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Associazione Sportiva Roma (Rome Sport Association), commonly referred to as simply Roma, is a professional Italian football club based in Rome.
Abbot Luigi (Romanesco: Abbate Luiggi; Abate Luigi) is one of the talking statues of Rome.
The Academy Awards, also known as the Oscars, are a set of 24 awards for artistic and technical merit in the American film industry, given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), to recognize excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership.
The Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia (National Academy of St Cecilia) is one of the oldest musical institutions in the world, founded by the papal bull Ratione congruit, issued by Sixtus V in 1585, which invoked two saints prominent in Western musical history: Gregory the Great, for whom the Gregorian chant is named, and Saint Cecilia, the patron saint of music.
Achacachi is a town on the Altiplano plateau in the South American Andes in the La Paz Department in Bolivia.
Achaea or Achaia (Ἀχαΐα Achaïa), was a province of the Roman Empire, consisting of the Peloponnese, eastern Central Greece, and parts of Thessaly.
In Greco-Roman mythology, Aeneas (Greek: Αἰνείας, Aineías, possibly derived from Greek αἰνή meaning "praised") was a Trojan hero, the son of the prince Anchises and the goddess Aphrodite (Venus).
Location of the Aequi (Equi) in central Italy, 5th century BC. The Aequi (Αἴκουοι and Αἴκοι) were an Italic tribe on a stretch of the Apennine Mountains to the east Latium in central of Italy who appear in the early history of ancient Rome.
Africa Proconsularis was a Roman province on the north African coast that was established in 146 BC following the defeat of Carthage in the Third Punic War.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Agostino Andrea Chigi (29 November 1466 – April 11, 1520) was an Italian banker and patron of the Renaissance.
Alaric I (*Alareiks, "ruler of all"; Alaricus; 370 (or 375)410 AD) was the first King of the Visigoths from 395–410, son (or paternal grandson) of chieftain Rothestes.
Albani was the Latin name in the Roman Republic for the inhabitants of Alba Longa, southeast of Rome.
Alberto Sordi (15 June 1920 – 24 February 2003), Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI was an Italian actor.
Aldo Fabrizi (1 November 1905 – 2 April 1990 in Rome, Italy) was an Italian actor, director, screenwriter and comedian.
Alessandro Nesta, Ufficiale OMRI (born 19 March 1976) is an Italian professional football manager and former player.
Algiers (الجزائر al-Jazā’er, ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻ, Alger) is the capital and largest city of Algeria.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
The Altare della Patria ("Altar of the Fatherland"), also known as the Monumento Nazionale a Vittorio Emanuele II ("National Monument to Victor Emmanuel II") or Il Vittoriano, is a monument built in honor of Victor Emmanuel, the first king of a unified Italy, located in Rome, Italy.
The Altieri family was an ancient noble family of Rome, present in the history of the city since the Middle Ages.
The American Academy in Rome is a research and arts institution located on the Gianicolo (Janiculum Hill) in Rome.
The American University of Rome (commonly referred to as AUR) is a degree-granting American university in Rome, Italy.
An amphitheatre or amphitheater is an open-air venue used for entertainment, performances, and sports.
Anagni is an ancient town and comune in the province of Frosinone, Latium, central Italy, in the hills east-southeast of Rome.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Ancient Roman architecture adopted the external language of classical Greek architecture for the purposes of the ancient Romans, but differed from Greek buildings, becoming a new architectural style.
Ancient Roman cuisine changed over the long duration of the ancient Roman civilization.
Pottery was produced in enormous quantities in ancient Rome, mostly for utilitarian purposes.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Ancus Marcius (–617 BC; reigned 642–617 BC)"Ancus Marcius" in The New Encyclopædia Britannica.
The Aniene (Anio), formerly known as the Teverone, is a river in Lazio, Italy.
Anna Magnani (7 March 1908 – 26 September 1973) was an Italian stage and film actress.
Annalists (from Latin annus, year; hence annales, sc. libri, annual records), were a class of writers on Roman history, the period of whose literary activity lasted from the time of the Second Punic War to that of Sulla.
The Annibaldi were a powerful baronal family of Rome and the Lazio in the Middle Ages.
Annibale Carracci (November 3, 1560 – July 15, 1609) was an Italian painter, active in Bologna and later in Rome.
An apostle, in its most literal sense, is an emissary, from Greek ἀπόστολος (apóstolos), literally "one who is sent off", from the verb ἀποστέλλειν (apostéllein), "to send off".
The Apostolic Palace (Palatium Apostolicum; Palazzo Apostolico) is the official residence of the Roman Catholic Pope and Bishop of Rome, which is located in Vatican City.
The Appian Way (Latin and Italian: Via Appia) is one of the earliest and strategically most important Roman roads of the ancient republic.
An aqueduct is a watercourse constructed to convey water.
The Ara Pacis Augustae (Latin, "Altar of Augustan Peace"; commonly shortened to Ara Pacis) is an altar in Rome dedicated to Pax, the Roman goddess of Peace.
The Arab raid against Rome took place in 846.
Arcadius (Flavius Arcadius Augustus; Ἀρκάδιος; 1 January 377 – 1 May 408) was Eastern Roman Emperor from 395 to 408.
An arch is a vertical curved structure that spans an elevated space and may or may not support the weight above it, or in case of a horizontal arch like an arch dam, the hydrostatic pressure against it.
The Arch of Constantine (Arco di Costantino) is a triumphal arch in Rome, situated between the Colosseum and the Palatine Hill.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
The Cathedral of the Most Holy Savior and of Saints John the Baptist and the Evangelist in the Lateran, (Santissimo Salvatore e Santi Giovanni Battista ed Evangelista in Laterano) - also known as the Papal Archbasilica of St.
Giorgio Armani S.P.A. is an Italian fashion house founded by Giorgio Armani which designs, manufactures, distributes and retails haute couture, ready-to-wear, leather goods, shoes, watches, jewelry, accessories, eyewear, cosmetics and home interiors.
The Armistice of Cassibile was an armistice signed on 3 September 1943 by Walter Bedell Smith and Giuseppe Castellano, and made public on 8 September, between the Kingdom of Italy and the Allies during World War II.
Arnold of Brescia (1090 – June 1155), also known as Arnaldus (Arnaldo da Brescia), was an Italian canon regular from Lombardy.
The globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus)Rottenberg, A., and D. Zohary, 1996: "The wild ancestry of the cultivated artichoke." Genet.
Ascanius (said to have reigned 1176-1138 BC) a legendary king of Alba Longa and is the son of the Trojan hero Aeneas and either Creusa, daughter of Priam, or Lavinia, daughter of Latinus.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
Atletico Roma Football Club was an Italian football club based in Rome, Italy.
The ATP World Tour Masters 1000 (previously known as the ATP Championship Series, Single-Week, ATP Mercedes-Benz Super 9, Tennis Masters Series, and ATP Masters Series) is the third highest tier of annual men's tennis tournament after the four Grand Slam tournaments and the ATP Finals.
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
Aurelian (Lucius Domitius Aurelianus Augustus; 9 September 214 or 215September or October 275) was Roman Emperor from 270 to 275.
The Aurelian Walls (Mura aureliane) are a line of city walls built between 271 AD and 275 AD in Rome, Italy, during the reign of the Roman Emperors Aurelian and Probus.
The Aventine Hill (Collis Aventinus; Aventino) is one of the Seven Hills on which ancient Rome was built.
Avignon (Avenio; Provençal: Avignoun, Avinhon) is a commune in south-eastern France in the department of Vaucluse on the left bank of the Rhône river.
The Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1376 during which seven successive popes resided in Avignon (then in the Kingdom of Arles, part of the Holy Roman Empire, now in France) rather than in Rome.
Il Babuino (Juan Luis: Il Babbuino sar; Il Babuino, The Baboon) is one of the talking statues of Rome, Italy.
Bacon is a type of salt-cured pork.
Banca Nazionale del Lavoro S.p.A. (BNL) is an Italian bank headquartered in Rome.
The Barberini were a family of the Italian nobility that rose to prominence in 17th century Rome.
The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.
Baroque architecture is the building style of the Baroque era, begun in late 16th-century Italy, that took the Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical and theatrical fashion, often to express the triumph of the Catholic Church.
Baroque music is a style of Western art music composed from approximately 1600 to 1750.
Bartolomeo Scappi (c. 1500 – 13 April 1577) was a famous Italian Renaissance chef.
A basilica is a type of building, usually a church, that is typically rectangular with a central nave and aisles, usually with a slightly raised platform and an apse at one or both ends.
The Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore ('Basilica of Saint Mary Major', Basilica Sanctae Mariae Maioris), or church of Santa Maria Maggiore, is a Papal major basilica and the largest Catholic Marian church in Rome, Italy, from which size it receives the appellation "major".
The Papal Basilica of Saint Lawrence outside the Walls (Basilica Papale di San Lorenzo fuori le Mura) is a Roman Catholic Papal minor basilica and parish church, located in Rome, Italy.
The Papal Basilica of St.
The Basilica of Saint Clement (Basilica di San Clemente al Laterano) is a Roman Catholic minor basilica dedicated to Pope Clement I located in Rome, Italy.
The Basilica of St.
The Baths of Caracalla (Terme di Caracalla) in Rome, Italy, were the city's second largest Roman public baths, or thermae, likely built between AD 212 (or 211) and 216/217, during the reigns of emperors Septimius Severus and Caracalla.
The Baths of Diocletian (Latin: Thermae Diocletiani, Italian: Terme di Diocleziano) were public baths in ancient Rome, in what is now Italy.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
Belgrade (Beograd / Београд, meaning "White city",; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Serbia.
Ben-Hur is a 1959 American epic religious drama film, directed by William Wyler, produced by Sam Zimbalist for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and starring Charlton Heston as the title character.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).
Bernardo Bellotto, (c. 1721/2 or 30 January 1721 – 17 November 1780), was an Italian urban landscape painter or vedutista, and printmaker in etching famous for his vedute of European cities (Dresden, Vienna, Turin and Warsaw).
The Angelica Library (Biblioteca Angelica) is in Rome, Italy.
The Biblioteca Casanatense (Casanata Library) is a library in Rome, Italy.
The Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Roma (Rome National Central Library), in Rome, is one of two central national libraries of Italy, along with Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Firenze in Florence.
The Biblioteca Vallicelliana is a library in Rome, Italy.
The Bibliotheca Hertziana – Max Planck Institute for Art History is a German research institute located in Rome, Italy.
The Mouth of Truth (Bocca della Verità) is a marble mask in Rome, Italy, which stands against the left wall of the portico of the Santa Maria in Cosmedin church, at the Piazza della Bocca della Verità, the site of the ancient Forum Boarium (the ancient cattle market).
The bombing of Rome in World War II took place on several occasions in 1943 and 1944, primarily by Allied and to a smaller degree by Axis aircraft, before the city was invaded by the Allies on June 4, 1944.
The Borgia Apartments are a suite of rooms in the Apostolic Palace in the Vatican, adapted for personal use by Pope Alexander VI (Rodrígo de Borgia).
Borgo (sometimes called also I Borghi), is the 14th historic district (rione) of Rome, Italy.
Brasília is the federal capital of Brazil and seat of government of the Federal District.
Brioni is an Italian menswear couture house owned by French holding company Kering.
The is a centre of interdisciplinary research excellence in Italy supporting the full range of arts, humanities and social sciences.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Bulgari (stylized as BVLGARI) is an Italian jewelry and luxury goods brand that produces and markets several product lines including jewelry, watches, fragrances, accessories, and hotels.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
The C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group (C40) connects 90 of the world’s greatest cities, representing 650+ million people and one quarter of the global economy.
The Caelian Hill (Collis Caelius; Celio) is one of the famous Seven Hills of Rome, Italy.
The Great Roman Civil War (49–45 BC), also known as Caesar's Civil War, was one of the last politico-military conflicts in the Roman Republic before the establishment of the Roman Empire.
Caetani, or Gaetani, is the name of an Italian noble family which played a great part in the history of Pisa and of Rome, principally via their close links to the papacy.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
Campania is a region in Southern Italy.
Campo de' Fiori (literally "field of flowers") is a rectangular square south of Piazza Navona in Rome, Italy, at the border between rione Parione and rione Regola.
A canon (from the Latin canonicus, itself derived from the Greek κανονικός, kanonikós, "relating to a rule", "regular") is a member of certain bodies subject to an ecclesiastical rule.
A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.
The Capitoline Hill (Mōns Capitōlīnus; Campidoglio), between the Forum and the Campus Martius, is one of the Seven Hills of Rome.
The capture of Rome (Presa di Roma) on 20 September 1870 was the final event of the long process of Italian unification known as the Risorgimento, marking both the final defeat of the Papal States under Pope Pius IX and the unification of the Italian peninsula under King Victor Emmanuel II of the House of Savoy.
Roma Caput Mundi is a Latin phrase taken to mean "Rome capital of the world" and "Roma capitale del mondo" in Italian (literally: "head of the world"; see capital, capitol).
