365 relations: Abiogenic petroleum origin, Abraham Langlet, Absolute zero, Abundance of the chemical elements, Acid, Activated carbon, Air embolism, Air Liquide, Air Products & Chemicals, Airship, Alfred Fowler, Alpha decay, Alpha particle, Aluminium, Amarillo, Texas, American Institute of Physics, American National Biography, Annalen der Physik, Apollo program, Arc welding, Argon, Argon fluorohydride, Arzew, Asphyxiant gas, Asteroid, Astronomische Nachrichten, Atmosphere, Atmosphere of Earth, Atmospheric escape, Atom, Atomic nucleus, Atomic number, Atomic orbital, Aurora, Ångström, Balloon, Barcode reader, Barotrauma, Barrage balloon, Baryon, BBC, BBC Online, Beta decay, Beta particle, Big Bang, Big Bang nucleosynthesis, Binding energy, Birkeland current, Bohr model, Boiling point, ..., Bolling Air Force Base, Boron, Bose–Einstein condensate, Boson, Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory, Bulk modulus, Bushton, Kansas, Cambridge University Press, Carnotite, CBS News, CERN, Chemical compound, Chemical element, Chemically inert, Chemistry World, Chicago Tribune, Chromosphere, Classical physics, Clathrate compound, Cleveite, CNO cycle, Cold War, Coma, Combustibility and flammability, Compressibility, Computational chemistry, Cooper pair, Copper, Cosmic dust, Cosmology, Cryogenics, Crystal, Cyanosis, David Lee (physicist), Deep diving, Density, Deuterium, Dexter, Kansas, Diamond anvil cell, Diffusion, Dilution refrigerator, Douglas Osheroff, Eagle Point, Oregon, Edward Charles Pickering, Edward Frankland, Electride, Emission spectrum, Endohedral fullerene, Energy level, Erasmus Haworth, Ernest Rutherford, Evaporative cooler, Excimer, Federal government of the United States, Fermion, Fire retardant, Fluorite, Fractional distillation, Fraunhofer lines, Frostbite, Fullerene, Fundamental frequency, Fusion rocket, Gallon, Gamma ray, Gas, Gas chromatography, Georges Rayet, Germanium, Glow discharge, Government Accountability Office, Gravity, Gravity wave, Great Plains, Ground state, Guntur, Half-life, Halo nucleus, Hamilton Cady, Hampton Roads, Hard disk drive, Harvard College Observatory, Harvard University Press, Heat capacity, Heat capacity ratio, Heat transfer, Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, Helios, Heliox, Helium Act of 1925, Helium cryogenics, Helium dating, Helium dimer, Helium mass spectrometer, Helium Privatization Act of 1996, Helium-3, Helium-3 refrigerator, Helium-4, Helium–neon laser, Helsinki University of Technology, High-pressure nervous syndrome, Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences, Hugoton Gas Field, Human voice, Hydrogen, Hydrogen atom, Ideal gas, Impulse facility, Inert gas, Insulator (electricity), Interstellar medium, Ion, Ionization energy, Isotope, Isotopes of helium, Joule–Thomson effect, Journal of the American Chemical Society, Jupiter, Kansas, Kelvin, Lambda point, Laminar flow, Large Hadron Collider, Laser diode, Laser pointer, Leak, Leak detection, Leidenfrost effect, Lens (optics), Lifting gas, Lighter than air, LiHe, Liquefaction of gases, Liquid helium, Liquid nitrogen, Lithium, Lithosphere, Luigi Palmieri, LZ 129 Hindenburg, Macroscopic quantum phenomena, Magnetic resonance imaging, Magnetosphere, Manhattan Project, Mantle (geology), Matter, Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, Melting point, Meteoric iron, Methane, Monatomic gas, Monazite, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Moon, Mount Vesuvius, N. 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Abiogenic petroleum origin is a term used to describe a number of different hypotheses which propose that petroleum and natural gas are formed by inorganic means rather than by the decomposition of organisms.
Nils Abraham Langlet (9 July 1868 – 30 March 1936; known by his second given name) was a Swedish chemist.
Absolute zero is the lower limit of the thermodynamic temperature scale, a state at which the enthalpy and entropy of a cooled ideal gas reach their minimum value, taken as 0.
The abundance of the chemical elements is a measure of the occurrence of the chemical elements relative to all other elements in a given environment.
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal, is a form of carbon processed to have small, low-volume pores that increase the surface area available for adsorption or chemical reactions.
An air embolism, also known as a gas embolism, is a blood vessel blockage caused by one or more bubbles of air or other gas in the circulatory system.
Air Liquide S.A. (literally "liquid air"), is a French multinational company which supplies industrial gases and services to various industries including medical, chemical and electronic manufacturers.
Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. is an American international corporation whose principal business is selling gases and chemicals for industrial uses.
An airship or dirigible balloon is a type of aerostat or lighter-than-air aircraft that can navigate through the air under its own power.
Alfred Fowler, CBE FRS (22 March 1868, in Yorkshire – 24 June 1940) was an English astronomer.
Alpha decay or α-decay is a type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits an alpha particle (helium nucleus) and thereby transforms or 'decays' into an atom with a mass number that is reduced by four and an atomic number that is reduced by two.
Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium-4 nucleus.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Amarillo is the 14th-most populous city in the state of Texas, United States.
The American Institute of Physics (AIP) promotes science, the profession of physics, publishes physics journals, and produces publications for scientific and engineering societies.
The American National Biography (ANB) is a 24-volume biographical encyclopedia set that contains about 17,400 entries and 20 million words, first published in 1999 by Oxford University Press under the auspices of the American Council of Learned Societies.
Annalen der Physik (English: Annals of Physics) is one of the oldest scientific journals on physics and has been published since 1799.
The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished landing the first humans on the Moon from 1969 to 1972.
Arc welding is a process that is used to join metal to metal by using electricity to create enough heat to melt metal, and the melted metals when cool result in a binding of the metals.
Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18.
Argon fluorohydride (systematically named fluoridohydridoargon) or argon hydrofluoride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula HArF (also written ArHF).
Arzew or Arzeu (أرزيو Berber; erziouw) is a port city in Algeria, 25 miles (40 km) from Oran.
An asphyxiant gas is a nontoxic or minimally toxic gas which reduces or displaces the normal oxygen concentration in breathing air.
Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System.
Astronomische Nachrichten (Astronomical Notes), one of the first international journals in the field of astronomy, was founded in 1821 by the German astronomer Heinrich Christian Schumacher.
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
Atmospheric escape is the loss of planetary atmospheric gases to outer space.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
In quantum mechanics, an atomic orbital is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom.
An aurora (plural: auroras or aurorae), sometimes referred to as polar lights, northern lights (aurora borealis) or southern lights (aurora australis), is a natural light display in the Earth's sky, predominantly seen in the high-latitude regions (around the Arctic and Antarctic).
The ångström or angstrom is a unit of length equal to (one ten-billionth of a metre) or 0.1 nanometre.
A balloon is a flexible bag that can be inflated with a gas, such as helium, hydrogen, nitrous oxide, oxygen, air or water.
A bar code reader (or bar code scanner) is an electronic device that can read and output printed barcodes to a computer.
Barotrauma is physical damage to body tissues caused by a difference in pressure between a gas space inside, or in contact with the body, and the surrounding gas or fluid.
A barrage balloon is a large kite balloon used to defend against aircraft attack by raising aloft cables which pose a collision risk, making the attacker's approach more difficult.
A baryon is a composite subatomic particle made up of three quarks (a triquark, as distinct from mesons, which are composed of one quark and one antiquark).
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC Online, formerly known as BBCi, is the BBC's online service.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
A beta particle, also called beta ray or beta radiation, (symbol β) is a high-energy, high-speed electron or positron emitted by the radioactive decay of an atomic nucleus during the process of beta decay.
The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.
In physical cosmology, Big Bang nucleosynthesis (abbreviated BBN, also known as primordial nucleosynthesis, arch(a)eonucleosynthesis, archonucleosynthesis, protonucleosynthesis and pal(a)eonucleosynthesis) refers to the production of nuclei other than those of the lightest isotope of hydrogen (hydrogen-1, 1H, having a single proton as a nucleus) during the early phases of the Universe.
Binding energy (also called separation energy) is the minimum energy required to disassemble a system of particles into separate parts.
A Birkeland current is a set of currents that flow along geomagnetic field lines connecting the Earth’s magnetosphere to the Earth's high latitude ionosphere.
In atomic physics, the Rutherford–Bohr model or Bohr model or Bohr diagram, introduced by Niels Bohr and Ernest Rutherford in 1913, depicts the atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in circular orbits around the nucleus—similar to the structure of the Solar System, but with attraction provided by electrostatic forces rather than gravity.
The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor.
Bolling Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base in Washington, D.C. In 2010 it was merged with Naval Support Facility Anacostia to form Joint Base Anacostia–Bolling.
Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.
A Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) is a state of matter of a dilute gas of bosons cooled to temperatures very close to absolute zero.
In quantum mechanics, a boson is a particle that follows Bose–Einstein statistics.
The Brønsted–Lowry theory is an acid–base reaction theory which was proposed independently by Johannes Nicolaus Brønsted and Thomas Martin Lowry in 1923.
The bulk modulus (K or B) of a substance is a measure of how resistant to compressibility that substance is.
Bushton is a city in Rice County, Kansas, United States.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Carnotite is a potassium uranium vanadate radioactive mineral with chemical formula K2(UO2)2(VO4)2·3H2O.
CBS News is the news division of American television and radio service CBS.
The European Organization for Nuclear Research (Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (derived from the name Conseil européen pour la recherche nucléaire), is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
In chemistry, the term chemically inert is used to describe a substance that is not chemically reactive.
Chemistry World is a monthly chemistry news magazine published by the Royal Society of Chemistry.
The Chicago Tribune is a daily newspaper based in Chicago, Illinois, United States, owned by Tronc, Inc., formerly Tribune Publishing.
The chromosphere (literally, "sphere of color") is the second of the three main layers in the Sun's atmosphere and is roughly 3,000 to 5,000 kilometers deep.
