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Hydrogen is a chemical element with chemical symbol H and atomic number 1. [1]

347 relations: Abundance of the chemical elements, Acid, Acid–base reaction, Activated carbon, Airship, Algae, Alloy steel, Aluminium, Aluminium oxide, Ammonia, Ammonia production, Amorphous carbon, Amorphous metal, Amorphous silicon, Anaerobic corrosion, Angular momentum, Anode, Anoxic waters, Antihydrogen, Antimatter, Antiproton, Antoine Lavoisier, Asphyxia, Atmospheric escape, Atom, Atomic hydrogen welding, Atomic mass unit, Atomic nucleus, Atomic number, Atomic orbital, Aurora, Autoignition temperature, Balloon, Baryon, BBC, BBC Four, Beta decay, Beta particle, Big Bang, Biochemistry, Biological hydrogen production (Algae), Birkeland current, Bohr model, Borane, Boron, Boron group, Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory, Bridging ligand, Brine, Cadmium oxide, ..., Cambridge University Press, CANDU reactor, Carbon, Carbon capture and storage, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Carbon sequestration, Carborane, Catalysis, Cathode, Cerium(IV) oxide–cerium(III) oxide cycle, Chemical bond, Chemical compound, Chemical element, Chemical formula, Chemical nomenclature, Chemical reaction, Chemical species, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Chlorine, Chloroplast, Chromium(III) oxide, CNO cycle, Columbia University, Combustion, Compact star, Compressed hydrogen, Coolant, Coordination complex, Copper–chlorine cycle, Cosmic ray, Covalent bond, Cracking (chemistry), Cryogenics, Crystal structure, Cyanobacteria, Dark energy, Dark matter, Dayton, Ohio, Döbereiner's lamp, De Rivaz engine, Density, Detonation, Deuterium, Diatomic molecule, Dihydrogen cation, Dirac equation, Edward Daniel Clarke, Electric generator, Electrolysis, Electrolysis of water, Electromagnetism, Electron donor, Electronegativity, Electronvolt, Energy density, Energy level, Enzyme, Ernest Rutherford, European Union, Excited state, Exothermic process, Fayalite, Ferdinand von Zeppelin, Fermentation, Flame detector, Flatulence, Florida Solar Energy Center, Fluorine, Forming gas, Fossil fuel, François Isaac de Rivaz, Frostbite, Fuel cell, Gallium, Gas, Gas giant, Gilbert N. Lewis, Gravity, Ground state, Groundwater, Haber process, Hafnium(IV) oxide, Hafnon, Half-life, Halogen, Harold Urey, Heat capacity, Heat of combustion, Heavy water, Helium, Helium-3, Henri Giffard, Henry Cavendish, Heteroatom, Hindenburg disaster, Hubble Space Telescope, Hybrid sulfur cycle, Hydride, Hydrocarbon, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrodealkylation, Hydrodesulfurization, Hydrogen, Hydrogen atom, Hydrogen bond, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrogen cycle, Hydrogen embrittlement, Hydrogen fluoride, Hydrogen fuel, Hydrogen ion, Hydrogen production, Hydrogen-cooled turbo generator, Hydrogenase, Hydrogenation, Hydronium, Inch of mercury, Indium, Inorganic chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry (journal), International Space Station, International Temperature Scale of 1990, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Interstellar medium, Ion, Ionic compound, Iron, Iron oxide, Iron oxide cycle, Iron(II) hydroxide, Iron(III) oxide, Isotope, Isotope geochemistry, Isotopic labeling, Jacques Charles, James Dewar, Journal of Biomolecular NMR, Jupiter, Kelvin, Kinetic isotope effect, Kipp's apparatus, Laboratory, Lanthanum aluminate, Lanthanum oxide, Lifting gas, Light-dependent reactions, Light-independent reactions, Limelight, Liquid hydrogen, Lithium aluminium hydride, Lithium hydride, Luminous paint, LZ 129 Hindenburg, Magnesium oxide, Magnetite, Magnetosphere, Mark Oliphant, Mars Global Surveyor, Mass, Metal, Metallic hydrogen, Metalloid, Metallurgy, Methane, Methanol, Methylene group, Metre, Microorganism, Molecular cloud, Molecule, Monatomic gas, NASA, National Academies Press, National Academy of Engineering, National Research Council (United States), Natural abundance, Natural gas, Neutron, Neutron moderator, New Jersey, Nickel, Nickel–hydrogen battery, Nitrogen, Nonmetal, NOx, Nuclear fusion, Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Nuclear reactor, Nuclear weapons testing, Olfaction, Olivine, Ore, Organic chemistry, Organic compound, Organism, Oxidizing acid, Oxonium ion, Oxygen, Oxyhydrogen, Palladium, Parts-per notation, Path integral formulation, Paul Harteck, Periodic table, Phlogiston theory, Phosphorus, Photon, Photosynthesis, Pierre-Simon Laplace, Plasma (physics), Positron, Power station, Pressure swing adsorption, Probability amplitude, Progress in Materials Science, Proton–proton chain reaction, Pyruvic acid, Quantum mechanics, Quartz, R33-class airship, Rare earth element, Recombination (cosmology), Redox, Redshift, Reducing agent, Regenerative cooling, Relative atomic mass, Richard Feynman, Robert Boyle, Saturation (chemistry), Schikorr reaction, Schrödinger equation, Science (journal), Shielding gas, Silicon dioxide, Slush hydrogen, Soil, Solar wind, Solid hydrogen, Solubility, Space Shuttle main engine, Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster, Special relativity, Spin (physics), Spin isomers of hydrogen, Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, Stanford University, Star, Star formation, Static electricity, Steam reforming, Steel, Stellar nucleosynthesis, Stoichiometry, Strontium titanate, Sulfur–iodine cycle, Superconductivity, Symbol (chemistry), Syngas, Taste, Technical University of Denmark, The Hype about Hydrogen, The Periodic Table of Videos, Thermal conductivity, Thermonuclear weapon, Tin dioxide, Titanium dioxide, Transformer, Transition metal, Transparency and translucency, Triatomic hydrogen, Trihydrogen cation, Triple point, Tritium, Tritium illumination, Ultraviolet, Universe, University of Southern Maine, Vacuum flask, Vacuum polarization, Vegetable oil, Viscosity, Water, Water splitting, Water table, Water-gas shift reaction, Welding, Yttrium(III) oxide, Zeppelin, Zinc, Zinc oxide, Zinc–zinc oxide cycle, Zircon, Zirconium, Zirconium dioxide, 2001 Mars Odyssey. 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Abundance of the chemical elements

The abundance of a chemical element measures how common is the element relative to all other elements in a given environment.

