responsible for the operation of Her Majesty's Stationery Office (usually abbreviated as HMSO) and of other public information services of the United Kingdom.
An "oil field" or "oilfield" is a region with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (crude oil) from below ground.
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Operation Bagration (Oперация Багратио́н, Operatsiya Bagration) was the codename for the Soviet 1944 Belorussian Strategic Offensive Operation (Белорусская наступательная операция «Багратион», Belorusskaya nastupatelnaya Operatsiya Bagration) during World War II, which cleared German forces from the Belorussian SSR and eastern Poland between 22 June and 19 August 1944.
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Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for Nazi Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II, which began on 22 June 1941.
Operation Battleaxe was a British Army operation during the Second World War in June 1941, to clear eastern Cyrenaica of German and Italian forces and raise the Siege of Tobruk.
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Operation Bodyguard was the code name for a World War II deception plan employed by the Allied states before the 1944 invasion of north-west Europe.
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Operation Brevity was a limited offensive conducted in mid-May 1941, during the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War.
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Operation Cartwheel (1943–1944) was a major military strategy for the Allies in the Pacific theater of World War II.
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Operation Compass was the first big Allied military operation of the Western Desert Campaign during World War II.
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Operation Crusader was a military operation by the British Eighth Army between 18 November–30 December 1941 during the Second World War.
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Operation Downfall was the codename for the Allied plan for the invasion of Japan near the end of World War II.
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Operation Dragoon was the Allied invasion of southern France on 15 August 1944, during World War II.
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Operation Hailstone (known in Japan as トラック島空襲 Torakku-tō Kūshū, lit. "the airstrike on Truk Island") was a massive naval air and surface attack launched on February 16–17, 1944, during World War II by the United States Navy against the Japanese naval and air base at Truk in the Caroline Islands, a pre-war Japanese territory.
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Operation Ichi-Go (一号作戦 Ichi-gō Sakusen, lit. "Operation Number One") was a campaign of a series of major battles between the Imperial Japanese Army forces and the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China, fought from April to December 1944.
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was the largely successful withdrawal of Japanese forces from Guadalcanal at the conclusion of the Guadalcanal Campaign of World War II.
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Operation Kutuzov was a major military offensive operation conducted in July 1943 by the Red Army against Army Group Center of the German Wehrmacht.
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Operation Market Garden (17–25 September 1944) was an unsuccessful Allied military operation, fought in the Netherlands and Germany in the Second World War.
Operation Mars, also known as Second Rzhev-Sychevka Offensive Operation (Russian: Вторая Ржевско-Сычёвская наступательная операция), was the codename for an offensive launched by Soviet forces against German forces during World War II.
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Operation Mincemeat was a successful British disinformation plan during the Second World War.
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or the Port Moresby Operation was the name of the Japanese plan to take control of the Australian Territory of New Guinea during World War II as well as other locations in the South Pacific with the goal of isolating Australia and New Zealand from their ally the United States.
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Operation Panzerfaust, known as Unternehmen Panzerfaust in Germany, was a military operation to keep the Kingdom of Hungary at Germany's side in the war, conducted in October 1944 by the German military (Wehrmacht).
Operation Pedestal (referenced in Italian sources as the Battaglia di Mezzo Agosto) was a British operation to get desperately needed supplies to the island of Malta in August 1942, during the Second World War.
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Beginning on the night of 23 March 1945, Operation Plunder was the crossing of the River Rhine at Rees, Wesel, and south of the Lippe River by the British 2nd Army, under Lieutenant-General Miles Dempsey (Operations Turnscrew, Widgeon, and Torchlight), and the U.S. Ninth Army (Operation Flashpoint), under Lieutenant General William Simpson.
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Operation Pluto (Pipe-Lines Under The Ocean) was a Second World War operation by British engineers, oil companies and armed forces to construct undersea oil pipelines under the English Channel between England and France in support of Operation Overlord, the Allied invasion of Normandy in June 1944.
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Operation Queen was an American operation during World War II at the Western Front at the German Siegfried Line.
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Operation Sea Lion (Unternehmen Seelöwe) was Nazi Germany's plan to invade the United Kingdom during the Second World War, following the Fall of France.
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Operation Sledgehammer was a World War II Allied plan for a cross-Channel invasion of Europe, as the first step in helping to reduce pressure on the Soviet Red Army by establishing a Second Front.
Operation Sonnenblume (Sunflower) was the dispatch of German troops (the Afrika Korps) to North Africa in February 1941, during the Second World War.
Operation Tempest (akcja „Burza”, sometimes referred in English as Operation Storm) was a series of anti-Nazi uprisings conducted during World War II by the Polish Home Army (Armia Krajowa, AK), the dominant force in the Polish resistance.
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Operation Torch (initially called Operation Gymnast) was the British-American invasion of French North Africa during the North African Campaign of the Second World War which started on 8 November 1942.
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The U Go offensive, or Operation C (ウ号作戦), was the Japanese offensive launched in March 1944 against forces of the British Empire in the northeast Indian region of Manipur.
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Operation Uranus (romanised: Operatsiya "Uran") was the codename of the Soviet 19–23 November 1942 strategic operation in World War II which led to the encirclement of the German Sixth Army, the Third and Fourth Romanian armies, and portions of the German Fourth Panzer Army.
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Operation Weserübung was the code name for Germany's assault on Denmark and Norway during the Second World War and the opening operation of the Norwegian Campaign.
Operation Wilfred was a British naval operation during the Second World War that involved the mining of the channel between Norway and her offshore islands to prevent the transport of Swedish iron ore through neutral Norwegian waters to be used to sustain the German war effort.
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An operational or operating objective is a short-term goal whose attainment moves an organization towards achieving strategic or long-term goals.
Operations research, or operational research in British usage, is a discipline that deals with the application of advanced analytical methods to help make better decisions.
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The Ordnance QF 25-pounder, or more simply 25-pounder or 25-pdr, was the major British field gun and howitzer during World War II.
Orion Publishing Group Ltd.
Oro Province, formerly (and officially still) Northern Province, is a coastal province of Papua New Guinea.
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Osprey Publishing is an Oxford-based publishing company specializing in military history.
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Ostarbeiter (English: 'eastern worker(s)') was a designation for slave workers gathered from Central and Eastern Europe to do forced labor in Germany during World War II.
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The Ottoman Empire (دَوْلَتِ عَلِيّهٔ عُثمَانِیّه Devlet-i Aliyye-i Osmâniyye, Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti) which is also known as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was an empire founded in 1299 by Oghuz Turks under Osman I in northwestern Anatolia.
