362 relations: Abundance of the chemical elements, Acid, Acid–base reaction, Activated carbon, Airship, Algae, Alloy steel, Aluminium, Aluminium oxide, Ammonia, Ammonia production, Ammonium perchlorate composite propellant, Amorphous carbon, Amorphous metal, Amorphous silicon, Anaerobic corrosion, Angular momentum, Anode, Anoxic waters, Antihydrogen, Antimatter, Antiproton, Antoine Lavoisier, Asphyxia, Astronomy, Atmospheric escape, Atom, Atomic hydrogen welding, Atomic nucleus, Atomic number, Atomic orbital, Aurora, Autoignition temperature, Balloon, Baryon, BBC, BBC Four, Beta decay, Beta particle, Big Bang, Biochemistry, Biological hydrogen production (algae), Birkeland current, Bohr model, Borane, Boron, Boron group, Bravais lattice, Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory, Bridging ligand, ..., Brine, Cadmium oxide, Cambridge University Press, CANDU reactor, Carbon, Carbon capture and storage, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Carbon sequestration, Carborane, Catalysis, Cathode, Cerium(IV) oxide–cerium(III) oxide cycle, Chemical bond, Chemical compound, Chemical element, Chemical formula, Chemical reaction, Chemical species, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Chlorine, Chloroplast, Chromium(III) oxide, CNO cycle, Columbia University, Combustion, Compact star, Compressed hydrogen, Coolant, Coordination complex, Copper–chlorine cycle, Cosmic ray, Covalent bond, Cracking (chemistry), Cryogenics, Cyanobacteria, Dark energy, Dark matter, Dayton, Ohio, Döbereiner's lamp, De Rivaz engine, Density, Detonation, Deuterium, Diatomic molecule, Dihydrogen cation, Dirac equation, Edward Daniel Clarke, Electric generator, Electrolysis, Electrolysis of water, Electromagnetism, Electron, Electron donor, Electronegativity, Electronvolt, Energy density, Energy level, Enzyme, Ernest Rutherford, European Union, Excited state, Exothermic process, Exotic atom, Fayalite, Ferdinand von Zeppelin, Fermentation, Flame detector, Flatulence, Florida Solar Energy Center, Fluorine, Forming gas, Fossil fuel, François Isaac de Rivaz, Frostbite, Fuel cell, Gallium, Gas, Gas giant, Gilbert N. Lewis, Gravity, Ground state, Groundwater, Haber process, Hafnium dioxide, Hafnon, Half-life, Halogen, Harold Urey, Heat capacity, Heat of combustion, Heavy water, Helium, Helium-3, Henri Giffard, Henry Cavendish, Heteroatom, Hindenburg disaster, Hubble Space Telescope, Hybrid sulfur cycle, Hydride, Hydrocarbon, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrodealkylation, Hydrodesulfurization, Hydrogen, Hydrogen atom, Hydrogen bond, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrogen cycle, Hydrogen embrittlement, Hydrogen fluoride, Hydrogen fuel, Hydrogen ion, Hydrogen line, Hydrogen production, Hydrogen-cooled turbo generator, Hydrogenase, Hydrogenation, Hydronium, Inch of mercury, Indium, Inorganic chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry (journal), International Space Station, International Temperature Scale of 1990, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Interstellar medium, Ion, Ionic compound, Iron, Iron oxide, Iron oxide cycle, Iron(II) hydroxide, Iron(III) oxide, Isotope, Isotope geochemistry, Isotopes of hydrogen, IUPAC books, IUPAC nomenclature of chemistry, Jacques Charles, James Dewar, Journal of Biomolecular NMR, Jupiter, Kelvin, Kinetic isotope effect, Kipp's apparatus, Laboratory, Lanthanum aluminate, Lanthanum oxide, Lifting gas, Light-dependent reactions, Light-independent reactions, Limelight, Liquid hydrogen, Lithium aluminium hydride, Lithium hydride, Luminous paint, LZ 129 Hindenburg, Magnesium oxide, Magnetite, Magnetosphere, Mark Oliphant, Mars Global Surveyor, Mass, Metal, Metallic hydrogen, Metalloid, Metallurgy, Methane, Methanol, Methylene group, Metre, Microorganism, Microsecond, Molecular cloud, Molecular geometry, Monatomic gas, Muon, Muonium, NASA, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, National Academies Press, National Academy of Engineering, Natural abundance, Natural gas, Neutron, Neutron moderator, New Jersey, Nickel, Nickel–hydrogen battery, Nitrogen, Nonmetal, NOx, Nuclear fusion, Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Nuclear reactor, Nuclear weapons testing, Olfaction, Olivine, Ore, Organic chemistry, Organic compound, Organism, Outer space, Oxidizing acid, Oxonium ion, Oxygen, Oxyhydrogen, Palladium, Parts-per notation, Path integral formulation, Paul Harteck, Periodic table, Periodic Videos, Phlogiston theory, Phosphorus, Photon, Photosynthesis, Physical Review Letters, Pierre-Simon Laplace, Plasma (physics), Positron, Power station, Pressure swing adsorption, Probability amplitude, Progress in Materials Science, Proton, Proton–proton chain reaction, Pure and Applied Chemistry, Pyruvic acid, Quantum mechanics, Quartz, R33-class airship, Radioactive tracer, Rare-earth element, Recombination (cosmology), Redox, Redshift, Reducing agent, Regenerative cooling, Richard Feynman, Robert Boyle, Rocket propellant, Saturation (chemistry), Schikorr reaction, Schrödinger equation, Science (journal), Shielding gas, Silicon dioxide, Slush hydrogen, Sodium hydride, Soil, Solar wind, Solid hydrogen, Solubility, Space