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Associazione Sportiva Roma, commonly referred to as simply Roma, is a professional Italian football club based in Rome.
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Abbot Luigi (Romanesco: Abbate Luiggi; Abate Luigi) is one of the talking statues of Rome.
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Absolute monarchy or absolutism is a monarchical form of government in which the monarch has absolute power among his or her people.
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The Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia (National Academy of St Cecilia) is one of the oldest musical institutions in the world, founded by the papal bull Ratione congruit, issued by Sixtus V in 1585, which invoked two saints prominent in Western musical history: Gregory the Great, for whom the Gregorian chant is named, and Saint Cecilia, the patron saint of music.
Achacachi is a town on the Altiplano plateau in the South American Andes in the La Paz Department in Bolivia.
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Achaea or Achaia, sometimes transliterated from Greek as Akhaïa (Αχαΐα Achaïa), was a province of the Roman Empire, consisting of the Peloponnese, eastern Central Greece, and parts of Thessaly.
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In Greco-Roman mythology, Aeneas (Greek:, Aineías, possibly derived from Greek αἰνή meaning "praised") was a Trojan hero, the son of the prince Anchises and the goddess Venus (Aphrodite).
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Location of the Aequi (Equi) in central Italy, 5th century BC. The Aequi (Αἴκουοι and Αἴκοι) were an Italic tribe of northeast Latium and the central Apennines of Italy who appear in the early history of ancient Rome.
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The Roman province of Africa Proconsularis was established after the Romans defeated Carthage in the Third Punic War.
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The Age of Enlightenment or simply the Enlightenment or Age of Reason is an era from the 1620s to the 1780s in which cultural and intellectual forces in Western Europe emphasized reason, analysis, and individualism rather than traditional lines of authority.
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Agostino Andrea Chigi (29 November 1466 – April 11, 1520) was an Italian banker and patron of the Renaissance.
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Alaric I (Alareiks - "supreme chief"; b. 370 (or 375) – d. 410) was the first King of the Visigoths from 395–410, son (or paternal grandson) of chieftain Rothestes.
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Alberto Sordi (15 June 1920 – 24 February 2003), Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI was an Italian actor.
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Aldo Fabrizi (1 November 1905 – 2 April 1990, Rome, Italy) was an Italian actor, director, screenwriter and comedian, probably best known for the role of the heroic priest in Roberto Rossellini's Rome, Open City and as partner of Totò in a number of successful comedies.
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Algiers (الجزائر, al-Jazā’er; Algerian Arabic pronunciation: دزاير Dzayer, Dzayer tamaneɣt, Alger) is the capital and largest city of Algeria.
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The Altare della Patria ("Altar of the Fatherland"), also known as the Monumento Nazionale a Vittorio Emanuele II ("National Monument to Victor Emmanuel II") or Il Vittoriano, is a monument built in honour of Victor Emmanuel, the first king of a unified Italy, located in Rome, Italy.
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The Altieri family was an ancient noble family of Rome, present in the history of the city since the Middle Ages.
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The American Academy in Rome is a research and arts institution located on the Gianicolo (Janiculum Hill) in Rome.
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The American University of Rome (commonly referred to as AUR) is a degree-granting American university in Rome, Italy.
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An amphitheatre or amphitheater is an open-air venue used for entertainment, performances, and sports.
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Anagni is an ancient town and comune in Latium, central Italy, in the hills east-southeast of Rome.
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Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt.
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Ancient Roman architecture developed different aspects of Ancient Greek architecture and newer technologies such as the arch and the dome to make a new architectural style.
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Ancient Roman cuisine changed over the long duration of this ancient civilization.
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Pottery was produced in enormous quantities in ancient Rome, mostly for utilitarian purposes.
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Ancient Rome was an Italic civilization that began on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC.
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Ancus Marcius (678 BC – 617 BC; reigned 642 BC – 617 BC)"Ancus Marcius" in The New Encyclopædia Britannica.
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The Aniene (Anio), formerly known as the Teverone, is a river in Lazio, Italy.
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Anna Magnani (7 March 1908 – 26 September 1973) was an Italian stage and film actress.
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Annalists (from Latin annus, year; hence annales, sc. libri, annual records), is the name given to a class of writers on Roman history, the period of whose literary activity lasted from the time of the Second Punic War to that of Sulla.
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The Annibaldi were a powerful baronal family of Rome and the Lazio in the Middle Ages.
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Annibale Carracci (November 3, 1560 – July 15, 1609) was an Italian Baroque painter.
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An apostle, from Classical Greek ἀπόστολος (apóstolos), meaning "one who is sent away",Liddell & Scott's Greek-English Lexicon, Oxford, 1944 is a messenger and ambassador.
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The Apostolic Palace (Palazzo Apostolico) is the official residence of the Pope, which is located in Vatican City.
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Apotheosis (from Greek ἀποθέωσις from ἀποθεοῦν, apotheoun "to deify"; in Latin deificatio "making divine"; also called divinization and deification) is the glorification of a subject to divine level.
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The Appian Way (Latin and Italian: Via Appia) was one of the earliest and strategically most important Roman roads of the ancient republic.
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An aqueduct is a watercourse constructed to convey water.
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The Ara Pacis Augustae (Latin, "Altar of Augustan Peace"; commonly shortened to Ara Pacis) is an altar in Rome dedicated to Pax, the Roman goddess of Peace.
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The Arab raid against Rome was an Arab raid in 846 against Rome.
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Arcadius (Flavius Arcadius Augustus; Ἀρκάδιος; 377/378 – 1 May 408) was Byzantine Emperor from 395 to 408.
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An arch is a curved structure that spans a space and may or may not support weight above it.
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The Arch of Constantine (Arco di Costantino) is a triumphal arch in Rome, situated between the Colosseum and the Palatine Hill.
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Archaeology or archeology, is the study of human activity in the past, primarily through the recovery and analysis of the material culture and environmental data that has been left behind by past human populations, which includes artifacts, architecture, biofacts (also known as eco-facts) and cultural landscapes (the archaeological record).
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The Papal Archbasilica of St.
Giorgio Armani S.p.A. is an Italian fashion house founded by Giorgio Armani which designs, manufactures, distributes and retails haute couture, ready-to-wear, leather goods, shoes, watches, jewelry, accessories, eyewear, cosmetics and home interiors.