Michelangelo Merisi (Michele Angelo Merigi or Amerighi) da Caravaggio (28 September 1571 – 18 July 1610) was an Italian painter active in Rome, Naples, Malta, and Sicily from the early 1590s to 1610.
Carbonara is an Italian pasta dish from Rome made with egg, hard cheese, guanciale (or pancetta), and pepper.
Carciofi alla giudìa (literally "Jewish style artichokes") is among the best known dishes of Roman Jewish cuisine.
Carciofi alla Romana, literally "Roman-style artichokes", is a typical dish of Roman cuisine.
Carlo Gregorio Verdone (born 17 November 1950) is an Italian actor, screenwriter and film director.
The Carolingian Empire (800–888) was a large empire in western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages.
Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia.
The Mausoleum of Hadrian, usually known as Castel Sant'Angelo (English: Castle of the Holy Angel), is a towering cylindrical building in Parco Adriano, Rome, Italy.
Castelfusano is an urban park in the comune of Rome.
Catacombs are human-made subterranean passageways for religious practice.
The Catacombs of Rome (Catacombe di Roma) are ancient catacombs, underground burial places under Rome, Italy, of which there are at least forty, some discovered only in recent decades.
The Catacombs of San Sebastiano are a hypogeum cemetery in Rome (Italy), rising along Via Appia Antica, in the Ardeatino Quarter.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Central European Time (CET), used in most parts of Europe and a few North African countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
Central Italy (Italia centrale or just Centro) is one of the five official statistical regions of Italy used by the National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT), a first level NUTS region and a European Parliament constituency.
Cesare Pascarella (28 April 1858 - 8 May 1940), was an Italian dialect poet and a painter.
The Chamber of Deputies (Camera dei deputati) is a house of the bicameral Parliament of Italy (the other being the Senate of the Republic).
Chanel S.A. is a French, privately held company owned by Alain Wertheimer and Gérard Wertheimer, grandsons of Pierre Wertheimer, who was an early business partner of the couturière Gabrielle Bonheur Chanel.
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
Charles I (early 1226/12277 January 1285), commonly called Charles of Anjou, was a member of the royal Capetian dynasty and the founder of the second House of Anjou.
Charles V (Carlos; Karl; Carlo; Karel; Carolus; 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and the Spanish Empire (as Charles I of Spain) from 1516, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy from 1506.
The Chigi family is a Roman princely family of Sienese extraction descended from the counts of Ardenghesca, which possessed castles in the Maremma, southern Tuscany.
Christendom has several meanings.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
The Church of the Gesù (Chiesa del Gesù) is the mother church of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits), a Catholic religious order.
Ciampino is a town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Rome, Lazio, Italy.
Cinecittà (Italian for Cinema City) is a large film studio in Rome, Italy.
The Cinema of Italy comprises the films made within Italy or by Italian directors.
The Circus Maximus (Latin for greatest or largest circus; Italian: Circo Massimo) is an ancient Roman chariot-racing stadium and mass entertainment venue located in Rome, Italy.
Civitavecchia (meaning "ancient town") is a town and comune of the Metropolitan City of Rome in the central Italian region of Lazio.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Cleopatra is a 1963 American epic historical drama film chronicling the struggles of Cleopatra, the young Queen of Egypt, to resist the imperial ambitions of Rome.
A codex (from the Latin caudex for "trunk of a tree" or block of wood, book), plural codices, is a book constructed of a number of sheets of paper, vellum, papyrus, or similar materials.
In minting, coining or coinage is the process of manufacturing coins using a kind of stamping which is now generically known in metalworking as "coining".
Cola di Rienzo (or de Rienzi; or) (c. 1313 – 8 October 1354) was an Italian medieval politician and popular leader, tribune of the Roman people in the mid-14th century.
Colonization (or colonisation) is a process by which a central system of power dominates the surrounding land and its components.
The Colonna family, also known as Sciarrillo or Sciarra, is an Italian noble family.
The Colosseum or Coliseum, also known as the Flavian Amphitheatre (Latin: Amphitheatrum Flavium; Italian: Anfiteatro Flavio or Colosseo), is an oval amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy.
The Column of Marcus Aurelius (Columna Centenaria Divorum Marci et Faustinae, Colonna di Marco Aurelio) is a Roman victory column in Piazza Colonna, Rome, Italy.
Commodus (31 August 161– 31 December 192AD), born Lucius Aurelius Commodus and died Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus, was Roman emperor with his father Marcus Aurelius from177 to his father's death in 180, and solely until 192.
The comune (plural: comuni) is a basic administrative division in Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality.
The Congress of Vienna (Wiener Kongress) also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814.
Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian and Greek origin from 306 to 337 AD.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
The Constitutional Court of the Italian Republic (Corte costituzionale della Repubblica Italiana) is the highest court of Italy in matters of constitutional law.
The Conti di Segni (de Comitibus Signie, also known as Conti or De Comitibus for short) were an important noble family of medieval and early modern Italy originating in Segni, Lazio.
Cortona is a town and comune in the province of Arezzo, in Tuscany, Italy.
Cosimo Rosselli (1439–1507) was an Italian painter of the Quattrocento, active mainly in his birthplace of Florence, but also Lucca earlier in his career, and from 1480 in the Sistine Chapel in Rome, where he painted some of the large fresco panels on the side walls.
The Council of Constance is the 15th-century ecumenical council recognized by the Catholic Church, held from 1414 to 1418 in the Bishopric of Constance.
The Counter-Reformation, also called the Catholic Reformation or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic resurgence initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War (1648).
Crescentius the Younger (or Crescentius II) (died 998), son of Crescentius the Elder, was a leader of the aristocracy of medieval Rome.
The Crisis of the Third Century, also known as Military Anarchy or the Imperial Crisis (AD 235–284), was a period in which the Roman Empire nearly collapsed under the combined pressures of invasion, civil war, plague, and economic depression.
A cuisine is a style of cooking characterized by distinctive ingredients, techniques and dishes, and usually associated with a specific culture or geographic region.
The culture of ancient Rome existed throughout almost 1200-year history of the civilization of Ancient Rome.
Cumae ((Kumē) or Κύμαι or Κύμα; Cuma) was an ancient city of Magna Graecia on the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea.
In ancient geography, especially in Roman sources, Dacia was the land inhabited by the Dacians.
Daniele De Rossi, Ufficiale OMRI (born 24 July 1983) is an Italian professional footballer who plays as a defensive midfielder for Roma and formerly the Italy national team.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
The Derby della Capitale (Derby of the capital city), also known as Derby Capitolino and Derby del Cupolone, as well as The Rome Derby in English and Derby di Roma in Italian, is the football local derby in Rome, Italy, between Roma and Lazio.
A diarchy (from Greek δι-, di-, "double", and -αρχία, -arkhía, "ruled").
Dictator perpetuo (English: "dictator in perpetuity"), also called dictator in perpetuum, was the office held by Julius Caesar from 26 January or 15 February of the year 44 BCE until his death on 15 March.
Agostino "Dino" De Laurentiis (8 August 1919 – 10 November 2010) was an Italian film producer.
Diocletian (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus), born Diocles (22 December 244–3 December 311), was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305.
A diplomatic mission or foreign mission is a group of people from one state or an organisation present in another state to represent the sending state/organisation officially in the receiving state.
Dolce & Gabbana is an Italian fashion house founded in 1985 in Legnano by Italian designers Domenico Dolce and Stefano Gabbana.
Interior view upward to the Byzantine domes and semi-domes of Hagia Sophia. See Commons file for annotations. A dome (from Latin: domus) is an architectural element that resembles the hollow upper half of a sphere.
Domenico Ghirlandaio (2 June 1448 – 11 January 1494) was an Italian Renaissance painter born in Florence.
The Dominate or late Roman Empire is the name sometimes given to the "despotic" later phase of imperial government, following the earlier period known as the "Principate", in the ancient Roman Empire.
The Domus Aurea (Latin, "Golden House") was a vast landscaped palace built by the Emperor Nero in the heart of ancient Rome after the great fire in 64 AD had destroyed a large part of the city and the aristocratic villas on the Palatine Hill.
Donato Bramante (1444 – 11 April 1514), born as Donato di Pascuccio d'Antonio and also known as Bramante Lazzari, was an Italian architect.
Early Christianity, defined as the period of Christianity preceding the First Council of Nicaea in 325, typically divides historically into the Apostolic Age and the Ante-Nicene Period (from the Apostolic Age until Nicea).
The Edict of Milan (Edictum Mediolanense) was the February 313 AD agreement to treat Christians benevolently within the Roman Empire.
The Edict of Thessalonica (also known as Cunctos populos), issued on 27 February AD 380 by three reigning Roman Emperors, made Nicene Christianity the state religion of the Roman Empire.
Eggs are laid by female animals of many different species, including birds, reptiles, amphibians, mammals, and fish, and have been eaten by humans for thousands of years.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
The Venerable English College, commonly referred to as the English College, is a Catholic seminary in Rome, Italy, for the training of priests for England and Wales.
Eni S.p.A. is an Italian multinational oil and gas company headquartered in Rome.
Enrico Del Debbio (26 May 1891 – 12 July 1973) was an Italian architect and university professor.
Enrico Montesano (born 7 June 1945 in Rome, Italy), is a popular actor for theater and cinema in Italy, as well as a showman.
Epirus is a geographical and historical region in southeastern Europe, now shared between Greece and Albania.
The Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius is an ancient Roman statue in the Capitoline Hill, Rome, Italy.
Erba-Odescalchi, or Odescalchi, is the name of an Italian noble family of princely rank.
The Esposizione universale (World's Fair) of 1942 was planned to be held in Rome.
The Esquiline Hill (Collis Esquilinus; Esquilino) is one of the celebrated Seven Hills of Rome.
Esquilino is the XV rione, that is historic district, of Rome.
The Etruscan civilization is the modern name given to a powerful and wealthy civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany, western Umbria and northern Lazio.
The Etruscan language was the spoken and written language of the Etruscan civilization, in Italy, in the ancient region of Etruria (modern Tuscany plus western Umbria and northern Latium) and in parts of Corsica, Campania, Veneto, Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna.
The Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranuna; 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu; الفرات al-Furāt; ̇ܦܪܬ Pǝrāt; Եփրատ: Yeprat; פרת Perat; Fırat; Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.
EUR is a residential and business district in Rome, Italy, located south of the city centre.
The 1991 FIBA European Championship, commonly called FIBA EuroBasket 1991, was the 27th FIBA EuroBasket regional basketball championship, held by FIBA Europe.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) (formally the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms) is an international treaty to protect human rights and political freedoms in Europe.
The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.
The European Observation Network for Territorial Development and Cohesion, briefly ESPON, is a European funded programme under the objective of "European Territorial Cooperation" of the Cohesion Policy of the European Union.
The European Olympic Committees is an organisation based in Rome, Italy.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Eurostat is a Directorate-General of the European Commission located in Luxembourg.
The Eurovision Song Contest 1991 was the 36th Eurovision Song Contest and was held on 4 May 1991 in Rome.
An ex officio member is a member of a body (a board, committee, council, etc.) who is part of it by virtue of holding another office.
The Exarchate of Ravenna or of Italy (Esarcato d'Italia) was a lordship of the Byzantine Empire in Italy, from 584 to 751, when the last exarch was put to death by the Lombards.
The Fall of the Fascist regime in Italy, also known in Italy as 25 Luglio (Venticinque Luglio,; Italian for "25 July") denotes the events in spring and summer 1943 in Italy, which culminated with the meeting of the Grand Council of Fascism on 24–25 July 1943, the passing of a vote of no confidence against Benito Mussolini, and the change of the Italian government.
The Fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called Fall of the Roman Empire or Fall of Rome) was the process of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which it failed to enforce its rule, and its vast territory was divided into several successor polities.
Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian ultranationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.
Fascist architecture is a style of architecture developed by architects of fascist societies in the early 20th century.
A fashion capital is a city which has a major influence on international fashion trends and in which the design, production and retailing of fashion products – plus events such as fashion weeks, awards and trade fairs – generate significant economic output.
Federico Fellini, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI (20 January 1920 – 31 October 1993) was an Italian film director and screenwriter.
Fendi is an Italian luxury fashion house producing fur, ready-to-wear, leather goods, shoes, fragrances, eyewear, timepieces and accessories.
The Final War of the Roman Republic, also known as Antony's Civil War or The War between Antony and Octavian, was the last of the Roman civil wars of the Roman Republic, fought between Mark Antony (assisted by Cleopatra) and Octavian.
The First French Empire (Empire Français) was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century.
The First Triumvirate is a term historians use for an informal political alliance of three prominent men between 59 and 53 BC, during the late Roman Republic: Gaius Julius Caesar, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great), and Marcus Licinius Crassus.
Fiumicino is a town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Rome, Lazio, central Italy, with a population of 77,870 (2015).
The Five Star Movement (Movimento 5 Stelle, M5S) is a political party in Italy.