Shuttle main engine, Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster, Special relativity, Spin (physics), Spin isomers of hydrogen, Standard atomic weight, Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, Stanford University, Star, Star formation, Static electricity, Steam reforming, Steel, Stellar nucleosynthesis, Stoichiometry, Strontium titanate, Sulfur–iodine cycle, Superconductivity, Syngas, Taste, Technical University of Denmark, The Hype about Hydrogen, Thermal conductivity, Thermonuclear weapon, Tin(IV) Oxide, Titanium dioxide, Transformer, Transition metal, Transparency and translucency, Triatomic hydrogen, Trihydrogen cation, Triple point, Tritium, Tritium radioluminescence, Ultraviolet, Universe, University of Southern Maine, Vacuum flask, Vacuum polarization, Vegetable oil, Viscosity, Water, Water splitting, Water table, Water-gas shift reaction, Welding, Wiley-Blackwell, Yttrium(III) oxide, Zeppelin, Zinc, Zinc oxide, Zinc–zinc oxide cycle, Zircon, Zirconium, Zirconium dioxide, 2001 Mars Odyssey. 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The abundance of the chemical elements is a measure of the occurrence of the chemical elements relative to all other elements in a given environment.
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
An acid–base reaction is a chemical reaction that occurs between an acid and a base, which can be used to determine pH.
Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal, is a form of carbon processed to have small, low-volume pores that increase the surface area available for adsorption or chemical reactions.
An airship or dirigible balloon is a type of aerostat or lighter-than-air aircraft that can navigate through the air under its own power.
Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
Alloy steel is steel that is alloyed with a variety of elements in total amounts between 1.0% and 50% by weight to improve its mechanical properties.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Aluminium oxide (British English) or aluminum oxide (American English) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula 23.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Ammonia is one of the most highly produced inorganic chemicals.
Ammonium perchlorate composite propellant (APCP) is a modern solid-fuel rocket used in rocket vehicles.
Amorphous carbon is free, reactive carbon that does not have any crystalline structure (also called diamond-like carbon).
An amorphous metal (also known as metallic glass or glassy metal) is a solid metallic material, usually an alloy, with a disordered atomic-scale structure.
Amorphous silicon (a-Si) is the non-crystalline form of silicon used for solar cells and thin-film transistors in LCDs.
Hydrogen corrosion is a form of metal corrosion occurring in the presence of anoxic water.
In physics, angular momentum (rarely, moment of momentum or rotational momentum) is the rotational equivalent of linear momentum.
An anode is an electrode through which the conventional current enters into a polarized electrical device.
Anoxic waters are areas of sea water, fresh water, or groundwater that are depleted of dissolved oxygen and are a more severe condition of hypoxia.
Antihydrogen is the antimatter counterpart of hydrogen.
In modern physics, antimatter is defined as a material composed of the antiparticle (or "partners") to the corresponding particles of ordinary matter.
The antiproton,, (pronounced p-bar) is the antiparticle of the proton.
Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution;; 26 August 17438 May 1794) CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) was a French nobleman and chemist who was central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and who had a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology.
Asphyxia or asphyxiation is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body that arises from abnormal breathing.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
Atmospheric escape is the loss of planetary atmospheric gases to outer space.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
Atomic hydrogen welding (AHW) is an arc welding process that uses an arc between two tungsten electrodes in a shielding atmosphere of hydrogen.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
In quantum mechanics, an atomic orbital is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom.
An aurora (plural: auroras or aurorae), sometimes referred to as polar lights, northern lights (aurora borealis) or southern lights (aurora australis), is a natural light display in the Earth's sky, predominantly seen in the high-latitude regions (around the Arctic and Antarctic).
The autoignition temperature or kindling point of a substance is the lowest temperature at which it spontaneously ignites in normal atmosphere without an external source of ignition, such as a flame or spark.
A balloon is a flexible bag that can be inflated with a gas, such as helium, hydrogen, nitrous oxide, oxygen, air or water.
A baryon is a composite subatomic particle made up of three quarks (a triquark, as distinct from mesons, which are composed of one quark and one antiquark).