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The Armistice of Cassibile was an armistice signed on 3 September 1943 by Walter Bedell Smith and Giuseppe Castellano, and made public on 8 September, between the Kingdom of Italy and the Allies ("United Nations") of World War II.
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Arnold of Brescia (1090 – June 1155), also known as Arnaldus (Arnaldo da Brescia), was an Italian canon regular from Lombardy.
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The globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus)Rottenberg, A., and D. Zohary, 1996: "The wild ancestry of the cultivated artichoke." Genet.
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Ascanius (said to have reigned 1176-1138 BC) a legendary king of Alba Longa and is the son of the Trojan hero Aeneas and Creusa, daughter of Priam.
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Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
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Athens (Αθήνα, Athína,; Ἀθῆναι, Athēnai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
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The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceanic divisions, following the Pacific Ocean.
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Atletico Roma Football Club was an Italian football club based in Rome, Italy.
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The ATP World Tour Masters 1000 is a series of nine tennis tournaments that are part of the Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) tour, held annually throughout the year in Europe, North America and Asia.
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Augustus (Imperātor Caesar Dīvī Fīlius Augustus;Classical Latin spelling and reconstructed Classical Latin pronunciation of the names of Augustus.
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Augustus (plural augusti),;, Latin for "majestic," "the increaser," or "venerable", was an ancient Roman title given as both name and title to Gaius Octavius (often referred to simply as Augustus), Rome's first Emperor.
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Aurelian (Lucius Domitius Aurelianus Augustus; 9 September 214 or 215 – September or October 275), was Roman Emperor from 270 to 275.
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The Aurelian Walls (Mura aureliane) are a line of city walls built between 271 AD and 275 AD in Rome, Italy, during the reign of the Roman Emperors Aurelian and Probus.
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The Aventine Hill is one of the seven hills on which ancient Rome was built.
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Avignon is a commune in south-eastern France in the department of Vaucluse on the left bank of the Rhône river.
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The Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1377, during which seven successive popes resided in Avignon (then in the Kingdom of Arles, part of the Holy Roman Empire, and now in today's France) rather than in Rome.
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Il Babuino (Romanesco: Il Babbuino; Il Babuino, "The Baboon") is one of the talking statues of Rome, Italy.
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Bacon is a meat product prepared from a pig and usually cured.
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The Barberini were a family of the Italian nobility that rose to prominence in 17th century Rome.
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The Baroque is often thought of as a period of artistic style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, architecture, literature, dance, theater, and music.
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Baroque architecture is the building style of the Baroque era, begun in late 16th-century Italy, that took the Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical and theatrical fashion, often to express the triumph of the Catholic Church and the absolutist state.
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Baroque music is a style of Western art music composed from approximately 1600 to 1750.
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Bartolomeo Scappi (c. 1500 – 13 April 1577) was a famous Renaissance chef.
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The Latin word basilica (derived from Greek βασιλικὴ στοά, Royal Stoa, the tribunal chamber of a king) has three distinct applications in modern English.
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The Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore ('Basilica of St. Mary Major', Basilica Sanctae Mariae Maioris), or church of Santa Maria Maggiore, is a Papal major basilica and the largest Catholic Marian church in Rome, Italy, from whence size it receives the appellation "major".
The Papal Basilica of Saint Lawrence outside the Walls (Basilica Papale di San Lorenzo fuori le Mura) is a Roman Catholic Papal minor basilica and parish church, located in Rome, Italy.
The Papal Basilica of St.
The Basilica of Saint Clement (Basilica di San Clemente al Laterano) is a Roman Catholic minor basilica dedicated to Pope Clement I located in Rome, Italy.
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The Baths of Caracalla (Terme di Caracalla) in Rome, Italy, were the second largest Roman public baths, or thermae, built in Rome between AD 212 and 217, during the reign of the Septimius and Emperor Caracalla.
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The Baths of Diocletian (Thermae Diocletiani) in Rome were the grandest of the public baths, or thermae built by successive emperors.
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Beijing, formerly Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China and one of the most populous cities in the world.
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Belgrade (Beograd / Београд;; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Serbia.
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Ben-Hur is a 1959 American epic historical drama film, directed by William Wyler, produced by Sam Zimbalist for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and starring Charlton Heston, Stephen Boyd, Jack Hawkins, Hugh Griffith and Haya Harareet.
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Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician, journalist, and leader of the National Fascist Party, ruling the country as Prime Minister from 1922 until his ousting in 1943.
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Berlin is the capital of Germany and one of the 16 states of Germany.
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Bernardo Bellotto, (c. 1721/2 or 30 January 1721 – 17 October 1780) also called Canaletto, was an Italian urban landscape painter or vedutista, and printmaker in etching famous for his vedute of European cities (Dresden, Vienna, Turin and Warsaw).
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The Angelica Library (Biblioteca Angelica) is in Rome, Italy.
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The Biblioteca Casanatense (Casanata Library) is a library in Rome, Italy.
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The Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Roma (Rome National Central Library), in Rome, is one of two central national libraries of Italy, along with Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Firenze in Florence.
The Biblioteca Vallicelliana is a library in Rome, Italy.
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The Bibliotheca Hertziana – Max Planck Institute for Art History is a German research institute located in Rome, Italy.
La Bocca della Verità (the Mouth of Truth) is an image, carved from Pavonazzo marble, of a man-like face, located in the portico of the church of Santa Maria in Cosmedin in Rome, Italy.
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The bombing of Rome in World War II took place on several occasions in 1943 and 1944, primarily by Allied and to a smaller degree by Axis aircraft, before the city was invaded by the Allies on June 4, 1944.
Borgo (sometimes called also I Borghi), is the 14th historic district (rione) of Rome, Italy.
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Brasília is the federal capital of Brazil and seat of government of the Federal District.
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Brioni is a menswear couture house owned by French holding company Kering.
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The British School at Rome, which is based in Rome, Italy, is a leading humanities and fine arts research institution of the United Kingdom.
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Bucharest (București) is the capital municipality, cultural, industrial, and financial centre of Romania.
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Budapest (names in other languages) is the capital and the largest city of Hungary, and one of the largest cities in the European Union.
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Bulgari is an Italian jewelry and luxury goods brand that produces and markets several product lines including jewelry, watches, fragrances, accessories, and hotels.