Classical physics refers to theories of physics that predate modern, more complete, or more widely applicable theories.
A clathrate is a chemical substance consisting of a lattice that traps or contains molecules.
Cleveite is an impure radioactive variety of uraninite containing uranium and found in Norway.
The CNO cycle (for carbon–nitrogen–oxygen) is one of the two known sets of fusion reactions by which stars convert hydrogen to helium, the other being the proton–proton chain reaction.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Coma is a state of unconsciousness in which a person cannot be awaken; fails to respond normally to painful stimuli, light, or sound; lacks a normal wake-sleep cycle; and does not initiate voluntary actions.
Flammable materials are those that ignite more easily than other materials, whereas those that are harder to ignite or burn less vigorously are combustible.
In thermodynamics and fluid mechanics, compressibility (also known as the coefficient of compressibility or isothermal compressibility) is a measure of the relative volume change of a fluid or solid as a response to a pressure (or mean stress) change.
Computational chemistry is a branch of chemistry that uses computer simulation to assist in solving chemical problems.
In condensed matter physics, a Cooper pair or BCS pair is a pair of electrons (or other fermions) bound together at low temperatures in a certain manner first described in 1956 by American physicist Leon Cooper.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Cosmic dust, also called extraterrestrial dust or space dust, is dust which exists in outer space, as well as all over planet Earth.
Cosmology (from the Greek κόσμος, kosmos "world" and -λογία, -logia "study of") is the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe.
In physics, cryogenics is the production and behaviour of materials at very low temperatures.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
Cyanosis is defined as the bluish or purplish discolouration of the skin or mucous membranes due to the tissues near the skin surface having low oxygen saturation.
David Morris Lee (born January 20, 1931) is an American physicist who shared the 1996 Nobel Prize in Physics with Robert C. Richardson and Douglas Osheroff "for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3.".
Deep diving is underwater diving to a depth beyond the norm accepted by the associated community.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
Deuterium (or hydrogen-2, symbol or, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen (the other being protium, or hydrogen-1).
Dexter is a city in Cowley County, Kansas, United States.
A diamond anvil cell (DAC) is a high-pressure device used in scientific experiments.
Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.
A 3He/4He dilution refrigerator is a cryogenic device that provides continuous cooling to temperatures as low as 2 mK, with no moving parts in the low-temperature region.
Douglas Dean Osheroff (born August 1, 1945) is a physicist known for his work in experimental condensed matter physics, in particular for his co-discovery of superfluidity in Helium-3.
Eagle Point is a city in Jackson County, Oregon, United States.
Prof Edward Charles Pickering FRS(For) HFRSE (July 19, 1846 – February 3, 1919) was an American astronomer and physicist and the older brother to William Henry Pickering.
Sir Edward Frankland, (18 January 1825 – 9 August 1899) was a British chemist.
An electride is a ionic compound in which an electron is the anion.
The emission spectrum of a chemical element or chemical compound is the spectrum of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation emitted due to an atom or molecule making a transition from a high energy state to a lower energy state.
Endohedral fullerenes, also called endofullerenes, are fullerenes that have additional atoms, ions, or clusters enclosed within their inner spheres.
A quantum mechanical system or particle that is bound—that is, confined spatially—can only take on certain discrete values of energy.
Erasmus Haworth (1855–1932) was an American geologist.
Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, HFRSE LLD (30 August 1871 – 19 October 1937) was a New Zealand-born British physicist who came to be known as the father of nuclear physics.
An evaporative cooler (also swamp cooler, desert cooler and wet air cooler) is a device that cools air through the evaporation of water.
An excimer (originally short for excited dimer) is a short-lived dimeric or heterodimeric molecule formed from two species, at least one of which has completely filled valence shell by electrons (for example, noble gases).
The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.
In particle physics, a fermion is a particle that follows Fermi–Dirac statistics.
A fire retardant is a substance that is used to slow or stop the spread of fire or reduce its intensity.
Not to be confused with Fluoride. Fluorite (also called fluorspar) is the mineral form of calcium fluoride, CaF2.
Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions.
In physics and optics, the Fraunhofer lines are a set of spectral lines named after the German physicist Joseph von Fraunhofer (1787–1826).
Frostbite occurs when exposure to low temperatures causes freezing of the skin or other tissues.
A fullerene is a molecule of carbon in the form of a hollow sphere, ellipsoid, tube, and many other shapes.
The fundamental frequency, often referred to simply as the fundamental, is defined as the lowest frequency of a periodic waveform.
A fusion rocket is a theoretical design for a rocket driven by fusion propulsion which could provide efficient and long-term acceleration in space without the need to carry a large fuel supply.
The gallon is a unit of measurement for fluid capacity in both the US customary units and the British imperial systems of measurement.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).
Gas chromatography (GC) is a common type of chromatography used in analytical chemistry for separating and analyzing compounds that can be vaporized without decomposition.
Georges-Antoine-Pons Rayet (12 December 1839 – 14 June 1906) was a French astronomer.
Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32.
A glow discharge is a plasma formed by the passage of electric current through a gas.
The Government Accountability Office (GAO) is a legislative branch government agency that provides auditing, evaluation, and investigative services for the United States Congress.