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC Four is a British television channel operated by the British Broadcasting Corporation and available to digital television viewers on Freeview, IPTV, satellite, and cable.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
A beta particle, also called beta ray or beta radiation, (symbol β) is a high-energy, high-speed electron or positron emitted by the radioactive decay of an atomic nucleus during the process of beta decay.
The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
The biological hydrogen production with algae is a method of photobiological water splitting which is done in a closed photobioreactor based on the production of hydrogen as a solar fuel by algae.
A Birkeland current is a set of currents that flow along geomagnetic field lines connecting the Earth’s magnetosphere to the Earth's high latitude ionosphere.
In atomic physics, the Rutherford–Bohr model or Bohr model or Bohr diagram, introduced by Niels Bohr and Ernest Rutherford in 1913, depicts the atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in circular orbits around the nucleus—similar to the structure of the Solar System, but with attraction provided by electrostatic forces rather than gravity.
Borane (systematically named trihydridoboron), also called borine, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula.
Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.
The boron group are the chemical elements in group 13 of the periodic table, comprising boron (B), aluminium (Al), gallium (Ga), indium (In), thallium (Tl), and perhaps also the chemically uncharacterized nihonium (Nh).
In geometry and crystallography, a Bravais lattice, named after, is an infinite array of discrete points in three dimensional space generated by a set of discrete translation operations described by: where ni are any integers and ai are known as the primitive vectors which lie in different directions and span the lattice.
The Brønsted–Lowry theory is an acid–base reaction theory which was proposed independently by Johannes Nicolaus Brønsted and Thomas Martin Lowry in 1923.
In coordination chemistry, a bridging ligand is a ligand that connects two or more atoms, usually metal ions.
Brine is a high-concentration solution of salt (usually sodium chloride) in water.
Cadmium oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula CdO.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
The CANDU, for Canada Deuterium Uranium, is a Canadian pressurized heavy-water reactor design used to generate electric power.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) (or carbon capture and sequestration or carbon control and sequestration) is the process of capturing waste carbon dioxide from large point sources, such as fossil fuel power plants, transporting it to a storage site, and depositing it where it will not enter the atmosphere, normally an underground geological formation.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
Carbon sequestration is the process involved in carbon capture and the long-term storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide or other forms of carbon to mitigate or defer global warming.
A carborane is a cluster composed of boron, carbon and hydrogen atoms.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
A cathode is the electrode from which a conventional current leaves a polarized electrical device.
The cerium(IV) oxide–cerium(III) oxide cycle or CeO2/Ce2O3 cycle is a two-step thermochemical process that employs cerium(IV) oxide and cerium(III) oxide for hydrogen production.
A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.
A chemical species is a chemical substance or ensemble composed of chemically identical molecular entities that can explore the same set of molecular energy levels on a characteristic or delineated time scale.
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a single-cell green alga about 10 micrometres in diameter that swims with two flagella.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Chloroplasts are organelles, specialized compartments, in plant and algal cells.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Chromium(III) oxide (or chromia) is the inorganic compound of the formula.
The CNO cycle (for carbon–nitrogen–oxygen) is one of the two known sets of fusion reactions by which stars convert hydrogen to helium, the other being the proton–proton chain reaction.
Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.
Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.
In astronomy, the term "compact star" (or "compact object") refers collectively to white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes.
Compressed hydrogen (CH2, CGH2 or CGH2) is the gaseous state of the element hydrogen kept under pressure.
A coolant is a substance, typically liquid or gas, that is used to reduce or regulate the temperature of a system.
In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.
The copper–chlorine cycle (Cu–Cl cycle) is a four-step thermochemical cycle for the production of hydrogen.
Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
In petrochemistry, petroleum geology and organic chemistry, cracking is the process whereby complex organic molecules such as kerogens or long-chain hydrocarbons are broken down into simpler molecules such as light hydrocarbons, by the breaking of carbon-carbon bonds in the precursors.
In physics, cryogenics is the production and behaviour of materials at very low temperatures.
Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.
In physical cosmology and astronomy, dark energy is an unknown form of energy which is hypothesized to permeate all of space, tending to accelerate the expansion of the universe.
Dark matter is a theorized form of matter that is thought to account for approximately 80% of the matter in the universe, and about a quarter of its total energy density.
Dayton is the sixth-largest city in the state of Ohio and the county seat of Montgomery County.
Döbereiner's lamp, also called a "tinderbox" ("Feuerzeug"), is a lighter invented in 1823 by the German chemist Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner; the lighter is based on the Fürstenberger lighter and was in production until ca.
The de Rivaz engine was a pioneering reciprocating engine designed and developed from 1804 by the Franco-Swiss inventor Isaac de Rivaz.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
Detonation is a type of combustion involving a supersonic exothermic front accelerating through a medium that eventually drives a shock front propagating directly in front of it.
Deuterium (or hydrogen-2, symbol or, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen (the other being protium, or hydrogen-1).