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The Byzantine Empire, or Eastern Roman Empire, was the predominantly Greek-speaking continuation of the eastern part of the Roman Empire during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages.
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The C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group (C40) is a network of the world's megacities taking action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
The Caelian Hill (Collis Caelius; Celio) is one of the famous Seven Hills of Rome.
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Caesar (English Caesars; Latin Caesares) is a title of imperial character.
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The Great Roman Civil War (49–45 BC), also known as Caesar's Civil War, was one of the last politico-military conflicts in the Roman Republic before the establishment of the Roman Empire.
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Caetani, or Gaetani, is the name of an Italian noble family which played a great part in the history of Pisa and of Rome, principally via their close links to the papacy.
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Cairo (القاهرة; Ⲕⲁϩⲓⲣⲏ) is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Middle-East and second-largest in Africa after Lagos.
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Campo de' Fiori (meaning in Field of Flowers) is a rectangular square south of Piazza Navona in Rome, Italy, at the border between rione Parione and rione Regola.
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A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality enjoying primary status in a country, state, province, or other region, usually as its seat of government.
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The Capitoline Hill (or; Latin: Collis Capitōlīnus), between the Forum and the Campus Martius, is one of the seven hills of Rome.
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The Capture of Rome (20 September 1870) was the final event of the long process of Italian unification known as the Risorgimento, marking both the final defeat of the Papal States under Pope Pius IX and the unification the Italian peninsula under King Victor Emmanuel II of the House of Savoy.
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Caput Mundi is a Latin phrase taken to mean "capital of the world" (literally: "head of the world"; see capital, capitol).
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Michelangelo Merisi (Michael Angelo Merigi or Amerighi) da Caravaggio (29 September 1571 in Milan – 18 July? 1610) was an Italian painter active in Rome, Naples, Malta, and Sicily between 1592 (1595?) and 1610.
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Carbonara is an Italian pasta dish from Rome based on eggs, cheese (Pecorino Romano or Parmigiano-Reggiano), bacon (guanciale or pancetta), and black pepper.
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Carciofi alla giudìa, literally "Jewish style artichokes", is among the best known dishes of Roman Jewish cuisine.
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Carciofi alla romana, literally "roman-style artichokes", is a typical dish of Roman cuisine.
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Carlo Verdone (born 17 November 1950) is an Italian actor, screenwriter and film director.
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The Carolingian Empire (800–924) was the final stage in the history of the early medieval realm of the Franks, ruled by the Carolingian dynasty.
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The city of Carthage (قرطاج) is a city in Tunisia that was once the center of the ancient Carthaginian civilization.
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The Mausoleum of Hadrian, usually known as Castel Sant'Angelo (English: Castle of the Holy Angel), is a towering cylindrical building in Parco Adriano, Rome, Italy.
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Castelfusano is an urban park in the comune of Rome.
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Catacombs are human-made subterranean passageways for religious practice.
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The Catacombs of Rome (Catacombe di Roma) are ancient catacombs, underground burial places under Rome, Italy, of which there are at least forty, some discovered only in recent decades.
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The Catacombs of San Sebastiano are a hypogeum cemetery in Rome (Italy), rising along Via Appia Antica, in the Ardeatino Quarter.
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The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is, the largest Christian church, with more than 1.25 billion members worldwide.
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Central European Time (CET), used in most parts of the European Union, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
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Central Italy (Italia centrale or just Centro) is one of the five official statistical regions of Italy used by the National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT), a first level NUTS region and a European Parliament constituency.
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Cesare Pascarella (28 April 1858 - 8 May 1940), was an Italian dialect poet and a painter.
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The Chamber of Deputies (Camera dei Deputati) is a house of the bicameral Parliament of Italy (the other being the Senate of the Republic).
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Chanel S.A. is a French, privately held company owned by Alain and Gerard Wertheimer, grandsons of Pierre Wertheimer, who was an early business partner of the couturière Gabrielle Bonheur Chanel.
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Charlemagne (2 April 742/747/748Karl Ferdinand Werner: Das Geburtsdatum Karls des Großen, in: Francia 1, 1973, pp. 115–157;Matthias Becher: Neue Überlegungen zum Geburtsdatum Karls des Großen, in: Francia 19/1, 1992, pp. 37-60;R. McKitterick: Charlemagne. Cambridge 2008, p. 72.28 January 814), also known as Charles the Great (Carolus or Karolus Magnus) or Charles I, was King of the Franks who united most of Western Europe during the early Middle Ages and laid the foundations for modern France and Germany.
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Charles I (21 March 12277 January 1285), known also as Charles of Anjou, was the King of Sicily by conquest from 1266, though he had received it as a papal grant in 1262 and was expelled from the island in the aftermath of the Sicilian Vespers of 1282.
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Charles I (Carlos I) (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558), of the Spanish Empire from 1516, and as Charles V (Charles Quint; Karl V.) was ruler of the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 until his voluntary abdication in favor of his younger brother Ferdinand I as Holy Roman Emperor and his son Philip II as King of Spain in 1556.
A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth.
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The Church of the Gesù (Chiesa del Gesù) is the mother church of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits), a Catholic religious order.
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Ciampino is a town and comune in the province of Rome, Lazio, Italy.
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Cinecittà (Italian for Cinema City) is a large film studio in Rome that is considered the hub of Italian cinema.
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The Cinema of Italy comprises the films made within Italy or by Italian directors.
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The Circus Maximus (Latin for greatest or largest circus, in Italian Circo Massimo) is an ancient Roman chariot racing stadium and mass entertainment venue located in Rome, Italy.
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Civitavecchia is a town and comune of the province of Rome in the central Italian region of Lazio.
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Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
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Cleopatra is a 1963 American epic historical drama film chronicling the struggles of Cleopatra VII, the young Queen of Egypt, to resist the imperial ambitions of Rome.
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The Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television channel that is owned by the Turner Broadcasting System division of Time Warner.
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A codex (from the Latin caudex for "trunk of a tree" or block of wood, book; plural codices) is a book constructed of a number of sheets of paper, vellum, papyrus, or similar materials, with hand-written content.
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In minting, coining or coinage is the process of manufacturing coins using a kind of stamping which is now generically known in metalworking as "coining".
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Cola di Rienzo (or de Rienzi) (c. 1313 – 8 October 1354) was an Italian medieval politician and popular leader, tribune of the Roman people in the mid-14th century.