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
In fluid dynamics, gravity waves are waves generated in a fluid medium or at the interface between two media when the force of gravity or buoyancy tries to restore equilibrium.
The Great Plains (sometimes simply "the Plains") is the broad expanse of flat land (a plain), much of it covered in prairie, steppe, and grassland, that lies west of the Mississippi River tallgrass prairie in the United States and east of the Rocky Mountains in the U.S. and Canada.
The ground state of a quantum mechanical system is its lowest-energy state; the energy of the ground state is known as the zero-point energy of the system.
Guntur; is a city within the Andhra Pradesh Capital Region.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
In nuclear physics, an atomic nucleus is called a halo nucleus or is said to have a nuclear halo when it has a core nucleus surrounded by a "halo" of orbiting protons or neutrons, which makes the radius of the nucleus appreciably larger than that predicted by the liquid drop model.
Hamilton Perkins Cady, (May 2, 1874 – May 26, 1943), was an American chemist who in 1907 in collaboration with David McFarland discovered that helium could be extracted from natural gas.
Hampton Roads is the name of both a body of water in Virginia and the surrounding metropolitan region in Southeastern Virginia and Northeastern North Carolina, United States.
A hard disk drive (HDD), hard disk, hard drive or fixed disk is an electromechanical data storage device that uses magnetic storage to store and retrieve digital information using one or more rigid rapidly rotating disks (platters) coated with magnetic material.
The Harvard College Observatory (HCO) is an institution managing a complex of buildings and multiple instruments used for astronomical research by the Harvard University Department of Astronomy.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
Heat capacity or thermal capacity is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added to (or removed from) an object to the resulting temperature change.
In thermal physics and thermodynamics, the heat capacity ratio or adiabatic index or ratio of specific heats or Poisson constant, is the ratio of the heat capacity at constant pressure to heat capacity at constant volume.
Heat transfer is a discipline of thermal engineering that concerns the generation, use, conversion, and exchange of thermal energy (heat) between physical systems.
Professor Heike Kamerlingh Onnes FRSFor HFRSE FCS (21 September 1853 – 21 February 1926) was a Dutch physicist and Nobel laureate.
Helios (Ἥλιος Hēlios; Latinized as Helius; Ἠέλιος in Homeric Greek) is the god and personification of the Sun in Greek mythology.
Heliox is a breathing gas composed of a mixture of helium (He) and oxygen (O2).
Helium Act of 1925, 50 USC § 161, is a United States statute drafted for the purpose of conservation, exploration, and procurement of helium gas.
In the field of cryogenics, helium is utilized for a variety of reasons.
Helium dating may refer to the traditional uranium–thorium dating or uranium-thorium/helium dating.
The helium dimer is a van der Waals molecule with formula He2 consisting of two helium atoms.
A helium mass spectrometer is an instrument commonly used to detect and locate small leaks.
The Helium Privatization Act of 1996 is a United States statute that ordered the US government to sell much of the National Helium Reserve.
Helium-3 (He-3, also written as 3He, see also helion) is a light, non-radioactive isotope of helium with two protons and one neutron (common helium having two protons and two neutrons).
A helium-3 refrigerator is a simple device used in experimental physics for obtaining temperatures down to about 0.2 kelvins.
Helium-4 is a non-radioactive isotope of the element helium.
A helium–neon laser or HeNe laser, is a type of gas laser whose gain medium consists of a mixture of 85% helium and 15% neon inside of a small electrical discharge.
The Helsinki University of Technology (TKK; Teknillinen korkeakoulu; Tekniska högskolan) was a technical university in Finland.
High-pressure nervous syndrome (HPNS – also known as high-pressure neurological syndrome) is a neurological and physiological diving disorder that results when a diver descends below about using a breathing gas containing helium.
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by University of California Press on behalf of the Office for History of Science and Technology (University of California, Berkeley).
Hugoton Gas Field is a large natural gas field in the U.S. states of Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas.
The human voice consists of sound made by a human being using the vocal tract, such as talking, singing, laughing, crying, screaming, etc.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
A hydrogen atom is an atom of the chemical element hydrogen.
An ideal gas is a theoretical gas composed of many randomly moving point particles whose only interactions are perfectly elastic collisions.
A testing facility that relies on rapid release of stored energy to generate a short period of high enthalpy test conditions for testing of aerodynamic flow, aerodynamic heating and atmospheric reentry, combustion, chemical kinetics, ballistics, and other effects.
An inert gas/noble gas is a gas which does not undergo chemical reactions under a set of given conditions.
An electrical insulator is a material whose internal electric charges do not flow freely; very little electric current will flow through it under the influence of an electric field.
In astronomy, the interstellar medium (ISM) is the matter and radiation that exists in the space between the star systems in a galaxy.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
The ionization energy (Ei) is qualitatively defined as the amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron, the valence electron, of an isolated gaseous atom to form a cation.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Although there are nine known isotopes of helium (2He) (standard atomic weight), only helium-3 and helium-4 are stable.