Diatomic molecules are molecules composed of only two atoms, of the same or different chemical elements.
The hydrogen molecular ion, dihydrogen cation, or, is the simplest molecular ion.
In particle physics, the Dirac equation is a relativistic wave equation derived by British physicist Paul Dirac in 1928.
Edward Daniel Clarke (5 June 1769 – 9 March 1822) was an English clergyman, naturalist, mineralogist, and traveller.
In electricity generation, a generator is a device that converts motive power (mechanical energy) into electrical power for use in an external circuit.
In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.
Electrolysis of water is the decomposition of water into oxygen and hydrogen gas due to an electric current passed through the water.
Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
An electron donor is a chemical entity that donates electrons to another compound.
Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.
In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV, also written electron-volt and electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately joules (symbol J).
Energy density is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume.
A quantum mechanical system or particle that is bound—that is, confined spatially—can only take on certain discrete values of energy.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, HFRSE LLD (30 August 1871 – 19 October 1937) was a New Zealand-born British physicist who came to be known as the father of nuclear physics.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
In quantum mechanics, an excited state of a system (such as an atom, molecule or nucleus) is any quantum state of the system that has a higher energy than the ground state (that is, more energy than the absolute minimum).
In thermodynamics, the term exothermic process (exo-: "outside") describes a process or reaction that releases energy from the system to its surroundings, usually in the form of heat, but also in a form of light (e.g. a spark, flame, or flash), electricity (e.g. a battery), or sound (e.g. explosion heard when burning hydrogen).
An exotic atom is an otherwise normal atom in which one or more sub-atomic particles have been replaced by other particles of the same charge.
Fayalite (Fe2SiO4; commonly abbreviated to Fa), also called iron chrysolite, is the iron-rich end-member of the olivine solid-solution series.
Ferdinand Adolf Heinrich August Graf von Zeppelin (8 July 1838 – 8 March 1917) was a German general and later aircraft manufacturer, who founded the Zeppelin airship company.
Fermentation is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen.
A flame detector is a sensor designed to detect and respond to the presence of a flame or fire, allowing flame detection.
Flatulence is defined in the medical literature as "flatus expelled through the anus" or the "quality or state of being flatulent", which is defined in turn as "marked by or affected with gases generated in the intestine or stomach; likely to cause digestive flatulence".
The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) is a research institute of the University of Central Florida, located on a 20-acre (.08 km2) research complex on Florida's Space Coast at UCF's Cocoa satellite campus.
Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.
Forming gas is a mixture of hydrogen (mole fraction varies) and nitrogen.
A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.
François Isaac de Rivaz (Paris, December 19, 1752 – Sion, July 30, 1828) was an inventor and a politician.
Frostbite occurs when exposure to low temperatures causes freezing of the skin or other tissues.
A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through an electrochemical reaction of hydrogen fuel with oxygen or another oxidizing agent.
Gallium is a chemical element with symbol Ga and atomic number 31.
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).
A gas giant is a giant planet composed mainly of hydrogen and helium.
Gilbert Newton Lewis (October 25 (or 23), 1875 – March 23, 1946) was an American physical chemist known for the discovery of the covalent bond and his concept of electron pairs; his Lewis dot structures and other contributions to valence bond theory have shaped modern theories of chemical bonding.
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
The ground state of a quantum mechanical system is its lowest-energy state; the energy of the ground state is known as the zero-point energy of the system.
Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.
The Haber process, also called the Haber–Bosch process, is an artificial nitrogen fixation process and is the main industrial procedure for the production of ammonia today.
Hafnium(IV) oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula HfO2.
Hafnon is a hafnium nesosilicate mineral, chemical formula (Hf,Zr)SiO4 or (Hf,Zr,Th,U,Y)SiO4.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).
Harold Clayton Urey (April 29, 1893 – January 5, 1981) was an American physical chemist whose pioneering work on isotopes earned him the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1934 for the discovery of deuterium.
Heat capacity or thermal capacity is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added to (or removed from) an object to the resulting temperature change.
The heating value (or energy value or calorific value) of a substance, usually a fuel or food (see food energy), is the amount of heat released during the combustion of a specified amount of it.
Heavy water (deuterium oxide) is a form of water that contains a larger than normal amount of the hydrogen isotope deuterium (or D, also known as heavy hydrogen), rather than the common hydrogen-1 isotope (or H, also called protium) that makes up most of the hydrogen in normal water.
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
Helium-3 (He-3, also written as 3He, see also helion) is a light, non-radioactive isotope of helium with two protons and one neutron (common helium having two protons and two neutrons).
Baptiste Jules Henri Jacques Giffard (8 February 182514 April 1882) was a French engineer.
Henry Cavendish FRS (10 October 1731 – 24 February 1810) was a British natural philosopher, scientist, and an important experimental and theoretical chemist and physicist.
In chemistry, a heteroatom (from Ancient Greek heteros, "different", + atomos, "uncut") is any atom that is not carbon or hydrogen.