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An acid (from the Latin acidus/acēre meaning sour) is a chemical substance whose aqueous solutions are characterized by a sour taste, the ability to turn blue litmus red, and the ability to react with bases and certain metals (like calcium) to form salts.

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Acid–base reaction

An acid–base reaction is a chemical reaction that occurs between an acid and a base.

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Activated carbon

Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal, activated coal, or carbo activatus, is a form of carbon processed to have small, low-volume pores that increase the surface area available for adsorption or chemical reactions.

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An airship or dirigible is a type of aerostat or lighter-than-air aircraft which can navigate through the air under its own power.

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Algae (or; singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of eukaryotes that are not necessarily closely related and are thus polyphyletic.

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Alloy steel

Alloy steel is steel that is alloyed with a variety of elements in total amounts between 1.0% and 50% by weight to improve its mechanical properties.

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Aluminium (or aluminum; see) is a chemical element in the boron group with symbol Al and atomic number 13.

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Aluminium oxide

Aluminium oxide is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula 23.

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Ammonia or azane is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.

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Ammonia production

Because of its many uses, ammonia is one of the most highly produced inorganic chemicals.

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Amorphous carbon

Amorphous carbon is free, reactive carbon that does not have any crystalline structure (also called diamond-like carbon).

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Amorphous metal

An amorphous metal (also known metallic glass or glassy metal) is a solid metallic material, usually an alloy, with a disordered atomic-scale structure.

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Amorphous silicon

Amorphous silicon (a-Si) is the non-crystalline form of silicon used for solar cells and thin-film transistors in LCD displays.

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Anaerobic corrosion

Hydrogen corrosion is a form of metal corrosion occurring in the presence of anoxic water.

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Angular momentum

In physics, angular momentum (rarely, moment of momentum or rotational momentum) is the rotational analog of linear momentum.

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An anode is an electrode through which conventional current flows into a polarized electrical device.

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Anoxic waters

Anoxic waters are areas of sea water, fresh water or groundwater that are depleted of dissolved oxygen and are a more severe condition of hypoxia.

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Antihydrogen is the antimatter counterpart of hydrogen.

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In particle physics, antimatter is material composed of antiparticles, which have the same mass as particles of ordinary matter but opposite charges, as well as other particle properties such as lepton and baryon numbers and quantum spin.

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The antiproton,, (pronounced p-bar) is the antiparticle of the proton.

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Antoine Lavoisier

Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution; 26 August 17438 May 1794) was a French nobleman and chemist central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology.

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Asphyxia or asphyxiation (from Ancient Greek α- "without" and σφύξις sphyxis, "squeeze" (throb of heart)) is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body that arises from abnormal breathing.

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Atmospheric escape

Atmospheric escape is the loss of planetary atmospheric gases to outer space.

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An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.

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Atomic hydrogen welding

Atomic hydrogen welding (AHW) is an arc welding process that uses an arc between two metal tungsten electrodes in a shielding atmosphere of hydrogen.

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Atomic mass unit

The unified atomic mass unit (symbol: u) or dalton (symbol: Da) is the standard unit that is used for indicating mass on an atomic or molecular scale (atomic mass).

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Atomic nucleus

The nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom.

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Atomic number

In chemistry and physics, the atomic number of a chemical element (also known as its proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom of that element, and therefore identical to the charge number of the nucleus.

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Atomic orbital

An atomic orbital is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom.

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An aurora is a natural light display in the sky, predominantly seen in the high latitude (Arctic and Antarctic) regions.

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Autoignition temperature

The autoignition temperature or kindling point of a substance is the lowest temperature at which it will spontaneously ignite in normal atmosphere without an external source of ignition, such as a flame or spark.

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A balloon is a flexible bag that can be inflated with a gas, such as helium, hydrogen, nitrous oxide, oxygen, or air.

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A baryon is a composite subatomic particle made up of three quarks (as distinct from mesons, which are composed of one quark and one antiquark).

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The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is the public-service broadcaster of the United Kingdom, headquartered at Broadcasting House in London.

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BBC Four

BBC Four is a British television channel operated by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) and available to digital television viewers on Freeview, IPTV, satellite, and cable.

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Beta decay

In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a proton is transformed into a neutron, or vice versa, inside an atomic nucleus.

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Beta particle

Beta particles are high-energy, high-speed electrons or positrons emitted by certain types of radioactive nuclei, such as potassium-40.

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Big Bang

The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.

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Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.

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Biological hydrogen production (Algae)

The biological hydrogen production with algae is a method of photobiological water splitting which is done in a closed photobioreactor based on the production of hydrogen as a solar fuel by algae.

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Birkeland current

A Birkeland current is a set of currents that flow along geomagnetic field lines connecting the Earth’s magnetosphere to the Earth's high latitude ionosphere.

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Bohr model

In atomic physics, the Rutherford–Bohr model or Bohr model, introduced by Niels Bohr in 1913, depicts the atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in circular orbits around the nucleus—similar in structure to the solar system, but with attraction provided by electrostatic forces rather than gravity.

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Borane (also systematically named trihydridoboron), also called borine, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula.

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Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.

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Boron group

The boron group are the chemical elements in group 13 of the periodic table, comprising boron (B), aluminium (Al), gallium (Ga), indium (In), thallium (Tl), and ununtrium (Uut).