In thermodynamics, the Joule–Thomson effect (also known as the Joule–Kelvin effect, Kelvin–Joule effect, or Joule–Thomson expansion) describes the temperature change of a real gas or liquid (as differentiated from an ideal gas) when it is forced through a valve or porous plug while keeping them insulated so that no heat is exchanged with the environment.
The Journal of the American Chemical Society (also known as JACS) is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1879 by the American Chemical Society.
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.
Kansas is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States.
The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.
The Lambda point is the temperature at which normal fluid helium (helium I) makes the transition to superfluid helium II (approximately 2.17 K at 1 atmosphere).
In fluid dynamics, laminar flow (or streamline flow) occurs when a fluid flows in parallel layers, with no disruption between the layers.
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world's largest and most powerful particle collider, the most complex experimental facility ever built and the largest single machine in the world.
A laser diode, (LD), injection laser diode (ILD), or diode laser is a semiconductor device similar to a light-emitting diode in which the laser beam is created at the diode's junction.
A laser pointer or laser pen is a small handheld device with a power source (usually a battery) and a laser diode emitting a very narrow coherent low-powered laser beam of visible light, intended to be used to highlight something of interest by illuminating it with a small bright spot of colored light.
A leak is a way (usually an opening) for fluid to escape a container or fluid-containing system, such as a tank or a ship's hull, through which the contents of the container can escape or outside matter can enter the container.
Pipeline leak detection is used to determine if and in some cases where a leak has occurred in systems which contain liquids and gases.
The Leidenfrost effect is a physical phenomenon in which a liquid, in near contact with a mass significantly hotter than the liquid's boiling point, produces an insulating vapor layer keeping that liquid from boiling rapidly.
A lens is a transmissive optical device that focuses or disperses a light beam by means of refraction.
Because of Archimedes' principle, a lifting gas is required for aerostats to create buoyancy.
Lighter than air refers to materials (usually gases) that are buoyant in air because they have average densities lower than that of air.
LiHe is a compound of helium and lithium.
Liquefaction of gases is physical conversion of a gas into a liquid state (condensation).
At standard pressure, the chemical element helium exists in a liquid form only at the extremely low temperature of −270 °C (about 4 K or −452.2 °F).
Liquid nitrogen is nitrogen in a liquid state at an extremely low temperature.
Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.
A lithosphere (λίθος for "rocky", and σφαίρα for "sphere") is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial-type planet, or natural satellite, that is defined by its rigid mechanical properties.
Luigi Palmieri (April 22, 1807 – September 9, 1896) was an Italian physicist and meteorologist.
LZ 129 Hindenburg (Luftschiff Zeppelin #129; Registration: D-LZ 129) was a large German commercial passenger-carrying rigid airship, the lead ship of the ''Hindenburg'' class, the longest class of flying machine and the largest airship by envelope volume.
Macroscopic quantum phenomena refer to processes showing quantum behavior at the macroscopic scale, rather than at the atomic scale where quantum effects are prevalent.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.
A magnetosphere is the region of space surrounding an astronomical object in which charged particles are manipulated or affected by that object's magnetic field.
The Manhattan Project was a research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons.
The mantle is a layer inside a terrestrial planet and some other rocky planetary bodies.
In the classical physics observed in everyday life, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume.
The Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute) is a Max Planck Institute whose research is aimed at investigating Einstein’s theory of relativity and beyond: Mathematics, quantum gravity, astrophysical relativity, and gravitational wave astronomy.
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
Meteoric iron, sometimes meteoritic iron, is a native metal found in meteorites and made from the elements iron and nickel mainly in the form of the mineral phases kamacite and taenite.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
In physics and chemistry, monatomic is a combination of the words "mono" and "atomic", and means "single atom".
Monazite is a reddish-brown phosphate mineral containing rare-earth metals.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in astronomy and astrophysics.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
Mount Vesuvius (Monte Vesuvio; Vesuvio; Mons Vesuvius; also Vesevus or Vesaevus in some Roman sources) is a somma-stratovolcano located on the Gulf of Naples in Campania, Italy, about east of Naples and a short distance from the shore.
Norman Robert Pogson, CIE (23 March 1829 – 23 June 1891) was an English astronomer who worked in India at the Madras observatory.
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The National Helium Reserve, also known as the Federal Helium Reserve, is a strategic reserve of the United States holding over 1 billion cubic meters (109 m3) of helium gas.
The National Weather Service (NWS) is an agency of the United States Federal Government that is tasked with providing weather forecasts, warnings of hazardous weather, and other weather-related products to organizations and the public for the purposes of protection, safety, and general information.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
Natural gas originates by the same geological thermal cracking process that converts kerogen to petroleum.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
The Naval Aircraft Factory (NAF) was established by the United States Navy in 1918 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Neon is a chemical element with symbol Ne and atomic number 10.
Niels Henrik David Bohr (7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962) was a Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Narcosis while diving (also known as nitrogen narcosis, inert gas narcosis, raptures of the deep, Martini effect) is a reversible alteration in consciousness that occurs while diving at depth.
The noble gases (historically also the inert gases) make up a group of chemical elements with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity.
Sir Joseph Norman Lockyer, KCB FRS (17 May 1836 – 16 August 1920), known simply as Norman Lockyer, was an English scientist and astronomer.