The Hindenburg disaster occurred on May 6, 1937, in Manchester Township, New Jersey, United States.
The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a space telescope that was launched into low Earth orbit in 1990 and remains in operation.
The hybrid sulfur cycle (HyS) is a two-step water-splitting process intended to be used for hydrogen production.
In chemistry, a hydride is the anion of hydrogen, H−, or, more commonly, it is a compound in which one or more hydrogen centres have nucleophilic, reducing, or basic properties.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
Hydrodealkylation is a chemical reaction that often involves reacting an aromatic hydrocarbon, such as toluene, in the presence of hydrogen gas to form a simpler aromatic hydrocarbon devoid of functional groups.
Hydrodesulfurization (HDS) is a catalytic chemical process widely used to remove sulfur (S) from natural gas and from refined petroleum products, such as gasoline or petrol, jet fuel, kerosene, diesel fuel, and fuel oils.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
A hydrogen atom is an atom of the chemical element hydrogen.
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.
The compound hydrogen chloride has the chemical formula and as such is a hydrogen halide.
Anaerobic fermentation of organic substances to carbon dioxide and methane is a collaborative effort involving many different biochemical reactions, processes and species of microorganisms.
Hydrogen embrittlement is the process by which hydride-forming metals such as titanium, vanadium, zirconium, tantalum, and niobium become brittle and fracture due to the introduction and subsequent diffusion of hydrogen into the metal.
Hydrogen fluoride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula.
Hydrogen fuel is a zero-emission fuel when burned with oxygen.
A hydrogen ion is created when a hydrogen atom loses or gains an electron.
The hydrogen line, 21-centimeter line or H I line refers to the electromagnetic radiation spectral line that is created by a change in the energy state of neutral hydrogen atoms.
Hydrogen production is the family of industrial methods for generating hydrogen.
A hydrogen-cooled turbo generator is a turbo generator with gaseous hydrogen as a coolant.
A hydrogenase is an enzyme that catalyses the reversible oxidation of molecular hydrogen (H2), as shown below: Hydrogen uptake is coupled to the reduction of electron acceptors such as oxygen, nitrate, sulfate, carbon dioxide, and fumarate.
Hydrogenation – to treat with hydrogen – is a chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen (H2) and another compound or element, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as nickel, palladium or platinum.
In chemistry, hydronium is the common name for the aqueous cation, the type of oxonium ion produced by protonation of water.
Inch of mercury (inHg and ″Hg) is a unit of measurement for pressure.
Indium is a chemical element with symbol In and atomic number 49.
Inorganic chemistry deals with the synthesis and behavior of inorganic and organometallic compounds.
Inorganic Chemistry is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Chemical Society since 1962.
The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.
The International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) published by the Consultative Committee for Thermometry (CCT) of the International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM) is an equipment calibration standard for making measurements on the Kelvin and Celsius temperature scales.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.
In astronomy, the interstellar medium (ISM) is the matter and radiation that exists in the space between the star systems in a galaxy.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
In chemistry, an ionic compound is a chemical compound composed of ions held together by electrostatic forces termed ionic bonding.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Iron oxides are chemical compounds composed of iron and oxygen.
The iron oxide cycle (Fe3O4/FeO) is the original two-step thermochemical cycle proposed for use for hydrogen production.
Iron(II) hydroxide or ferrous hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula Fe(OH)2.
Iron(III) oxide or ferric oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Fe2O3.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Isotope geochemistry is an aspect of geology based upon the study of natural variations in the relative abundances of isotopes of various elements.
Hydrogen (1H) has three naturally occurring isotopes, sometimes denoted 1H, 2H, and 3H.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry publishes many books, which contain its complete list of definitions.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) has published four sets of rules to standardize chemical nomenclature.
Jacques Alexandre César Charles (November 12, 1746 – April 7, 1823) was a French inventor, scientist, mathematician, and balloonist.
Sir James Dewar FRS FRSE (20 September 1842 – 27 March 1923) was a Scottish chemist and physicist.
The Journal of Biomolecular NMR publishes research on technical developments and innovative applications of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for the study of structure and dynamic properties of biopolymers in solution, liquid crystals, solids and mixed environments.
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.
The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.
The kinetic isotope effect (KIE) is the change in the reaction rate of a chemical reaction when one of the atoms in the reactants is replaced by one of its isotopes.
Kipp's apparatus, also called Kipp generator, is an apparatus designed for preparation of small volumes of gases.
A laboratory (informally, lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed.
Lanthanum aluminate is an inorganic compound with the formula LaAlO3, often abbreviated as LAO.
Lanthanum oxide is La2O3, an inorganic compound containing the rare earth element lanthanum and oxygen.
Because of Archimedes' principle, a lifting gas is required for aerostats to create buoyancy.
In photosynthesis, the light-dependent reactions take place on the thylakoid membranes.
