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Breastfeeding

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Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast. [1]

207 relations: Adipose tissue, Aidsmap, American Academy of Pediatrics, Amoeba, Analgesic, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Ankyloglossia, Anti-diabetic medication, Anti-discrimination law, Antioxidant, Areola, Areolar gland, Asian Women (journal), Asthma, Atopy, Baby bottle, Baby-led weaning, Bacteremia, Baptism, Bile salt-dependent lipase, Bilirubin, Birth control, Bisphenol A, Blocked milk duct, Botulism, Breast, Breast cancer, Breast crawl, Breast engorgement, Breast implant, Breast milk, Breast pump, Breast reduction, Breast shell, Breastfeeding in public, Breastfeeding promotion, C-reactive protein, Caesarean section, Caffeine, Canada, Cardiovascular disease, Carnivore, Child, Child development, Cholesterol, Circulatory system, Coeliac disease, Cognitive development, Colostrum, ..., Confounding, Crohn's disease, Dental arch, Developed country, Developing country, Diabetes mellitus, Diabetes mellitus type 1, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diarrhea, Diphtheria, Disease, Diuretic, Encephalitis, Endometrial cancer, English-speaking world, Enzyme, Equality Act 2010, Estrogen, Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, Fertility, Food allergy, Gastrointestinal tract, Gliadin, Gluten, Gluten-free diet, Godparent, Great Britain, Gut flora, HIV, Hormone, Human bonding, Human milk bank, Human T-lymphotropic virus, Ibuprofen, Immunoglobulin A, Imprinting (psychology), Income, India, Infant, Infant formula, Infection control, Influenza, Intelligence, International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes, Jaundice, Jurisdiction, Kangaroo care, La Leche League, Lactation consultant, Lactation failure, Lactation room, Lactational amenorrhea, Lactoferrin, Latch (breastfeeding), Leukemia, Longitudinal study, Low milk supply, Lymphoma, Malocclusion, Mama and papa, Mammary ridge, Management of HIV/AIDS, Marble (toy), Massage, Maternal bond, Maternity leave in the United States, Meningitis, Menstruation, Mercury (element), Milk allergy, Milk kinship, Mouth, Multiple birth, Nasogastric intubation, Necrotizing enterocolitis, Neologism, Nervous system, Nestlé boycott, Nipple confusion, Nobility, Nursing chair, Nutrient, Obesity, Opportunity cost, Oral rehydration therapy, Orthodontics, Otitis, Otitis media, Ovarian cancer, Over-the-counter drug, Ovulation, Oxytocin, Pacifier, Parental leave, Pasteurization, Paternal bond, Polycystic ovary syndrome, Polyunsaturated fat, Pope Francis, Postpartum depression, Postpartum period, Pregnancy, Prescription drug, Preterm birth, Primitive reflexes, Progesterone, Prolactin, Protein, Pseudoephedrine, Psychiatric medication, Ptosis (breasts), Public health, Rada (fiqh), Recreational drug use, Respiratory tract, Respiratory tract infection, Retinal, Rheumatoid arthritis, Roman Empire, Roman Jakobson, Room temperature, Save the Children, Scotland, Sesame Street, Sit-in, Sleep apnea, Smallpox, Smooth muscle tissue, Sudden infant death syndrome, Supplemental nursing system, Surgeon General of the United States, Systematic review, Tetanus, Tuberculosis, Ulcerative colitis, UNICEF, UNICEF UK, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, United States National Library of Medicine, United States Preventive Services Task Force, Urinary tract infection, Uterus, Vaccinia, Viral disease, Viral load, Vitamin D, Wage labour, Weaning, Wet nurse, Whooping cough, World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action, World Health Assembly, World Health Organization, World War II, Yellow fever. Expand index (157 more) »

Adipose tissue

In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.

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Aidsmap

Aidsmap, also known as the NAM Aidsmap, is a website which summarizes HIV and AIDS news for a layman audience.

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American Academy of Pediatrics

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is an American professional association of pediatricians, headquartered in Itasca, Illinois.

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Amoeba

An amoeba (rarely spelled amœba, US English spelled ameba; plural am(o)ebas or am(o)ebae), often called amoeboid, is a type of cell or organism which has the ability to alter its shape, primarily by extending and retracting pseudopods.

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Analgesic

An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.

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Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Ankyloglossia

Ankyloglossia, also known as tongue-tie, is a congenital oral anomaly that may decrease mobility of the tongue tip and is caused by an unusually short, thick lingual frenulum, a membrane connecting the underside of the tongue to the floor of the mouth.