Nuclear binding energy is the minimum energy that would be required to disassemble the nucleus of an atom into its component parts.
In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons).
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon in which nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiation.
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, most commonly known as NMR spectroscopy or magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), is a spectroscopic technique to observe local magnetic fields around atomic nuclei.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, a nuclear reaction is semantically considered to be the process in which two nuclei, or else a nucleus of an atom and a subatomic particle (such as a proton, neutron, or high energy electron) from outside the atom, collide to produce one or more nuclides that are different from the nuclide(s) that began the process.
A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, the nuclear shell model is a model of the atomic nucleus which uses the Pauli exclusion principle to describe the structure of the nucleus in terms of energy levels.
In chemistry and physics, a nucleon is either a proton or a neutron, considered in its role as a component of an atomic nucleus.
Nucleosynthesis is the process that creates new atomic nuclei from pre-existing nucleons, primarily protons and neutrons.
Ogg is a free, open container format maintained by the Xiph.Org Foundation.
Oklahoma (Uukuhuúwa, Gahnawiyoˀgeh) is a state in the South Central region of the United States.
An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Particle statistics is a particular description of multiple particles in statistical mechanics.
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength.
Per Teodor Cleve (10 February 1840 – 18 June 1905) was a Swedish chemist, biologist, mineralogist and oceanographer.
The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends.
The Periodic Table of Videos (usually shortened to Periodic Videos) is a series of videos about chemical elements and the periodic table.
Peter W. Smith (February 23, 1936 – May 14, 2017) was an American investment banker who had a 40-year career managing corporate acquisitions and venture investments.
The Philosophical Magazine is one of the oldest scientific journals published in English.
Physics Today is the membership magazine of the American Institute of Physics that was established in 1948.
The Pickering series (also known as the Pickering–Fowler series) consists of three lines of singly ionized helium found, usually in absorption, in the spectra of hot stars like Wolf-Rayet stars.
Pierre Jules César Janssen (22 February 1824 – 23 December 1907), also known as Jules Janssen, was a French astronomer who, along with English scientist Joseph Norman Lockyer, is credited with discovering the gaseous nature of the solar chromosphere, and with some justification the element helium.
Pitch is a perceptual property of sounds that allows their ordering on a frequency-related scale, or more commonly, pitch is the quality that makes it possible to judge sounds as "higher" and "lower" in the sense associated with musical melodies.
Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.
The Prandtl number (Pr) or Prandtl group is a dimensionless number, named after the German physicist Ludwig Prandtl, defined as the ratio of momentum diffusivity to thermal diffusivity.
Proceedings of the Royal Society is the parent title of two scientific journals published by the Royal Society.
The proton–proton chain reaction is one of the two (known) sets of fusion reactions by which stars convert hydrogen to helium.
Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa or Peter Kapitza (Russian: Пётр Леони́дович Капи́ца, Romanian: Petre Capiţa (– 8 April 1984) was a leading Soviet physicist and Nobel laureate, best known for his work in low-temperature physics.
Qatar (or; قطر; local vernacular pronunciation), officially the State of Qatar (دولة قطر), is a sovereign country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
In physics, a quantum solid is a type of solid that is "intrinsically restless", in the sense that atoms continuously vibrate about their position and exchange places even at absolute zero.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
A radiogenic nuclide is a nuclide that is produced by a process of radioactive decay.
A rare-earth element (REE) or rare-earth metal (REM), as defined by IUPAC, is one of a set of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the fifteen lanthanides, as well as scandium and yttrium.
Ras Laffan Industrial City is an industrial hub located north of Doha, Qatar.
RasGas Company Limited was a liquefied natural gas (LNG) producing company in Qatar.
In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.
Regolith is a layer of loose, heterogeneous superficial deposits covering solid rock.
Relative atomic mass (symbol: A) or atomic weight is a dimensionless physical quantity defined as the ratio of the average mass of atoms of a chemical element in a given sample to one unified atomic mass unit.
In physics, resonance is a phenomenon in which a vibrating system or external force drives another system to oscillate with greater amplitude at specific frequencies.
The Reynolds number is an important dimensionless quantity in fluid mechanics used to help predict flow patterns in different fluid flow situations.
Sir Richard Threlfall (14 August 1861 – 10 July 1932) was an English chemist and engineer, he established the School of Physics at the University of Sydney and made important contributions to military science during World War I. He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1899, and was created KBE in 1917 and GBE in 1927.
Robert Coleman Richardson (June 26, 1937 – February 19, 2013) was an American experimental physicist whose area of research included sub-millikelvin temperature studies of helium-3.
A rocket (from Italian rocchetto "bobbin") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.
Rocket propellant is a material used either directly by a rocket as the reaction mass (propulsive mass) that is ejected, typically with very high speed, from a rocket engine to produce thrust, and thus provide spacecraft propulsion, or indirectly to produce the reaction mass in a chemical reaction.
A Rollin film, named after Bernard V. Rollin, is a 30 nm-thick liquid film of helium in the helium II state.
Colloquially, room temperature is the range of air temperatures that most people prefer for indoor settings, which feel comfortable when wearing typical indoor clothing.