The light-independent reactions, or dark reactions, of photosynthesis are chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and other compounds into glucose.
Limelight (also known as Drummond light or calcium light)James R. Smith (2004) San Francisco's Lost Landmarks, Quill Driver Books.
Liquid hydrogen (LH2 or LH2) is the liquid state of the element hydrogen.
Lithium aluminium hydride, commonly abbreviated to LAH, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula LiAlH4.
Lithium hydride is an inorganic compound with the formula LiH.
Luminous paint or luminescent paint is paint that exhibits luminescence.
LZ 129 Hindenburg (Luftschiff Zeppelin #129; Registration: D-LZ 129) was a large German commercial passenger-carrying rigid airship, the lead ship of the ''Hindenburg'' class, the longest class of flying machine and the largest airship by envelope volume.
Magnesium oxide (MgO), or magnesia, is a white hygroscopic solid mineral that occurs naturally as periclase and is a source of magnesium (see also oxide).
Magnetite is a rock mineral and one of the main iron ores, with the chemical formula Fe3O4.
A magnetosphere is the region of space surrounding an astronomical object in which charged particles are manipulated or affected by that object's magnetic field.
Sir Marcus Laurence Elwin "Mark" Oliphant (8 October 1901 – 14 July 2000) was an Australian physicist and humanitarian who played an important role in the first experimental demonstration of nuclear fusion and also the development of nuclear weapons.
Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) was an American robotic spacecraft developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and launched November 1996.
Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
Metallic hydrogen is a phase of hydrogen in which it behaves like an electrical conductor.
A metalloid is any chemical element which has properties in between those of metals and nonmetals, or that has a mixture of them.
Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH).
In organic chemistry, a methylene group is any part of a molecule that consists of two hydrogen atoms bound to a carbon atom, which is connected to the remainder of the molecule by a double bond.
The metre (British spelling and BIPM spelling) or meter (American spelling) (from the French unit mètre, from the Greek noun μέτρον, "measure") is the base unit of length in some metric systems, including the International System of Units (SI).
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
A microsecond is an SI unit of time equal to one millionth (0.000001 or 10−6 or 1/1,000,000) of a second.
A molecular cloud, sometimes called a stellar nursery (if star formation is occurring within), is a type of interstellar cloud, the density and size of which permit the formation of molecules, most commonly molecular hydrogen (H2).
Molecular geometry is the three-dimensional arrangement of the atoms that constitute a molecule.
In physics and chemistry, monatomic is a combination of the words "mono" and "atomic", and means "single atom".
The muon (from the Greek letter mu (μ) used to represent it) is an elementary particle similar to the electron, with an electric charge of −1 e and a spin of 1/2, but with a much greater mass.
Muonium is an exotic atom made up of an antimuon and an electron, which was discovered in 1960 by Vernon W. Hughes and is given the chemical symbol Mu.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (also known as "NASEM" or "the National Academies") is the collective scientific national academy of the United States.
The National Academies Press (NAP) was created to publish the reports issued by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, the National Academy of Engineering, the National Academy of Medicine, and the National Research Council.
The National Academy of Engineering (NAE) is an American nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
In physics, natural abundance (NA) refers to the abundance of isotopes of a chemical element as naturally found on a planet.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
In nuclear engineering, a neutron moderator is a medium that reduces the speed of fast neutrons, thereby turning them into thermal neutrons capable of sustaining a nuclear chain reaction involving uranium-235 or a similar fissile nuclide.
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the Northeastern United States.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
A nickel–hydrogen battery (NiH2 or Ni–H2) is a rechargeable electrochemical power source based on nickel and hydrogen.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Apart from hydrogen, nonmetals are located in the p-block. Helium, as an s-block element, would normally be placed next to hydrogen and above beryllium. However, since it is a noble gas, it is instead placed above neon (in the p-block). In chemistry, a nonmetal (or non-metal) is a chemical element that mostly lacks metallic attributes.
In atmospheric chemistry, is a generic term for the nitrogen oxides that are most relevant for air pollution, namely nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide.
In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons).
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, most commonly known as NMR spectroscopy or magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), is a spectroscopic technique to observe local magnetic fields around atomic nuclei.
A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.
Nuclear weapons tests are experiments carried out to determine the effectiveness, yield, and explosive capability of nuclear weapons.
Olfaction is a chemoreception that forms the sense of smell.
The mineral olivine is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg2+, Fe2+)2SiO4.
An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies.
An oxidizing acid is a Brønsted acid that is a strong oxidizing agent.
In chemistry, an oxonium ion is any oxygen cation with three bonds.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Oxyhydrogen is a mixture of hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (O2) gases.
Palladium is a chemical element with symbol Pd and atomic number 46.
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
The path integral formulation of quantum mechanics is a description of quantum theory that generalizes the action principle of classical mechanics.
Paul Karl Maria Harteck (20 July 190222 January 1985) was a German physical chemist.
The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends.