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Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory

The Brønsted–Lowry theory is an acid–base reaction theory which was proposed independently by Johannes Nicolaus Brønsted and Thomas Martin Lowry in 1923.

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Bridging ligand

A bridging ligand is a ligand that connects two or more atoms, usually metal ions.

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Brine is a solution of salt (usually sodium chloride) in water.

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Cadmium oxide

Cadmium oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula CdO.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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CANDU reactor

The CANDU (short for CANada Deuterium Uranium) reactor is a Canadian-invented, pressurized heavy water reactor used for generating electric power.

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Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

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Carbon capture and storage

Carbon capture and storage (CCS) (or carbon capture and sequestration) is the process of capturing waste carbon dioxide from large point sources, such as fossil fuel power plants, transporting it to a storage site, and depositing it where it will not enter the atmosphere, normally an underground geological formation.

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas vital to life on Earth.

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Carbon monoxide

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.

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Carbon sequestration

Carbon sequestration is the process of capture and long-term storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide.

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A carborane is a cluster composed of boron, carbon and hydrogen atoms.

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Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalyst.

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A cathode is the electrode from which a conventional current leaves a polarized electrical device.

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Cerium(IV) oxide–cerium(III) oxide cycle

The cerium(IV) oxide–cerium(III) oxide cycle or CeO2/Ce2O3 cycle is a two-step thermochemical process that employs cerium(IV) oxide and cerium(III) oxide for hydrogen production.

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Chemical bond

A chemical bond is an attraction between atoms that allows the formation of chemical substances that contain two or more atoms.

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Chemical compound

A chemical compound (or just compound if used in the context of chemistry) is an entity consisting of two or more different atoms which associate via chemical bonds.

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Chemical element

A chemical element (or element) is a chemical substance consisting of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (i.e. the same atomic number, Z).

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Chemical formula

A chemical formula is a way of expressing information about the proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound, using a single line of chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.

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Chemical nomenclature

A chemical nomenclature is a set of rules to generate systematic names for chemical compounds.

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Chemical reaction

A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.

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Chemical species

Chemical species are atoms, molecules, molecular fragments, ions, etc., subjected to a chemical process or to a measurement.

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Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a single-cell green alga about 10 micrometres in diameter that swims with two flagella.

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Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.

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Chloroplasts are organelles, specialized subunits, in plant and algal cells.

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Chromium(III) oxide

Chromium(III) oxide is the inorganic compound of the formula Cr2O3.

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CNO cycle

The CNO cycle (for carbon–nitrogen–oxygen) is one of the two (known) sets of fusion reactions by which stars convert hydrogen to helium, the other being the proton–proton chain reaction.

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Columbia University

Columbia University (officially Columbia University in the City of New York) is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.

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Combustion or burning is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.

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Compact star

In astronomy, the term compact star (sometimes compact object) is used to refer collectively to white dwarfs, neutron stars, other exotic dense stars, and black holes.

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Compressed hydrogen

Compressed hydrogen (CH2, CGH2 or CGH2) is the gaseous state of the element hydrogen kept under pressure.

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A coolant is a fluid which flows through or around a device to prevent its overheating, transferring the heat produced by the device to other devices that use or dissipate it.

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Coordination complex

In chemistry, a coordination complex or metal complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.

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Copper–chlorine cycle

The copper–chlorine cycle (Cu–Cl cycle) is a four-step thermochemical cycle for the production of hydrogen.

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Cosmic ray

Cosmic rays are immensely high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System.

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Covalent bond

A covalent bond is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.

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Cracking (chemistry)

In petroleum geology and chemistry, cracking is the process whereby complex organic molecules such as kerogens or heavy hydrocarbons are broken down into simpler molecules such as light hydrocarbons, by the breaking of carbon-carbon bonds in the precursors.

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In physics, cryogenics is the study of the production and behaviour of materials at very low temperatures.

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Crystal structure

In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline liquid or solid.

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Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, is a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis.

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Dark energy

In physical cosmology and astronomy, dark energy is an unknown form of energy which is hypothesized to permeate all of space, tending to accelerate the expansion of the universe.

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Dark matter

Dark matter is a hypothetical kind of matter that cannot be seen with telescopes but would account for most of the matter in the universe.

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Dayton, Ohio

Dayton (local pronunciation) is the sixth largest city in the state of Ohio and is the county seat of Montgomery County.

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Döbereiner's lamp

Döbereiner's lamp is a lighter invented in 1823 by the German chemist Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner, the lighter is based on the Fürstenberger lighter and was in production until ca.

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De Rivaz engine

The de Rivaz engine was a pioneering reciprocating engine designed and developed from 1804 by the Franco-Swiss inventor Isaac de Rivaz.

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The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.

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Detonation is a type of combustion involving a supersonic exothermic front accelerating through a medium that eventually drives a shock front propagating directly in front of it.

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Deuterium (symbol or, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen.

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Diatomic molecule

Diatomic molecules are molecules composed of only two atoms, of either the same or different chemical elements.

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Dihydrogen cation

The hydrogen molecular ion, dihydrogen cation, or H2+, is the simplest molecular ion.

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Dirac equation

In particle physics, the Dirac equation is a relativistic wave equation derived by British physicist Paul Dirac in 1928.

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Edward Daniel Clarke

Edward Daniel Clarke (5 June 1769 – 9 March 1822) was an English clergyman, naturalist, mineralogist, and traveller.

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Electric generator

In electricity generation, a generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy for use in an external circuit.

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In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.

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Electrolysis of water

Electrolysis of water is the decomposition of water (H2O) into oxygen (O2) and hydrogen gas (H2) due to an electric current being passed through the water.

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Electromagnetism is a branch of physics which involves the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.

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Electron donor

An electron donor is a chemical entity that donates electrons to another compound.

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Electronegativity, symbol χ, is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom or a functional group to attract electrons (or electron density) towards itself.

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In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV; also written electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately 160 zeptojoules (symbol zJ) or joules (symbol J).