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Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second-oldest, after Cambridge University Press.
The Pacific Historical Review is the official publication of the Pacific Coast Branch of the American Historical Association.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth's oceanic divisions.
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The Pacific War, sometimes called the Asia-Pacific War, was the theatre of World War II that was fought in the Pacific and East Asia.
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The Pacification of Manchukuo was a campaign to pacify the resistance to the newly established puppet state of Manchukuo between the Anti-Japanese Volunteer Armies of Manchuria and later the Communist Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army and the Imperial Japanese Army and the forces of the Manchukuo government during the Second Sino-Japanese War which took place from March 1932 until 1941, which resulted in a Japanese victory.
Pacifism is opposition to war and violence.
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The Pact of Steel (Stahlpakt, Patto d'Acciaio), known formally as the Pact of Friendship and Alliance between Germany and Italy, was a military and political alliance between the Kingdom of Italy and Germany.
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Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company.
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Pantheon Books is an American book publishing imprint with editorial independence.
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The Panther–Wotan line (also known as East Wall) was a defensive line partially built by the German Wehrmacht in 1943 on the Eastern Front.
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The Paris Peace Conference was the meeting of the Allied victors, following the end of World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers following the armistices of 1918.
Penguin Books is a British publishing house.
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The Penguin Group is a trade book publisher, part of Penguin Random House.
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The People's Socialist Republic of Albania (Republika Popullore Socialiste e Shqipërisë) was the official name of Albania from 1976 until 1992.
The permanent members of the United Nations Security Council, also known as the Permanent Five, Big Five, or P5, include the following five governments: China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
Upon the rise of Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers Party (the Nazi Party) in Germany, gay men and, to a lesser extent, lesbians, were two of the numerous groups targeted by the Nazis and were ultimately among Holocaust victims.
The Persian Corridor was a supply route through Iran into Soviet Azerbaijan by which British aid and American Lend-Lease supplies were transferred to the Soviet Union during World War II.
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Peter Lang is an academic publisher specializing in the humanities and social sciences.
The petroleum industry in Azerbaijan produces about of oil per day and 29 billion cubic meters of gas per year as of 2013.
A Phase in combat is usually a period within a military operation of a longer duration that is a part of a serial chain of logically connected activities planned to culminate in a defined objective or goal.
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The Philippines Campaign (Filipino:Labanan sa Pilipinas) or the Battle of the Philippines was the invasion of the Philippines by Japan in 1941–1942 and the defense of the islands by Filipino and United States forces.
The Philippines campaign of 1944–45, (Operation Musketeer I, II, and III) the Battle of the Philippines 1944–45, or the Liberation of the Philippines was the American and Filipino campaign to defeat and expel the Imperial Japanese forces occupying the Philippines, during World War II.
The Phoney War refers to the relatively quiet eight-month period at the start of World War II between the declaration of war by the Western Allies (United Kingdom and France) against Nazi Germany on just after the Invasion of Poland and the German Blitzkrieg in May 1940, that was marked by a lack of major military land operations by the Allies on Germany's Western Front.
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Plan Z was the name given to the planned re-equipment and expansion of the Kriegsmarine (German navy) ordered by Adolf Hitler in early 1939.
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The word plenipotentiary (from the Latin, plenus + potens, full + power) has two meanings.
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The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka) are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland.
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At the beginning of World War II, nearly a quarterMaly Rocznik Statystyczny (wrzesien 1939 – czerwiec 1941), Ministerstwo Informacji i Documentacji, London 1941, p.5, as cited in Piotr Eberhardt, Political Migrations in Poland, 1939–1948, Warsaw 2006, p.4 of the pre-war '''Polish areas''' were annexed by Nazi Germany and placed directly under German civil administration, while the rest of Nazi occupied Poland was named as General Government.
The Polish Corridor (Polnischer Korridor; Pomorze, Korytarz polski), also known as Danzig Corridor, Corridor to the Sea or Gdańsk Corridor, was a territory located in the region of Pomerelia (Pomeranian Voivodeship, eastern Pomerania, formerly part of West Prussia), which provided the Second Republic of Poland (1920–1939) with access to the Baltic Sea, thus dividing the bulk of Germany from the province of East Prussia.
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The Polish People's Republic (Polish: Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) was the official name of Poland until 1989 according to Constitution of 1952 based originally on the Soviet blueprint.
The Polish population transfers from the former eastern territories of Poland, also known as the expulsion of Poles from the Kresy regions, towards the end – and in the aftermath – of World War II, refer to the forced migrations of Poles occurring first between 1939 and 1941 as a result of the Soviet occupation of Eastern Poland in concert with the Nazi invasion of Western Poland and then the period of re-occupation by the Soviets between 1944–1946.
The Polish Underground State (Polskie Państwo Podziemne, also known as the Polish Secret State) is a collective term for the underground resistance organizations in Poland during World War II, both military and civilian, that were loyal to the Government of the Republic of Poland in exile in London.
A polity is a state or one of its subordinate civil authorities, such as a province, prefecture, county, municipality, city, or district.
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Pomerania (Pomorze, Pommern, Pomerania) is a historical region on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea.
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(Tok Pisin: Pot Mosbi), also referred to as Moresby and Pom Town, is the capital and largest city of Papua New Guinea (PNG).
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Positive laws (ius positum) are human-made laws that oblige or specify an action.
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The end of World War II brought a baby boom to many countries, especially Western ones.
The post–World War II economic expansion, also known as the postwar economic boom, the long boom, and the Golden Age of Capitalism, was a period of economic prosperity in the mid-20th century which occurred, following the end of World War II in 1945, and lasted until the early 1970s.
The Potsdam Agreement was the agreement between three of the Allies of World War II, United Kingdom, United States, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, for the military occupation and reconstruction of Germany—referring to the German Reich with its pre-war 1937 borders including the former eastern territories—and the entire European theatre of War territory.
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The Potsdam Conference was held at Cecilienhof, the home of Crown Prince Wilhelm Hohenzollern, in Potsdam, occupied Germany, from 17 July to 2 August 1945.
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The Potsdam Declaration or the Proclamation Defining Terms for Japanese Surrender is a statement that called for the surrender of all Japanese armed forces during World War II.
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The Prague Offensive (Пражская стратегическая наступательная операция Prague Strategic Offensive) was the last major Soviet operation of World War II in Europe.
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The Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
A prisoner of war (POW, PoW, PW, P/W, WP, PsW, enemy prisoner of war (EPW) or "missing-captured") is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
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A prisoner-of-war camp is a site for the containment of enemy combatants captured by a belligerent power in time of war.
The Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (Protektorat Böhmen und Mähren; Protektorát Čechy a Morava) was the majority ethnic-Czech protectorate of Nazi Germany established following the German occupation of Czechoslovakia by annexing Sudetenland territory of Czech Lands as a Reichsgau.
A proxy war is a conflict between two nations where neither country directly engages the other.
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Public Opinion Quarterly is an academic journal published by Oxford University Press for the American Association for Public Opinion Research, covering communication studies and political science.
A puppet state is a metaphor of a state that is supposedly independent but is in fact dependent upon an outside power, it is nominally sovereign but effectively controlled by a foreign or otherwise alien power, for reasons such as financial interests, in fact anything but the common good.
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The Quarto Group is an international publishing house based in London and New York City, known for its illustrated books.
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Rabaul is a township in East New Britain province, on the island of New Britain, in the country of Papua New Guinea.
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The racial policy of Nazi Germany was a set of policies and laws implemented in Nazi Germany, asserting the superiority of the "Aryan race", based on a specific racist doctrine which claimed scientific legitimacy.
Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.
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Random House is the largest general-interest trade book publisher in the world.
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A reconnaissance aircraft is a manned or unmanned military aircraft designed, or adapted, to carry out aerial reconnaissance.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия; РККА, or Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya: RKKA, frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия; KA, in English: Red Army) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and after 1922 the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
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The Royal Navy, in Italian: Regia Marina, was the navy of the Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) from 1861 to 1946.
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The (sign: ℛℳ) was the currency in Germany from 1924 until 20 June 1948 and in Austria from 1938 to 1945.
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The Reichstag building (Reichstagsgebäude; officially: Plenarbereich Reichstagsgebäude) is a historical edifice in Berlin, Germany, constructed to house the Imperial Diet (German: Reichstag), of the German Empire.
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The Reichswehr (English: Reich Defence) formed the military organization of Germany from 1919 until 1935, when it was united with the newly founded Wehrmacht ("Defence Force").
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Remagen is a town in Germany in the Land Rhineland-Palatinate, in the district of Ahrweiler.
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The remilitarization of the Rhineland by the German Army took place on 7 March 1936 when German military forces entered the Rhineland.
The Republic of China governed the present-day territories of China, Mongolia and Taiwan at differing times between 1912 and 1949.
Resistance movements during World War II occurred in every occupied country by a variety of means, ranging from non-cooperation, disinformation and propaganda, to hiding crashed pilots and even to outright warfare and the recapturing of towns.
Revanchism (from revanche, "revenge") is a term used since the 1870s to describe a political manifestation of the will to reverse territorial losses incurred by a country, often following a war or social movement.
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--> The Rhine is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Austrian, Swiss- Liechtenstein border, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the Rhineland and eventually empties into the North Sea in the Netherlands.
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The Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region (Metropolregion Rhein-Ruhr) is the largest metropolitan region in Germany with over 11 million inhabitants.
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The Rhineland (Rheinland) has become the name for several areas of Western Germany along the Middle and Lower Rhine.
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Peter Richard Grenville Layard, Baron Layard FBA (born 15 March 1934) is a British labour economist, currently working as programme director of the Centre for Economic Performance at the London School of Economics.
Richard James Overy (born 23 December 1947) is a British historian who has published extensively on the history of World War II and the Third Reich.
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Right-wing politics are political positions or activities that view some forms of social stratification or social inequality as either inevitable, natural, normal, or desirable,J.
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Rodopi, founded in 1966 in Amsterdam, Netherlands, is an academic publishing company with offices in the Netherlands and the United States.
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The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group living mostly in Europe and the Americas, who originate from the northwestern regions of the Indian subcontinent.
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RomaniaIn English, Romania was formerly often spelled Rumania or sometimes Roumania.
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Following the outbreak of World War II on 1 September 1939, the Kingdom of Romania under King Carol II officially adopted a position of neutrality.
The Romanian Bridgehead (Przedmoście rumuńskie) was an area in southeastern Poland, now located in Ukraine.
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is a Japanese language word for "laborer", but has come to specifically denote forced laborers during the Japanese occupation of Indonesia in World War II.
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The Rotterdam Blitz was the aerial bombardment of Rotterdam by the Luftwaffe (German air force) on 14 May 1940, during the German invasion of the Netherlands in World War II.
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Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
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Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group is an independent publishing house founded in 1949.
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
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The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's principal naval warfare force.
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Rüdiger "Rudi" Dornbusch (June 8, 1942 – July 25, 2002) was a German economist who worked for most of his career in the United States.
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The Ruhr Pocket was a battle of encirclement that took place in late March and early April 1945, near the end of World War II, in the Ruhr Area of Germany.
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A rump state is the remnant of a once-larger state, left with a reduced territory in the wake of secession, annexation, irredentism, occupation, decolonization, or a successful coup d’état or revolution on part of its former territory.
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Russia (Ru-Россия.ogg), also officially known as the Russian Federation (a), is a country in northern Eurasia.
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The Russian Empire (Pre-reform Russian orthography: Россійская Имперія, Modern Russian: Российская империя, translit: Rossiyskaya Imperiya) was a state that existed from 1721 until overthrown by the short-lived liberal February Revolution in 1917.
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The Russian Republic (p) was a short-lived state that controlled, de jure, the territory of the former Russian Empire after the abdication of Emperor Nicholas II on.
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Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Russia, who speak the Russian language and primarily live in Russia. They are the most numerous ethnic group in Russia constituting more than 80% of the country's population according to the census of 2010, and the most numerous ethnic group in Europe.
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Rutgers University Press is a nonprofit academic publishing house, operating in New Brunswick, New Jersey under the auspices of Rutgers University.
The Territory of the Saar Basin (French: Le Territoire du Bassin de la Sarre; German: Saarbeckengebiet), also referred as the Saar or Saargebiet, was a region of Germany occupied and governed by the United Kingdom and France from 1920 to 1935 under a League of Nations mandate.
The Saar Offensive was a French ground operation into Saarland, Germany, during the early stages of World War II, from 7 to 16 September 1939.
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Sakhalin (Сахалин) is a large Russian island in the North Pacific Ocean, lying between 45°50' and 54°24' N.
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A salient is a battlefield feature that projects into enemy territory.
The Sant'Anna di Stazzema massacre was a Nazi German war crime committed in the hill village of Sant'Anna di Stazzema in Tuscany, Italy, in the course of an operation against the Italian resistance movement during the Italian Campaign of World War II.