The Periodic Table of Videos (usually shortened to Periodic Videos) is a series of videos about chemical elements and the periodic table.
The phlogiston theory is a superseded scientific theory that postulated that a fire-like element called phlogiston is contained within combustible bodies and released during combustion.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
Physical Review Letters (PRL), established in 1958, is a peer-reviewed, scientific journal that is published 52 times per year by the American Physical Society.
Pierre-Simon, marquis de Laplace (23 March 1749 – 5 March 1827) was a French scholar whose work was important to the development of mathematics, statistics, physics and astronomy.
Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.
The positron or antielectron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron.
A power station, also referred to as a power plant or powerhouse and sometimes generating station or generating plant, is an industrial facility for the generation of electric power.
Pressure swing adsorption (PSA) is a technology used to separate some gas species from a mixture of gases under pressure according to the species' molecular characteristics and affinity for an adsorbent material.
In quantum mechanics, a probability amplitude is a complex number used in describing the behaviour of systems.
Progress in Materials Science is a journal publishing review articles covering most areas of materials science, published by the Pergamon imprint of Elsevier.
The proton–proton chain reaction is one of the two (known) sets of fusion reactions by which stars convert hydrogen to helium.
Pure and Applied Chemistry (abbreviated Pure Appl. Chem.) is the official journal for the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).
Pyruvic acid (CH3COCOOH) is the simplest of the alpha-keto acids, with a carboxylic acid and a ketone functional group.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.
The R33 class of British rigid airships were built for the Royal Naval Air Service during the First World War, but were not completed until after the end of hostilities, by which time the RNAS had become part of the Royal Air Force.
A radioactive tracer, or radioactive label, is a chemical compound in which one or more atoms have been replaced by a radionuclide so by virtue of its radioactive decay it can be used to explore the mechanism of chemical reactions by tracing the path that the radioisotope follows from reactants to products.
A rare-earth element (REE) or rare-earth metal (REM), as defined by IUPAC, is one of a set of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the fifteen lanthanides, as well as scandium and yttrium.
In cosmology, recombination refers to the epoch at which charged electrons and protons first became bound to form electrically neutral hydrogen atoms.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
In physics, redshift happens when light or other electromagnetic radiation from an object is increased in wavelength, or shifted to the red end of the spectrum.
A reducing agent (also called a reductant or reducer) is an element (such as calcium) or compound that loses (or "donates") an electron to another chemical species in a redox chemical reaction.
Regenerative cooling is a method of cooling gases in which compressed gas is cooled by allowing it to expand and thereby take heat from the surroundings.
Richard Phillips Feynman (May 11, 1918 – February 15, 1988) was an American theoretical physicist, known for his work in the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum electrodynamics, and the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, as well as in particle physics for which he proposed the parton model.
Robert Boyle (25 January 1627 – 31 December 1691) was an Anglo-Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, and inventor.
Rocket propellant is a material used either directly by a rocket as the reaction mass (propulsive mass) that is ejected, typically with very high speed, from a rocket engine to produce thrust, and thus provide spacecraft propulsion, or indirectly to produce the reaction mass in a chemical reaction.
In chemistry, saturation (from the Latin word saturare, meaning 'to fill') has diverse meanings, all based on the idea of reaching a maximum capacity.
The Schikorr reaction formally describes the conversion of the iron(II) hydroxide (Fe(OH)2) into iron(II,III) oxide (Fe3O4).
In quantum mechanics, the Schrödinger equation is a mathematical equation that describes the changes over time of a physical system in which quantum effects, such as wave–particle duality, are significant.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Shielding gases are inert or semi-inert gases that are commonly used in several welding processes, most notably gas metal arc welding and gas tungsten arc welding (GMAW and GTAW, more popularly known as MIG and TIG, respectively).
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
Slush hydrogen is a combination of liquid hydrogen and solid hydrogen at the triple point with a lower temperature and a higher density than liquid hydrogen.
Sodium hydride is the chemical compound with the empirical formula NaH.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
The solar wind is a stream of charged particles released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun, called the corona.
Solid hydrogen is the solid state of the element hydrogen, achieved by decreasing the temperature below hydrogen's melting point of (−434.45 °F).
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.
The Aerojet Rocketdyne RS-25, otherwise known as the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME), is a liquid-fuel cryogenic rocket engine that was used on NASA's Space Shuttle and is planned to be used on its successor, the Space Launch System.
The Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) were the first solid fuel motors to be used for primary propulsion on a vehicle used for human spaceflight and provided the majority of the Space Shuttle's thrust during the first two minutes of flight.
In physics, special relativity (SR, also known as the special theory of relativity or STR) is the generally accepted and experimentally well-confirmed physical theory regarding the relationship between space and time.
In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.
Molecular hydrogen occurs in two isomeric forms, one with its two proton nuclear spins aligned parallel (orthohydrogen), the other with its two proton spins aligned antiparallel (parahydrogen).
