98 relations: Alexandria, Alkaline phosphatase, Alum, American Academy of Pediatrics, Autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets, BBC, Blood test, Bone, Bone density, Bone fracture, Breastfeeding, Calcification, Calcitriol receptor, Calcium, Cholecalciferol, Chronic kidney disease, Cochrane Library, Cod liver oil, Coeliac disease, Costochondral joint, Craniotabes, Daniel Whistler, Dent's disease, Dermatology, Dorset, Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, Edward Mellanby, Epidermal nevus syndrome, Epiphyseal plate, Ergosterol, Fanconi syndrome, Fontanelle, Fracture, Francis Glisson, Genetic disorder, Genu valgum, Genu varum, Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, Greenstick fracture, Harrison's groove, Harry Steenbock, Hip bone, Hypervitaminosis D, Hypocalcaemia, Hypophosphatasia, Hypophosphatemia, Intellectual disability, International unit, John Snow, Kurt Huldschinsky, ..., Kyphoscoliosis, Lordosis, Malabsorption, McCune–Albright syndrome, Medical Hypotheses, Metaphysis, Methodic school, Middle East, Minority group, Neuromuscular junction, Oculocerebrorenal syndrome, Oily fish, Old English, Opacity (optics), Osteomalacia, Pediatrics, Phosphorus, Pre-eclampsia, Preterm birth, Projectional radiography, Rachitic rosary, Radiography, Rare disease, Rome, Scoliosis, Scurvy, Skin cancer, Skull bossing, Somerset, Soranus of Ephesus, Spasm, Special Period, Stunted growth, Sunscreen, Tetany, The Daily Telegraph, The Independent, Ultraviolet, Vertebral column, Vitamin D, Vitamin D deficiency, X-linked dominant inheritance, X-linked hypophosphatemia, X-ray, Yahoo! Voices, 1st century, 20th century, 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-hydroxylase. Expand index (48 more) »
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP, ALKP, ALPase, Alk Phos) or basic phosphatase is a homodimeric protein enzyme of 86 kilodaltons.
An alum is a type of chemical compound, usually a hydrated double sulfate salt of aluminium with the general formula, where X is a monovalent cation such as potassium or ammonium.
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is an American professional association of pediatricians, headquartered in Itasca, Illinois.
Autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (ADHR) is a rare hereditary disease in which excessive loss of phosphate in the urine leads to poorly formed bones (rickets), bone pain, and tooth abscesses.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle, or via fingerprick.
A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.
Bone density, or bone mineral density (BMD), is the amount of bone mineral in bone tissue.
A bone fracture (sometimes abbreviated FRX or Fx, Fx, or #) is a medical condition in which there is a partial or complete break in the continuity of the bone.
Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast.
Calcification is the accumulation of calcium salts in a body tissue.
The calcitriol receptor, more commonly known as the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and also known as NR1I1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 1), is a member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Cholecalciferol, also known as vitamin D3 and colecalciferol, is a type of vitamin D which is made by the skin, found in some foods, and taken as a dietary supplement.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a type of kidney disease in which there is gradual loss of kidney function over a period of months or years.
The Cochrane Library (named after Archie Cochrane) is a collection of databases in medicine and other healthcare specialties provided by Cochrane and other organizations.
Cod liver oil is a dietary supplement derived from liver of cod fish (Gadidae).
Coeliac disease, also spelled celiac disease, is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the small intestine.
The costochondral joints are the joints between the ribs and costal cartilage in the front of the rib cage.
Craniotabes is softening or thinning of the skull in infants and children, which may be normally present in newborns.
Daniel Whistler (1619–1684) was an English physician.
Dent's disease (or Dent disease) is a rare X-linked recessive inherited condition that affects the proximal renal tubules of the kidney.
Dermatology (from ancient Greek δέρμα, derma which means skin and λογία, logia) is the branch of medicine dealing with the skin, nails, hair and its diseases.
Dorset (archaically: Dorsetshire) is a county in South West England on the English Channel coast.
Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, previously DEXA) is a means of measuring bone mineral density (BMD).