The political term satellite state designates a country that is formally independent in the world, but under heavy political, economic and military influence or control from another country.
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Schiffer Publishing Ltd. (also known as Schiffer Books) is a family-owned publisher of nonfiction books.
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A scorched earth policy is a military strategy that involves destroying anything that might be useful to the enemy while advancing through or withdrawing from an area.
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The French fleet in Toulon was scuttled on 27 November 1942 to avoid capture by Nazi German forces.
The Second Battle of El Alamein (23 October – 11 November 1942) took place near the Egyptian railway halt of El Alamein.
The Second Battle of Kharkov, so named by Wilhelm Keitel, was an Axis counter-offensive in the region around Kharkov (now Kharkiv)Kharkov is the Russian language name of the city Kharkiv (Kharkiv the Ukrainian one); both Russian and Ukrainian were official languages in the Soviet Union (Source: & by Routledge) against the Red Army Izium bridgehead offensive conducted 12–28 May 1942, on the Eastern Front during World War II.
In 1945, China from April to August 2, 3 front in Guangxi province, launched a counter offensive to retake the last major Japanese stronghold in South China and the Second Guangxi Campaign started.
The Second Happy Time, also known among German submarine commanders as the American shooting season, was the informal name for a phase in the Second Battle of the Atlantic during which Axis submarines attacked merchant shipping and U.S. naval vessels along the east coast of North America.
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The Second Italo-Ethiopian War, also referred to as the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, was a colonial war that started in October 1935 and ended in May 1936.
The Second Polish Republic, also known as the Second Commonwealth of Poland or the interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland between the First and Second World Wars (1918–1939).
The Second Sino-Japanese War (July 7, 1937 – September 9, 1945), so named due to the First Sino-Japanese War of 1894–95, was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from 1937 to 1945.
The Second Spanish Republic (Segunda República Española) was the republican regime that existed in Spain from 1931 to 1939, preceded by the Restoration and followed by Francoist Spain after the Spanish Civil War.
The "Second Thirty Years' War" is a disputed periodization sometimes used by historians to encompass the wars in Europe from 1914–1945.
The Second United Front was the brief alliance between the Chinese Nationalists Party (Kuomintang, or KMT) and Communist Party of China (CPC) to resist the Japanese invasion during the Second Sino-Japanese War, which suspended the Chinese Civil War from 1937 to 1941.
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A self-propelled gun (SPG) is a form of self-propelled artillery, and in modern use is usually used to refer to artillery pieces such as howitzers.
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The phrase "separate peace" refers to a nation's agreement to cease military hostilities with another, even though the former country had previously entered into a military alliance with other states that remain at war with the latter country.
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The Serbs (Срби/Srbi) are a South Slavic nation and ethnic group native to the Balkans.
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Shandong, is a coastal province of the People's Republic of China, and is part of the East China region.
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The Siege of Budapest or the Battle of Budapest was the 50-day-long encirclement of the Hungarian capital of Budapest by Soviet forces near the end of World War II.
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The Siege of Leningrad, also known as the Leningrad Blockade (блокада Ленинграда, transliteration: blokada Leningrada) was a prolonged military blockade undertaken by the German Army Group North against Leningrad—historically and currently known as Saint Petersburg—in the Eastern Front theatre of World War II.
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The Siege of Malta was a military campaign in the Mediterranean Theatre of the Second World War.
The Siege of Sevastopol also known as the Defence of Sevastopol (Оборона Севастополя, transliteration: Oborona Sevastopolya) took place on the Eastern Front of the Second World War.
The Siege of Tobruk lasted for 241 days in 1941 after Axis forces advanced through Cyrenaica from El Agheila in Operation Sonnenblume against the British Western Desert Force (WDF) in Libya, during the Western Desert Campaign (1940–1943) of the Second World War.
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The Siege of Warsaw in 1939 was fought between the Polish Warsaw Army (Armia Warszawa) garrisoned and entrenched in the capital of Poland (Warsaw) and the invading German Army.
Signals intelligence (SIGINT) is intelligence-gathering by interception of signals, whether communications between people (communications intelligence—abbreviated to COMINT) or from electronic signals not directly used in communication (electronic intelligence—abbreviated to ELINT).
Silesia (or; Śląsk;; Silesian German: Schläsing; Slezsko; Silesian: Ślůnsk; Silesia) is a region of Central Europe now located mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic and Germany.
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The Silesian Offensives were two 1945 offensives conducted by the Soviet Red Army against the Nazi German Wehrmacht on the Eastern Front in World War II.
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Simon & Schuster, Inc., a division of CBS Corporation, is a publisher founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard L. Simon and M. Lincoln ("Max") Schuster.
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The sinking of Prince of Wales and Repulse was a Second World War naval engagement that took place north of Singapore, off the east coast of Malaya, near Kuantan, Pahang, where the British Royal Navy battleship and battlecruiser were sunk by land-based bombers and torpedo bombers of the Imperial Japanese Navy on 10 December 1941.
Cooperation between Germany and China was instrumental in modernizing the industry and the armed forces of the Republic of China prior to the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The Sino-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact was signed in Nanjing on August 21, 1937, between the Republic of China and the Soviet Union during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
Slavery is a legal or economic system in which principles of property law can apply to humans so that people can be treated as property, and can be owned, bought and sold accordingly, and cannot withdraw unilaterally from the arrangement.
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Japan had an official slave system from the Yamato period (3rd Century) until the end of the Sengoku period.
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The Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group living in Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Southeast Europe, North Asia and Central Asia, who speak the Indo-European Slavic languages, and share, to varying degrees, certain cultural traits and historical backgrounds.
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The Slovak invasion of Poland occurred during Germany's invasion of Poland in September 1939.
The Slovak National Uprising (Slovenské národné povstanie, abbreviated SNP) or 1944 Uprising was an armed insurrection organized by the Slovak resistance movement during World War II.
The (First) Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika) otherwise known as the Slovak State (Slovenský štát) was a client state of Nazi Germany which existed between 14 March 1939 and 4 April 1945.
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia or SFRY) was the Yugoslav state that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars.
The Socialist Republic of Romania (Republica Socialistă România, RSR) was a single-party socialist state that existed officially from 1947 to 1989.
Solomon Islands is a sovereign country consisting of a large number of islands in Oceania lying to the east of Papua New Guinea and northwest of Vanuatu and covering a land area of.
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Sonar (originally an acronym for SOund Navigation And Ranging) is a technique that uses sound propagation (usually underwater, as in submarine navigation) to navigate, communicate with or detect objects on or under the surface of the water, such as other vessels.