The Flavian dynasty was a Roman imperial dynasty, which ruled the Roman Empire between 69 AD and 96 AD, encompassing the reigns of Vespasian (69–79), and his two sons Titus (79–81) and Domitian (81–96).
Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
A fork, in cutlery or kitchenware, is a tool consisting of a handle with several narrow tines on one end.
Foro Italico, formerly Foro Mussolini, is a sports complex in Rome, Italy.
The founding of Rome can be investigated through archaeology, but traditional stories handed down by the ancient Romans themselves explain the earliest history of their city in terms of legend and myth.
A fountain (from the Latin "fons" (genitive "fontis"), a source or spring) is a piece of architecture which pours water into a basin or jets it into the air to supply drinking water and/or for a decorative or dramatic effect.
Francesco Borromini, byname of Francesco Castelli (25 September 1599 – 2 August 1667), was an Italian architect born in today's Ticino Encyclopædia Britannica. Web.
Francesco Totti, Ufficiale OMRI (born 27 September 1976) is an Italian former professional footballer who played for Roma and the Italy national team.
Francis Trevelyan Miller (1877–1959) was an American writer and film-maker.
The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War (Deutsch-Französischer Krieg, Guerre franco-allemande), often referred to in France as the War of 1870 (19 July 1871) or in Germany as 70/71, was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia.
The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
The French Academy in Rome (Académie de France à Rome) is an Academy located in the Villa Medici, within the Villa Borghese, on the Pincio (Pincian Hill) in Rome, Italy.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Fresco (plural frescos or frescoes) is a technique of mural painting executed upon freshly laid, or wet lime plaster.
Sextus Julius Frontinus (c. 40 – 103 AD) was a prominent Roman civil engineer, author, and politician of the late 1st century AD.
Gaius Sempronius Gracchus (154–121 BC) was a Roman Popularis politician in the 2nd century BC and brother of the reformer Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus.
Gaius MariusC·MARIVS·C·F·C·N is how Marius was termed in official state inscriptions in Latin: "Gaius Marius, son of Gaius, grandson of Gaius" (157 BC – January 13, 86 BC) was a Roman general and statesman.
Gangs of New York is a 2002 American epic period drama film directed by Martin Scorsese, set in the mid-19th century in the Five Points district of New York City.
Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
The Gauls were Celtic people inhabiting Gaul in the Iron Age and the Roman period (roughly from the 5th century BC to the 5th century AD).
Genseric (c. 400 – 25 January 477), also known as Gaiseric or Geiseric (Gaisericus; reconstructed Vandalic: *Gaisarīks), was King of the Vandals and Alans (428–477) who established the Vandal Kingdom and was one of the key players in the troubles of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
Gian Lorenzo Bernini (also Gianlorenzo or Giovanni Lorenzo; 7 December 1598 – 28 November 1680) was an Italian sculptor and architect.
Luigi "Gigi" Proietti (born 2 November 1940) is an Italian actor, director, dubber, musician and singer.
Gil Álvarez Carrillo de Albornoz (Egidio Albornoz) (1310 – 23 August 1367) was a Spanish cardinal and ecclesiastical leader.
Giordano Bruno (Iordanus Brunus Nolanus; 1548 – 17 February 1600), born Filippo Bruno, was an Italian Dominican friar, philosopher, mathematician, poet, and cosmological theorist.
Giovanni Paolo Panini or Pannini (17 June 1691 – 21 October 1765) was a painter and architect who worked in Rome and is primarily known as one of the vedutisti ("view painters").
Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (1525 – 2 February 1594) was an Italian Renaissance composer of sacred music and the best-known 16th-century representative of the Roman School of musical composition.
The Giro d'Italia (Tour of Italy; also known as the Giro) is an annual multiple-stage bicycle race primarily held in Italy, while also occasionally passing through nearby countries.
Giulio Carlo Argan (17 May 1909 – 12 November 1992) was an Italian art historian and politician.
Giuseppe Garibaldi; 4 July 1807 – 2 June 1882) was an Italian general, politician and nationalist. He is considered one of the greatest generals of modern times and one of Italy's "fathers of the fatherland" along with Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, Victor Emmanuel II of Italy and Giuseppe Mazzini. Garibaldi has been called the "Hero of the Two Worlds" because of his military enterprises in Brazil, Uruguay and Europe. He personally commanded and fought in many military campaigns that led eventually to the Italian unification. Garibaldi was appointed general by the provisional government of Milan in 1848, General of the Roman Republic in 1849 by the Minister of War, and led the Expedition of the Thousand on behalf and with the consent of Victor Emmanuel II. His last military campaign took place during the Franco-Prussian War as commander of the Army of the Vosges. Garibaldi was very popular in Italy and abroad, aided by exceptional international media coverage at the time. Many of the greatest intellectuals of his time, such as Victor Hugo, Alexandre Dumas, and George Sand, showered him with admiration. The United Kingdom and the United States helped him a great deal, offering him financial and military support in difficult circumstances. In the popular telling of his story, he is associated with the red shirts worn by his volunteers, the Garibaldini, in lieu of a uniform.
Giuseppe Francesco Antonio Maria Gioachino Raimondo Belli (7 September 1791 – 21 December 1863) was an Italian poet, famous for his sonnets in Romanesco, the dialect of Rome.
Giuseppe Mazzini (22 June 1805 – 10 March 1872) was an Italian politician, journalist, activist for the unification of Italy and spearhead of the Italian revolutionary movement.
Giuseppe Pagano (20 August 1896 – 22 April 1945) was an Italian architect, notable for his involvement in the movement of rationalist architecture in Italy up to the end of the Second World War.
A gladiator (gladiator, "swordsman", from gladius, "sword") was an armed combatant who entertained audiences in the Roman Republic and Roman Empire in violent confrontations with other gladiators, wild animals, and condemned criminals.
A global city, also called world city or sometimes alpha city or world center, is a city which is a primary node in the global economic network.
The Global Language Monitor (GLM) is an Austin, Texas-based company that collectively documents, analyzes, and tracks trends in language usage worldwide, with a particular emphasis upon the English language.
Gnocchi (singular gnocco) are various thick, small, and soft dough dumplings that may be made from semolina, ordinary wheat flour, egg, cheese, potato, breadcrumbs, cornmeal, or similar ingredients, with or without flavourings of herbs, vegetables, cocoa, or prunes.
The Gothic War between the Byzantine Empire during the reign of Emperor Justinian I and the Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy took place from 535 until 554 in the Italian peninsula, Dalmatia, Sardinia, Sicily and Corsica.
Graffiti (plural of graffito: "a graffito", but "these graffiti") are writing or drawings that have been scribbled, scratched, or painted, typically illicitly, on a wall or other surface, often within public view.
The term "Grand Tour" refers to the 17th- and 18th-century custom of a traditional trip of Europe undertaken by mainly upper-class young European men of sufficient means and rank (typically accompanied by a chaperon, such as a family member) when they had come of age (about 21 years old).
The GRA or Grande Raccordo Anulare (literally, "Great Ring Junction") is a toll-free, ring-shaped long orbital motorway that encircles Rome.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
The Great Synagogue of Rome (Tempio Maggiore di Roma) is the largest synagogue in Rome.
Handball (also known as team handball, fieldball, European handball or Olympic handball) is a team sport in which two teams of seven players each (six outfield players and a goalkeeper) pass a ball using their hands with the aim of throwing it into the goal of the other team.
Helena, or Saint Helena (Greek: Ἁγία Ἑλένη, Hagía Helénē, Flavia Iulia Helena Augusta; –), was an Empress of the Roman Empire, and mother of Emperor Constantine the Great.
Henry IV (Henri IV, read as Henri-Quatre; 13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), also known by the epithet Good King Henry, was King of Navarre (as Henry III) from 1572 to 1610 and King of France from 1589 to 1610.
Henry IV (Heinrich IV; 11 November 1050 – 7 August 1106) became King of the Germans in 1056.
High-speed rail in Italy consists of two lines connecting most of the country's major cities.
Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula.
Roman history has been among the most influential to the modern world, from supporting the tradition of the rule by law to influencing the American Founding Fathers to the creation of the Catholic church.
The Staufer, also known as the House of Staufen, or of Hohenstaufen, were a dynasty of German kings (1138–1254) during the Middle Ages.
Hollywood is a neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, California.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.
Honorius (Flavius Honorius Augustus; 9 September 384 – 15 August 423) was Western Roman Emperor from 393 to 423.
The House of Medici was an Italian banking family and political dynasty that first began to gather prominence under Cosimo de' Medici in the Republic of Florence during the first half of the 15th century.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
Il Facchino (Il Facchino, The Porter) is one of the talking statues of Rome.
The Imperial Fora (Fori Imperiali in Italian) are a series of monumental fora (public squares), constructed in Rome over a period of one and a half centuries, between 46 BC and 113 AD.
An incunable, or sometimes incunabulum (plural incunables or incunabula, respectively), is a book, pamphlet, or broadside printed in Europe before the year 1501.
Industrial design is a process of design applied to products that are to be manufactured through techniques of mass production.
Inter caetera ("Among other ") was a papal bull issued by Pope Alexander VI on the fourth of May (quarto nonas maii) 1493, which granted to the Catholic Majesties of Ferdinand and Isabella (as sovereigns of Castile) all lands to the "west and south" of a pole-to-pole line 100 leagues west and south of any of the islands of the Azores or the Cape Verde islands.
The International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property (ICCROM) is an intergovernmental organization dedicated to the preservation of cultural heritage worldwide through training, information, research, cooperation and advocacy programmes.
The International Development Law Organization (IDLO) is an intergovernmental organization dedicated to the promotion of the rule of law.
The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) (French: Fonds international de développement agricole; FIDA) (Italian: Fondo Internazionale per lo Sviluppo Agricolo) is an international financial institution and a specialised agency of the United Nations dedicated to eradicating poverty and hunger in rural areas of developing countries.
The Investiture controversy or Investiture contest was a conflict between church and state in medieval Europe over the ability to appoint local church officials through investiture.
iOS (formerly iPhone OS) is a mobile operating system created and developed by Apple Inc. exclusively for its hardware.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
Ischia is a volcanic island in the Tyrrhenian Sea.
Isis was a major goddess in ancient Egyptian religion whose worship spread throughout the Greco-Roman world.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
The Istituto Europeo di Design (IED) is a design school in Italy.
Istituto Superiore per le Industrie Artistiche (Higher Institute for Artistic Industries), usually referred to with the acronym ISIA, is the name of four Italian universities, which train students in the field of design.
Italian Baroque (or Barocco) is a stylistic period in Italian history and art that spanned from the late 16th century to the early 18th century.
The Italian economic miracle or the Italian economic boom (il miracolo economico, or boom economico) is the term used by historians, economists and the mass media to designate the prolonged period of strong economic growth in Italy after the Second World War from the 1950s to the late 1960s, and in particular the years from 1950 to 1963.
Italian Fascism (fascismo italiano), also known simply as Fascism, is the original fascist ideology as developed in Italy.
Imperialism, colonialism and irredentism played an important role in the foreign policy of Fascist Italy.
The Italian National Institute of Statistics (Italian: Istituto Nazionale di Statistica; Istat) is the main producer of official statistics in Italy.
The Italian Parliament (Parlamento Italiano) is the national parliament of the Italian Republic.
The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Penisola italiana, Penisola appenninica) extends from the Po Valley in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south.
The Italian Renaissance (Rinascimento) was the earliest manifestation of the general European Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement that began in Italy during the 14th century (Trecento) and lasted until the 17th century (Seicento), marking the transition between Medieval and Modern Europe.
Italian unification (Unità d'Italia), or the Risorgimento (meaning "the Resurgence" or "revival"), was the political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy in the 19th century.
The Italic languages are a subfamily of the Indo-European language family, originally spoken by Italic peoples.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
The Italy national rugby union team competes annually in the Six Nations Championship against the other top rugby teams in Europe.
Ivory carving is the carving of ivory, that is to say animal tooth or tusk, by using sharp cutting tools, either mechanically or manually.
Jane's Information Group (often referred to as Jane's) is a British publishing company specialising in military, aerospace and transportation topics.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
John Cabot University is a small American liberal arts university in the Trastevere district (rione) of Rome, Italy.
The John Felice Rome Center is a campus of Loyola University Chicago in Rome, Italy.
In Judaism and Christianity, the concept of the Jubilee is a special year of remission of sins and universal pardon.
Judea or Judæa (from יהודה, Standard Yəhuda, Tiberian Yəhûḏāh, Ἰουδαία,; Iūdaea, يهودا, Yahudia) is the ancient Hebrew and Israelite biblical, the exonymic Roman/English, and the modern-day name of the mountainous southern part of Canaan-Israel.
Jugurtha or Jugurthen (c. 160 – 104 BC) was a king of Numidia, born in Cirta (modern-day Constantine).