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Anti-diabetic medication

Drugs used in diabetes treat diabetes mellitus by lowering glucose levels in the blood.

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Anti-discrimination law

Anti-discrimination law refers to the law on the right of people to be treated equally.

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Antioxidant

Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules.

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Areola

The human areola (areola mammae, in. or) is the pigmented area on the breast around the nipple.

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Areolar gland

Areolar glands or Glands of Montgomery are sebaceous glands in the areola surrounding the nipple.

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Asian Women (journal)

Asian Women is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal and the official journal of the Research Institute of Asian Women (Sookmyung Women's University).

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Asthma

Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.

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Atopy

Atopy is a predisposition toward developing certain allergic hypersensitivity reactions.

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Baby bottle

A baby bottle, or nursing bottle, or feeding bottle, is a bottle with a teat (also called a nipple in the US) to drink directly from.

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Baby-led weaning

Baby-led weaning (often also referred to as BLW) is a method of adding complementary foods to a baby's diet of breastmilk or formula.

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Bacteremia

Bacteremia (also bacteraemia) is the presence of bacteria in the blood.

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Baptism

Baptism (from the Greek noun βάπτισμα baptisma; see below) is a Christian sacrament of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity.

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Bile salt-dependent lipase

Bile salt-dependent lipase (or BSDL), also known as carboxyl ester lipase (or CEL) is an enzyme produced by the adult pancreas and aids in the digestion of fats.

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Bilirubin

Bilirubin is a yellow compound that occurs in the normal catabolic pathway that breaks down heme in vertebrates.

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Birth control

Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy.

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Bisphenol A

Bisphenol A (BPA) is an organic synthetic compound with the chemical formula (CH3)2C(C6H4OH)2 belonging to the group of diphenylmethane derivatives and bisphenols, with two hydroxyphenyl groups.

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Blocked milk duct

A blocked milk duct is a blockage of one or more ducts carrying milk to the nipple for the purpose of breastfeeding.

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Botulism

Botulism is a rare and potentially fatal illness caused by a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum.

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Breast

The breast is one of two prominences located on the upper ventral region of the torso of primates.

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Breast cancer

Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.

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Breast crawl

Breast crawl is the instinct of mammal (including human) newborns to move towards the nipple and attach to it for breastfeeding all by themselves.

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Breast engorgement

Breast engorgement occurs in the mammary glands due to expansion and pressure exerted by the synthesis and storage of breast milk.

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Breast implant

A breast implant is a prosthesis used to change the size, shape, and contour of a woman’s breast.

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Breast milk

Breast milk is the milk produced by the breasts (or mammary glands) of a human female to feed a child.

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Breast pump

A breast pump is a mechanical device that lactating women use to extract milk from their breasts.

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Breast reduction

Reduction mammoplasty (also breast reduction and reduction mammaplasty) is the plastic surgery procedure for reducing the size of large breasts.

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Breast shell

Breast shells are hollow, lightweight plastic disks worn inside the brassiere to help correct flat or inverted nipples either in preparation for or during breastfeeding.

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Breastfeeding in public

Breastfeeding in public is the practice of breastfeeding babies in a public or semi-public place in open view of the general public.

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Breastfeeding promotion

Breastfeeding promotion refers to coordinated activities and policies to promote health among women, newborns and infants through breastfeeding.

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C-reactive protein

C-reactive protein (CRP) is an annular (ring-shaped), pentameric protein found in blood plasma, whose levels rise in response to inflammation.

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Caesarean section

Caesarean section, also known as C-section or caesarean delivery, is the use of surgery to deliver one or more babies.

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Caffeine

Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.

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Canada

Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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Cardiovascular disease

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.

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Carnivore

A carnivore, meaning "meat eater" (Latin, caro, genitive carnis, meaning "meat" or "flesh" and vorare meaning "to devour"), is an organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging.

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Child

Biologically, a child (plural: children) is a human being between the stages of birth and puberty.

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Child development

Child development entails the biological, psychological and emotional changes that occur in human beings between birth and the end of adolescence, as the individual progresses from dependency to increasing autonomy.

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Cholesterol

Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.

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Christmas

Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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Christmas and holiday season

The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.

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Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.

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Christmas traditions

Christmas traditions vary from country to country.

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Circulatory system

The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.

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Coeliac disease

Coeliac disease, also spelled celiac disease, is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the small intestine.