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South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa.
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South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (lit. The Republic of Great Han; ROK), and commonly referred to as Korea, is a sovereign state in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula.
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The South-East Asian Theatre of World War II was the name given to the campaigns of the Pacific War in Burma, Ceylon, India, Thailand, Indochina, Malaya and Singapore.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
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The Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation (Манчжурская стратегическая наступательная операция, lit. Manchzhurskaya Strategicheskaya Nastupatelnaya Operaciya) began on 9 August 1945, with the Soviet invasion of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo and was the last campaign of the Second World War and the largest of the 1945 Soviet–Japanese War which resumed hostilities between the Soviet Union and the Empire of Japan after almost six years of peace.
The Soviet invasion of Poland was a Soviet military operation that started without a formal declaration of war on 17 September 1939.
The Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina was the military occupation of the formerly Romanian regions of Bessarabia, Northern Bukovina, and Hertza by the Soviet Red Army during June 28 – July 4, 1940.
The Soviet occupation of the Baltic states covers the period from the Soviet–Baltic mutual assistance pacts in 1939, to their invasion and annexation in 1940, to the mass deportations of 1941.
The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (a) abbreviated to USSR (r) or shortened to the Soviet Union (p), was a Marxist–Leninist state on the Eurasian continent that existed between 1922 and 1991.
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The, also known as the was a pact between the Soviet Union and the Empire of Japan signed on April 13, 1941, two years after the brief Soviet–Japanese Border War (1939).
The Soviet-Japanese War of 1945 (Советско-японская война; ソビエト戦争) within the Second World War began on August 9, 1945, with the Soviet invasion of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo.
In the field of international relations, a sphere of influence (SOI) is a spatial region or concept division over which a state or organization has a level of cultural, economic, military, or political exclusivity, accommodating to the interests of powers outside the borders of the state that controls it.
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The Spring 1945 offensive in Italy, codenamed Operation Grapeshot, was the final Allied attack during the Italian Campaign in the final stages of the Second World War, launched by the United States Fifth Army, the British Eighth Army and the Brazilian Expeditionary Force into the Lombardy Plain which started on 6 April 1945 and ended on 2 May with the surrender of German forces in Italy.
Squid was a British World War II ship-mounted anti-submarine weapon.
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Stackpole Books is an independent trade publishing company in Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania.
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Stalingrad is a narrative history written by Antony Beevor of the epic battle fought in and around the city of Stalingrad during World War II, as well as the events leading up to it.
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The Stanford University Press (SUP) is the publishing house of Stanford University.
Starvation is a severe deficiency in caloric energy intake.
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was a political syncretism of Japanese right-wing political ideologies, developed over a period of time from the Meiji Restoration.
Stavka (Ставка) is the term used to refer to the high command of the armed forces in the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union.
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In physical geography, a steppe (a) is an ecoregion, in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biomes, characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes.
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Strategic bombing is a military strategy used in a total war with the goal of defeating the enemy by destroying their morale or their economic ability to produce and transport materiel to the theatres of military operations, or both.
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Strategic bombing during World War II was the sustained aerial attack on railways, harbours, cities, workers' housing, and industrial districts in enemy territory during World War II.
A Strategic defence is a type of military planning doctrine and a set of combat activities used for the purpose of deterring, resisting and repelling a strategic offensive, conducted as either a territorial or airspace invasion, or a naval offensive to interrupt shipping lane traffic as a form of economic warfare.
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A strategic military goal is used in strategic military operation plans to define the desired end-state of a war or a campaign.
The Stresa Front, formally called the Final Declaration of the Stresa Conference, was an agreement between French prime minister Pierre Laval, British prime minister Ramsay MacDonald, and Italian prime minister Benito Mussolini on 14 April 1935.
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A submachine gun (SMG) is an air-cooled, magazine-fed, automatic carbine designed to fire pistol cartridges.
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Succession of states is a theory and practice in international relations regarding the recognition and acceptance of a newly created sovereign state by other states, based on a perceived historical relationship the new state has with a prior state.
The Sudetenland (Czech and Sudety, Kraj Sudetów) is the German name (used in English in the first half of the 20th century) to refer to those northern, southwest, and western areas of Czechoslovakia which were inhabited primarily by German speakers, specifically the border districts of Bohemia, Moravia, and those parts of Silesia located within Czechoslovakia.
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A superpower is a state with a dominant position in international relations and is characterised by its unparalleled ability to exert influence or project power on a global scale.
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The surrender of the Empire of Japan was announced by Imperial Japan on August 15 and formally signed on September 2, 1945, bringing the hostilities of World War II to a close.
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Swedish iron ore was an important economic factor in the European Theatre of World War II.
The Syria–Lebanon campaign, also known as Operation Exporter, was the Allied invasion of Vichy French-controlled Syria and Lebanon in June–July 1941, during World War II.
Taiwan (see below), officially the Republic of China (ROC) is a sovereign state in East Asia.
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The Tanggu Truce, sometimes called the, was a cease-fire signed between Republic of China and Empire of Japan in Tanggu District, Tianjin on May 31, 1933, formally ending the Japanese invasion of Manchuria which had begun two years earlier.
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A tank is a large type of armoured fighting vehicle with tracks, designed for front-line combat.
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Tanks were an important weapons system in World War II.
Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in the United Kingdom that publishes books and academic journals.
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The Tehran Conference (codenamed Eureka) was a strategy meeting of Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill from 28 November to 1 December 1943.
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Immediately after the German invasion of Poland in 1939, which marked the beginning of World War II, the Soviet Union invaded the eastern regions of the Second Polish Republic, which Poles referred to as the "Kresy", and annexed territories totaling with a population of 13,299,000 inhabitants including Belarusians, Ukrainians, Poles, Jews, Czechs and others.
The Territory of Papua comprised the southeastern quarter of the island of New Guinea from 1883 to 1975.
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The Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia (Gebiet des Militärbefehlshabers in Serbien) was the area of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia that was placed under a military government of occupation by the Wehrmacht following the invasion, occupation and dismantling of Yugoslavia in April 1941.
Thames Television was a franchise holder for a region of the British ITV television network serving London and surrounding area on weekdays from 30 July 1968 until the night of 31 December 1992.
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The Blitz (shortened from German Blitzkrieg, "lightning war") was the period of sustained strategic bombing of the United Kingdom by Nazi Germany during the Second World War.
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The Bodley Head is an English publishing house, founded in 1887 and existing as an independent entity until the 1970s.
