63 relations: Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Astronomical unit, Astronomy & Astrophysics, Astrophysical maser, Asymptote, Carbon, Carbon star, Chemistry, Circumstellar dust, Circumstellar envelope, Cosmic dust, CW Leonis, FG Sagittae, Helium, Hertzsprung–Russell diagram, Horizontal branch, Hydrogen, Hydrogen cyanide, Hydroxyl radical, Interstellar medium, Light-year, Long-period variable star, Main sequence, Mira, Mira variable, Molecule, Myr, Nuclear fusion, OH/IR star, Optical depth, Oxygen, Photodissociation, Photosphere, Planetary nebula, Protoplanetary nebula, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, R Cassiopeiae, Red clump, Red giant, Refractory, S-process, S-type star, Sakurai's Object, Silicon monosulfide, Silicon monoxide, Springer Science+Business Media, Star, Stellar evolution, Stellar mass loss, Stellar nucleosynthesis, ..., Stellar population, Stellar wind, Surface science, Temperature, The Astronomy and Astrophysics Review, The Astrophysical Journal, Thermodynamic equilibrium, Triple-alpha process, U Orionis, University of Bonn, Water, White dwarf, Wolf–Rayet star. Expand index (13 more) » « Shrink index
The Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP) is an American scientific and educational organization, founded in San Francisco on February 7, 1889.
The astronomical unit (symbol: au, ua, or AU) is a unit of length, roughly the distance from Earth to the Sun.
Astronomy & Astrophysics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering theoretical, observational, and instrumental astronomy and astrophysics.
An astrophysical maser is a naturally occurring source of stimulated spectral line emission, typically in the microwave portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
In analytic geometry, an asymptote of a curve is a line such that the distance between the curve and the line approaches zero as one or both of the x or y coordinates tends to infinity.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
A carbon star is typically an asymptotic giant branch star, a luminous red giant, whose atmosphere contains more carbon than oxygen; the two elements combine in the upper layers of the star, forming carbon monoxide, which consumes all the oxygen in the atmosphere, leaving carbon atoms free to form other carbon compounds, giving the star a "sooty" atmosphere and a strikingly ruby red appearance.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
Circumstellar dust is cosmic dust around a star.
A circumstellar envelope (CSE) is a part of a star that has a roughly spherical shape and is not gravitationally bound to the star core.
Cosmic dust, also called extraterrestrial dust or space dust, is dust which exists in outer space, as well as all over planet Earth.
IRC +10216 or CW Leonis is a well-studied carbon star that is embedded in a thick dust envelope. It was first discovered in 1969 by a group of astronomers led by Eric Becklin, based upon infrared observations made with the Caltech Infrared Telescope at Mount Wilson Observatory. Its energy is emitted mostly at infrared wavelengths. At a wavelength of 5 μm, it was found to have the highest flux of any object outside the Solar System.
FG Sagittae, is a supergiant star in the constellation Sagitta at a distance of 8000 light-years.
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
The Hertzsprung–Russell diagram, abbreviated H–R diagram, HR diagram or HRD, is a scatter plot of stars showing the relationship between the stars' absolute magnitudes or luminosities versus their stellar classifications or effective temperatures.
The horizontal branch (HB) is a stage of stellar evolution that immediately follows the red giant branch in stars whose masses are similar to the Sun's.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN), sometimes called prussic acid, is a chemical compound with the chemical formula HCN.
The hydroxyl radical, •OH, is the neutral form of the hydroxide ion (OH−).
In astronomy, the interstellar medium (ISM) is the matter and radiation that exists in the space between the star systems in a galaxy.
The light-year is a unit of length used to express astronomical distances and measures about 9.5 trillion kilometres or 5.9 trillion miles.
The descriptive term long-period variable star refers to various groups of cool luminous pulsating variable stars.
In astronomy, the main sequence is a continuous and distinctive band of stars that appear on plots of stellar color versus brightness.
Mira, alternatively designated Omicron Ceti (ο Ceti, abbreviated Omicron Cet, ο Cet) is a red giant star estimated to be 200–400 light years from the Sun in the constellation of Cetus.
Mira variables ("Mira", Latin, adj. - feminine form of adjective "wonderful"), named for the prototype star Mira, are a class of pulsating variable stars characterized by very red colours, pulsation periods longer than 100 days, and amplitudes greater than one magnitude in infrared and 2.5 magnitude at visual wavelengths.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
The abbreviation myr, "million years", is a unit of a quantity of (i.e.) years, or 31.6 teraseconds.