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Cognitive development

Cognitive development is a field of study in neuroscience and psychology focusing on a child's development in terms of information processing, conceptual resources, perceptual skill, language learning, and other aspects of the developed adult brain and cognitive psychology.

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Colostrum

Colostrum (known colloquially as beestings, bisnings or first milk) is the first form of milk produced by the mammary glands of mammals (including many humans) immediately following delivery of the newborn.

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Confounding

In statistics, a confounder (also confounding variable, confounding factor or lurking variable) is a variable that influences both the dependent variable and independent variable causing a spurious association.

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Crohn's disease

Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus.

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Dental arch

The dental arches are the two arches (crescent arrangements) of teeth, one on each jaw, that together constitute the dentition.

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Developed country

A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.

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Developing country

A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.

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Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.

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Diabetes mellitus type 1

Diabetes mellitus type 1, also known as type 1 diabetes, is a form of diabetes mellitus in which not enough insulin is produced.

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Diabetes mellitus type 2

Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.

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Diarrhea

Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.

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Diphtheria

Diphtheria is an infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae.

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Disease

A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.

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Diuretic

A diuretic is any substance that promotes diuresis, the increased production of urine.

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Encephalitis

Encephalitis is inflammation of the brain.

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Endometrial cancer

Endometrial cancer is a cancer that arises from the endometrium (the lining of the uterus or womb).

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English-speaking world

Approximately 330 to 360 million people speak English as their first language.

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Enzyme

Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Equality Act 2010

The Equality Act 2010 is an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom, and has the same goals as the four major EU Equal Treatment Directives, whose provisions it mirrors and implements.

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Estrogen

Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.

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Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993

The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA) is a United States labor law requiring covered employers to provide employees with job-protected and unpaid leave for qualified medical and family reasons.

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Fertility

Fertility is the natural capability to produce offspring.

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Food allergy

A food allergy is an abnormal immune response to food.

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Gastrointestinal tract

The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.

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Gliadin

Gliadin (a type of prolamin) is a class of proteins present in wheat and several other cereals within the grass genus Triticum.

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Gluten

Gluten (from Latin gluten, "glue") is a composite of storage proteins termed prolamins and glutelins and stored together with starch in the endosperm (which nourishes the embryonic plant during germination) of various cereal (grass) grains.

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Gluten-free diet

A gluten-free diet (GFD) is a diet that strictly excludes gluten, a mixture of proteins found in wheat and related grains, including barley, rye, oat, and all their species and hybrids (such as spelt, kamut, and triticale).

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Godparent

A godparent (also known as a sponsor), in many denominations of Christianity, is someone who bears witness to a child's baptism and then aids in their catechesis, as well as their lifelong spiritual formation.

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Great Britain

Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.

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Gut flora

Gut flora, or gut microbiota, or gastrointestinal microbiota, is the complex community of microorganisms that live in the digestive tracts of humans and other animals, including insects.

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HIV

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

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Hormone

A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.

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Human bonding

Human bonding is the process of development of a close, interpersonal relationship between two or more people.

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Human milk bank

A human milk bank or breast milk bank is a service which collects, screens, processes, and dispenses by prescription human milk donated by nursing mothers who are not biologically related to the recipient infant.

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Human T-lymphotropic virus

The human T-lymphotropic virus, human T-cell lymphotropic virus, or human T-cell leukemia-lymphoma virus (HTLV) family of viruses are a group of human retroviruses that are known to cause a type of cancer called adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and a demyelinating disease called HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP).

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Ibuprofen

Ibuprofen is a medication in the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) class that is used for treating pain, fever, and inflammation.

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Immunoglobulin A

Immunoglobulin A (IgA, also referred to as sIgA in its secretory form) is an antibody that plays a crucial role in the immune function of mucous membranes.

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Imprinting (psychology)

In psychology and ethology, imprinting is any kind of phase-sensitive learning (learning occurring at a particular age or a particular life stage) that is rapid and apparently independent of the consequences of behaviour.

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Income

Income is the consumption and savings opportunity gained by an entity within a specified timeframe, which is generally expressed in monetary terms.

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India

India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Infant

An infant (from the Latin word infans, meaning "unable to speak" or "speechless") is the more formal or specialised synonym for "baby", the very young offspring of a human.

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Infant formula

Infant formula, or baby formula, is a manufactured food designed and marketed for feeding to babies and infants under 12 months of age, usually prepared for bottle-feeding or cup-feeding from powder (mixed with water) or liquid (with or without additional water).