The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences".
A salient is an elongated protrusion of a geopolitical entity, such as a subnational entity or a sovereign state.
San Juan County is a county in the U.S. state of New Mexico.
The Saturn V (pronounced "Saturn five") was an American human-rated expendable rocket used by NASA between 1967 and 1973.
Second sound is a quantum mechanical phenomenon in which heat transfer occurs by wave-like motion, rather than by the more usual mechanism of diffusion.
A semipermeable membrane is a type of biological or synthetic, polymeric membrane that will allow certain molecules or ions to pass through it by diffusion—or occasionally by more specialized processes of facilitated diffusion, passive transport or active transport.
Shielding gases are inert or semi-inert gases that are commonly used in several welding processes, most notably gas metal arc welding and gas tungsten arc welding (GMAW and GTAW, more popularly known as MIG and TIG, respectively).
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
Clinker nodules produced by sintering Sintering is the process of compacting and forming a solid mass of material by heat or pressure without melting it to the point of liquefaction.
Skikda (سكيكدة) is a city in north eastern Algeria and a port on the Gulf of Stora, the ancient Sinus Numidicus.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
A total solar eclipse occurred on August 18, 1868, also known as "The King of Siam's eclipse".
The solar wind is a stream of charged particles released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun, called the corona.
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.
The South Pars/North Dome field is a natural-gas condensate field located in the Persian Gulf.
The Space Race refers to the 20th-century competition between two Cold War rivals, the Soviet Union (USSR) and the United States (US), for dominance in spaceflight capability.
A space vehicle or spaceship is a rocket-powered vehicle used to transport unmanned satellites or humans between the Earth's surface and outer space.
Spectral bands are part of optical spectra of polyatomic systems, including condensed materials, large molecules, etc.
Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.
The speed of sound is the distance travelled per unit time by a sound wave as it propagates through an elastic medium.
A spring is any natural situation where water flows from an aquifer to the Earth's surface.
The term stable isotope has a meaning similar to stable nuclide, but is preferably used when speaking of nuclides of a specific element.
A standard cubic foot (scf) is a unit used both in the natural gas industry to represent an amount of natural gas and in other industries where other gases are used.
A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.
Stellar nucleosynthesis is the theory explaining the creation (nucleosynthesis) of chemical elements by nuclear fusion reactions between atoms within the stars.
Styrofoam is a trademarked brand of closed-cell extruded polystyrene foam (XPS), commonly called "Blue Board" manufactured as foam continuous building insulation board used in walls, roofs, and foundations as thermal insulation and water barrier.
Sublimation is the transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase, without passing through the intermediate liquid phase.
Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is an inorganic, colorless, odorless, non-flammable, extremely potent greenhouse gas, and an excellent electrical insulator.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
A superconducting magnet is an electromagnet made from coils of superconducting wire.
Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials, called superconductors, when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.
Superfluidity is the characteristic property of a fluid with zero viscosity which therefore flows without loss of kinetic energy.
A supersonic wind tunnel is a wind tunnel that produces supersonic speeds (1.2\leq the total pressure ratio over normal shock at M in test section: \frac \leq\left(\frac\right)_ Examples.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
A telescope is an optical instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light).
A tethered, moored or captive balloon is a balloon that is restrained by one or more tethers attached to the ground and so it cannot float freely.
Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.
The Astrophysical Journal, often abbreviated ApJ (pronounced "ap jay") in references and speech, is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of astrophysics and astronomy, established in 1895 by American astronomers George Ellery Hale and James Edward Keeler.
Thermal conductivity (often denoted k, λ, or κ) is the property of a material to conduct heat.
Thermal energy is a term used loosely as a synonym for more rigorously-defined thermodynamic quantities such as the internal energy of a system; heat or sensible heat, which are defined as types of transfer of energy (as is work); or for the characteristic energy of a degree of freedom in a thermal system kT, where T is temperature and k is the Boltzmann constant.
Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in shape, area, and volume in response to a change in temperature.
Thermoacoustic engines (sometimes called "TA engines") are thermoacoustic devices which use high-amplitude sound waves to pump heat from one place to another, or conversely use a heat difference to induce high-amplitude sound waves.
Thomas Royds (April 11, 1884 – May 1, 1955) was a Solar physicist who worked with Ernest Rutherford on the identification of alpha radiation as the nucleus of the helium atom, and who was Director of the Kodaikanal Solar Observatory.
Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.
In physics and classical mechanics, the three-body problem is the problem of taking an initial set of data that specifies the positions, masses, and velocities of three bodies for some particular point in time and then determining the motions of the three bodies, in accordance with Newton's laws of motion and of universal gravitation, which are the laws of classical mechanics.
In music, timbre (also known as tone color or tone quality from psychoacoustics) is the perceived sound quality of a musical note, sound or tone.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
The discovery of the 118 chemical elements known to exist today is presented here in chronological order.
In Greek mythology, the Titans (Greek: Τιτάν, Titán, Τiτᾶνες, Titânes) and Titanesses (or Titanides; Greek: Τιτανίς, Titanís, Τιτανίδες, Titanídes) were members of the second generation of divine beings, descending from the primordial deities and preceding the Olympians.
Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
A tracer-gas leak testing method is a nondestructive testing method that detects gas leaks.
Trimix is a breathing gas consisting of oxygen, helium and nitrogen and is often used in deep commercial diving, during the deep phase of dives carried out using technical diving techniques, and in advanced recreational diving.
The triple-alpha process is a set of nuclear fusion reactions by which three helium-4 nuclei (alpha particles) are transformed into carbon.
Tritium (or; symbol or, also known as hydrogen-3) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen.
In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is any pattern of fluid motion characterized by chaotic changes in pressure and flow velocity.
, also known as EX and, is a Japanese television network with its headquarters in Roppongi, Minato, Tokyo, Japan.
Ullage or headspace is the unfilled space in a container, particularly with a liquid.
For most of the 20th century, the United States Bureau of Mines (USBM) was the primary United States government agency conducting scientific research and disseminating information on the extraction, processing, use, and conservation of mineral resources.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
The United States Department of the Interior (DOI) is the United States federal executive department of the U.S. government responsible for the management and conservation of most federal lands and natural resources, and the administration of programs relating to Native Americans, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians, territorial affairs, and insular areas of the United States.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprise the legislature of the United States.
The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.
The University of Alberta (also known as U of A and UAlberta) is a public research university located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
The University of Kansas, also referred to as KU or Kansas, is a public research university in the U.S. state of Kansas.
Uppsala (older spelling Upsala) is the capital of Uppsala County and the fourth largest city of Sweden, after Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmö.
Uraninite, formerly pitchblende, is a radioactive, uranium-rich mineral and ore with a chemical composition that is largely UO2, but due to oxidation the mineral typically contains variable proportions of U3O8.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
USS Shenandoah was the first of four United States Navy rigid airships.
A vacuum flask (also known as a Dewar flask, Dewar bottle or thermos) is an insulating storage vessel that greatly lengthens the time over which its contents remain hotter or cooler than the flask's surroundings.
In chemistry, the valence or valency of an element is a measure of its combining power with other atoms when it forms chemical compounds or molecules.
In solid-state physics, the valence band and conduction band are the bands closest to the Fermi level and thus determine the electrical conductivity of the solid.
In molecular physics, the van der Waals forces, named after Dutch scientist Johannes Diderik van der Waals, are distance-dependent interactions between atoms or molecules.
A van der Waals molecule is a weakly bound complex of atoms or molecules held together by intermolecular attractions such as van der Waals forces or by hydrogen bonds.
The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
The vocal tract is the cavity in human beings and in animals where the sound produced at the sound source (larynx in mammals; syrinx in birds) is filtered.
Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally denoted or, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws) is the difference in electric potential between two points.
A wafer, also called a slice or substrate, is a thin slice of semiconductor material, such as a crystalline silicon, used in electronics for the fabrication of integrated circuits and in photovoltaics for conventional, wafer-based solar cells.
The wave equation is an important second-order linear partial differential equation for the description of waves—as they occur in classical physics—such as mechanical waves (e.g. water waves, sound waves and seismic waves) or light waves.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing fusion, which is distinct from lower temperature metal-joining techniques such as brazing and soldering, which do not melt the base metal.
He also developed the first mathematical description of dipole-dipole interactions in 1921.
Sir William Crookes (17 June 1832 – 4 April 1919) was a British chemist and physicist who attended the Royal College of Chemistry in London, and worked on spectroscopy.
William Francis Hillebrand (December 12, 1853 – February 7, 1925) was an American chemist.
Sir William Ramsay (2 October 1852 – 23 July 1916) was a Scottish chemist who discovered the noble gases and received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1904 "in recognition of his services in the discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air" (along with his collaborator, John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, who received the Nobel Prize in Physics that same year for their discovery of argon).
Wolf–Rayet stars, often abbreviated as WR stars, are a rare heterogeneous set of stars with unusual spectra showing prominent broad emission lines of highly ionised helium and nitrogen or carbon.
Wyoming is a state in the mountain region of the western United States.
Xenon is a chemical element with symbol Xe and atomic number 54.
A Zeppelin is a type of rigid airship named after the German Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin who pioneered rigid airship development at the beginning of the 20th century.
Zero-point energy (ZPE) or ground state energy is the lowest possible energy that a quantum mechanical system may have.
Zeta Puppis (ζ Puppis, abbreviated Zeta Pup, ζ Pup), also named Naos, is a star in the constellation of Puppis.
Zirconium is a chemical element with symbol Zr and atomic number 40.
A 1-K pot (i.e. 1-kelvin pot) is a cryogenic device used to attain temperatures down to approximately 1 kelvin.
The 2017–18 Qatar diplomatic crisis began when several countries abruptly cut off diplomatic relations with Qatar in June 2017.
is the idol training department of the third section of the entertainment company Stardust Promotion.
ATC code V03AN03, ATCvet code QV03AN03, Atomic number 2, Balloon grade helium, E939, Element 2, He (element), Helium II, Helium gas, Helium shortage, Helium voice, Inhaling Helium, Solid Helium, Superfluid helium, Two fluid model for helium.