The standard atomic weight (Ar, standard, a relative atomic mass) is the atomic weight (Ar) of a chemical element, as appearing and met in the earthly environment.
Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.
Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.
A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.
Star formation is the process by which dense regions within molecular clouds in interstellar space, sometimes referred to as "stellar nurseries" or "star-forming regions", collapse and form stars.
Static electricity is an imbalance of electric charges within or on the surface of a material.
Steam reforming is a method for producing hydrogen, carbon monoxide, or other useful products from hydrocarbon fuels such as natural gas.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
Stellar nucleosynthesis is the theory explaining the creation (nucleosynthesis) of chemical elements by nuclear fusion reactions between atoms within the stars.
Stoichiometry is the calculation of reactants and products in chemical reactions.
Strontium titanate is an oxide of strontium and titanium with the chemical formula SrTiO3.
The sulfur–iodine cycle (S–I cycle) is a three-step thermochemical cycle used to produce hydrogen.
Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials, called superconductors, when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.
Syngas, or synthesis gas, is a fuel gas mixture consisting primarily of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and very often some carbon dioxide.
Taste, gustatory perception, or gustation is one of the five traditional senses that belongs to the gustatory system.
The Technical University of Denmark (Danmarks Tekniske Universitet), often simply referred to as DTU, is a university in Kongens Lyngby, just north of Copenhagen, Denmark.
The Hype about Hydrogen: Fact and Fiction in the Race to Save the Climate is a book by Joseph J. Romm, published in 2004 by Island Press and updated in 2005.
Thermal conductivity (often denoted k, λ, or κ) is the property of a material to conduct heat.
A thermonuclear weapon is a second-generation nuclear weapon design using a secondary nuclear fusion stage consisting of implosion tamper, fusion fuel, and spark plug which is bombarded by the energy released by the detonation of a primary fission bomb within, compressing the fuel material (tritium, deuterium or lithium deuteride) and causing a fusion reaction.
Tin(IV) Oxide, also known as stannic oxide, is the inorganic compound with the formula SnO2.
Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV) oxide or titania, is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium, chemical formula.
A transformer is a static electrical device that transfers electrical energy between two or more circuits through electromagnetic induction.
In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.
In the field of optics, transparency (also called pellucidity or diaphaneity) is the physical property of allowing light to pass through the material without being scattered.
Triatomic hydrogen or H3 is an unstable triatomic molecule containing only hydrogen.
The trihydrogen cation, also known as protonated molecular hydrogen or, is one of the most abundant ions in the universe.
In thermodynamics, the triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which the three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium.
Tritium (or; symbol or, also known as hydrogen-3) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen.
Tritium lumination is the use of gaseous tritium, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen, to create visible light.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.
The University of Southern Maine (USM) is a multi-campus public comprehensive university and part of the University of Maine System.
A vacuum flask (also known as a Dewar flask, Dewar bottle or thermos) is an insulating storage vessel that greatly lengthens the time over which its contents remain hotter or cooler than the flask's surroundings.
In quantum field theory, and specifically quantum electrodynamics, vacuum polarization describes a process in which a background electromagnetic field produces virtual electron–positron pairs that change the distribution of charges and currents that generated the original electromagnetic field.
Vegetable oils, or vegetable fats, are fats extracted from seeds, or less often, from other parts of fruits.
The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
Water splitting is the general term for a chemical reaction in which water is separated into oxygen and hydrogen.
The water table is the upper surface of the zone of saturation.
The water-gas shift reaction (WGSR) describes the reaction of carbon monoxide and water vapor to form carbon dioxide and hydrogen (the mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen (not water) is known as water gas): The water gas shift reaction was discovered by Italian physicist Felice Fontana in 1780.
Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing fusion, which is distinct from lower temperature metal-joining techniques such as brazing and soldering, which do not melt the base metal.
Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.
Yttrium oxide, also known as yttria, is Y2O3.
A Zeppelin is a type of rigid airship named after the German Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin who pioneered rigid airship development at the beginning of the 20th century.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
Zinc oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula ZnO.
The zinc–zinc oxide cycle or Zn–ZnO cycle is a two step thermochemical cycle based on zinc and zinc oxide for hydrogen production with a typical efficiency around 40%.
Zircon is a mineral belonging to the group of nesosilicates.
Zirconium is a chemical element with symbol Zr and atomic number 40.
Zirconium dioxide, sometimes known as zirconia (not to be confused with zircon), is a white crystalline oxide of zirconium.
2001 Mars Odyssey is a robotic spacecraft orbiting the planet Mars.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
Atomic number 1, Compressed Gaseous Hydrogen, Compressed gaseous hydrogen, Dihydrogen, Diprotium, E949, Element 1, Gaseous hydrogen, H (element), History of hydrogen, Hydrogen gas, Hydrogen molecule, Hydrogen position in periodic table, H₂, Inflammable air, Molecular hydrogen, Monatomic hydrogen, Proteum.