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Infection control

Infection control is the discipline concerned with preventing nosocomial or healthcare-associated infection, a practical (rather than academic) sub-discipline of epidemiology.

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Influenza

Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.

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Intelligence

Intelligence has been defined in many different ways to include the capacity for logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, reasoning, planning, creativity, and problem solving.

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International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes

The International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (also known as the WHO Code) is an international health policy framework for breastfeeding promotion adopted by the World Health Assembly (WHA) of the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1981.

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Jaundice

Jaundice, also known as icterus, is a yellowish or greenish pigmentation of the skin and whites of the eyes due to high bilirubin levels.

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Jurisdiction

Jurisdiction (from the Latin ius, iuris meaning "law" and dicere meaning "to speak") is the practical authority granted to a legal body to administer justice within a defined field of responsibility, e.g., Michigan tax law.

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Kangaroo care

Kangaroo care or kangaroo mother care (KMC), sometimes called skin-to-skin care, is a technique of newborn care where babies are kept skin-to-skin with a parent, typically their mother.

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La Leche League

La Leche League International (LLLI) (La Leche is Spanish for "the milk") is a non-governmental, nonprofit organization that organizes advocacy, educational, and training related to breastfeeding.

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Lactation consultant

A lactation consultant is a health professional who specializes in the clinical management of breastfeeding.

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Lactation failure

In breastfeeding, lactation failure may refer to.

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Lactation room

Lactation room (or Lactorium) is an American English term for a private space where a nursing mother can use a breast pump.

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Lactational amenorrhea

No description.

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Lactoferrin

Lactoferrin (LF), also known as lactotransferrin (LTF), is a multifunctional protein of the transferrin family.

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Latch (breastfeeding)

Latch refers to how the baby fastens onto the breast while breastfeeding.

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Leukemia

Leukemia, also spelled leukaemia, is a group of cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells.

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Longitudinal study

A longitudinal study (or longitudinal survey, or panel study) is a research design that involves repeated observations of the same variables (e.g., people) over short or long periods of time (i.e., uses longitudinal data).

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Low milk supply

In breastfeeding women, low milk supply, also known as lactation insufficiency, insufficient milk syndrome, agalactia, agalactorrhea, hypogalactia or hypogalactorrhea, is the production of breast milk in daily volumes that do not fully meet the nutritional needs of her infant.

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Lymphoma

Lymphoma is a group of blood cancers that develop from lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell).

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Malocclusion

A malocclusion is a misalignment or incorrect relation between the teeth of the two dental arches when they approach each other as the jaws close.

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Mama and papa

In linguistics, mama and papa is the sequences of sounds, and similar ones known to correspond to the word for "mother" and "father" in many languages of the world.

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Mammary ridge

The mammary ridge or mammary crest, is a primordium specific for the development of the mammary gland.

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Management of HIV/AIDS

The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection.

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Marble (toy)

A marble is a small spherical toy often made from glass, clay, steel, plastic or agate.

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Massage

Massage is to work and act on the body with pressure.

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Maternal bond

A maternal bond is the relationship between a mother and her child.

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Maternity leave in the United States

Maternity leave in the United States is regulated by US labor law.

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Meningitis

Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges.

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Menstruation

Menstruation, also known as a period or monthly, is the regular discharge of blood and mucosal tissue (known as menses) from the inner lining of the uterus through the vagina.

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Mercury (element)

Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.

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Milk allergy

Milk allergy is an adverse immune reaction to one or more proteins in cow's milk.

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Milk kinship

Milk kinship, formed during nursing by a non-biological mother, was a form of fostering allegiance with fellow community members.

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Mouth

In animal anatomy, the mouth, also known as the oral cavity, buccal cavity, or in Latin cavum oris, is the opening through which many animals take in food and issue vocal sounds.

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Multiple birth

A multiple birth is the culmination of one multiple pregnancy, wherein the mother delivers two or more offspring.

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Nasogastric intubation

Nasogastric intubation is a medical process involving the insertion of a plastic tube (nasogastric tube or NG tube) through the nose, past the throat, and down into the stomach.

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Necrotizing enterocolitis

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a medical condition where a portion of the bowel dies.

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Neologism

A neologism (from Greek νέο- néo-, "new" and λόγος lógos, "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted into mainstream language.

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Nervous system

The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.

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Nestlé boycott

A boycott was launched in the United States on July 7, 1977, against the Swiss-based Nestlé corporation.

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New Year

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

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New Year's Day

New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.