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Colonization (or colonisation) occurs whenever there is a large-scale migration of any one or more groups of people to a colonial area.
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The Colonna family is an Italian noble family.
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The Colosseum or Coliseum, also known as the Flavian Amphitheatre (Latin: Amphitheatrum Flavium; Italian: Anfiteatro Flavio or Colosseo), is an oval amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy.
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The Column of Marcus Aurelius (Columna Centenaria Divorum Marci et Faustinae, Colonna di Marco Aurelio) is a Roman victory column in Piazza Colonna, Rome, Italy.
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The comune (plural: comuni) is a basic administrative division in Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality.
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The Congress of Vienna was a conference of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich, and held in Vienna from September 1814 to June 1815.
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Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Greek: Κωνσταντίνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine (in the Orthodox Church as Saint Constantine the Great, Equal-to-the-Apostles), was a Roman Emperor from 306 to 337 AD of Illyrian ancestry.
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Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis or Κωνσταντινούπολη Konstantinoúpoli; Constantinopolis; قسطنطینية, Kostantiniyye; Цариград; modern Istanbul) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine (330–1204 and 1261–1453), the Latin (1204–1261), and the Ottoman (1453–1924) empires.
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The Constitutional Court of Italy (Corte costituzionale della Repubblica Italiana) is a supreme court of Italy, the other being the Court of Cassation.
The Conti di Segni (de Comitibus Signie, also known as Conti or De Comitibus for short) were an important noble family of medieval and early modern Italy originating in Segni, Lazio.
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Corsica et Sardinia was an ancient Roman province including the islands of Corsica and Sardinia.
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Cortona is a town and comune in the province of Arezzo, in Tuscany, Italy.
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Cosimo Rosselli (1439–1507) was an Italian painter of the Quattrocento, active mainly in his birthplace of Florence.
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The Council of Constance is the 15th century ecumenical council recognized by the Roman Catholic Church, held from 1414 to 1418.
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The Counter-Reformation (also the Catholic Revival or Catholic Reformation) was the period of Catholic resurgence beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War (1648), and was initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation.
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Crescentius the Younger (or Crescentius II) (died 998), son of Crescentius the Elder, was a leader of the aristocracy of medieval Rome.
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The Crisis of the Third Century, also known as Military Anarchy or the Imperial Crisis, (AD 235–284) was a period in which the Roman Empire nearly collapsed under the combined pressures of invasion, civil war, plague, and economic depression.
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A cuisine (from French, in turn from Latin coquere.
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The culture of ancient Rome existed throughout the almost 1200-year history of the civilization of Ancient Rome.
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In ancient geography, especially in Roman sources, Dacia was the land inhabited by the Dacians.
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Daniele De Rossi, Ufficiale OMRI (born 24 July 1983) is an Italian professional footballer who plays for Serie A club Roma and the Italy national team as a defensive midfielder.
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De facto is a Latin expression that means "in fact, in reality, in actual existence, force, or possession, as a matter of fact" (literally "from fact").
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The Democratic Party (Partito Democratico, PD) is a social-democratic political party in Italy.
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The Derby della Capitale (Derby of the capital city), also known as Derby Capitolino and Derby del Cupolone, as well as The Rome Derby in English, is the football local derby in Rome, Italy, between the two major teams of the city, Roma and Lazio.
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Diarchy (or dyarchy; from the Greek δι- / δύο meaning "two" and ἄρχω meaning "to rule") is a form of government in which two individuals ("diarchs") are joint heads of state.
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Dictator perpetuo (English: "dictator in perpetuity"), also called dictator in perpetuum, was the office held by Julius Caesar from 26 January or 15 February of the year 44 BCE until his death on 15 March.
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Agostino "Dino" De Laurentiis (8 August 1919 – 10 November 2010) was an Italian film producer.
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Diocletian (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus), born Diocles, (245–311)Barnes, "Lactantius and Constantine", 32–35; Barnes, New Empire, 31–32.
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A diplomatic mission is a group of people from one state or an international inter-governmental organisation (such as the United Nations) present in another state to represent the sending state/organisation officially in the receiving state.
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Dolce & Gabbana is an Italian luxury industry fashion house founded in 1985 in Legnano by Italian designers Domenico Dolce and Stefano Gabbana.
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A dome (from Latin: domus) is an architectural element that resembles the hollow upper half of a sphere.
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Domenico Ghirlandaio (1449 – 11 January 1494) was an Italian Renaissance painter from Florence.
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The Dominate or late Roman Empire was the "despotic" later phase of government, following the earlier period known as the "Principate", in the ancient Roman Empire.
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The Domus Aurea (Latin, "Golden House") was a large landscaped portico villa built by the Emperor Nero in the heart of ancient Rome, after the great fire in A.D. 64 had cleared away the aristocratic dwellings on the slopes of the Palatine Hill.
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Donato Bramante (1444 – 11 April 1514) was an Italian architect, who introduced Renaissance architecture to Milan and the High Renaissance style to Rome, where his plan for St. Peter's Basilica formed the basis of design executed by Michelangelo.
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Early Christianity is the period of Christianity preceding the First Council of Nicaea in 325.
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The Edict of Milan was the February 313 AD agreement to treat Christians benevolently within the Roman Empire.
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The Edict of Thessalonica, also known as Cunctos populos, was issued in 380 AD.
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Eggs are laid by female animals of many different species, including birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish, and have been eaten by humans for thousands of years.
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Egypt (مِصر, مَصر), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia, via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
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The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
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Enel is a multinational manufacturer and distributor of electricity and gas.
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The Venerable English College, commonly referred to as the English College, is a Roman Catholic seminary in Regola, Rome, Italy, for the training of priests for England and Wales.
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Eni S.p.A. is an Italian multinational oil and gas company headquartered in Rome.
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Enrico Montesano (born 7 June 1945, in Rome, Italy), is a popular actor for theater and cinema in Italy, as well as a showman.
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Epirus is a geographical and historical region in southeastern Europe, now shared between Greece and Albania.
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The Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius is an ancient Roman statue in the Campidoglio, Rome, Italy.
Erba-Odescalchi, or Odescalchi, is the name of an Italian noble family of princely rank.
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The Esposizione universale (World's Fair) of 1942 was planned to be held in Rome.
The Esquiline Hill (Esquilino) is one of the celebrated Seven Hills of Rome.