Sir Edward Mellanby (8 April 1884 – 30 January 1955) discovered vitamin D and its role in preventing rickets in 1919.
Epidermal nevus syndrome (also known as "Feuerstein and Mims syndrome", and "Solomon's syndrome"Freedberg, et al. (2003). Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine. (6th ed.). McGraw-Hill..) is a rare disease that was first described in 1968 and consists of extensive epidermal nevi with abnormalities of the central nervous system (CNS), skeleton, skin, cardiovascular system, genitourinary system and eyes.
The epiphyseal plate (or epiphysial plate, physis, or growth plate) is a hyaline cartilage plate in the metaphysis at each end of a long bone.
Ergosterol (ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3β-ol) is a sterol found in cell membranes of fungi and protozoa, serving many of the same functions that cholesterol serves in animal cells.
Fanconi syndrome or Fanconi's syndrome is a syndrome of inadequate reabsorption in the proximal renal tubules of the kidney.
A fontanelle (or fontanel) (colloquially, soft spot) is an anatomical feature of the infant human skull comprising any of the soft membranous gaps (sutures) between the cranial bones that make up the calvaria of a fetus or an infant.
A fracture is the separation of an object or material into two or more pieces under the action of stress.
Francis Glisson (1597 – 14 October 1677) was a British physician, anatomist, and writer on medical subjects.
A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome.
Genu valgum, commonly called "knock-knee", is a condition in which the knees angle in and touch each other when the legs are straightened.
Genu varum (also called bow-leggedness, bandiness, bandy-leg, and tibia vara), is a varus deformity marked by (outward) bowing at the knee, which means that the lower leg is angled inward (medially) in relation to the thigh's axis, giving the limb overall the appearance of an archer's bow.
Gonville & Caius College (often referred to simply as Caius) is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in Cambridge, England.
A greenstick fracture is a fracture in a young, soft bone in which the bone bends and breaks.
Harrison's groove, also known as Harrison's sulcus, is a horizontal groove along the lower border of the thorax corresponding to the costal insertion of the diaphragm; it is usually caused by chronic asthma or obstructive respiratory disease.
Harry Steenbock (August 16, 1886, Charlestown, Wisconsin – December 25, 1967, Madison, Wisconsin) was a Professor of Biochemistry at the University of Wisconsin–Madison.
The hip bone (os coxa, innominate bone, pelvic bone or coxal bone) is a large flat bone, constricted in the center and expanded above and below.
Hypervitaminosis D is a state of vitamin D toxicity.
Hypocalcaemia, also spelled hypocalcemia, is low calcium levels in the blood serum.
Hypophosphatasia (also called deficiency of alkaline phosphatase or phosphoethanolaminuria) is a rare, and sometimes fatal, metabolic bone disease.
Hypophosphatemia is an electrolyte disturbance in which there is an abnormally low level of phosphate in the blood.
Intellectual disability (ID), also known as general learning disability, and mental retardation (MR), is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning.
In pharmacology, the international unit is a unit of measurement for the amount of a substance; the mass or volume that constitutes one international unit varies based on which substance is being measured, and the variance is based on the biological activity or effect, for the purpose of easier comparison across substances.
John Snow (15 March 1813 – 16 June 1858) was an English physician and a leader in the adoption of anesthesia and medical hygiene.
Kurt Huldschinsky (born 1883 in Berlin; died 15 December 1940 in Alexandria, Egypt) was a German Pediatrician of Polish heritage (Prussian).
Kyphoscoliosis describes an abnormal curvature of the spine in both a coronal and sagittal plane.
Lordosis is the normal inward lordotic curvature of the lumbar and cervical regions of the human spine.
Malabsorption is a state arising from abnormality in absorption of food nutrients across the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.
McCune–Albright syndrome is a complex genetic disorder affecting the bone, skin, and endocrine systems. It is a mosaic disease arising from somatic activating mutations in GNAS, which encodes the alpha-subunit of the Gs G-coupled protein receptor. These mutations lead to constitutive receptor activation. It was first described in 1937 by Donovan James McCune and Fuller Albright.