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New Year's Eve

In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.

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Nipple confusion

Nipple confusion is the tendency of an infant to unsuccessfully adapt between nursing at the breast and then with a nipple on a bottle.

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Nobility

Nobility is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary.

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Nursing chair

A nursing chair is a chair that's comfortable when nursing an infant.

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Nutrient

A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.

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Obesity

Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.

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Opportunity cost

In microeconomic theory, the opportunity cost, also known as alternative cost, is the value (not a benefit) of the choice in terms of the best alternative while making a decision.

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Oral rehydration therapy

Oral rehydration therapy (ORT) is a type of fluid replacement used to prevent and treat dehydration, especially that due to diarrhea.

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Orthodontics

Orthodontia, also called orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics, is a specialty field of dentistry that deals primarily with malpositioned teeth and the jaws: their diagnosis, prevention and correction.

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Otitis

Otitis is a general term for inflammation or infection of the ear, in both humans and other animals.

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Otitis media

Otitis media is a group of inflammatory diseases of the middle ear.

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Ovarian cancer

Ovarian cancer is a cancer that forms in or on an ovary.

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Over-the-counter drug

Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional, as opposed to prescription drugs, which may be sold only to consumers possessing a valid prescription.

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Ovulation

Ovulation is the release of eggs from the ovaries.

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Oxytocin

Oxytocin (Oxt) is a peptide hormone and neuropeptide.

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Pacifier

A pacifier (American English) or dummy (British English), also known as a binky, soother (Canadian English) or teether, is a rubber, plastic or silicone nipple given to an infant to suck upon.

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Parental leave

Parental leave or family leave is an employee benefit available in almost all countries.

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Pasteurization

Pasteurization or pasteurisation is a process in which packaged and non-packaged foods (such as milk and fruit juice) are treated with mild heat (Today, pasteurization is used widely in the dairy industry and other food processing industries to achieve food preservation and food safety. This process was named after the French scientist Louis Pasteur, whose research in the 1880s demonstrated that thermal processing would inactivate unwanted microorganisms in wine. Spoilage enzymes are also inactivated during pasteurization. Most liquid products are heat treated in a continuous system where heat can be applied using plate heat exchanger and/or direct or indirect use of steam and hot water. Due to the mild heat there are minor changes to the nutritional quality of foods as well as the sensory characteristics. Pascalization or high pressure processing (HPP) and Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) are non-thermal processes that are also used to pasteurize foods.

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Paternal bond

A paternal bond is the human bond between a father and his child.

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Polycystic ovary syndrome

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a set of symptoms due to elevated androgens (male hormones) in females.

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Polyunsaturated fat

Polyunsaturated fats are fats in which the constituent hydrocarbon chain possesses two or more carbon–carbon double bonds.

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Pope Francis

Pope Francis (Franciscus; Francesco; Francisco; born Jorge Mario Bergoglio; 17 December 1936) is the 266th and current Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State.

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Postpartum depression

Postpartum depression (PPD), also called postnatal depression, is a type of mood disorder associated with childbirth, which can affect both sexes.

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Postpartum period

A postpartum (or postnatal) period begins immediately after the birth of a child as the mother's body, including hormone levels and uterus size, returns to a non-pregnant state.

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Pregnancy

Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.

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Prescription drug

A prescription drug (also prescription medication or prescription medicine) is a pharmaceutical drug that legally requires a medical prescription to be dispensed.

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Preterm birth

Preterm birth, also known as premature birth, is the birth of a baby at fewer than 37 weeks gestational age.

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Primitive reflexes

Primitive reflexes are reflex actions originating in the central nervous system that are exhibited by normal infants, but not neurologically intact adults, in response to particular stimuli.

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Progesterone

Progesterone (P4) is an endogenous steroid and progestogen sex hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species.

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Prolactin

Prolactin (PRL), also known as luteotropic hormone or luteotropin, is a protein that is best known for its role in enabling mammals, usually females, to produce milk.

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Protein

Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Pseudoephedrine

Pseudoephedrine (PSE) is a sympathomimetic drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes.

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Psychiatric medication

A psychiatric medication is a licensed psychoactive drug taken to exert an effect on the chemical makeup of the brain and nervous system.

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Ptosis (breasts)

Female breast ptosis or sagging is a natural consequence of aging.

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Public health

Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".

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Rada (fiqh)

Raḍāʿ or riḍāʿa (رضاع, رضاعة, "breastfeeding") is a technical term from Sunni Islamic jurisprudence meaning "the suckling which produces the legal impediment to marriage of foster-kinship".