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Energy density

Energy density is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume or mass, though the latter is more accurately termed specific energy.

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Energy level

A quantum mechanical system or particle that is bound—that is, confined spatially—can only take on certain discrete values of energy.

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Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Ernest Rutherford

Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, (30 August 1871 – 19 October 1937) was a New Zealand-born British physicist who became known as the father of nuclear physics.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a politico-economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Excited state

Excitation is an elevation in energy level above an arbitrary baseline energy state.

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Exothermic process

In thermodynamics, the term exothermic process (exo-: "outside") describes a process or reaction that releases energy from the system, usually in the form of heat, but also in a form of light (e.g. a spark, flame, or flash), electricity (e.g. a battery), or sound (e.g. explosion heard when burning hydrogen).

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Fayalite (Fe2SiO4; commonly abbreviated to Fa), also called iron chrysolite, is the iron-rich end-member of the olivine solid-solution series.

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Ferdinand von Zeppelin

Ferdinand Adolf Heinrich August Graf von Zeppelin (also known as Ferdinand Graf von Zeppelin, Graf Zeppelin and in English, Count Zeppelin) (8 July 1838 – 8 March 1917) was a German general and later aircraft manufacturer.

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Fermentation is a metabolic process that converts sugar to acids, gases or alcohol.

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Flame detector

A flame detector is a sensor designed to detect and respond to the presence of a flame or fire.

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Flatulence is defined in the medical literature as "flatus expelled through the anus" or the "quality or state of being flatulent", which is defined in turn as "marked by or affected with gases generated in the intestine or stomach; likely to cause digestive flatulence".

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Florida Solar Energy Center

The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) is a research institute of the University of Central Florida, located on a 20-acre (.08 km2) research complex on Florida's Space Coast at UCF's Cocoa satellite campus.

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Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.

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Forming gas

Forming gas is a mixture of hydrogen (mole fraction varies) and nitrogen.

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Fossil fuel

Fossil fuels are fuels formed by natural processes such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms.

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François Isaac de Rivaz

François Isaac de Rivaz (Paris, December 19, 1752 – Sion, July 30, 1828) was an inventor and a politician.

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Frostbite is the medical condition in which localized damage is caused to skin and other tissues due to freezing.

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Fuel cell

A fuel cell is a device that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through a chemical reaction of positively charged hydrogen ions with oxygen or another oxidizing agent.

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Gallium is a chemical element with symbol Ga and atomic number 31.

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Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).

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Gas giant

A gas giant is a giant planet composed mainly of hydrogen and helium.

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Gilbert N. Lewis

Gilbert Newton Lewis (October 23, 1875 – March 23, 1946) was an American physical chemist known for the discovery of the covalent bond and his concept of electron pairs; his Lewis dot structures and other contributions to valence bond theory have shaped modern theories of chemical bonding.

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Gravity or gravitation is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass are brought towards (or 'gravitate' towards) one another including stars, planets, galaxies and even light and sub-atomic particles.

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Ground state

The ground state of a quantum mechanical system is its lowest-energy state; the energy of the ground state is known as the zero-point energy of the system.

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Groundwater (or ground water) is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.

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Haber process

The Haber process, also called the Haber–Bosch process, is an artificial nitrogen fixation process and is the main industrial procedure for the production of ammonia today.

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Hafnium(IV) oxide

Hafnium(IV) oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula HfO2.

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Hafnon is a hafnium silicate mineral, chemical formula (Hf,Zr)SiO4 or (Hf,Zr,Th,U,Y)SiO4.

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Half-life (t1⁄2) is the amount of time required for the amount of something to fall to half its initial value.

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The halogens or halogen elements are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).

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Harold Urey

Harold Clayton Urey (April 29, 1893 – January 5, 1981) was an American physical chemist whose pioneering work on isotopes earned him the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1934 for the discovery of deuterium.

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Heat capacity

Heat capacity or thermal capacity is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added to (or removed from) an object to the resulting temperature change.

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Heat of combustion

The heat of combustion (\Delta H_c^\circ) is the energy released as heat when a compound undergoes complete combustion with oxygen under standard conditions.

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Heavy water

Heavy water (deuterium oxide or) is a form of water that contains a larger than normal amount of the hydrogen isotope deuterium (or D, also known as heavy hydrogen), rather than the common hydrogen-1 isotope (or H, also called protium) that makes up most of the hydrogen in regular water.

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Helium is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.

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Helium-3 (He-3) is a light, non-radioactive isotope of helium with two protons and one neutron, in contrast with two neutrons in common helium.

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Henri Giffard

Henri Giffard (8 February 182514 April 1882) was a French engineer.

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Henry Cavendish

Henry Cavendish FRS (10 October 1731 – 24 February 1810) was a British natural philosopher, scientist, and an important experimental and theoretical chemist and physicist.

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In organic chemistry, a heteroatom (from Ancient Greek heteros, different, + atomos) is any atom that is not carbon or hydrogen in a ring structure.

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Hindenburg disaster

The Hindenburg disaster took place on Thursday, May 6, 1937, as the German passenger airship LZ 129 ''Hindenburg'' caught fire and was destroyed during its attempt to dock with its mooring mast at Naval Air Station Lakehurst, which is located adjacent to the borough of Lakehurst, New Jersey, United States.

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Hubble Space Telescope

The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a space telescope that was launched into low Earth orbit in 1990, and remains in operation.

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Hybrid sulfur cycle

The hybrid sulfur cycle (HyS) is a two-step water-splitting process intended to be used for hydrogen production.

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In chemistry, a Hydride is the anion of hydrogen, H−, or, more commonly, it is a compound in which one or more hydrogen centres have nucleophilic, reducing, or basic properties.

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In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.

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Hydrochloric acid

Hydrochloric acid is a clear, colorless, highly pungent solution of hydrogen chloride (HCl) in water.

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Hydrodealkylation is a chemical reaction that often involves reacting an aromatic hydrocarbon, such as toluene, in the presence of hydrogen gas to form a simpler aromatic hydrocarbon devoid of functional groups.