Medical Hypotheses is a medical journal published by Elsevier.
The metaphysis is the narrow portion of a long bone between the epiphysis and the diaphysis.
The Methodic school of medicine (Methodics, Methodists, or Methodici, Μεθοδικοί) was an ancient school of medicine in ancient Greece and Rome.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
A minority group refers to a category of people differentiated from the social majority, those who hold on to major positions of social power in a society.
A neuromuscular junction (or myoneural junction) is a chemical synapse formed by the contact between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber.
Oculocerebrorenal syndrome (also called Lowe syndrome) is a rare X-linked recessive disorder characterized by congenital cataracts, hypotonia, intellectual disability, proximal tubular acidosis, aminoaciduria, and low-molecular-weight proteinuria.
Oily fish have oil in their tissues and in the belly cavity around the gut.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
Opacity is the measure of impenetrability to electromagnetic or other kinds of radiation, especially visible light.
Osteomalacia is the softening of the bones caused by impaired bone metabolism primarily due to inadequate levels of available phosphate, calcium, and vitamin D, or because of resorption of calcium.
Pediatrics (also spelled paediatrics or pædiatrics) is the branch of medicine that involves the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a disorder of pregnancy characterized by the onset of high blood pressure and often a significant amount of protein in the urine.
Preterm birth, also known as premature birth, is the birth of a baby at fewer than 37 weeks gestational age.
Projectional radiography is a form of radiography and medical imaging that produces two-dimensional images by x-ray radiation.
The prominent knobs of bone at the costochondral joints of rickets patients are known as a rachitic rosary or beading of the ribs.
Radiography is an imaging technique using X-rays to view the internal form of an object.
A rare disease is any disease that affects a small percentage of the population.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Scoliosis is a medical condition in which a person's spine has a sideways curve.
Scurvy is a disease resulting from a lack of vitamin C (ascorbic acid).
Skin cancers are cancers that arise from the skin.
Skull bossing is a descriptive term in medical physical examination indicating a protuberance of the skull, most often in the frontal bones of the forehead ("frontal bossing").
Somerset (or archaically, Somersetshire) is a county in South West England which borders Gloucestershire and Bristol to the north, Wiltshire to the east, Dorset to the south-east and Devon to the south-west.
Soranus of Ephesus (Σωρανός ὁ Ἑφέσιος; 1st/2nd century AD) was a Greek physician.
A spasm is a sudden involuntary contraction of a muscle, a group of muscles, or a hollow organ such as the heart.
The Special Period in Time of Peace (Período especial) in Cuba was an extended period of economic crisis that began in 1989 primarily due to the dissolution of the Soviet Union and, by extension, the Comecon.
Stunted growth, also known as stunting and nutritional stunting, is a reduced growth rate in human development.
Sunscreen, also known as sunblock, sun cream or suntan lotion, is a lotion, spray, gel or other topical product that absorbs or reflects some of the sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation and thus helps protect against sunburn.
Tetany or tetany seizure is a medical sign consisting of the involuntary contraction of muscles, which may be caused by disease or other conditions that increase the action potential frequency of muscle cells or the nerves that innervate them.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The vertebral column, also known as the backbone or spine, is part of the axial skeleton.
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.
Vitamin D deficiency, or hypovitaminosis D, most commonly results from inadequate sunlight exposure (in particular sunlight with adequate ultraviolet B rays).
X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.
X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH), also called X-linked dominant hypophosphatemic rickets, X-linked vitamin d-resistant rickets, is an X-linked dominant form of rickets (or osteomalacia) that differs from most cases of rickets in that ingestion of vitamin D is relatively ineffective.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
Yahoo! Voices, formerly Associated Content (AC), was a division of Yahoo! that focused on online publishing.
The 1st century was the century that lasted from AD 1 to AD 100 according to the Julian calendar.
The 20th century was a century that began on January 1, 1901 and ended on December 31, 2000.
25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-hydroxylase (VD3 1A hydroxylase) also known as cytochrome p450 27B1 (CYP27B1) or simply 1-alpha-hydroxylase is a cytochrome P450 enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP27B1 gene.