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Esquilino is the XV rione, that is historic district, of Rome.
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Etruscan civilization is the modern name given to a civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany, western Umbria, and northern Lazio.
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The Etruscan language was the spoken and written language of the Etruscan civilization, in Italy, in the ancient region of Etruria (modern Tuscany plus western Umbria and northern Latium) and in parts of Lombardy, Veneto, and Emilia-Romagna (where the Etruscans were displaced by Gauls).
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The Euphrates (الفرات: al-Furāt, ̇ܦܪܬ: Pǝrāt, Եփրատ: Yeprat, פרת: Perat, Fırat, Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.
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EUR is a residential and business district in Rome, Italy located south of the city centre.
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Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.
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The European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) (formally the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms) is an international treaty to protect human rights and fundamental freedoms in Europe.
The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration between its member states.
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The European Observation Network for Territorial Development and Cohesion, briefly ESPON, is a programme under Objective 3 for European Territorial Cooperation of the European Regional Development Fund - Interreg.
The European Olympic Committees is an organisation based in Rome, Italy.
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The European Union (EU) is a politico-economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
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Eurostat is a Directorate-General of the European Commission located in Luxembourg.
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The Eurovision Song Contest 1991 was the 36th Eurovision Song Contest and was held on 4 May 1991 in Rome.
The Exarchate of Ravenna or of Italy was a center of Byzantine (East Roman) power in Italy, from the end of the 6th century to 751, when the last exarch was put to death by the Lombards.
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The Fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called Fall of the Roman Empire or Fall of Rome) was the period of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which it failed to enforce its rule, and its vast territory was divided into numerous successor polities.
Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian nationalism that came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.
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Fascist architecture is a style of architecture developed by architects of fascist societies in the early 20th century.
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A fashion capital is a city which has a major influence on international fashion trends and in which the design, production and retailing of fashion products – plus events such as fashion weeks, awards and trade fairs – generate significant economic output.
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Federico Fellini (January 20, 1920 – October 31, 1993) was an Italian film director and screenwriter.
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Fendi is an Italian luxury fashion house whose specialities include fur, ready-to-wear, leather goods, shoes, fragrances, eyewear, timepieces and accessories.
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The final war of the Roman Republic, also known as Antony's civil war or the war between Antony and Octavian, was the last of the Roman civil wars of the republic, fought between Cleopatra (assisted by Mark Antony) and Octavian.
The First French Empire (Empire Français), also known as the Greater French Empire or Napoleonic Empire, was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century.
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The First Triumvirate was an unofficial political alliance known as an Amitica, between three prominent Roman politicians (triumvirs) which included Gaius Julius Caesar, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great) and Marcus Licinius Crassus.
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Fiumicino is a town and comune in the province of Rome, Lazio, central Italy.
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For the Roman imperial dynasty beginning with Constantine (the Great) and sometimes called "Neo-Flavian", see Constantinian dynasty.
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Florence (Firenze, alternative obsolete form: Fiorenza; Latin: Florentia) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany and of the province of Florence.
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The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; French: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Italian: Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is an agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
As a piece of cutlery or kitchenware, a fork is a tool consisting of a handle with several narrow tines on one end.
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Foro Italico, formerly Foro Mussolini, is a sports complex in Rome, Italy.
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The founding of Rome can be investigated through archaeology, but traditional stories handed down by the ancient Romans themselves explain the earliest history of their city in terms of legend and myth.
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A fountain (from the Latin "fons" (genitive "fontis"), a source or spring) is a piece of architecture which pours water into a basin or jets it into the air to supply drinking water and/or for a decorative or dramatic effect.
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Francesco Borromini, byname of Francesco Castelli (25 September 1599 – 2 August 1667), was an Italian architect born in today's Ticino Encyclopædia Britannica. Web.
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Francesco Totti, Ufficiale OMRI, (born 27 September 1976) is an Italian footballer who plays for and captains Serie A club Roma.
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Francis Trevelyan Miller (1877–1959) was an American writer and film-maker.
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The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War (Deutsch-Französischer Krieg, lit. German-French War, Guerre franco-allemande, lit. Franco-German War), often referred to in France as the War of 1870 (19 July 1871), was a conflict between the Second French Empire and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia.
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The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) are historically first known as a group of Germanic tribes that roamed the land between the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, and second as the people of Gaul who merged with the Gallo-Roman populations during succeeding centuries, passing on their name to modern-day France and becoming part of the heritage of the modern day French people.
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The French Academy in Rome (Académie de France à Rome) is an Academy located in the Villa Medici, within the Villa Borghese, on the Pincio (Pincian Hill) in Rome, Italy.
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The French Revolution (Révolution française) was an influential period of social and political upheaval in France that lasted from 1789 until 1799, and was partially carried forward by Napoleon during the later expansion of the French Empire.
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Fresco (plural frescos or frescoes) is a technique of mural painting executed upon freshly-laid, or wet lime plaster.
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Sextus Julius Frontinus (c. 40 – 103 AD) was one of the most distinguished Roman senators of the late 1st century AD.
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Gaius Sempronius Gracchus (154–121 BC) was a Roman Popularis politician in the 2nd century BC and brother of the reformer Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus.
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Gaius MariusC·MARIVS·C·F·C·N is how Marius was termed in official state inscriptions in Latin: "Gaius Marius, son of Gaius, grandson of Gaius" (157 BC – January 13, 86 BC) was a Roman general and statesman.
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Gangs of New York is a 2002 American fictionalized historical drama film set in the mid-19th century in the Five Points district of Lower Manhattan.
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Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, parts of Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
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The Gauls were Celtic peoples inhabiting Gaul in the Iron Age and the Roman period (roughly from the 5th century BC to the 3rd century AD).
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Genseric or more often Gaiseric or sometimes Geiseric (c. 389 – January 25, 477), was King of the Vandals and Alans (428–477) who established the Vandal Kingdom was one of the key players in the troubles of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century.
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The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin, identified by their use of the Germanic languages which diversified out of Proto-Germanic starting during the Pre-Roman Iron Age.
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Gian Lorenzo Bernini (also Gianlorenzo or Giovanni Lorenzo; 7 December 1598 – 28 November 1680) was an Italian artist and a prominent architect who worked principally in Rome.
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Luigi "Gigi" Proietti (born 2 November 1940) is an Italian actor, director, dubber, and singer.