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The Cambridge History of China is an ongoing series of books published by Cambridge University Press (CUP) covering the early and modern history of China.
The Economic History Review is a peer-reviewed history journal published quarterly by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the Economic History Society.
The English Historical Review is an academic journal established in 1886 and published by Oxford University Press.
The Historical Journal is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by Cambridge University Press.
The Holocaust (from the Greek ὁλόκαυστος holókaustos: hólos, "whole" and kaustós, "burnt"), also known as the Shoah (Hebrew: השואה, HaShoah, "the catastrophe"), was a genocide in which approximately six million Jews were killed by Adolf Hitler's Nazi regime and its collaborators.
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The Japan Times is an English-language newspaper published in Japan by, a subsidiary of Nifco, a leading manufacturer of plastic fasteners for the automotive and home design industries.
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The Journal of American History is the official academic journal of the Organization of American Historians.
The Journal of Military History is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering the military history of all times and places.
The Polish Review is an English-language academic journal published quarterly in New York City by the Polish Institute of Arts and Sciences of America.
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The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany is a non-fiction book by William L. Shirer chronicling the rise and fall of Nazi Germany from the 1920s to 1945.
The Second World War is a narrative history of World War II by British historian Antony Beevor.
The Third Reich Trilogy is a series of three narrative history books by the British historian Richard J. Evans covering the rise and collapse of Nazi Germany in detail, with a focus on the internal politics and the decision-making process.
The World at War (1973–74) is a 26-episode British television documentary series chronicling the events of the Second World War.
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The World Wars is a three-part, six hour event miniseries by the History Channel that premiered on Monday, May 26, 2014, (Memorial Day) airing for three consecutive nights.
The Third Battle of Kharkov was a series of battles on the Eastern Front of World War II, undertaken by the German Army Group South against the Red Army, around the city of Kharkov (or KharkivKharkov is the Russian language name of the city (Kharkiv the Ukrainian one); both Russian and Ukrainian were official languages in the Soviet Union (Source: & by Routledge)) between 19 February and 15 March 1943.
Third World Quarterly is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by Routledge.
The Three Alls Policy was a Japanese scorched earth policy adopted in China during World War II, the three "alls" being "kill all, burn all, loot all".
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Tony Robert Judt, FBA (2 January 1948 – 6 August 2010) was a British historian, essayist, and university professor who specialized in European history.
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Total war is warfare that includes any and all civilian-associated resources and infrastructure as legitimate military targets, and justifies using weapons and tactics that result in significant civilian or other non-combatant casualties, whether collateral damage or not.
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Totalitarianism is a political system in which the state holds total control over the society and seeks to control all aspects of public and private life wherever possible.
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Transaction Publishers is a New Jersey-based publishing house that specializes in social sciences books.
London Pact (Patto di Londra), or more correctly, the Treaty of London, 1915, was a secret pact between the Triple Entente and Italy, signed in London on 26 April 1915 by the United Kingdom, France, Russia, and the Kingdom of Italy.
, or commonly known as the Treaty of Peace with Japan, Peace Treaty of San Francisco, or San Francisco Peace Treaty), mostly between Japan and the Allied Powers, was officially signed by 48 nations on September 8, 1951, at the War Memorial Opera House in San Francisco, California, United States. It came into force on April 28, 1952. According to Article 11 of the Treaty of San Francisco, Japan accepts the judgments of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East and of other Allied War Crimes Courts imposed on Japan both within and outside Japan. This treaty served to officially end World War II, to formally end Japan's position as an imperial power, to allocate compensation to Allied civilians and former prisoners of war who had suffered Japanese war crimes, and to end the Allies' military occupation and return sovereignty to Japan. This treaty made extensive use of the UN Charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights to enunciate the Allies' goals. This treaty, along with the Security Treaty signed that same day, is said to mark the beginning of the "San Francisco System"; this term, coined by historian John W. Dower, signifies the effects of Japan's relationship with the United States and its role in the international arena as determined by these two treaties and is used to discuss the ways in which these effects have governed Japan's post-war history. This treaty also introduced the problem of the legal status of Taiwan due to its lack of specificity as to what country Taiwan was to be surrendered, and hence some supporters of Taiwan independence argue that sovereignty of Taiwan is really still held by the Allies (particularly the US).
The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers.
The Treaty on the Final Settlement With Respect to Germany, Vertrag über die abschließende Regelung in Bezug auf Deutschland (or the Two Plus Four Agreement, Zwei-plus-Vier-Vertrag; short: German Treaty) was negotiated in 1990 between the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic (the eponymous "Two"), and the Four Powers which occupied Germany at the end of World War II in Europe: France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
Les Trente Glorieuses ("The Glorious Thirty") refers to the thirty years from 1945 to 1975 following the end of the Second World War in France.
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The Tripartite Pact, also known as the Berlin Pact, was an agreement between Germany, Italy and Japan signed in Berlin on 27 September 1940 by, respectively, Adolf Hitler, Galeazzo Ciano and Saburō Kurusu.
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The Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (TTPI) was a United Nations trust territory in Micronesia (western Pacific) administered by the United States from 1947 to 1986.
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The Tunisia Campaign (also known as the Battle of Tunisia) was a series of battles that took place in Tunisia during the North African Campaign of the Second World War, between Axis and Allied forces.
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The Two-Ocean Navy Act, also known as the Vinson-Walsh Act, was a United States law enacted on July 19, 1940, and named for Carl Vinson and David I. Walsh, who chaired the Naval Affairs Committee in the House and Senate respectively.
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U-boat is the anglicised version of the German word U-Boot, a shortening of Unterseeboot, literally "undersea boat".
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Ukraine (Україна, tr. Ukraina) is a country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast, Belarus to the northwest, Poland and Slovakia to the west, Hungary, Romania, and Moldova to the southwest, and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
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Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.
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Ultra was the designation adopted by British military intelligence in June 1941 for wartime signals intelligence obtained by breaking high-level encrypted enemy radio and teleprinter communications at the Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS) at Bletchley Park.
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An unconditional surrender is a surrender in which no guarantees are given to the surrendering party.
was a covert biological and chemical warfare research and development unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that undertook lethal human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) of World War II.
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The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign state in Europe.
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On 8 December 1941, the government of the United Kingdom declared war on the Empire of Japan, following the Japanese attacks on Malaya, Singapore and Hong Kong.
The United Kingdom general election of 1945 was a general election held on 5 July 1945, with polls in some constituencies delayed until 12 July and in Nelson and Colne until 19 July, because of local wakes weeks.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization to promote international co-operation.