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Hydrodesulfurization (HDS) is a catalytic chemical process widely used to remove sulfur (S) from natural gas and from refined petroleum products such as gasoline or petrol, jet fuel, kerosene, diesel fuel, and fuel oils.

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Hydrogen is a chemical element with chemical symbol H and atomic number 1.

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Hydrogen atom

A hydrogen atom is an atom of the chemical element hydrogen.

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Hydrogen bond

A hydrogen bond is the electrostatic attraction between polar molecules that occurs when a hydrogen (H) atom bound to a highly electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O) or fluorine (F) experiences attraction to some other nearby highly electronegative atom.

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Hydrogen chloride

The compound hydrogen chloride has the chemical formula.

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Hydrogen cycle

Anaerobic fermentation of organic substances to carbon dioxide and methane is a collaborative effort involving many different biochemical reactions, processes and species of microorganisms.

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Hydrogen embrittlement

Hydrogen embrittlement is the process by which metals such as steel become brittle and fracture due to the introduction and subsequent diffusion of hydrogen into the metal.

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Hydrogen fluoride

Hydrogen fluoride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula HF.

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Hydrogen fuel

Hydrogen fuel is a zero-emission fuel which uses electrochemical cells, or combustion in internal engines, to power vehicles and electric devices.

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Hydrogen ion

Hydrogen ion is recommended by IUPAC as a general term for all ions of hydrogen and its isotopes.

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Hydrogen production

Hydrogen production is the family of industrial methods for generating hydrogen.

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Hydrogen-cooled turbo generator

A hydrogen-cooled turbo generator is a turbo generator with gaseous hydrogen as a coolant.

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A hydrogenase is an enzyme that catalyses the reversible oxidation of molecular hydrogen (H2), as shown below: Hydrogen uptake (1) is coupled to the reduction of electron acceptors such as oxygen, nitrate, sulfate, carbon dioxide, and fumarate.

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Hydrogenation – to treat with hydrogen – is a chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen (H2) and another compound or element, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as nickel, palladium or platinum.

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In chemistry, hydronium is the common name for the aqueous cation, the type of oxonium ion produced by protonation of water.

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Inch of mercury

Inches of mercury, (inHg and "Hg) is a unit of measurement for pressure.

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Indium is a chemical element with symbol In and atomic number 49.

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Inorganic chemistry

Inorganic chemistry deals with the synthesis and behavior of inorganic and organometallic compounds.

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Inorganic Chemistry (journal)

Inorganic Chemistry is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Chemical Society since 1962.

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International Space Station

The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.

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International Temperature Scale of 1990

The International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) published by the Consultative Committee for Thermometry (CCT) of the International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM) is an equipment calibration standard for making measurements on the Kelvin and Celsius temperature scales.

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International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry

The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC, or) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.

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Interstellar medium

In astronomy, the interstellar medium (ISM) is the matter that exists in the space between the star systems in a galaxy.

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An ion is an atom or a molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving the atom or molecule a net positive or negative electrical charge.

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Ionic compound

In chemistry, an ionic compound is a chemical compound in which ions are held together in a structure by electrostatic forces termed ionic bonds.

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Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

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Iron oxide

Iron oxides are chemical compounds composed of iron and oxygen.

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Iron oxide cycle

The iron oxide cycle (Fe3O4/FeO) is the original two-step thermochemical cycle proposed for use for hydrogen production.

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Iron(II) hydroxide

Iron(II) hydroxide or ferrous hydroxide is a compound with the formula Fe(OH)2.

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Iron(III) oxide

Iron(III) oxide or ferric oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Fe2O3.

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Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number, although all isotopes of a given element have the same number of protons in each atom.

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Isotope geochemistry

Isotope geochemistry is an aspect of geology based upon study of the natural variations in the relative abundances of isotopes of various elements.

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Isotopic labeling

Isotopic labeling (or isotopic labelling) is a technique used to track the passage of an isotope, or an atom with a variation, through a reaction, metabolic pathway, or cell.

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Jacques Charles

Jacques Alexandre César Charles (November 12, 1746 – April 7, 1823) was a French inventor, scientist, mathematician, and balloonist.

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James Dewar

Sir James Dewar (20 September 1842 – 27 March 1923) was a Scottish chemist and physicist.

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Journal of Biomolecular NMR

The Journal of Biomolecular NMR publishes research on technical developments and innovative applications of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for the study of structure and dynamic properties of biopolymers in solution, liquid crystals, solids and mixed environments.

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Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest planet in the Solar System.

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The kelvin is a unit of measure for temperature based upon an absolute scale.

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Kinetic isotope effect

The kinetic isotope effect (KIE) is the change in the rate of a chemical reaction when one of the atoms in the reactants is substituted with one of its isotopes.

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Kipp's apparatus

Kipp's apparatus, also called Kipp generator, is an apparatus designed for preparation of small volumes of gases.

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A laboratory (or; informally, lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed.

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Lanthanum aluminate

Lanthanum aluminate is an inorganic compound with the formula LaAlO3, often abbreviated as LAO.

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Lanthanum oxide

Lanthanum oxide is La2O3, an inorganic compound containing the rare earth element lanthanum and oxygen.

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Lifting gas

Because of Archimedes' principle, a lifting gas is required for aerostats to create buoyancy.

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Light-dependent reactions

In photosynthesis, the light-dependent reactions take place on the thylakoid membranes.

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Light-independent reactions

The light-independent reactions of photosynthesis are chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and other compounds into glucose.

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Limelight (also known as Drummond light or calcium light)James R. Smith (2004) San Francisco's Lost Landmarks, Quill Driver Books is a type of stage lighting once used in theatres and music halls.

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Liquid hydrogen

Liquid hydrogen (LH2 or LH2) is the liquid state of the element hydrogen.

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Lithium aluminium hydride

Lithium aluminium hydride, commonly abbreviated to LAH, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula LiAlH4.

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Lithium hydride

Lithium hydride is the inorganic compound with the formula LiH.