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Gil Álvarez Carrillo de Albornoz (Egidio Albornoz) (1310 – 23 August 1367) was a Spanish cardinal and ecclesiastical leader.
Giordano Bruno (Iordanus Brunus Nolanus; 1548 – 17 February 1600), born Filippo Bruno, was an Italian Dominican friar, philosopher, mathematician, poet, and astrologer.
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Giovanni Paolo Panini or Pannini (17 June 1691 – 21 October 1765) was a painter and architect, who worked in Rome and is mainly known as one of the vedutisti ("view painters").
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Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (c. 1525 – 2 February 1594) was an Italian Renaissance composer of sacred music and the best-known 16th-century representative of the Roman School of musical composition.
The Giro d'Italia (Tour of Italy) is an annual stage race bicycle race primarily held in Italy, while also occasionally passing through nearby countries.
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Giulio Carlo Argan (17 May 1909 – 12 November 1992) was an Italian art historian and politician.
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Giuseppe Garibaldi (4 July 1807 – 2 June 1882) was an Italian general and politician who played a large role in the history of Italy.
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Giuseppe Francesco Antonio Maria Gioachino Raimondo Belli (September 7, 1791 – December 21, 1863) was an Italian poet, famous for his sonnets in Romanesco, the dialect of Rome.
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Giuseppe Mazzini (22 June 1805 – 10 March 1872), was an Italian politician, journalist and activist for the unification of Italy.
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A gladiator (gladiator, "swordsman", from gladius, "sword") was an armed combatant who entertained audiences in the Roman Republic and Roman Empire in violent confrontations with other gladiators, wild animals, and condemned criminals.
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A global city, also called world city or sometimes alpha city or world center, is a city generally considered to be an important node in the global economic system.
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The Global Language Monitor (GLM) is an Austin, Texas-based company that collectively documents, analyzes and tracks trends in language usage worldwide, with a particular emphasis upon the English language.
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Gnocchi (also,;, singular gnocco) are various thick, soft dough dumplings that may be made from semolina, ordinary wheat flour, egg, cheese, potato, breadcrumbs, or similar ingredients.
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The Gothic War between the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire and the Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy was fought from 535 until 554 in Italy, Dalmatia, Sardinia, Sicily and Corsica.
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Graffiti (plural of graffito: "a graffito", but "these graffiti") are writing or drawings that have been scribbled, scratched, or painted illicitly on a wall or other surface, often in a public place.
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The Grand Tour was the traditional trip of Europe undertaken by mainly upper-class European young men of means, or those of more humble origin who could find a sponsor.
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The GRA or Grande Raccordo Anulare (literally, "Great Ring Junction" and not so literally as the "Great Ring Road") is a toll-free, ring-shaped orbital motorway,, in circumference that encircles Rome.
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The gray wolf or grey wolf (Canis lupus) also known as the timber wolf,Paquet, P. & Carbyn, L. W. (2003).
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Great Britain, also known as Britain, is an island in the North Atlantic off the north-west coast of continental Europe.
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The Great Synagogue of Rome (Tempio Maggiore di Roma) is the largest synagogue in Rome.
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Handball (also known as team handball, Olympic handball, European team handball, European handball, or Borden ball) is a team sport in which two teams of seven players each (six outfield players and a goalkeeper) pass a ball using their hands with the aim of throwing it into the goal of the other team.
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Saint Helena or Saint Helen (Flavia Iulia Helena Augusta; –) was the consort of the Roman emperor Constantius Chlorus and the mother of the emperor Constantine the Great.
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Henry IV (13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), Henri-Quatre, also known by the epithet "Good King Henry", was King of Navarre (as Henry III) from 1572 to 1610 and King of France from 1589 to 1610.
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Henry IV (Heinrich IV; 11 November 1050 – 7 August 1106) ascended to King of the Germans in 1056.
High-speed rail in Italy consists of two lines connecting most of the country's major cities.
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Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula.
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The causes and mechanisms of the decline of the Roman Empire are a historical theme that was introduced by historian Edward Gibbon in his 1776 book The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.
The city of Rome originates as a village of the Latini in the 8th century BC.
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The Hohenstaufen, also called the Staufer or Staufen, were a dynasty of German kings (1138–1254) during the Middle Ages.
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Hollywood is a neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, California.
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The Holy Roman Empire (Latin: Sacrum Romanum Imperium, German: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
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The Holy See (Sancta Sedes) is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Bishop of Rome—the Pope.
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Honorius (Flavius Honorius Augustus; 9 September 384 – 15 August 423), was Western Roman Emperor from 393 to 423.
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Portrait of the later Agostino Chigi, nephew of Alexander VII. Chigi is a Roman princely family of Sienese extraction descended from the counts of Ardenghesca, which possessed castles in the Maremma, southern Tuscany.
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The House of Medici was an Italian banking family, political dynasty and later royal house that first began to gather prominence under Cosimo de' Medici in the Republic of Florence during the late 14th century.
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The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe and is divided among four states: Spain, Portugal, Andorra, and France; as well as Gibraltar, an overseas territory of the United Kingdom.
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Ignazio Roberto Maria Marino (born 10 March 1955, Genoa) is an Italian transplant surgeon and the current Mayor of Rome.
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Il Facchino (Il Facchino, "The Porter") is one of the talking statues of Rome.
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Industrial design is a process of design applied to products that are to be manufactured through techniques of mass production.
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Inter caetera ("Among other ") was a papal bull issued by Pope Alexander VI on, which granted to Spain (the Crowns of Castile and Aragon) all lands to the "west and south" of a pole-to-pole line 100 leagues west and south of any of the islands of the Azores or the Cape Verde islands.
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The International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property (ICCROM) is an intergovernmental organization dedicated to the preservation of cultural heritage worldwide through training, information, research, cooperation and advocacy programmes.
The International Development Law Organization (IDLO) is an intergovernmental organization dedicated to the promotion of the rule of law.
The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) (French: Fonds international de développement agricole; FIDA) (Italian: Fondo Internazionale per lo Sviluppo Agricolo) is a specialized agency of the United Nations dedicated to eradicating rural poverty in developing countries.
The Investiture Controversy or Investiture Contest was the most significant conflict between Church and state in medieval Europe.
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iOS (originally iPhone OS) is a mobile operating system created and developed by Apple Inc. and distributed exclusively for Apple hardware.