The Julio-Claudian dynasty was the first Roman imperial dynasty, consisting of the first five emperors—Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero—or the family to which they belonged.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
Jupiter (from Iūpiter or Iuppiter, *djous “day, sky” + *patēr “father," thus "heavenly father"), also known as Jove gen.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
The Kingdom of Aksum (also known as the Kingdom of Axum, or the Aksumite Empire) was an ancient kingdom in what is now northern Ethiopia and Eritrea.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
Kobanî (also rendered Kobanê, كوباني, ܟܘܒܐܢܝ), officially Ayn al-Arab (عين العرب), is a city in the Aleppo Governorate in northern Syria, lying immediately south of the border with Turkey.
Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.
La Défense is a major business district, three kilometres west of the city limits of Paris.
La Dolce Vita (Italian for "the sweet life" or "the good life")Kezich, 203 is a 1960 Italian drama film directed and co-written by Federico Fellini.
The German Landsknechts, sometimes also rendered as (singular), were colourful mercenary soldiers with a formidable reputation, who became an important military force through late 15th- and 16th-century Europe.
The Lateran Treaty (Patti Lateranensi; Pacta Lateranensia) was one of the Lateran Pacts of 1929 or Lateran Accords, agreements made in 1929 between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy See, settling the "Roman Question".
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
Latina is the capital of the province of Latina in the Lazio region, in central Italy.
The Latins were originally an Italic tribe in ancient central Italy from Latium.
The Latins (Latin: Latini), sometimes known as the Latians, were an Italic tribe which included the early inhabitants of the city of Rome.
Latium is the region of central western Italy in which the city of Rome was founded and grew to be the capital city of the Roman Empire.
Laura Biagiotti (August 4, 1943 – May 26, 2017) was an Italian fashion designer and the founder of the House of Biagiotti.
Lazio (Latium) is one of the 20 administrative regions of Italy.
Lega Pro Prima Divisione was the third highest football league in Italy.
Legend is a genre of folklore that consists of a narrative featuring human actions perceived or believed both by teller and listeners to have taken place within human history.
Leonardo da Vinci International Airport (Fiumicino – Aeroporto Internazionale Leonardo da Vinci) or simply Rome Fiumicino Airport, also known as just Fiumicino Airport, is an international airport in Rome and the major airport in Italy.
Liguria (Ligûria, Ligurie) is a coastal region of north-western Italy; its capital is Genoa.
Link Campus University (often referred to as Link Campus, or sometimes just Link), formerly Link Campus -- University of Malta, is a proprietary, for-profit Italian university located in Rome, Italy.
This is a list of ancient monuments from republican and imperial periods in the city of Rome, Italy.
This is a list of cities and/or their metropolitan areas in the world by GDP.
The following is a list of Italian comune (municipalities) with a population over 50,000.
Below is a list of the largest cities in the European Union according to the population within their city limits.
List of museums in Rome The city contains vast quantities of priceless art, sculpture and treasures, which are mainly stored in its many museums.
The city of Rome harbours the most obelisks in the world.
This is a list of present-day cities by the time period over which they have been continuously inhabited.
This list is of shopping areas and markets in Rome, Italy.
This list of sovereign states provides an overview of sovereign states around the world, with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty.
Rome is the fourth largest city in the European Union by population within city limits.
This is an alphabetical list of past and current theatres and opera houses in Rome, Italy.
Liutprand was the King of the Lombards from 712 to 744 and is chiefly remembered for his Donation of Sutri, in 728, and his long reign, which brought him into a series of conflicts, mostly successful, with most of Italy.
Titus Livius Patavinus (64 or 59 BCAD 12 or 17) – often rendered as Titus Livy, or simply Livy, in English language sources – was a Roman historian.
The Lombards or Longobards (Langobardi, Longobardi, Longobard (Western)) were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
London Docklands is the name for the riverfront and former docks in London, the capital of the United Kingdom.
The Lorenzo de' Medici School (Scuola Lorenzo de' Medici, LdM) is a private institution of higher education in located in Florence, Italy, with smaller campuses in Tuscania, Rome, and Venice.
Loyola University Chicago (often referred to as Loyola or LUC) is a private Catholic research university in Chicago, Illinois.
Luca Signorelli (16 October 1523) was an Italian Renaissance painter who was noted in particular for his ability as a draftsman and his use of foreshortening.
Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, or Tarquin the Elder, was the legendary fifth king of Rome from 616 to 579 BC.
Lucius Tarquinius Superbus (died 495 BC) was the legendary seventh and final king of Rome, reigning from 535 BC until the popular uprising in 509 that led to the establishment of the Roman Republic.
LUISS Business School is the management school of the Libera Università Internazionale degli Studi Sociali Guido Carli.
Macedonia or Macedon (Μακεδονία, Makedonía) was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece.
The Roman province of Macedonia (Provincia Macedoniae, Ἐπαρχία Μακεδονίας) was officially established in 146 BC, after the Roman general Quintus Caecilius Metellus defeated Andriscus of Macedon, the last self-styled King of the ancient kingdom of Macedonia in 148 BC, and after the four client republics (the "tetrarchy") established by Rome in the region were dissolved.
The Macedonian Wars (214–148 BC) were a series of conflicts fought by the Roman Republic and its Greek allies in the eastern Mediterranean against several different major Greek kingdoms.
Madama Lucrezia (Romanesco: Madama Lugrezzia) is one of the five "talking statues" of Rome.
Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole.
Magna Graecia (Latin meaning "Great Greece", Μεγάλη Ἑλλάς, Megálē Hellás, Magna Grecia) was the name given by the Romans to the coastal areas of Southern Italy in the present-day regions of Campania, Apulia, Basilicata, Calabria and Sicily that were extensively populated by Greek settlers; particularly the Achaean settlements of Croton, and Sybaris, and to the north, the settlements of Cumae and Neapolis.
Major basilica (Basilica maior; plural: Basilicae maiores) is the title given to the four highest-ranking Roman Catholic church buildings, all of which are also "Papal basilicas": the Archbasilica of St. John Lateran, St. Peter's Basilica, the Basilica of St. Paul Outside the Walls, and the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore.
Marbella is a city and municipality in southern Spain, belonging to the province of Málaga in the autonomous community of Andalusia.
Marcello Piacentini (December 8, 1881 – May 19, 1960) was an Italian urban theorist and one of the main proponents of Italian Fascist architecture.
The March on Rome (Marcia su Roma) was an organized mass demonstration in October 1922, which resulted in Benito Mussolini's National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, or PNF) acceding to power in the Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia).
Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (c. 89 or 88 BC – late 13 or early 12 BC) was a Roman patrician who was a part of the Second Triumvirate alongside Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (the future Augustus) and Marcus Antonius, and the last Pontifex Maximus of the Roman Republic.
Marcus Licinius Crassus (c. 115 – 6 May 53 BC) was a Roman general and politician who played a key role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
Marphurius or Marforio (Marforio; Medieval Marphurius, Marforius) is one of the talking statues of Rome.
Marcus Antonius (Latin:; 14 January 1 August 30 BC), commonly known in English as Mark Antony or Marc Antony, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from an oligarchy into the autocratic Roman Empire.
Marozia, born Maria and also known as Mariuccia or Mariozza (890 – 937), was a Roman noblewoman who was the alleged mistress of Pope Sergius III and was given the unprecedented titles senatrix ("senatoress") and patricia of Rome by Pope John X. Edward Gibbon wrote of her that the "influence of two sister prostitutes, Marozia and Theodora was founded on their wealth and beauty, their political and amorous intrigues: the most strenuous of their lovers were rewarded with the Roman tiara, and their reign may have suggested to darker ages the fable of a female pope.
In ancient Roman religion and myth, Mars (Mārs) was the god of war and also an agricultural guardian, a combination characteristic of early Rome.
Marsi is the Latin exonym for an Italic people of ancient Italy, whose chief centre was Marruvium, on the eastern shore of Lake Fucinus (which was drained for agricultural land in the late 19th century).
Massimiliano Fuksas (born January 9, 1944) is an Italian architect.
Maurus Servius Honoratus was a late fourth-century and early fifth-century grammarian, with the contemporary reputation of being the most learned man of his generation in Italy; he was the author of a set of commentaries on the works of Virgil.
The Mausoleum of Augustus (Mausoleo di Augusto) is a large tomb built by the Roman Emperor Augustus in 28 BC on the Campus Martius in Rome, Italy.
Maximian (Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius Augustus; c. 250 – c. July 310) was Roman Emperor from 286 to 305.
The MAXXI (Museo nazionale delle arti del XXI secolo, National Museum of the 21st Century Arts) is a national museum of contemporary art and architecture in the Flaminio neighborhood of Rome, Italy.
The Mayor of Rome (Sindaco di Roma Capitale) is an elected politician who, along with Rome’s City Council (Assemblea Capitolina) of 48 members, is accountable for the strategic government of Rome.
Medieval communes in the European Middle Ages had sworn allegiances of mutual defense (both physical defense and of traditional freedoms) among the citizens of a town or city.
Mediolanum, the ancient Milan, was originally an Insubrian city, but afterwards became an important Roman city in northern Italy.
A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers.
In Greek mythology, Menelaus (Μενέλαος, Menelaos, from μένος "vigor, rage, power" and λαός "people," "wrath of the people") was a king of Mycenaean (pre-Dorian) Sparta, the husband of Helen of Troy, and the son of Atreus and Aerope.
Metalworking is the process of working with metals to create individual parts, assemblies, or large-scale structures.
Metres above mean sea level (MAMSL) or simply metres above sea level (MASL or m a.s.l.) is a standard metric measurement in metres of the elevation or altitude of a location in reference to a historic mean sea level.
A metropolis is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for regional or international connections, commerce, and communications.
The metropolitan city (città metropolitana in Italian) is an administrative division of Italy, operative since 2015.
The administrative area of the Metropolitan City of Rome Capital (Città metropolitana di Roma Capitale) is one of the constitutional Metropolitan cities of Italy in the Lazio region, Italy.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art of New York, colloquially "the Met", is the largest art museum in the United States.
Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni or more commonly known by his first name Michelangelo (6 March 1475 – 18 February 1564) was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect and poet of the High Renaissance born in the Republic of Florence, who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.
Minerva (Etruscan: Menrva) was the Roman goddess of wisdom and strategic warfare, although it is noted that the Romans did not stress her relation to battle and warfare as the Greeks would come to, and the sponsor of arts, trade, and strategy.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation (Ministero degli affari esteri e della cooperazione internazionale or MAECI) is the foreign ministry of the government of the Republic of Italy.
Mithraism, also known as the Mithraic mysteries, was a mystery religion centered around the god Mithras that was practised in the Roman Empire from about the 1st to the 4th century CE.
A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy.
Monte Mario is the highest (139 m) hill in Rome, Italy.
Monti is the name of one of the twenty-two Rioni of Rome, rione I, located in Municipio I. The name literally means mountains in Italian and comes from the fact that the Esquiline and the Viminal Hills, and parts of the Quirinal and the Caelian Hills belonged to this rione.
Montreal (officially Montréal) is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada.
A monument is a type of—usually three-dimensional—structure that was explicitly created to commemorate a person or event, or which has become relevant to a social group as a part of their remembrance of historic times or cultural heritage, due to its artistic, historical, political, technical or architectural importance.
A mosaic is a piece of art or image made from the assemblage of small pieces of colored glass, stone, or other materials.
Mosesמֹשֶׁה, Modern Tiberian ISO 259-3; ܡܘܫܐ Mūše; موسى; Mωϋσῆς was a prophet in the Abrahamic religions.
The Mosque of Rome (Moschea di Roma), situated in Parioli, is the largest mosque outside the Islamic world, Russia and India.
Multan (Punjabi, Saraiki, مُلتان), is a Pakistani city and the headquarters of Multan District in the province of Punjab.
Mumbai (also known as Bombay, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives that play a fundamental role in society, such as foundational tales.
Naples (Napoli, Napule or; Neapolis; lit) is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (born Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the President of France from 1848 to 1852 and as Napoleon III the Emperor of the French from 1852 to 1870.
NATO Defense College (NDC) is the international military college for North Atlantic Treaty Organization countries in Rome, Italy.
A nature reserve (also called a natural reserve, bioreserve, (natural/nature) preserve, or (national/nature) conserve) is a protected area of importance for wildlife, flora, fauna or features of geological or other special interest, which is reserved and managed for conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Neapolitan (autonym: (’o n)napulitano; napoletano) is a Romance language of the Italo-Dalmatian group spoken across much of southern Italy, except for southern Calabria and Sicily.
Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century.
Neoclassicism (from Greek νέος nèos, "new" and Latin classicus, "of the highest rank") is the name given to Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of classical antiquity.
Nepotism is based on favour granted to relatives in various fields, including business, politics, entertainment, sports, religion and other activities.
The Nerva–Antonine dynasty was a dynasty of seven Roman Emperors who ruled over the Roman Empire from 96 AD to 192 AD.
New Delhi is an urban district of Delhi which serves as the capital of India and seat of all three branches of Government of India.
The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Nicola Salvi or Niccolò Salvi (6 August 1697 (Rome) – 8 February 1751 (Rome)) was an Italian architect; among his few projects completed is the famous Trevi fountain in Rome, Italy.