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The United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2758 was passed in response to the United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1668 that required any change in China's representation in the UN be determined by a two-thirds vote referring to Article 18 of the UN Charter.
The United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine was a proposal developed by the United Nations, which recommended a partition with Economic Union of Mandatory Palestine to follow the termination of the British Mandate.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations and is charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.
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The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF or AAF) were the military aviation service of the United States of America during and immediately after World War II, successor to the United States Army Air Corps and the direct predecessor of the United States Air Force.
The Department of the Army (DA) is one of the three military departments within the Department of Defense of the United States of America.
The United States Government Publishing Office (GPO) is an agency of the legislative branch of the United States federal government.
The United States Naval Institute (USNI), based in Annapolis, Maryland, is a private, non-profit, professional military association that seeks to offer independent, nonpartisan forums for debate of national defense and security issues.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
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The United States Pacific Fleet (USPACFLT) is a Pacific Ocean theater-level component command of the United States Navy that provides naval forces to the United States Pacific Command.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 10 December 1948 at the Palais de Chaillot, Paris.
University College London (UCL) is a public research university in London, England and a constituent college of the federal University of London.
The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the U.S. state of California.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of Georgia Press or UGA Press is a scholarly publishing house for the University System of Georgia.
The University of Illinois Press (UIP), is a major American university press and part of the University of Illinois system.
The University of Missouri Press is a university press operated by the University of Missouri in Columbia, Missouri and London, England.
The University of Nebraska Press, founded in 1941, is an academic publisher of scholarly and general-interest books.
The University of Oklahoma Press (OU Press) is the publishing arm of the University of Oklahoma.
The University of South Florida, also known as USF, is a member institution of the State University System of Florida and a public research university located in Tampa, Florida, USA.
University of Toronto Press (UTP) is Canada's leading scholarly publisher and one of the largest university presses in North America.
The University Press of Kansas is a publisher that represents the six state universities in the US state of Kansas — Emporia State University, Fort Hays State University, Kansas State University, Pittsburg State University, the University of Kansas, and Wichita State University.
The University Press of Kentucky (UPK) is the scholarly publisher for the Commonwealth of Kentucky, and was organized in 1969 as successor to the University of Kentucky Press.
Untermensch (German for underman, sub-man, subhuman; plural: Untermenschen) is a term that became infamous when the Nazis used it to describe "inferior people" often referred to as "the masses from the East," that is Jews, Roma, and Slavs (including Poles, Serbs, Belarusians, Russians, and Rusyns).
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Urban warfare is combat conducted in urban areas such as towns and cities.
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USS Missouri (BB-63) ("Mighty Mo" or "Big Mo") is a United States Navy and was the third ship of the U.S. Navy to be named in honor of the US state of Missouri.
The Ustaše, also known as "Ustashe", "Ustashas", and "Ustashi", were members of the Ustaša – Croatian Revolutionary Movement (Ustaša – Hrvatski revolucionarni pokret), a Croatian fascist, ultranationalist and terrorist organization, active, in its original form, between 1929 and 1945.
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The V-1 flying bomb (Vergeltungswaffe 1)—also known to the Allies as the buzz bomb, or doodlebug, and in Germany as Kirschkern (cherrystone) or Maikäfer (maybug)—was an early pulsejet-powered cruise missile.
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The V-2 (Vergeltungswaffe 2, "Retribution Weapon 2"), technical name Aggregat-4 (A4), was the world's first long-range guided ballistic missile.
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Vichy France is the Allies' description of the government of the French State (État français), following its relocation to the spa town of Vichy, headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain from 1940 to 1944 during World War II.
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Victory DayДень Победы, Den' Pobedy; День Перемоги, Den' Peremohy; Дзень Перамогі, Dzień Pieramohi; Жеңіс Күні, Jeñis Küni; Жеңиш майрамы, Jengish Mayramy; Gʻalaba kuni; Gələbə günü; გამარჯვების დღე, gamarjvebis dghe; Հաղթանակի օրը, Haght’anaki ory; Pergalės diena; Ziua Victoriei; Uzvaras diena; Рӯзи Ғалаба, Rūzi Ghalaba; Võidupäev; Ciñü köne or 9 May is a holiday that commemorates the capitulation of Nazi Germany to the Soviet Union at the end of Second World War, known in the Soviet Union as the Great Patriotic War.
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Victory in Europe Day, generally known as V-E Day, VE Day or simply V Day was the public holiday celebrated on 8 May 1945 (7 May in Commonwealth realms) to mark the formal acceptance by the Allies of World War II of Nazi Germany's unconditional surrender of its armed forces.
Victory over Japan Day (also known as Victory in the Pacific Day, V-J Day, or V-P Day) is the day on which Japan surrendered in World War II, in effect ending the war.
Vienna (Wien) is the capital and largest city of Austria, and one of the nine states of Austria.
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Viking Press is an American publishing company now owned by Penguin Random House.
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The Vistula–Oder Offensive was a successful Red Army operation on the Eastern Front in the European Theatre of World War II.
The Volga (p) is the longest river in Europe; it is also Europe's largest river in terms of discharge and watershed.
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The Vyborg–Petrozavodsk Offensive or Karelian offensive was a strategic operation by the Soviet Leningrad and Karelian Fronts against Finland on the Karelian Isthmus and East Karelia fronts of the Continuation War, on the Eastern Front of World War II.
War is a state of armed conflict between societies.
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War crimes of the Wehrmacht were those carried out by the German armed forces during World War II.
A war economy is the set of contingencies undertaken by a modern state to mobilize its economy for war production.
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In politics and military planning, a war effort refers to a coordinated mobilization of society's resources—both industrial and human—towards the support of a military force.
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The Warlord Era (19161928) was a period in the history of the Republic of China when the control of the country was divided among its military cliques in the mainland regions of Sichuan, Shanxi, Qinghai, Ningxia, Guangdong, Guangxi, Gansu, Yunnan and Xinjiang.
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The Warsaw Pact (formally, the Treaty of Friendship, Co-operation, and Mutual Assistance, sometimes, informally WarPac, akin in format to NATO) was a collective defense treaty among eight communist states of Central and Eastern Europe in existence during the Cold War, led by the USSR.
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The Warsaw Uprising (powstanie warszawskie) was a major World War II operation by the Polish resistance Home Army (Armia Krajowa) to liberate Warsaw from Nazi Germany.
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The Washington Naval Treaty, also known as the Five-Power Treaty, was a treaty among the major nations that had won World War I, which by the terms of the treaty agreed to prevent an arms race by limiting naval construction.