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Luminous paint

Luminous paint or luminescent paint is paint that exhibits luminescence.

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LZ 129 Hindenburg

LZ 129 Hindenburg (Luftschiff Zeppelin #129; Registration: D-LZ 129) was a large German commercial passenger-carrying rigid airship, the lead ship of the ''Hindenburg'' class, the longest class of flying machine and the largest airship by envelope volume.

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Magnesium oxide

Magnesium oxide (MgO), or magnesia, is a white hygroscopic solid mineral that occurs naturally as periclase and is a source of magnesium (see also oxide).

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Magnetite is a mineral, one of the three common naturally occurring iron oxides (chemical formula Fe3O4) and a member of the spinel group.

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A magnetosphere is the region of space surrounding an astronomical object in which charged particles are controlled by that object's magnetic field.

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Mark Oliphant

Sir Marcus "Mark" Laurence Elwin Oliphant, (8 October 1901 – 14 July 2000) was an Australian physicist and humanitarian who played an important role in the first experimental demonstration of nuclear fusion and also the development of nuclear weapons.

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Mars Global Surveyor

Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) was a US robotic spacecraft developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and launched November 1996.

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In physics, mass is a property of a physical body which determines the strength of its mutual gravitational attraction to other bodies, its resistance to being accelerated by a force, and in the theory of relativity gives the mass–energy content of a system.

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A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.

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Metallic hydrogen

Metallic hydrogen is a phase of hydrogen in which it behaves as an electrical conductor.

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A metalloid is a chemical element with properties in between, or that are a mixture of, those of metals and nonmetals.

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Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.

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Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).

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No description.

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Methylene group

In organic chemistry, a methylene group is any part of a molecule that consists of two hydrogen atoms bound to a carbon atom, which is connected to the remainder of the molecule by a double bond.

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The metre, American spelling meter, (from the Greek noun μέτρον, "measure") is the base unit of length in the International System of Units (SI).

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A microorganism (from the μικρός, mikros, "small" and ὀργανισμός, organismós, "organism") is a microscopic living organism, which may be single celled or multicellular.

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Molecular cloud

A molecular cloud, sometimes called a stellar nursery (if star formation is occurring within), is a type of interstellar cloud, the density and size of which permit the formation of molecules, most commonly molecular hydrogen (H2).

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A molecule (from Latin moles "mass") is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

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Monatomic gas

In physics and chemistry, monatomic is a combination of the words "mono" and "atomic," and means "single atom." It is usually applied to gases: a monatomic gas is one in which atoms are not bound to each other.

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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is the United States government agency responsible for the civilian space program as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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National Academies Press

The National Academies Press (NAP) was created to publish the reports issued by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, the National Academy of Engineering, the Institute of Medicine, and the National Research Council.

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National Academy of Engineering

The National Academy of Engineering (NAE) is a government-created non-profit institution in the United States that was founded in 1964 under the same congressional act that led to the founding of the National Academy of Sciences.

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National Research Council (United States)

The National Research Council (NRC) is the working arm of the United States National Academies, which produces reports that shape policies, inform public opinion, and advance the pursuit of science, engineering, and medicine.

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Natural abundance

In physics, natural abundance (NA) refers to the abundance of isotopes of a chemical element as naturally found on a planet.

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Natural gas

Natural gas is a fossil fuel formed when layers of decomposing plant and animal matter are exposed to intense heat and pressure over thousands of years.

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The neutron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, with no net electric charge and a mass slightly larger than that of a proton.

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Neutron moderator

In nuclear engineering, a neutron moderator is a medium that reduces the speed of fast neutrons, thereby turning them into thermal neutrons capable of sustaining a nuclear chain reaction involving uranium-235 or a similar fissile nuclide.

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New Jersey

New Jersey is a state in the Northeastern and Middle Atlantic regions of the United States.

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Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.

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Nickel–hydrogen battery

A nickel–hydrogen battery (NiH2 or Ni–H2) is a rechargeable electrochemical power source based on nickel and hydrogen.

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Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.

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In chemistry, a nonmetal (or non-metal) is a chemical element that mostly lacks metallic attributes.

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NOx is a generic term for the mono-nitrogen oxides NO and NO2 (nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide).

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Nuclear fusion

In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a nuclear reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come very close and then collide at a very high speed and join to form a new nucleus.

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Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, most commonly known as NMR spectroscopy, is a research technique that exploits the magnetic properties of certain atomic nuclei.

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Nuclear reactor

A nuclear reactor, formerly known as atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a sustained nuclear chain reaction.

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Nuclear weapons testing

Nuclear weapons tests are experiments carried out to determine the effectiveness, yield, and explosive capability of nuclear weapons.

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Olfaction, also known as olfactics, is the sense of smell.

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The mineral olivine is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg+2, Fe+2)2SiO4.

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An ore is a type of rock that contains sufficient minerals with important elements including metals that can be economically extracted from the rock.

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Organic chemistry

Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.

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Organic compound

An organic compound is any member of a large class of gaseous, liquid, or solid chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon.

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In biology, an organism is any contiguous living system, such as an animal, plant or bacterium.

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Oxidizing acid

An oxidizing acid is a Brønsted acid that is also a strong oxidizing agent.

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Oxonium ion

In chemistry, an oxonium ion is any oxygen cation with three bonds.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Oxyhydrogen is a mixture of hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (O2) gases.

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Palladium is a chemical element with symbol Pd and atomic number 46.

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Parts-per notation

In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.

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Path integral formulation

The path integral formulation of quantum mechanics is a description of quantum theory which generalizes the action principle of classical mechanics.

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Paul Harteck

Paul Karl Maria Harteck (20 July 1902 – 22 January 1985) was a German physical chemist.

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Periodic table

The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number (number of protons in the nucleus), electron configurations, and recurring chemical properties.

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Phlogiston theory

The phlogiston theory is an obsolete scientific theory that postulated a fire-like element called phlogiston is contained within combustible bodies and released during combustion.

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Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.

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No description.