Nicomedia (Νικομήδεια, Nikomedeia; modern İzmit) was an ancient Greek city in what is now Turkey.
Saturnino "Nino" Manfredi (22 March 1921 – 4 June 2004) was one of the most prominent Italian actors in the commedia all'italiana genre.
The Norman conquest of England (in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.
The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; Normands; Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.
Numa Pompilius (753–673 BC; reigned 715–673 BC) was the legendary second king of Rome, succeeding Romulus.
An obelisk (from ὀβελίσκος obeliskos; diminutive of ὀβελός obelos, "spit, nail, pointed pillar") is a tall, four-sided, narrow tapering monument which ends in a pyramid-like shape or pyramidion at the top.
Oceanus (Ὠκεανός Ōkeanós), also known as Ogenus (Ὤγενος Ōgenos or Ὠγηνός Ōgēnos) or Ogen (Ὠγήν Ōgēn), was a divine figure in classical antiquity, believed by the ancient Greeks and Romans to be the divine personification of the sea, an enormous river encircling the world.
Flavius Odoacer (c. 433Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, Vol. 2, s.v. Odovacer, pp. 791–793 – 493 AD), also known as Flavius Odovacer or Odovacar (Odoacre, Odoacer, Odoacar, Odovacar, Odovacris), was a soldier who in 476 became the first King of Italy (476–493).
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
Oligarchy is a form of power structure in which power rests with a small number of people.
In war, in the event of the imminent capture of a city, the government/military structure of the nation that controls the city will sometimes declare it an open city, thus announcing that it has abandoned all defensive efforts.
The Optimates (optimates, "best ones", singular; also known as boni, "good men") were the traditionalist Senatorial majority of the late Roman Republic.
An origin myth is a myth that purports to describe the origin of some feature of the natural or social world.
The Orsini family is an Italian noble family; it was one of the most influential princely families in medieval Italy and renaissance Rome.
The Orto Botanico dell'Università di Roma "La Sapienza" (12 hectares), also known as the Orto Botanico di Roma, is a botanical garden operated by the Sapienza University of Rome and located at Largo Cristina di Svezia 24, Rome, Italy.
The Osci (also called Opici, Opsci, Obsci, Opicans, Ὀπικοί, Ὀσκοί), were an Italic people of Campania and Latium adiectum during Roman times.
Ostia is a large neighbourhood in the X Municipio of the commune of Rome, Italy, near the ancient port of Rome, named Ostia, which is now a major archaeological site known as Ostia Antica.
The Ostrogothic Kingdom, officially the Kingdom of Italy (Latin: Regnum Italiae), was established by the Ostrogoths in Italy and neighbouring areas from 493 to 553.
Otto II (955 – December 7, 983), called the Red (Rufus), was Holy Roman Emperor from 973 until his death in 983.
Otto III (June/July 980 – 23 January 1002) was Holy Roman Emperor from 996 until his early death in 1002.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Italy: Italy – unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe, located primarily upon the Italian Peninsula.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Rome: Rome – capital of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Publius Ovidius Naso (20 March 43 BC – 17/18 AD), known as Ovid in the English-speaking world, was a Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus.
A palace is a grand residence, especially a royal residence, or the home of a head of state or some other high-ranking dignitary, such as a bishop or archbishop.
The Palatine Hill (Collis Palatium or Mons Palatinus; Palatino) is the centremost of the Seven Hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city.
The Palazzo Barberini (Barberini Palace) is a 17th-century palace in Rome, facing the Piazza Barberini in Rione Trevi.
The Palazzo Chigi is a palace or noble residence in Rome and the official residence of the Prime Minister of the Italian Republic.
Palazzo dei Congressi (formally: Palazzo dei Ricevimenti e dei Congressi) is a building located in the EUR district of Rome, Italy.
The Palazzo della Cancelleria (Palace of the Chancellery, referring to the former Apostolic Chancery of the Pope) is a Renaissance palace in Rome, Italy, situated between the present Corso Vittorio Emanuele II and the Campo de' Fiori, in the rione of Parione.
The Palazzo della Civiltà Italiana, also known as the Palazzo della Civiltà del Lavoro or simply the Colosseo Quadrato (Square Colosseum), is an icon of New Classical architecture and Fascist architecture.
The Palazzo della Farnesina is an Italian government building located between Monte Mario and the Tiber River in the Foro Italico area in Rome, Italy.
Palazzo Farnese or Farnese Palace is one of the most important High Renaissance palaces in Rome.
Palazzo Madama in Rome is the seat of the Senate of the Italian Republic.
The Palazzo Montecitorio is a palace in Rome and the seat of the Italian Chamber of Deputies.
The Palazzo Spada is a palace in the historic centre of Rome, Italy.
The Palazzo Venezia, formerly Palace of St.
Pallacanestro Virtus Roma, known for sponsorship reasons as UniCusano Roma, is an Italian professional basketball club based in Rome, Lazio.
The Pamphili (often with the final long i orthography, Pamphilj) are one of the papal families deeply entrenched in Roman Catholic Church, Roman and Italian politics of the 16th and 17th centuries.
The Pantheon (or; Pantheum,Although the spelling Pantheon is standard in English, only Pantheum is found in classical Latin; see, for example, Pliny, Natural History: "Agrippae Pantheum decoravit Diogenes Atheniensis". See also Oxford Latin Dictionary, s.v. "Pantheum"; Oxford English Dictionary, s.v.: "post-classical Latin pantheon a temple consecrated to all the gods (6th cent.; compare classical Latin pantheum". from Greek Πάνθειον Pantheion, " of all the gods") is a former Roman temple, now a church, in Rome, Italy, on the site of an earlier temple commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD). It was completed by the emperor Hadrian and probably dedicated about 126 AD. Its date of construction is uncertain, because Hadrian chose not to inscribe the new temple but rather to retain the inscription of Agrippa's older temple, which had burned down. The building is circular with a portico of large granite Corinthian columns (eight in the first rank and two groups of four behind) under a pediment. A rectangular vestibule links the porch to the rotunda, which is under a coffered concrete dome, with a central opening (oculus) to the sky. Almost two thousand years after it was built, the Pantheon's dome is still the world's largest unreinforced concrete dome. The height to the oculus and the diameter of the interior circle are the same,. It is one of the best-preserved of all Ancient Roman buildings, in large part because it has been in continuous use throughout its history, and since the 7th century, the Pantheon has been used as a church dedicated to "St. Mary and the Martyrs" (Sancta Maria ad Martyres) but informally known as "Santa Maria Rotonda". The square in front of the Pantheon is called Piazza della Rotonda. The Pantheon is a state property, managed by Italy's Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities and Tourism through the Polo Museale del Lazio; in 2013 it was visited by over 6 million people. The Pantheon's large circular domed cella, with a conventional temple portico front, was unique in Roman architecture. Nevertheless, it became a standard exemplar when classical styles were revived, and has been copied many times by later architects.
Paolo Portoghesi (born 2 November 1931, Rome) is an Italian architect, theorist, historian and professor of architecture at the University La Sapienza in Rome.
A papal conclave is a meeting of the College of Cardinals convened to elect a Bishop of Rome, also known as the Pope.
The Papal Palace of Castel Gandolfo, or the Apostolic Palace of Castel Gandolfo from its Italian name Palazzo Apostolico di Castel Gandolfo, is a 17th-century 135-acre papal palace in the city of Castel Gandolfo, Italy.
The Papal States, officially the State of the Church (Stato della Chiesa,; Status Ecclesiasticus; also Dicio Pontificia), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope, from the 8th century until 1870.
Parco della Musica is a large public music complex in Rome, Italy, with three indoor concert halls and an outdoor theater in a park setting, hence its name.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
Pasquino or Pasquin (Latin: Pasquillus) is the name used by Romans since the early modern period to describe a battered Hellenistic-style statue dating to the third century BC, which was unearthed in the Parione district of Rome in the fifteenth century.
In Christianity, the Passion (from Late Latin: passionem "suffering, enduring") is the short final period in the life of Jesus covering his entrance visit to Jerusalem and leading to his crucifixion on Mount Calvary, defining the climactic event central to Christian doctrine of salvation history.
Pastoralism is the branch of agriculture concerned with the raising of livestock.
The patricians (from patricius) were originally a group of ruling class families in ancient Rome.
Paul the Apostle (Paulus; translit, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; c. 5 – c. 64 or 67), commonly known as Saint Paul and also known by his Jewish name Saul of Tarsus (translit; Saũlos Tarseús), was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of the Christ to the first century world.
Pecorino is a family of hard Italian cheeses made from sheep's milk.
Pepin the Short (Pippin der Kurze, Pépin le Bref, c. 714 – 24 September 768) was the King of the Franks from 751 until his death.
Sir Peter Paul Rubens (28 June 1577 – 30 May 1640) was a Flemish artist.
Philip IV (April–June 1268 – 29 November 1314), called the Fair (Philippe le Bel) or the Iron King (le Roi de fer), was King of France from 1285 until his death.
Philip Romolo Neri (Italian: Filippo Romolo Neri; 21 July 151525 May 1595), known as the Third Apostle of Rome, after Saints Peter and Paul, was an Italian priest noted for founding a society of secular clergy called the Congregation of the Oratory.
Piazza Colonna is a piazza at the center of the Rione of Colonna in the historic heart of Rome, Italy.
Piazza del Popolo is a large urban square in Rome.
Piazza di Monte Citorio or Piazza Montecitorio is a piazza in Rome.
Piazza Navona is a square in Rome, Italy.
Piazza Venezia is the central hub of Rome, Italy, in which several thoroughfares intersect, including the Via dei Fori Imperiali and the Via del Corso.
The Pieta (The Pity; 1498–1499) is a work of Renaissance sculpture by Michelangelo Buonarroti, housed in St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City.
Pietro Perugino (c. 1446/1452 – 1523), born Pietro Vannucci, was an Italian Renaissance painter of the Umbrian school, who developed some of the qualities that found classic expression in the High Renaissance.
The Pincian Hill (Pincio; Mons Pincius) is a hill in the northeast quadrant of the historical center of Rome.
The Pineto Regional Park is a protected natural area of Lazio, Italy, instituted in 1987.
Plautia Urgulanilla (fl. 1st century) was the first wife of the future Roman Emperor Claudius.
The plebs were, in ancient Rome, the general body of free Roman citizens who were not patricians, as determined by the census.
Plovdiv (Пловдив) is the second-largest city in Bulgaria, with a city population of 341,000 and 675,000 in the greater metropolitan area.
Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.
The politics of Italy are conducted through a parliamentary republic with a multi-party system.
In music, polyphony is one type of musical texture, where a texture is, generally speaking, the way that melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic aspects of a musical composition are combined to shape the overall sound and quality of the work.
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (29 September 106 BC – 28 September 48 BC), usually known in English as Pompey or Pompey the Great, was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic.
The Pons Aemilius (Ponte Emilio), today called Ponte Rotto, is the oldest Roman stone bridge in Rome, Italy.
The Pons Cestius (Ponte Cestio, meaning "Cestius' Bridge") is a Roman stone bridge in Rome, Italy, spanning the Tiber to the west of the Tiber Island.
The Pons Fabricius (Ponte Fabricio, meaning "Fabricius' Bridge") or Ponte dei Quattro Capi, is the oldest Roman bridge in Rome, Italy, still existing in its original state.
The Milvian (or Mulvian) Bridge (Ponte Molle or Ponte Milvio, Latin: Pons Milvius or Pons Mulvius) is a bridge over the Tiber in northern Rome, Italy.
The Ponte Nomentano (called Pons Lamentanus in the Middle Ages) is a Roman bridge in Rome, Italy, which carried the Via Nomentana over the Aniene (Anio).
Ponte Sant'Angelo, once the Aelian Bridge or Pons Aelius, meaning the Bridge of Hadrian, is a Roman bridge in Rome, Italy, completed in 134 AD by Roman Emperor Hadrian, to span the Tiber, from the city center to his newly constructed mausoleum, now the towering Castel Sant'Angelo.
Ponte Sisto is a bridge in Rome's historic centre, spanning the river Tiber.
Ponte Vittorio Emanuele II is a bridge in Rome constructed to designs of 1886 by the architect Ennio De Rossi.
The Pontifex Maximus or pontifex maximus (Latin, "greatest priest") was the chief high priest of the College of Pontiffs (Collegium Pontificum) in ancient Rome.
The Pontifical Biblical Institute (it: Pontificio Istituto Biblico), or "'Biblicum'", in Rome, Italy, is an institution of the Holy See that is run by the Jesuits and offers instruction at the university level.
The Pontifical Croatian College of St.
The Pontifical Gregorian University (Pontificia Università Gregoriana; also known as the Gregoriana) is a higher education ecclesiastical school (pontifical university) located in Rome, Italy.
The Pontifical Lateran University (Pontificia Università Lateranense or Lateranum), also sometimes referred to as the Pontifical University of Apollinaire, is a university by pontifical right based in Rome.