In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons).
An OH/IR star is an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star that shows strong OH maser emission and is unusually bright at near-infrared wavelengths.
In physics, optical depth or optical thickness, is the natural logarithm of the ratio of incident to transmitted radiant power through a material, and spectral optical depth or spectral optical thickness is the natural logarithm of the ratio of incident to transmitted spectral radiant power through a material.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Photodissociation, photolysis, or photodecomposition is a chemical reaction in which a chemical compound is broken down by photons.
The photosphere is a star's outer shell from which light is radiated.
A planetary nebula, abbreviated as PN or plural PNe, is a type of emission nebula consisting of an expanding, glowing shell of ionized gas ejected from red giant stars late in their lives.
A protoplanetary nebula or preplanetary nebula (PPN) is an astronomical object which is at the short-lived episode during a star's rapid evolution between the late asymptotic giant branch (LAGB) phase and the subsequent planetary nebula (PN) phase.
Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific (often abbreviated as PASP in references and literature) is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal managed by the Astronomical Society of the Pacific.
R Cassiopeiae (R Cas) is a star in the constellation Cassiopeia.
The red clump is a clustering of red giants in the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram at around 5,000 K and absolute magnitude (MV) +0.5, slightly hotter than most red-giant-branch stars of the same luminosity.
A red giant is a luminous giant star of low or intermediate mass (roughly 0.3–8 solar masses) in a late phase of stellar evolution.
A refractory mineral is a mineral that is resistant to decomposition by heat, pressure, or chemical attack.
The slow neutron-capture process or s-process is a series of reactions in nuclear astrophysics that occur in stars, particularly AGB stars.
An S-type star (or just S star) is a cool giant with approximately equal quantities of carbon and oxygen in its atmosphere.
Sakurai's Object (V4334 Sgr) is a star in the constellation of Sagittarius.
Silicon monosulfide is a chemical compound of silicon and sulfur.
Silicon monoxide is the chemical compound with the formula SiO where silicon is present in the oxidation state +2.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.
Stellar evolution is the process by which a star changes over the course of time.
Stellar mass loss is a phenomenon observed in some massive stars.
Stellar nucleosynthesis is the theory explaining the creation (nucleosynthesis) of chemical elements by nuclear fusion reactions between atoms within the stars.
During 1944, Walter Baade categorized groups of stars within the Milky Way into bluer stars associated with the spiral arms and the general position of yellow stars near the central galactic bulge or within globular star clusters.
A stellar wind is a flow of gas ejected from the upper atmosphere of a star.
Surface science is the study of physical and chemical phenomena that occur at the interface of two phases, including solid–liquid interfaces, solid–gas interfaces, solid–vacuum interfaces, and liquid–gas interfaces.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
The Astronomy and Astrophysics Review is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that is published quarterly by Springer Science+Business Media.
The Astrophysical Journal, often abbreviated ApJ (pronounced "ap jay") in references and speech, is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of astrophysics and astronomy, established in 1895 by American astronomers George Ellery Hale and James Edward Keeler.
Thermodynamic equilibrium is an axiomatic concept of thermodynamics.
The triple-alpha process is a set of nuclear fusion reactions by which three helium-4 nuclei (alpha particles) are transformed into carbon.
U Orionis (abbreviated U Ori) is a Mira-type variable star in the constellation Orion.
The University of Bonn (Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn) is a public research university located in Bonn, Germany.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
A white dwarf, also called a degenerate dwarf, is a stellar core remnant composed mostly of electron-degenerate matter.
Wolf–Rayet stars, often abbreviated as WR stars, are a rare heterogeneous set of stars with unusual spectra showing prominent broad emission lines of highly ionised helium and nitrogen or carbon.
AGB Star, AGB star, AGB stars, Asymptotic Giant Branch, Asymptotic Giant Branch star, Asymptotic Giant Branch stars, Asymptotic giant, Asymptotic giant branch star, Asymptotic giant branch stars, Asymptotic-giant-branch star, Late thermal pulse, Post-AGB, Post-AGB star, TP-AGB, Thermal pulse, Very Late Thermal Pulse, Very late thermal pulse.