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Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy, normally from the Sun, into chemical energy that can be later released to fuel the organisms' activities.

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Pierre-Simon Laplace

Pierre-Simon, marquis de Laplace (23 March 1749 – 5 March 1827) was an influential French scholar whose work was important to the development of mathematics, statistics, physics, and astronomy.

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Plasma (physics)

Plasma (from Greek πλάσμα, "anything formed") is one of the four fundamental states of matter, the others being solid, liquid, and gas.

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The positron or antielectron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron.

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Power station

A power station (also referred to as a generating station, power plant, powerhouse, or generating plant) is an industrial facility for the generation of electric power.

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Pressure swing adsorption

Pressure swing adsorption (PSA) is a technology used to separate some gas species from a mixture of gases under pressure according to the species' molecular characteristics and affinity for an adsorbent material.

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Probability amplitude

In quantum mechanics, a probability amplitude is a complex number used in describing the behaviour of systems.

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Progress in Materials Science

Progress in Materials Science is a journal publishing review articles covering most areas of materials science, published by the Pergamon imprint of Elsevier.

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Proton–proton chain reaction

The proton–proton chain reaction is one of two nuclear fusion reactions, along with the CNO cycle, by which stars convert hydrogen to helium and which dominates in stars the size of the Sun or smaller.

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Pyruvic acid

Pyruvic acid (CH3COCOOH) is the simplest of the alpha-keto acids, with a carboxylic acid and a ketone functional group.

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Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, or quantum theory), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental branch of physics concerned with processes involving, for example, atoms and photons.

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Quartz is the second most abundant mineral in the Earth's continental crust, after feldspar.

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R33-class airship

The R33 class of British rigid airships were built for the Royal Naval Air Service during the First World War, but were not completed until after the end of hostilities, by which time the RNAS had become part of the Royal Air Force.

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Rare earth element

A rare earth element (REE) or rare earth metal (REM), as defined by IUPAC, is one of a set of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the fifteen lanthanides, as well as scandium and yttrium.

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Recombination (cosmology)

In cosmology, recombination refers to the epoch at which charged electrons and protons first became bound to form electrically neutral hydrogen atoms.

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Redox reactions include all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation state changed; in general, redox reactions involve the transfer of electrons between species.

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In physics, redshift happens when light or other electromagnetic radiation from an object is increased in wavelength, or shifted to the red end of the spectrum.

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Reducing agent

A reducing agent (also called a reductant or reducer) is an element or compound that loses (or "donates") an electron to another chemical species in a redox chemical reaction.

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Regenerative cooling

Regenerative cooling is a method of cooling gases in which compressed gas is cooled by allowing it to expand and thereby take heat from the surroundings.

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Relative atomic mass

Relative atomic mass (symbol: A) is a dimensionless physical quantity, the ratio of the average mass of atoms of an element (from a single given sample or source) to of the mass of an atom of carbon-12 (known as the unified atomic mass unit).

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Richard Feynman

Richard Phillips Feynman, (May 11, 1918 – February 15, 1988) was an American theoretical physicist known for his work in the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum electrodynamics, and the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, as well as in particle physics for which he proposed the parton model.

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Robert Boyle

Robert Boyle FRS was an Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist and inventor born in Lismore, County Waterford, Ireland.

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Saturation (chemistry)

In chemistry, saturation (from the Latin word saturare, meaning to fill) has diverse meanings, all based on reaching a maximum capacity.

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Schikorr reaction

The Schikorr reaction formally describes the conversion of the iron(II) hydroxide (Fe(OH)2) into iron(II,III) oxide (Fe3O4).

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Schrödinger equation

In quantum mechanics, the Schrödinger equation is a partial differential equation that describes how the quantum state of a physical system changes with time.

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Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and is one of the world's top scientific journals.

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Shielding gas

Shielding gases are inert or semi-inert gases that are commonly used in several welding processes, most notably gas metal arc welding and gas tungsten arc welding (GMAW and GTAW, more popularly known as MIG and TIG, respectively).

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Silicon dioxide

Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is a chemical compound that is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula.

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Slush hydrogen

Slush hydrogen is a combination of liquid hydrogen and solid hydrogen at the triple point with a lower temperature and a higher density than liquid hydrogen.

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Soil is the mixture of minerals, organic matter, gases, liquids, and the countless organisms that together support life on earth.

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Solar wind

The solar wind is a stream of charged particles released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun.

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Solid hydrogen

Solid hydrogen is the solid state of the element hydrogen, achieved by decreasing the temperature below hydrogen's melting point of.

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Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid, or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid, or gaseous solvent to form a solution of the solute in the solvent.

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Space Shuttle main engine

The Aerojet Rocketdyne RS-25, otherwise known as the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), is a liquid-fuel cryogenic rocket engine that was used on NASA's Space Shuttle and is planned to be used on its successor, the Space Launch System.

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Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster

The Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) were the first solid fuel motors to be used for primary propulsion on a vehicle used for human spaceflight and provided the majority of the Space Shuttle's thrust during the first two minutes of flight.

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Special relativity

In physics, special relativity (SR, also known as the special theory of relativity or STR) is the generally accepted physical theory regarding the relationship between space and time.

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Spin (physics)

In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.

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Spin isomers of hydrogen

Molecular hydrogen occurs in two isomeric forms, one with its two proton spins aligned parallel (orthohydrogen), the other with its two proton spins aligned antiparallel (parahydrogen).

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Standard conditions for temperature and pressure

Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.

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Stanford University

Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University) is a private research university in Stanford, California, and one of the world's most prestigious institutions, with the top position in numerous rankings and measures in the United States.

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A star is a luminous sphere of plasma held together by its own gravity.

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Star formation

Star formation is the process by which dense regions within molecular clouds in interstellar space, sometimes referred to as "stellar nurseries" or "star-forming regions", collapse to form stars.

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Static electricity

Static electricity is an imbalance of electric charges within or on the surface of a material.

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Steam reforming

Steam reforming is a method for producing hydrogen, carbon monoxide, or other useful products from hydrocarbon fuels such as natural gas.