The Pontifical North American College is a Roman Catholic educational institution in Rome, Italy, that forms seminarians for priestly ministry in the dioceses of the United States and elsewhere, and that provides a residence for priests from the United States and elsewhere who are pursuing graduate studies or continuing formation programs in Rome.
The Pontifical Oriental Institute (Pontificium Institutum Orientalium Studiorum, Pontificio Istituto Orientale) or "Orientale" is the premier center for the study of Eastern Christianity in Rome, Italy.
A pontifical university is a Catholic university established by and directly under the authority of the Holy See.
Pontifical universities are higher education ecclesiastical schools established or approved directly by the Holy See, composed of three main ecclesiastical faculties (Theology, Philosophy and Canon Law) and at least one other faculty.
Pontius Pilate (Latin: Pontius Pīlātus, Πόντιος Πιλάτος, Pontios Pilatos) was the fifth prefect of the Roman province of Judaea, serving under Emperor Tiberius from AD 26 to 36.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Pope Adrian IV (Adrianus IV; born Nicholas Breakspear; 1 September 1159), also known as Hadrian IV, was Pope from 4 December 1154 to his death in 1159.
Pope Alexander VI, born Rodrigo de Borja (de Borja, Rodrigo Lanzol y de Borja; 1 January 1431 – 18 August 1503), was Pope from 11 August 1492 until his death.
Pope Benedict XIV (Benedictus XIV; 31 March 1675 – 3 May 1758), born Prospero Lorenzo Lambertini, served as the Pope of the Catholic Church from 17 August 1740 to his death in 1758.
Pope Boniface VIII (Bonifatius VIII; born Benedetto Caetani (c. 1230 – 11 October 1303), was Pope from 24 December 1294 to his death in 1303. He organized the first Catholic "jubilee" year to take place in Rome and declared that both spiritual and temporal power were under the pope's jurisdiction, and that kings were subordinate to the power of the Roman pontiff. Today, he is probably best remembered for his feuds with King Philip IV of France, who caused the Pope's death, and Dante Alighieri, who placed the pope in the Eighth Circle of Hell in his Divine Comedy, among the simoniacs.
Pope Clement VII (26 May 1478 – 25 September 1534), born Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 19 November 1523 to his death on 25 September 1534.
Pope Eugene III (Eugenius III; c. 1080 – 8 July 1153), born Bernardo Pignatelli, called Bernardo da Pisa, was Pope from 15 February 1145 to his death in 1153.
Gregory VII (Gregorius VII; 1015 – 25 May 1085), born Hildebrand of Sovana (Ildebrando da Soana), was Pope from 22 April 1073 to his death in 1085.
Pope Gregory XI (Gregorius; c. 1329 – 27 March 1378) was Pope from 30 December 1370 to his death in 1378.
Pope Innocent III (Innocentius III; 1160 or 1161 – 16 July 1216), born Lotario dei Conti di Segni (anglicized as Lothar of Segni) reigned from 8 January 1198 to his death in 1216.
Pope Julius II (Papa Giulio II; Iulius II) (5 December 1443 – 21 February 1513), born Giuliano della Rovere, and nicknamed "The Fearsome Pope" and "The Warrior Pope".
Pope Saint Leo III (Leo; 12 June 816) was pope from 26 December 795 to his death in 816.
Pope Saint Leo IV (790 – 17 July 855) was pope from 10 April 847 to his death in 855.
Pope Leo X (11 December 1475 – 1 December 1521), born Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, was Pope from 9 March 1513 to his death in 1521.
Pope Lucius II (Lucius II; died 15 February 1145), born Gherardo Caccianemici dal Orso, was Pope from 9 March 1144 to his death in 1145.
Pope Martin V (Martinus V; January/February 1369 – 20 February 1431), born Otto (or Oddone) Colonna, was Pope from 11 November 1417 to his death in 1431.
Pope Nicholas V (Nicholaus V) (13 November 1397 – 24 March 1455), born Tommaso Parentucelli, was Pope from 6 March 1447 until his death.
Pope Paul III (Paulus III; 29 February 1468 – 10 November 1549), born Alessandro Farnese, was Pope from 13 October 1534 to his death in 1549.
Pope Pius II (Pius PP., Pio II), born Enea Silvio Bartolomeo Piccolomini (Aeneas Silvius Bartholomeus; 18 October 1405 – 14 August 1464) was Pope from 19 August 1458 to his death in 1464.
Pope Pius IV (31 March 1499 – 9 December 1565), born Giovanni Angelo Medici, was Pope from 25 December 1559 to his death in 1565.
Pope Pius IX (Pio; 13 May 1792 – 7 February 1878), born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, was head of the Catholic Church from 16 June 1846 to his death on 7 February 1878.
Pope Sixtus IV (21 July 1414 – 12 August 1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was Pope from 9 August 1471 to his death in 1484.
Pope Sixtus V or Xystus V (13 December 1521 – 27 August 1590), born Felice Peretti di Montalto, was Pope of the Catholic Church from 24 April 1585 to his death in 1590.
Pope Urban VIII (Urbanus VIII; baptised 5 April 1568 – 29 July 1644) reigned as Pope from 6 August 1623 to his death in 1644.
The Populares (populares, "favouring the people", singular popularis) were a grouping in the late Roman Republic which favoured the cause of the plebeians (the commoners).
Port of Civitavecchia is the seaport of Civitavecchia, Metropolitan City of Rome, Italy.
Porta Pia is a gate in the Aurelian Walls of Rome, Italy.
A postal code (also known locally in various English-speaking countries throughout the world as a postcode, post code, Eircode, PIN Code or ZIP Code) is a series of letters or digits or both, sometimes including spaces or punctuation, included in a postal address for the purpose of sorting mail.
Prada S.p.A. is an Italian luxury fashion house, specializing in leather handbags, travel accessories, shoes, ready-to-wear, perfumes and other fashion accessories, founded in 1913 by Mario Prada.
The Latin term praetorium — or prœtorium or pretorium — originally signified a general's tent within a Roman castra, castellum, or encampment.
Prati is a historic neighbourhood (rione) of Rome in the centre of the city, bordering with the north of the Vatican State, within Rome's Municipio I. Its logo is the shape of Hadrian's mausoleum, in a blue color on a silver background.
The President of the French Republic (Président de la République française) is the executive head of state of France in the French Fifth Republic.
The President of the Italian Republic (Presidente della Repubblica Italiana) is the head of state of Italy and in that role represents national unity and guarantees that Italian politics comply with the Constitution.
Price controls are governmental restrictions on the prices that can be charged for goods and services in a market.
The ministerial orders of the Catholic Church (for similar but different rules among Eastern Catholics see Eastern Catholic Church) are those of bishop, presbyter (more commonly called priest in English), and deacon.
The President of the Council of Ministers of the Italian Republic (Italian: Presidente del Consiglio dei ministri della Repubblica Italiana), commonly referred to in Italy as Presidente del Consiglio, or informally as Premier and known in English as the Prime Minister of Italy, is the head of government of the Italian Republic.
Princeps (plural: principes) is a Latin word meaning "first in time or order; the first, foremost, chief, the most eminent, distinguished, or noble; the first man, first person".
The Principate is the name sometimes given to the first period of the Roman Empire from the beginning of the reign of Augustus in 27 BC to the end of the Crisis of the Third Century in 284 AD, after which it evolved into the so-called Dominate.
A prisoner in the Vatican or prisoner of the Vatican (Prigioniero del Vaticano; Captivus Vaticani) is how Pope Pius IX was described following the capture of Rome by the armed forces of the Kingdom of Italy on 20 September 1870.
The properties of the Holy See are regulated by the 1929 Lateran Treaty signed with the Kingdom of Italy.
The Province of Rome (Provincia di Roma) was one of the five provinces of Lazio, Italy.
The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage from 264 BC to 146 BC.
The Pyramid of Cestius (in Italian, Piramide di Caio Cestio or Piramide Cestia) is an ancient pyramid in Rome, Italy, near the Porta San Paolo and the Protestant Cemetery.
Pyrrhus (Πύρρος, Pyrrhos; 319/318–272 BC) was a Greek general and statesman of the Hellenistic period.
San Lorenzo is a district (quartiere) in Rome, Italy.
The Quirinal Hill (Collis Quirinalis; Quirinale) is one of the Seven Hills of Rome, at the north-east of the city center.
The Quirinal Palace (known in Italian as the Palazzo del Quirinale or simply Quirinale) is a historic building in Rome, Italy, one of the three current official residences of the President of the Italian Republic, together with Villa Rosebery in Naples and Tenuta di Castelporziano in Rome.
Quo Vadis (Latin for "Where are you going?") is a 1951 American epic film made by MGM in Technicolor.
Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino (March 28 or April 6, 1483April 6, 1520), known as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance.
The four Raphael Rooms (Stanze di Raffaello) form a suite of reception rooms in the palace, the public part of the papal apartments in the Palace of the Vatican.
In architecture, rationalism is an architectural current which mostly developed from Italy in the 1920s-1930s.
Ravenna (also locally; Ravèna) is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna, in the Emilia-Romagna region of Northern Italy.
A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
The regions of Italy (Italian: regioni) are the first-level administrative divisions of Italy, constituting its second NUTS administrative level.
Relative humidity (RH) is the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor to the equilibrium vapor pressure of water at a given temperature.
Religion in Ancient Rome includes the ancestral ethnic religion of the city of Rome that the Romans used to define themselves as a people, as well as the religious practices of peoples brought under Roman rule, in so far as they became widely followed in Rome and Italy.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Renaissance architecture is the European architecture of the period between the early 14th and early 17th centuries in different regions, demonstrating a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture.
Renaissance music is vocal and instrumental music written and performed in Europe during the Renaissance era.
Renato Balestra (born May 3, 1924 –) is an Italian fashion designer.
Renzo Piano, (born 14 September 1937) is an Italian architect and engineer.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations, People's Spring, Springtime of the Peoples, or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848.
The Latin title rex has the meaning of "king, ruler" (monarch).
Ridolfo Ghirlandaio (or Ghirlandajo) (Florence 14 February 1483 – 6 June 1561) was an Italian Renaissance painter active mainly in Florence.
Rione (plural: rioni) is the name given to a neighbourhood in several Italian cities.
A rione of Rome (pl. rioni) is a traditional administrative division of the city of Rome.
Robert Guiscard (– 17 July 1085) was a Norman adventurer remembered for the conquest of southern Italy and Sicily.
Roma Termini (in Italian, Stazione Termini) is the main railway station of Rome, Italy.
Roma Tiburtina is the second largest railway station in Rome, after Roma Termini.
Roma Tre University. (Università degli Studi Roma Tre) is an Italian public research university located in Rome, Italy, with its main campus situated in the Ostiense quarter. Founded in 1992 by the Ministry of Public Education, under the request of several professors of the Sapienza University of Rome, it was the third public university to be established in the metropolitan area of Rome. The university comprises 8 schools and 32 departments, enrolling 35,338 students and having 1,370 academic and professional staff. At present, the university offers 54 undergraduate degree programs, 75 master's degree programs, 16 doctoral schools and five PhD programs. It is the second-largest university of Rome by enrollment and one of the largest research-based institutions in the country.
Roman art refers to the visual arts made in Ancient Rome and in the territories of the Roman Empire.
The Roman Campagna, or just Campagna, is a low-lying area surrounding Rome in the Lazio region of central Italy, with an area of approximately.
Note: This article is based on the "Catholic Encyclopedia" 1913 and contains a large amount of out-dated information throughout, including the numbers of students.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Roman Forum, also known by its Latin name Forum Romanum (Foro Romano), is a rectangular forum (plaza) surrounded by the ruins of several important ancient government buildings at the center of the city of Rome.
The Roman Ghetto or Ghetto of Rome, (Ghetto di Roma), was a Jewish ghetto established in 1555 in the Rione Sant'Angelo, in Rome, Italy, in the area surrounded by present-day Via del Portico d'Ottavia, Lungotevere dei Cenci, Via del Progresso and Via di Santa Maria del Pianto, close to the River Tiber and the Theatre of Marcellus.
Roman Holiday is a 1953 American romantic comedy film directed and produced by William Wyler.
The Roman Kingdom, or regal period, was the period of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a monarchical form of government of the city of Rome and its territories.
Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables (c. 449 BC), to the Corpus Juris Civilis (AD 529) ordered by Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I. Roman law forms the basic framework for civil law, the most widely used legal system today, and the terms are sometimes used synonymously.
Roman mythology is the body of traditional stories pertaining to ancient Rome's legendary origins and religious system, as represented in the literature and visual arts of the Romans.
In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin: provincia, pl. provinciae) was the basic and, until the Tetrarchy (from 293 AD), the largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside Italy.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
The Roman Republic was proclaimed on 15 February 1798 after Louis Alexandre Berthier, a general of Napoleon, had invaded the city of Rome on 10 February.
The Roman Republic was a short-lived state declared on 9 February 1849, when the government of Papal States was temporarily replaced by a republican government due to Pope Pius IX's flight to Gaeta.