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Isis (Ἶσις; original Egyptian pronunciation more likely "Aset" or "Iset") is a goddess from the polytheistic pantheon of Egypt.
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Islam (There are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster). The most common are (Oxford English Dictionary, Random House) and (American Heritage Dictionary). الإسلام,: Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~. In Northwestern Africa, they do not have stress or lengthened vowels.) is a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion articulated by the Qur'an, a religious text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God, and, for the vast majority of adherents, by the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad (circa 570–8 June 632 CE), considered by most of them to be the last prophet of God.
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The Istituto Europeo di Design (IED) is a design school in Italy.
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Istituto Superiore per le Industrie Artistiche (Higher Institute for Artistic Industries), usually referred to with the acronym ISIA, is the name of four Italian universities, which train students in the field of design.
Italian Baroque (or Barocco) is a stylistic period in Italian history and art that spanned from the late 16th century to the early 18th century.
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The Italian economic miracle (Italian: il miracolo economico) is the name often used by historians, economists and mass media to designate the prolonged period of sustained economic growth in Italy comprised between the end of the Second World War and late 1960s, and in particular the years 1950-63.
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Italian Fascism (Fascismo Italiano), also known simply as Fascism (Fascismo), is the original fascist ideology, as developed in Italy.
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Imperialism, colonialism and irredentism played an important role in the foreign policy of Fascist Italy.
The Italian Parliament (Parlamento Italiano) is the national parliament of the Italian Republic.
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The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Penisola italiana, Penisola appenninica) is the central and the smallest of the three large peninsulas of Southern Europe (the other two being the Iberian Peninsula and Balkan Peninsula), spanning from the Po Valley in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south.
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The Italian Renaissance (Rinascimento) was the earliest manifestation of the general European Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement that began in Italy during the 14th century and lasted until the 16th century, marking the transition between Medieval and Early Modern Europe.
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Italian unification (Unificazione italiana), mainly know as Risorgimento (meaning the Resurgence), was the political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy in the 19th century.
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The Italic languages are a subfamily of the Indo-European language family originally spoken by Italic peoples.
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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe.
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The Italy national rugby union team represent the nation of Italy in the sport of rugby union.
Ivory statue is the carving of ivory, that is to say animal tooth or tusk, by using sharp cutting tools, either mechanically or manually.
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Jane's Information Group (often referred to as Jane's) is a British publishing company specialising in military, aerospace and transportation topics.
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Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس), located on a plateau in the Judean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea, is one of the oldest cities in the world.
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Jesus (Ἰησοῦς; 7–2 BC to AD 30–33), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ, is the central figure of Christianity, whom the teachings of most Christian denominations hold to be the Son of God.
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The Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation), also known as the Jewish people, are an ethnoreligious and ethno-cultural group descended from the Israelites of the Ancient Near East and originating from the historical kingdoms of Israel and Judah.
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John Cabot University is a private, accredited American liberal arts university located in Rome, Italy.
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The John Felice Rome Center is a campus of Loyola University Chicago in Rome, Italy.
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In Judaism and Christianity, the concept of the Jubilee is a special year of remission of sins and universal pardon.
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Judea or Judæa (from יהודה, Standard Yəhuda Tiberian, Ἰουδαία, Ioudaía; IVDÆA, يهودية, Yahudia) is the biblical, Roman, and modern name of the mountainous southern part of Palestine.
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Jugurtha or Jugurthen (c. 160 – 104 BC) was a King of Numidia, born in Cirta (modern-day Constantine).
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The Julio-Claudian dynasty normally refers to the first five Roman Emperors: Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero, or the family to which they belonged; they ruled the Roman Empire from its formation, in the second half of the 1st century (44/31/27) BC, until AD 68, when the last of the line, Nero, committed suicide.
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Gaius Julius Caesar (July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman statesman, general and notable author of Latin prose.
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Jupiter (Iuppiter;; genitive case: Iovis) or Jove is the king of the gods and the god of sky and thunder in Ancient Roman religion and mythology.
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Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
Kiev or Kyiv (Київ; Киев) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper River.
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The Kingdom of Aksum or Axum, also known as the Aksumite Empire, was a trading nation in the area of northern Ethiopia and Eritrea pre-Islamic Arabs, which existed from approximately 100–940 AD.
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The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state founded in 1861 when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy.
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Kraków also Cracow, or Krakow is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.
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La Défense (pronounced) is a major business district of the Paris Metropolitan Area and of the Île-de-France region, located in the commune of Courbevoie, and parts of Puteaux and Nanterre, just west of the city of Paris.
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La Dolce Vita (Italian for "the sweet life" or "the good life")Kezich, 203 is a 1960 Italian comedy-drama film written and directed by Federico Fellini.
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The German Landsknechts, sometimes also rendered as (singular) were colourful mercenary soldiers with a formidable reputation who became an important military force through late 15th- and 16th-century Europe.
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The Lateran Treaty (Patti Lateranensi; Pacta Lateranensia) was one of the Lateran Pacts of 1929 or Lateran Accords, agreements made in 1929 between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy See, settling the "Roman Question".
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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
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The classical Latin alphabet, also known as the Roman alphabet, is a writing system that evolved from the visually similar Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet.
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Latina is the capital of the province of Latina in the Lazio region, in central Italy.
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Latins were the original Italic tribe and those descended from that tribe who speak or once spoke a Romance language (see Latin peoples).
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The Latins (Latin: Latini), sometimes known as the Latians, were an Italic tribe which included the early inhabitants of the city of Rome.
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Latium (Lătĭŭm) is the region of central western Italy in which the city of Rome was founded and grew to be the capital city of the Roman Empire.
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Laura Biagiotti (born 1943 in Rome) is an Italian high fashion designer.
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Lazio (Latium), often known in English as Latium, is one of the 20 administrative regions of Italy, situated in the central peninsular section of the country.
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Lega Pro Prima Divisione was the third highest football league in Italy.
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A legend (Latin, legenda, "things to be read") is a narrative of human actions that are perceived both by teller and listeners to take place within human history and to possess certain qualities that give the tale verisimilitude.
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Fiumicino – Leonardo da Vinci International Airport (Fiumicino – Aeroporto Internazionale Leonardo da Vinci) or Rome Fiumicino Airport, also simply known as Fiumicino Airport, is a major international airport in Rome, Italy.