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Recreational drug use

Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.

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Respiratory tract

In humans, the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy of the respiratory system involved with the process of respiration.

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Respiratory tract infection

Respiratory tract infection (RTI) refers to any of a number of infectious diseases involving the respiratory tract.

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Retinal

Retinal is also known as retinaldehyde.

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Rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects joints.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Roman Jakobson

Roman Osipovich Jakobson (Рома́н О́сипович Якобсо́н; October 11, 1896Kucera, Henry. 1983. "Roman Jakobson." Language: Journal of the Linguistic Society of America 59(4): 871–883. – July 18,, compiled by Stephen Rudy 1982) was a Russian–American linguist and literary theorist.

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Room temperature

Colloquially, room temperature is the range of air temperatures that most people prefer for indoor settings, which feel comfortable when wearing typical indoor clothing.

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Save the Children

The Save the Children Fund, commonly known as Save the Children, is an international non-governmental organisation that promotes children's rights, provides relief and helps support children in developing countries.

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Scotland

Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.

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Sesame Street

Sesame Street is an American educational children's television series that combines live action, sketch comedy, animation and puppetry.

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Sit-in

A sit-in or sit-down is a form of direct action that involves one or more people occupying an area for a protest, often to promote political, social, or economic change.

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Sleep apnea

Sleep apnea, also spelled sleep apnoea, is a sleep disorder characterized by pauses in breathing or periods of shallow breathing during sleep.

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Smallpox

Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.

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Smooth muscle tissue

Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle.

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Sudden infant death syndrome

Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), also known as cot death or crib death, is the sudden unexplained death of a child less than one year of age.

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Supplemental nursing system

The supplemental nursing system (SNS) consists of a container and a capillary tube leading from the container to the mother's nipple.

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Surgeon General of the United States

The Surgeon General of the United States is the operational head of the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps (PHSCC) and thus the leading spokesperson on matters of public health in the federal government of the United States.

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Systematic review

Systematic reviews are a type of literature review that uses systematic methods to collect secondary data, critically appraise research studies, and synthesize studies.

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Tetanus

Tetanus, also known as lockjaw, is an infection characterized by muscle spasms.

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Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).

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Ulcerative colitis

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a long-term condition that results in inflammation and ulcers of the colon and rectum.

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UNICEF

The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) is a United Nations (UN) program headquartered in New York City that provides humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries.

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UNICEF UK

UNICEF UK, also known as the United Kingdom Committee for UNICEF, is one of 36 UNICEF National Committees based in industrialised countries.

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United Arab Emirates

The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States National Library of Medicine

The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), operated by the United States federal government, is the world's largest medical library.

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United States Preventive Services Task Force

The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) is "an independent panel of experts in primary care and prevention that systematically reviews the evidence of effectiveness and develops recommendations for clinical preventive services".

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Urinary tract infection

A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract.

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Uterus

The uterus (from Latin "uterus", plural uteri) or womb is a major female hormone-responsive secondary sex organ of the reproductive system in humans and most other mammals.

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Vaccinia

Vaccinia virus (VACV or VV) is a large, complex, enveloped virus belonging to the poxvirus family.

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Viral disease

A viral disease (or viral infection) occurs when an organism's body is invaded by pathogenic viruses, and infectious virus particles (virions) attach to and enter susceptible cells.

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Viral load

Viral load, also known as viral burden, viral titre or viral titer, is a numerical expression of the quantity of virus in a given volume.

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Vitamin D

Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.

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Wage labour

Wage labour (also wage labor in American English) is the socioeconomic relationship between a worker and an employer, where the worker sells his or her labour under a formal or informal employment contract.

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Weaning

Weaning is the process of gradually introducing an infant mammal to what will be its adult diet and withdrawing the supply of its mother's milk.

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Wet nurse

A wet nurse is a woman who breast feeds and cares for another's child.

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Whooping cough

Whooping cough (also known as pertussis or 100-day cough) is a highly contagious bacterial disease.

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World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action

The World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action (WABA) is a network of people working on a global scale to eliminate obstacles to breastfeeding and to act on the Innocenti Declaration.

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World Health Assembly

The World Health Assembly (WHA) is the forum through which the World Health Organization (WHO) is governed by its 194 member states.

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Yellow fever

Yellow fever is a viral disease of typically short duration.

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2018

2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.

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2019

2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Breastfeeding

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