Weidenfeld & Nicolson Ltd (established 1948), often shortened to W&N or Weidenfeld, is a British publisher of fiction and reference books.
The Weimar Republic (Weimarer Republik) was the federal republic and semi-presidential representative democracy established in 1919 in Germany to replace the German Empire.
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West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany or FRG (Bundesrepublik Deutschland or ''BRD'') in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 to German reunification on 3 October 1990.
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The Western Allied invasion of Germany was conducted by the Western Allies in the final months of fighting in the European theatre in World War II.
The Western Bloc or Capitalist Bloc during the Cold War refers to the countries allied with the United States and NATO against the Soviet Union and its allies.
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The Western Desert Campaign or the Desert War, took place in the Western Desert of Egypt and Libya and was a theatre in the North African Campaign during the Second World War.
The Western New Guinea campaign was a series of actions in the New Guinea campaign of World War II.
Westview Press is an American publishing house.
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The White Sea (Белое море, Beloye more; Karelian and Vienanmeri, lit. Dvina Sea; Сэрако ямʼ, Serako yam) is a southern inlet of the Barents Sea located on the northwest coast of Russia.
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Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.
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Wilhelm Bodewin Johann Gustav Keitel (22 September 1882 – 16 October 1946) was a German field marshal who served as chief of the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (Supreme High Command of the German Armed Forces) for most of World War II, making him the Chief of Defense for Germany.
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William Henry Heinemann (18 May 1863 – 5 October 1920) was the founder of the Heinemann publishing house in London.
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Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British statesman who was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
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The Winter Line was a series of German military fortifications in Italy, constructed during World War II by Organisation Todt.
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The Winter War (Talvisota, Vinterkriget, r) was a military conflict between the Soviet Union and Finland in 1939–1940.
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The term (German for "economic miracle"), also known as The Miracle on the Rhine, describes the rapid reconstruction and development of the economies of West Germany and Austria after World War II (adopting an Ordoliberalism based social market economy).
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The term wolfpack refers to the mass-attack tactics against convoys used by German U-boats of the Kriegsmarine during the Battle of the Atlantic, and by submarines of the United States Navy against Japanese shipping in the Pacific Ocean in World War II.
Women in World War II took on a variety of roles from country to country.
The workforce or labour force (also labor force in the United States) is the labour pool in employment.
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A world war is a war involving some of the world's most powerful and populous countries.
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World War I (WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war centered in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918.
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World War I reparations were compensation imposed during the Paris Peace Conference upon the Central Powers following their defeat in the First World War by the Allied and Associate Powers.
Nearly every country in the world participated in World War II, with the exception of a few states that remained neutral.
World War II was the deadliest military conflict in history in absolute terms of total dead.
There is a wide range of ways in which people have represented World War II in popular culture.
Military operations in World War II on the territory of Yugoslavia started on 6 April 1941, when the kingdom was swiftly conquered by Axis forces and partitioned between Germany, Italy, Hungary, Bulgaria and client regimes.
Wuhan is the capital of Hubei province, People's Republic of China, and is the most populous city in Central China.
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The Xi'an Incident of December 1936, an important turning point in Chinese modern history, took place in the city of Xi'an during the Chinese Civil War between the ruling Kuomintang (KMT) and the insurgent Chinese Communist Party and just before the Second Sino-Japanese War.
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Xuzhou, otherwise known as Pengcheng in ancient times, is a major city in and the fourth largest prefecture-level city of Jiangsu province, People's Republic of China.
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Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
The Yalta Conference, sometimes called the Crimea Conference and codenamed the Argonaut Conference, held from February 4 to 11, 1945, was the World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union, represented by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Premier Joseph Stalin, respectively, for the purpose of discussing Europe's post-war reorganization.
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Yangon (ရန်ကုန်, MLCTS rankun mrui,; also known as Rangoon, literally: "End of Strife") is a former capital of Myanmar (Burma) and the capital of Yangon Region.
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was a general of the Imperial Japanese Army, war criminal, and commander-in-chief of the China Expeditionary Army from November 1944 to the end of World War II.
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The Yugoslav coup d'état occurred on 27 March 1941 in Belgrade, Kingdom of Yugoslavia.
Yugoslav PartisansSerbo-Croatian, Macedonian, Slovene: Partizani, Партизани or the National Liberation Army,Narodnooslobodilačka vojska (NOV), Народноослободилачка војска (НОВ); Народноослободителна војска (НОВ); Narodnoosvobodilna vojska (NOV) officially the National Liberation Army and Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia,Narodnooslobodilačka vojska i partizanski odredi Jugoslavije (NOV i POJ), Народноослободилачка војска и партизански одреди Југославије (НОВ и ПОЈ); Народноослободителна војска и партизански одреди на Југославија (НОВ и ПОЈ); Narodnoosvobodilna vojska in partizanski odredi Jugoslavije (NOV in POJ) was Europe's most effective anti-Nazi resistance movement, often compared to the Polish resistance movement, albeit the latter was an exceptional, non-communist autonomic movement.
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'Yugoslavia' (Serbo-Croatian, Macedonian, Slovene: Jugoslavija, Југославија), once spelled and called "Jugoslavia", was a country in Southeast Europe during most of the 20th century.
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The Z3 was an electromechanical computer designed by Konrad Zuse.
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The Zhejiang-Jiangxi campaign (Japanese: 浙贛作戦), also known as Operation Sei-go, refers to a campaign by the China Expeditionary Army of the Imperial Japanese Army under Shunroku Hata and Chinese 3rd War Area forces under Gu Zhutong in the Chinese provinces of Zhejiang and Jiangxi from mid May to early September 1942.
The 1938 Yellow River flood (literally "Huayuankou embankment breach event") was a flood created by the Nationalist Government in central China during the early stage of the Second Sino-Japanese War in an attempt to halt the rapid advance of Japanese forces.
1939 German ultimatum to Lithuania was an oral ultimatum presented to Juozas Urbšys, Foreign Minister of Lithuania, by Joachim von Ribbentrop, Foreign Minister of Nazi Germany, on March 20, 1939.
The 1939–40 Winter Offensive was one of the major engagements between the National Revolutionary Army and Imperial Japanese Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War, in which the Chinese forces launched their first major counter-offensive on multiple fronts.
The 2nd Panzer Army (2.) was a German armoured formation during World War II, formed from the 2nd Panzer Group on October 5, 1941.
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The 8.8 cm Flak 18/36/37/41 (commonly called the eighty-eight) was a German 88 mm anti-aircraft and anti-tank artillery gun from World War II.
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