In music history, the Roman School was a group of composers of predominantly church music, in Rome, during the 16th and 17th centuries, therefore spanning the late Renaissance and early Baroque eras.
The Roman Senate (Senatus Romanus; Senato Romano) was a political institution in ancient Rome.
Romanesco is a variety of regional Italian spoken in the Metropolitan City of Rome Capital, especially in the core city.
Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches.
Romanization or Latinization (or Romanisation or Latinisation), in the historical and cultural meanings of both terms, indicate different historical processes, such as acculturation, integration and assimilation of newly incorporated and peripheral populations by the Roman Republic and the later Roman Empire.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Rome was a department of the First French Empire in present-day Italy.
Rome is a British-American-Italian historical drama television series created by John Milius, William J. MacDonald, and Bruno Heller.
Rome 2020 (Italian: Roma 2020) was a proposed bid for the 2020 Summer Olympics by the city of Rome and the Italian National Olympic Committee.
The Rome Metro (Metropolitana di Roma) is an underground public transportation system that operates in Rome, Italy.
The Rome metropolitan area is centred on the city of Rome, the Italian capital, and is located in the Lazio region of central Italy.
The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (often referred to as the International Criminal Court Statute or the Rome Statute) is the treaty that established the International Criminal Court (ICC).
Rome Urbe Airport (Aeroporto di Roma-Urbe) is a small civilian airport in Rome, situated in the northern part of the city, between Via Salaria and the Tiber River, about 2.7 NM (5 km, 3.1 mi) inside the Greater Ring Road (Italian: Grande Raccordo Anulare or GRA), the circular motorway around the city.
Romulus was the legendary founder and first king of Rome.
In Roman mythology, Romulus and Remus are twin brothers, whose story tells the events that led to the founding of the city of Rome and the Roman Kingdom by Romulus.
Flavius Romulus Augustus (c. AD 460–after AD 476; possibly still alive as late as AD 507), known derisively and historiographically as Romulus Augustulus, was a Roman emperor and alleged usurper who ruled the Western Roman Empire from 31 October AD 475 until 4 September AD 476.
The Rospigliosi family is an ancient noble Italian family from Pistoia.
The Rugby Roma Olimpic 1930 (italian for Amateur Sport Club Rugby Roma Olimpic) is a former Italian professional rugby union team.
Rugby union, commonly known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century.
Società Sportiva Lazio S.p.A., commonly referred to as Lazio, is a professional Italian sports club based in Rome, most known for its football activity.
Polisportiva S.S. Lazio Rugby 1927, based in Roma, is an Italian professional rugby union team.
The Sabines (Sabini; Σαβῖνοι Sabĩnoi; Sabini, all exonyms) were an Italic tribe which lived in the central Apennines of ancient Italy, also inhabiting Latium north of the Anio before the founding of Rome.
The Sack of Rome of May 1084 was a Norman sack, the result of the pope's call for aid from the duke of Apulia, Robert Guiscard.
The Sack of Rome on 6 May 1527 was a military event carried out in Rome (then part of the Papal States) by the mutinous troops of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor.
The Sack of Rome occurred on 24 August 410.
Saint Peter (Syriac/Aramaic: ܫܸܡܥܘܿܢ ܟܹ݁ܐܦ݂ܵܐ, Shemayon Keppa; שמעון בר יונה; Petros; Petros; Petrus; r. AD 30; died between AD 64 and 68), also known as Simon Peter, Simeon, or Simon, according to the New Testament, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, leaders of the early Christian Great Church.
The Salesians of Don Bosco (SDB; also known as the Salesian Society; officially named the Society of St. Francis de Sales) is a Roman Catholic Latin Rite religious institute founded in the late nineteenth century by Italian priest Saint John Bosco to help poor children during the Industrial Revolution.
Saltimbocca (also saltinbocca) (Italian for jumps in the mouth) is an Italian dish (also popular in southern Switzerland, Spain and Greece) made of veal lined or wrapped with prosciutto and sage; marinated in wine, oil or saltwater depending on the region or one's own taste.
The Samnites were an ancient Italic people who lived in Samnium in south-central Italy.
The church of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane (Saint Charles at the Four Fountains), also called San Carlino, is a Roman Catholic church in Rome, Italy.
The Church of St.
San Pietro in Montorio is a church in Rome, Italy, which includes in its courtyard the Tempietto, a small commemorative martyrium (tomb) built by Donato Bramante.
San Sebastiano fuori le mura (Saint Sebastian outside the walls), or San Sebastiano ad Catacumbas (Saint Sebastian at the Catacombs), is a basilica in Rome, central Italy.
Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi (c. 1445 – May 17, 1510), known as Sandro Botticelli, was an Italian painter of the Early Renaissance.
The Basilica of the Holy Cross in Jerusalem or Basilica di Santa Croce in Gerusalemme, (Basilica Sanctae Crucis in Hierusalem) is a Roman Catholic minor basilica and titular church in rione Esquilino, Rome, Italy.
Santa Maria dell'Anima (Our Lady of the Soul) is a Roman Catholic church in central Rome, Italy, just west of the Piazza Navona and near the Santa Maria della Pace church.
The Basilica of Santa Maria in Trastevere (Basilica di Santa Maria in Trastevere); Our Lady in Trastevere) is a titular minor basilica in the Trastevere district of Rome, and one of the oldest churches of Rome. The basic floor plan and wall structure of the church date back to the 340s, and much of the structure to 1140-43. The first sanctuary was built in 221 and 227 by Pope Callixtus I and later completed by Pope Julius I. The church has large areas of important mosaics from the late 13th century by Pietro Cavallini.
Santa Maria sopra Minerva (Saint Mary above Minerva, Sancta Maria supra Minervam) is one of the major churches of the Roman Catholic Order of Preachers (better known as the Dominicans) in Rome, Italy.
The Basilica of Saint Praxedes (Basilica Sanctae Praxedis, Basilica di Santa Prassede all’Esquillino), commonly known in Italian as Santa Prassede, is an ancient titular church and minor basilica in Rome, Italy, located near the papal basilica of Saint Mary Major.
Santi Quattro Coronati is an ancient basilica in Rome, Italy.
The Sapienza University of Rome (Italian: Sapienza – Università di Roma), also called simply Sapienza or the University of Rome, is a collegiate research university located in Rome, Italy.
The Province of Sardinia and Corsica (Provincia Sardinia et Corsica) was an ancient Roman province including the islands of Sardinia and Corsica.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
The Scala Sancta (Holy Stairs, Scala Santa) are a set of 28 white marble steps that are Roman Catholic relics located in an edifice on extraterritorial property of the Holy See in Rome, Italy proximate to the Archbasilica of St. John in Laterano.
Scam City is a television show which started airing on Travel + Escape in June 2012, and has subsequently aired on the National Geographic Channel, and in Australia on the subscription channel Nat Geo People.
The Scots College (or The Pontifical Scots College) in Rome is the main seminary for the training of men for the priesthood from the dioceses of the Roman Catholic Church in Scotland.
The Second Triumvirate is the name historians have given to the official political alliance of Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (Caesar Augustus), Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony), and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, formed on 27 November 43 BC with the enactment of the Lex Titia, the adoption of which some view as marking the end of the Roman Republic, whilst others argue the Battle of Actium or Octavian becoming Caesar Augustus in 27 BC.
The secondary sector of the economy includes industries that produce a finished, usable product or are involved in construction.
Seminary, school of theology, theological seminary, Early-Morning Seminary, and divinity school are educational institutions for educating students (sometimes called seminarians) in scripture, theology, generally to prepare them for ordination as clergy, academia, or ministry.
Semolina is the coarse, purified wheat middlings of durum wheat mainly used in making pasta and couscous.
The Senate of the Republic (Senato della Repubblica) or Senate (Senato) is a house of the bicameral Italian Parliament (the other being the Chamber of Deputies).
Seoul (like soul; 서울), officially the Seoul Special Metropolitan City – is the capital, Constitutional Court of Korea and largest metropolis of South Korea.
Serie A, also called Serie A TIM due to sponsorship by TIM, is a professional league competition for football clubs located at the top of the Italian football league system and the winner is awarded the Coppa Campioni d'Italia.
The Servian Wall (Murus Servii Tullii; Mura Serviane) was an ancient Roman defensive barrier constructed around the city of Rome in the early 4th century BC.
In economics, a service is a transaction in which no physical goods are transferred from the seller to the buyer.
Servius Tullius was the legendary sixth king of Rome, and the second of its Etruscan dynasty.
The Italian Meteorological Service is an organizational unit of the Italian Air Force (Servizio Meteorologico dell'Aeronautica Militare), and as such, the national meteorological service in Italy.
As the home of the Pope and the Catholic curia, as well as the locus of many sites and relics of veneration related to apostles, saints and Christian martyrs; Rome had long been a destination for pilgrims.
In the Roman foundation myth, it was a she-wolf that nursed and sheltered the twins Romulus and Remus after they were abandoned in the wild by order of King Amulius of Alba Longa.
Sicilia was the first province acquired by the Roman Republic.
In Greek mythology, Silenus (Greek: Σειληνός Seilēnos) was a companion and tutor to the wine god Dionysus.
Simony is the act of selling church offices and roles.
Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.
The Sistine Chapel (Sacellum Sixtinum; Cappella Sistina) is a chapel in the Apostolic Palace, the official residence of the Pope, in Vatican City.
The Six Nations Championship (recently known as the NatWest 6 Nations for sponsorship reasons) is an annual international rugby union competition between the teams of England, France, Ireland, Italy, Scotland and Wales.
The Società Geografica Italiana formed as a geographic society in 1867 in Florence, Italy, and moved to Rome in 1872.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
The Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and of Malta (Supremus Ordo Militaris Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani Rhodius et Melitensis), also known as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM) or the Order of Malta, is a Catholic lay religious order traditionally of military, chivalrous and noble nature.
Spaghetti is a long, thin, solid, cylindrical pasta.
The Spanish Steps (Scalinata di Trinità dei Monti) are a set of steps in Rome, Italy, climbing a steep slope between the Piazza di Spagna at the base and Piazza Trinità dei Monti, dominated by the Trinità dei Monti church at the top.
Spartacus (Σπάρτακος; Spartacus; c. 111–71 BC) was a Thracian gladiator who, along with the Gauls Crixus, Gannicus, Castus, and Oenomaus, was one of the escaped slave leaders in the Third Servile War, a major slave uprising against the Roman Republic.
The Papal Basilica of St.
The Stadio Flaminio is a stadium in Rome.
The Stadio Olimpico is the main and largest sports facility of Rome, Italy.
A subsistence economy is a non-monetary economy which relies on natural resources to provide for basic needs, through hunting, gathering, and subsistence agriculture.
Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (c. 138 BC – 78 BC), known commonly as Sulla, was a Roman general and statesman.
Sulla's first civil war was one of a series of civil wars in ancient Rome, between Gaius Marius and Sulla, between 88 and 87 BC.
The suppression of the Jesuits in the Portuguese Empire (1759), France (1764), the Two Sicilies, Malta, Parma, the Spanish Empire (1767) and Austria and Hungary (1782) is a complex topic.
Sutri (Latin Sutrium) is an Ancient town, modern comune and former bishopric (now a Latin titular see) in the province of Viterbo, about from Rome and about south of Viterbo.
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania.
Synoecism or synecism (συνοικισμóς, sunoikismos), also spelled synoikism, was originally the amalgamation of villages in Ancient Greece into poleis, or city-states.
The talking statues of Rome (statue parlanti di Roma) or the Congregation of Wits (Congrega degli arguti) provided an outlet for a form of anonymous political expression in Rome.
Taranto (early Tarento from Tarentum; Tarantino: Tarde; translit; label) is a coastal city in Apulia, Southern Italy.
The Teatro dell'Opera di Roma (Rome Opera House) is an opera house in Rome, Italy.
Tehran (تهران) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.
TIM S.p.A., also operating under the name Telecom Italia, is an Italian telecommunications company headquartered in Milan, which provides telephony services, mobile services, and DSL data services.
Temple University (Temple or TU) is a state-related research university located in the Cecil B. Moore neighborhood of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States.
The tertiary sector or service sector is the third of the three economic sectors of the three-sector theory.
Testaccio is the 20th rione of Rome, deriving its name from Monte Testaccio.
The Decameron (Italian title: "Decameron" or "Decamerone"), subtitled "Prince Galehaut" (Old Prencipe Galeotto and sometimes nicknamed "Umana commedia", "Human comedy"), is a collection of novellas by the 14th-century Italian author Giovanni Boccaccio (1313–1375).
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Life Aquatic with Steve Zissou is a 2004 American comedy-drama film directed, co-written, and co-produced by Wes Anderson.
The Passion of the Christ (also known simply as The Passion) is a 2004 American biblical drama film directed by Mel Gibson, written by Gibson and Benedict Fitzgerald, and starring Jim Caviezel as Jesus Christ, Maia Morgenstern as the Virgin Mary and Monica Bellucci as Mary Magdalene.