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Steels are alloys of iron and other elements, primarily carbon, widely used in construction and other applications because of their high tensile strengths and low costs.

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Stellar nucleosynthesis

Stellar nucleosynthesis is the process by which the natural abundances of the chemical elements within stars vary due to nuclear fusion reactions in the cores and overlying mantles of stars.

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Stoichiometry is the calculation of relative quantities of reactants and products in chemical reactions.

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Strontium titanate

Strontium titanate is an oxide of strontium and titanium with the chemical formula SrTiO3.

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Sulfur–iodine cycle

The sulfur–iodine cycle (S–I cycle) is a three-step thermochemical cycle used to produce hydrogen.

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Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic fields occurring in certain materials when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.

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Symbol (chemistry)

In chemistry, a symbol is a code for a chemical element.

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Syngas, or synthesis gas, is a fuel gas mixture consisting primarily of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and very often some carbon dioxide.

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Taste, gustatory perception, or gustation is the sensory impression of food or other substances on the tongue and is one of the five traditional senses.

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Technical University of Denmark

The Technical University of Denmark (Danmarks Tekniske Universitet), often simply referred to as DTU, is a university in Kongens Lyngby, just north of Copenhagen, Denmark.

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The Hype about Hydrogen

The Hype about Hydrogen: Fact and Fiction in the Race to Save the Climate is a book by Joseph J. Romm, published in 2004 by Island Press and updated in 2005.

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The Periodic Table of Videos

The Periodic Table of Videos is a series of videos on YouTube produced by Brady Haran, a former BBC video journalist, featuring Sir Martyn Poliakoff ("The Professor"), Peter Licence, Stephen Liddle, Debbie Kays, Neil Barnes, Sam Tang and others at the University of Nottingham.

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Thermal conductivity

In physics, thermal conductivity (often denoted k, λ, or κ) is the property of a material to conduct heat.

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Thermonuclear weapon

A thermonuclear weapon is a nuclear weapon that uses the energy from a primary nuclear fission reaction to compress and ignite a secondary nuclear fusion reaction.

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Tin dioxide

Tin (IV) oxide, also known by the systematic name stannic oxide in the older notation, is the inorganic compound with the formula SnO2.

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Titanium dioxide

Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV) oxide or titania, is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium, chemical formula.

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A transformer is an electrical device that transfers electrical energy between two or more circuits through electromagnetic induction.

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Transition metal

In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has two possible meanings.

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Transparency and translucency

In the field of optics, transparency (also called pellucidity or diaphaneity) is the physical property of allowing light to pass through the material without being scattered.

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Triatomic hydrogen

Triatomic hydrogen or H3 is an unstable triatomic molecule containing only hydrogen.

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Trihydrogen cation

The trihydrogen cation, also known as protonated molecular hydrogen or H3+, is one of the most abundant ions in the universe.

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Triple point

In thermodynamics, the triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which the three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium.

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Tritium (or; symbol or, also known as hydrogen-3) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen.

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Tritium illumination

Tritium illumination is the use of gaseous tritium, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen, to create visible light.

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Ultraviolet (UV) light is an electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 400 nm to 100 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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The Universe is all of time and space and its contents.

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University of Southern Maine

The University of Southern Maine (USM) is a multi-campus public comprehensive university and part of the University of Maine System.

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Vacuum flask

A vacuum flask (also known as a Dewar flask, Dewar bottle or Thermos) is an insulating storage vessel that greatly lengthens the time over which its contents remain hotter or cooler than the flask's surroundings.

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Vacuum polarization

In quantum field theory, and specifically quantum electrodynamics, vacuum polarization describes a process in which a background electromagnetic field produces virtual electron–positron pairs that change the distribution of charges and currents that generated the original electromagnetic field.

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Vegetable oil

A vegetable oil is a triglyceride extracted from a plant.

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The viscosity of a fluid is a measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.

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Water (chemical formula: H2O) is a transparent fluid which forms the world's streams, lakes, oceans and rain, and is the major constituent of the fluids of organisms.

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Water splitting

Water splitting is the general term for a chemical reaction in which water is separated into oxygen and hydrogen.

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Water table

The water table is the surface where the water pressure head is equal to the atmospheric pressure (where gauge pressure.

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Water-gas shift reaction

The water-gas shift reaction (WGSR) describes the reaction of carbon monoxide and water vapor to form carbon dioxide and hydrogen (the mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen is known as water gas): The water gas shift reaction was discovered by Italian physicist Felice Fontana in 1780.

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Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing fusion, which is distinct from lower temperature metal-joining techniques such as brazing and soldering, which do not melt the base metal.

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Yttrium(III) oxide

Yttrium oxide, also known as yttria, is Y2O3.

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A Zeppelin was a type of rigid airship named after the German Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin who pioneered rigid airship development at the beginning of the 20th century.

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Zinc, in commerce also spelter, is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.

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Zinc oxide

Zinc oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula ZnO.

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Zinc–zinc oxide cycle

The zinc–zinc oxide cycle or Zn–ZnO cycle is a two step thermochemical cycle based on zinc and zinc oxide for hydrogen production with a typical efficiency around 40%.

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Zircon (or; including hyacinth or yellow zircon) is a mineral belonging to the group of nesosilicates.

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Zirconium is a chemical element with symbol Zr and atomic number 40.

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Zirconium dioxide

Zirconium dioxide, sometimes known as zirconia (not to be confused with zircon), is a white crystalline oxide of zirconium.

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2001 Mars Odyssey

2001 Mars Odyssey is a robotic spacecraft orbiting the planet Mars.

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Atomic number 1, Compressed Gaseous Hydrogen, Compressed gaseous hydrogen, Dihydrogen, E949, Element 1, Element I, Gaseous hydrogen, H (element), History of hydrogen, Hydrogen molecule, Hydrogen position in periodic table, H₂, Inflammable air, Molecular hydrogen, Monatomic hydrogen, Proteum.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogen

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