The Theatre of Marcellus (Theatrum Marcelli, Teatro di Marcello) is an ancient open-air theatre in Rome, Italy, built in the closing years of the Roman Republic.
Theodora (circa 870 – 916) was a senatrix and serenissima vestaratrix of Rome.
Theodore Roosevelt Jr. (October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919) was an American statesman and writer who served as the 26th President of the United States from 1901 to 1909.
Theodosius I (Flavius Theodosius Augustus; Θεοδόσιος Αʹ; 11 January 347 – 17 January 395), also known as Theodosius the Great, was Roman Emperor from AD 379 to AD 395, as the last emperor to rule over both the eastern and the western halves of the Roman Empire. On accepting his elevation, he campaigned against Goths and other barbarians who had invaded the empire. His resources were not equal to destroy them, and by the treaty which followed his modified victory at the end of the Gothic War, they were established as Foederati, autonomous allies of the Empire, south of the Danube, in Illyricum, within the empire's borders. He was obliged to fight two destructive civil wars, successively defeating the usurpers Magnus Maximus and Eugenius, not without material cost to the power of the empire. He also issued decrees that effectively made Nicene Christianity the official state church of the Roman Empire."Edict of Thessalonica": See Codex Theodosianus XVI.1.2 He neither prevented nor punished the destruction of prominent Hellenistic temples of classical antiquity, including the Temple of Apollo in Delphi and the Serapeum in Alexandria. He dissolved the order of the Vestal Virgins in Rome. In 393, he banned the pagan rituals of the Olympics in Ancient Greece. After his death, Theodosius' young sons Arcadius and Honorius inherited the east and west halves respectively, and the Roman Empire was never again re-united, though Eastern Roman emperors after Zeno would claim the united title after Julius Nepos' death in 480 AD.
In ancient Rome, thermae (from Greek θερμός thermos, "hot") and balneae (from Greek βαλανεῖον balaneion) were facilities for bathing.
The Third Servile War, also called by Plutarch the Gladiator War and The War of Spartacus, was the last in a series of slave rebellions against the Roman Republic, known collectively as the Servile Wars.
The Tiber (Latin Tiberis, Italian Tevere) is the third-longest river in Italy, rising in the Apennine Mountains in Emilia-Romagna and flowing through Tuscany, Umbria and Lazio, where it is joined by the river Aniene, to the Tyrrhenian Sea, between Ostia and Fiumicino.
The Tiber Island (Isola Tiberina, Latin: Insula Tiberina) is the only island in the part of the Tiber river which runs through Rome.
Tiberius (Tiberius Caesar Divi Augusti filius Augustus; 16 November 42 BC – 16 March 37 AD) was Roman emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD, succeeding the first emperor, Augustus.
Tiberius Gracchus (Latin: TI·SEMPRONIVS·TI·F·P·N·GRACCVS; born c. 169–164 – 133 BC): Plutarch says Tiberius "was not yet thirty when he was slain." was a Roman populist and reformist politician of the 2nd century BC.
Albius Tibullus (BC19 BC) was a Latin poet and writer of elegies.
Tirana (—; Tiranë; Tirona) is the capital and most populous city of Albania.
, officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and has been the capital since 1869.
Tongeren (Tongres, Tongern) is a city and municipality located in the Belgian province of Limburg, in the southeastern corner of the Flemish region of Belgium.
The Torre dei Conti is a medieval fortified tower in Rome, Italy, located near the Colosseum and the Roman Forum.
The Torre delle Milizie ("Tower of the Militia") is a fortified tower in Rome, Italy, located between the Trajan's Market in the Imperial fora to the east and the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, ''Angelicum'' to the west.
A town square is an open public space commonly found in the heart of a traditional town used for community gatherings.
Trajan (Imperator Caesar Nerva Trajanus Divi Nervae filius Augustus; 18 September 538August 117 AD) was Roman emperor from 98 to 117AD.
Trajan's Column (Colonna Traiana, COLVMNA·TRAIANI) is a Roman triumphal column in Rome, Italy, that commemorates Roman emperor Trajan's victory in the Dacian Wars.
Trajan's Forum (Forum Traiani; Foro di Traiano) was the last of the Imperial fora to be constructed in ancient Rome.
Trajan's Market is a large complex of ruins in the city of Rome, Italy, located on the Via dei Fori Imperiali, at the opposite end to the Colosseum.
Trastevere is the 13th rione of Rome, on the west bank of the Tiber, south of Vatican City, and within Municipio I. Its name comes from the Latin trans Tiberim, meaning literally "beyond the Tiber".
The Treaties of the European Union are a set of international treaties between the European Union (EU) member states which sets out the EU's constitutional basis.
The Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe (TCE; commonly referred to as the European Constitution or as the Constitutional Treaty) was an unratified international treaty intended to create a consolidated constitution for the European Union (EU).
The Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Rome) is one of two treaties forming the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU), the other being the Treaty on European Union (TEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Maastricht).
The Treaty of Tordesillas (Tratado de Tordesilhas, Tratado de Tordesillas), signed at Tordesillas on June 7, 1494, and authenticated at Setúbal, Portugal, divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between the Portuguese Empire and the Crown of Castile, along a meridian 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde islands, off the west coast of Africa.
The Trevi Fountain (Fontana di Trevi) is a fountain in the Trevi district in Rome, Italy, designed by Italian architect Nicola Salvi and completed by Giuseppe Pannini.
Tribune was the title of various elected officials in ancient Rome.
Carlo Alberto Salustri (Rome, 1871-1950) was an Italian dialect poet, better known by his pen name of Trilussa (an anagram of his surname, “Salustri”).
In Greek mythology, the Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans (Greeks) after Paris of Troy took Helen from her husband Menelaus, king of Sparta.
A trolleybus (also known as trolley bus, trolley coach, trackless trolley, trackless tram Joyce, J.; King, J. S.; and Newman, A. G. (1986). British Trolleybus Systems, pp. 9, 12. London: Ian Allan Publishing.. or trolleyDunbar, Charles S. (1967). Buses, Trolleys & Trams. Paul Hamlyn Ltd. (UK). Republished 2004 with or 9780753709702.) is an electric bus that draws power from overhead wires (generally suspended from roadside posts) using spring-loaded trolley poles.
Tuff (from the Italian tufo) is a type of rock made of volcanic ash ejected from a vent during a volcanic eruption.
Tullus Hostilius (r. 673–642 BC) was the legendary third king of Rome.
Tunis (تونس) is the capital and the largest city of Tunisia.
Tuscan (dialetto toscano) is a set of Italo-Dalmatian varieties mainly spoken in Tuscany, Italy.
The Tyrrhenian Sea (Mar Tirreno, Mer Tyrrhénienne, Mare Tirrenu, Mari Tirrenu, Mari Tirrenu, Mare Tirreno) is part of the Mediterranean Sea off the western coast of Italy.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
UNIDROIT (formally, the International Institute for the Unification of Private Law; French: Institut international pour l'unification du droit privé) is an intergovernmental organization on harmonization of private international law; its projects include drafting of international conventions and production of model laws.
Unione Rugby Capitolina is an Italian rugby union club, based in Rome.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The Campus Bio-Medico University (Università Campus Bio-Medico) is a university founded in 1991 in Rome, Italy.
The University of Rome Tor Vergata, also known as the University of Rome II (Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata), is a public research university located in Rome, Italy.
Valentino SpA is a clothing company founded in 1960 by Valentino Garavani.
The Vandals were a large East Germanic tribe or group of tribes that first appear in history inhabiting present-day southern Poland.
Vatican City (Città del Vaticano; Civitas Vaticana), officially the Vatican City State or the State of Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano; Status Civitatis Vaticanae), is an independent state located within the city of Rome.
Vatican Hill (Mons Vaticanus, Colle Vaticano) is a hill located across the Tiber river from the traditional seven hills of Rome.
The Vatican Apostolic Library (Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana), more commonly called the Vatican Library or simply the Vat, is the library of the Holy See, located in Vatican City.
The Vatican Museums (Musei Vaticani; Musea Vaticana) are Christian and art museums located within the city boundaries of the Vatican City.
Vault (French voûte, from Italian volta) is an architectural term for an arched form used to provide a space with a ceiling or roof.
In music history, the Venetian School was the body and work of composers working in Venice from about 1550 to around 1610.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
Gianni Versace S.p.A. usually referred to simply as Versace, is an Italian luxury fashion company and trade name founded by Gianni Versace in 1978.
Vesta is the virgin goddess of the hearth, home, and family in Roman religion.
Via Condotti (officially Via dei Condotti) is a busy and fashionable street of Rome, Italy.
The Via dei Fori Imperiali (formerly Via dei Monti, then Via dell'Impero) is a road in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy, that runs in a straight line from the Piazza Venezia to the Colosseum.
Via della Conciliazione (Road of the Conciliation) is a street in the Rione of Borgo within Rome, Italy.
Via Tiburtina is an ancient road in Italy leading east-northeast from Rome to Tivoli (Latin, Tibur) and then on to Pescara (Latin, Aternum).
A villa was originally an ancient Roman upper-class country house.
Villa Ada is a park in Rome, Italy, with a surface of it is the second largest in the city after Villa Doria Pamphili.
Villa Borghese may refer to.
Villa Borghese is a landscape garden in the naturalistic English manner in Rome, containing a number of buildings, museums (see Galleria Borghese) and attractions.
The Villa Celimontana (previously known as Villa Mattei) is a villa on the Caelian Hill in Rome, best known for its gardens.
The Villa Doria Pamphili is a seventeenth-century villa with what is today the largest landscaped public park in Rome, Italy.
The Villa Farnesina is a Renaissance suburban villa in the Via della Lungara, in the district of Trastevere in Rome, central Italy.
The Villa Medici is a Mannerist villa and an architectural complex with a garden contiguous with the larger Borghese gardens, on the Pincian Hill next to Trinità dei Monti in Rome, Italy.
Villa Sciarra is a park in Rome named for the villa at its centre.
The Viminal Hill (Collis Viminalis; Viminale) is the smallest of the famous Seven Hills of Rome.
Publius Vergilius Maro (traditional dates October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period.
Virginia Elena Raggi (born 18 July 1978) is an Italian lawyer and politician, the 65th and current Mayor of Rome, who was first elected in 2016.
The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi; Visigoti) were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths.
Viterbo (Viterbese: Veterbe, Viterbium) is an ancient city and comune in the Lazio region of central Italy, the capital of the province of Viterbo.
Volcanic rock (often shortened to volcanics in scientific contexts) is a rock formed from magma erupted from a volcano.
The Volsci were an Italic tribe, well known in the history of the first century of the Roman Republic.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
Water polo is a competitive team sport played in the water between two teams.
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
In historiography, the Western Roman Empire refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any one time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court, coequal with that administering the eastern half, then referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire.
The Western Schism, also called Papal Schism, Great Occidental Schism and Schism of 1378, was a split within the Catholic Church lasting from 1378 to 1417 in which two, since 1410 even three, men simultaneously claimed to be the true pope.
William Howard Taft (September 15, 1857 – March 8, 1930) was the 27th President of the United States (1909–1913) and the tenth Chief Justice of the United States (1921–1930), the only person to have held both offices.
Various lists of the Wonders of the World have been compiled from antiquity to the present day, to catalogue the world's most spectacular natural wonders and manmade structures.
Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was an American statesman and academic who served as the 28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921.
The World Food Programme (WFP) is the food-assistance branch of the United Nations and the world's largest humanitarian organization addressing hunger and promoting food security.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
In 7 BC, Augustus divided the city of Rome into 14 administrative regions (Latin regiones, sing. regio).
During the Middle Ages, Rome was divided into a number of administrative regions (Latin, regiones), usually numbering between twelve and fourteen, which changed over time.
The 1934 FIFA World Cup was the second FIFA World Cup, the world championship for men's national association football teams.
The 1960 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVII Olympiad (Italian: Giochi della XVII Olimpiade), was an international multi-sport event that was held from August 25 to September 11, 1960, in Rome, Italy.
The 1990 FIFA World Cup was the 14th FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial international football world championship tournament.
The 2004 MTV Europe Music Awards were held at Tor di Valle Racecourse, Rome, Italy.
The 2020 Summer Olympics, officially known as the and commonly known as Tokyo 2020, is a forthcoming international multi-sport event that is scheduled to take place from 24 July to 9 August 2020.
Capital city of italy, Capital of Italy, Capital of Lazio, Città Eterna, City of Rome, City of the Seven Hills, Comune di Roma, Demographics of Rome, Education in Rome, Fascist architecture in Rome, Geography of Rome, Government of Rome, Italian capital, ROME, Roma (city), Roma, Italia, Roma, Italy, Rome (Italy), Rome Italy, Rome, Italy, Rome, Lazio, Rome, Republic and Empire, Rome,Italy, Ruins of Rome, Rōma, Sport in Rome, Sports in Rome, Symbols and Trivia of Rome, Symbols and trivia of Rome, The weather in Rome, Transportation in Rome, UN/LOCODE:ITROM.