Liguria (Ligûria; English: Ligury or) is a coastal region of north-western Italy, with capital Genoa.
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Link Campus University (often referred to as Link Campus, or sometimes just Link), formerly Link Campus -- University of Malta, is a proprietary, for-profit Italian university located in Rome, Italy.
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Lisbon (Lisboa) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with a population of 552,700, Census 2011 results according to the 2013 administrative division of Portugal within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km².
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This is a list of ancient monuments from republican and imperial periods in the city of Rome, Italy.
This is a list of cities and/or their metropolitan areas in the world by GDP.
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This is a list of present-day cities by the time period over which they have been continuously inhabited.
See also Metropolitan cities of Italy.
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This is a list of the 100 largest cities in the European Union by population within city limits.
Ex solo ad solem.
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The city of Rome harbours the most obelisks in the world.
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This list is of shopping areas and markets in Rome, Italy.
This list of sovereign states provides an overview of sovereign states around the world, with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty.
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Rome is fourth biggest city in the European Union by population within city limits.
This is an alphabetical list of past and current theatres and opera houses in Rome, Italy.
The following are lists of World Heritage Sites in Europe.
Liutprand was the King of the Lombards from 712 to 744 and is chiefly remembered for his Donation of Sutri, in 728, and his long reign, which brought him into a series of conflicts, mostly successful, with most of Italy.
The Lombards or Langobards (Langobardī, Italian Longobardi), were a Germanic tribe who ruled Italy from 568 to 774.
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London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
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London Docklands is the name for an area in east and southeast London, England.
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The Lorenzo de' Medici School (Scuola Lorenzo de' Medici), also known as LdM is a private institution of higher education in located in Florence, Italy, with smaller campuses in Tuscania, Rome, and Venice.
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Loyola University Chicago (Loyola, LUC) is a private Jesuit university located in Chicago, Illinois.
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Luca Signorelli (c. 1445 – 16 October 1523) was an Italian Renaissance painter who was noted in particular for his ability as a draughtsman and his use of foreshortening.
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Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, or Tarquin the Elder, was the legendary fifth king of Rome from 616 to 579 BC.
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Lucius Tarquinius Superbus (died 495 BC) was the legendary seventh and final king of Rome, reigning from 535 BC until the popular uprising in 509 that led to the establishment of the Roman Republic.
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Macedonia or Macedon (Μακεδονία, Makedonía) was an ancient kingdom on the northern periphery of Classical Greece and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece.
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The Roman province of Macedonia (Provincia Macedoniae, Ἐπαρχία Μακεδονίας) was officially established in 146 BC, after the Roman general Quintus Caecilius Metellus defeated Andriscus of Macedon, the last self-styled King of the ancient kingdom of Macedonia in 148 BC, and after the four client republics (the "tetrarchy") established by Rome in the region were dissolved.
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The Macedonian Wars were a series of conflicts fought by the Roman Republic and its Greek allies in the eastern Mediterranean against several different major Greek kingdoms.
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Madama Lucrezia (Romanesco: Madama Lugrezzia) is one of the five "talking statues" of Rome.
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Madrid is a south-western European city and the capital and largest municipality of Spain.
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Magna Graecia (Latin meaning "Great Greece", Μεγάλη Ἑλλάς, Megálē Hellás) is the name of the coastal areas of Southern Italy on the Tarentine Gulf that were extensively populated by Greek settlers; particularly the Achaean settlements of Tarentum, Croton, and Sybaris, and to the north, the settlements of Cumae and Neapolis.
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Major basilica (Basilica maior; plural: Basilicae maiores) is the title given to the four highest-ranking Roman Catholic churches, all of which are also "Papal basilicas": the Archbasilica of St. John in the Lateran, St. Peter's Basilica, the Basilica of St. Paul Outside the Walls, and the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore.
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Marbella is a city and municipality in southern Spain, belonging to the province of Málaga in the autonomous community of Andalusia.
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Marcello Piacentini (December 8, 1881 - May 19, 1960) was an Italian urban theorist and one of the main proponents of Italian Fascist architecture.
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The March on Rome (Italian: Marcia su Roma) was a march by which Italian dictator Benito Mussolini's National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, or PNF) came to power in the Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia).
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Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (M·AEMILIVS·M·F·Q·N·LEPIDVS), (born c. 89 or 88 BC, died late 13 or early 12 BC) was a Roman patrician who was triumvir with Octavian (the future Augustus) and Mark Antony, and the last Pontifex Maximus of the Roman Republic.
Marcus Licinius Crassus (Latin: M·LICINIVS·P·F·P·N·CRASSVS; c. 115 BC – 53 BC) was a Roman general and politician who played a key role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
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Marphurius or Marforio (Marforio; Medieval Marphurius, Marforius) is one of the talking statues of Rome.
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Marcus Antonius (Latin:; January 14, August 1, 30 BC), commonly known in English as Mark or Marc Antony, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from an oligarchy into the autocratic Roman Empire.
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Marozia, born Maria and also known as Mariuccia or Mariozza (890 – 937), was a Roman noblewoman who was the alleged mistress of Pope Sergius III and was given the unprecedented titles senatrix ("senatoress") and patricia of Rome by Pope John X. Edward Gibbon wrote of her that the "influence of two sister prostitutes, Marozia and Theodora was founded on their wealth and beauty, their political and amorous intrigues: the most strenuous of their lovers were rewarded with the Roman tiara, and their reign may have suggested to darker ages the fable of a female pope.
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In ancient Roman religion and myth, Mars (Mārs) was the god of war and also an agricultural guardian, a combination characteristic of early Rome.
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Maurus Servius Honoratus was a late fourth-century and early fifth-century grammarian, with the contemporary reputation of being the most learned man of his generation in Italy; he was the author of a set of commentaries on the works of Virgil.
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The Mausoleum of Augustus (Mausoleo di Augusto) is a large tomb built by the Roman Emperor Augustus in 28 BC on the Campus Martius in Rome, Italy.
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Maximian (Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius Augustus; c. 250 – c. July 310) was Roman Emperor from 286 to 305.
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The MAXXI, 'Museo nazionale delle arti del XXI secolo', or National Museum of the 21st Century Arts, is a national museum of contemporary art and architecture in the Flaminio quartiere of Rome, Italy.
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The Mayor of Rome (Sindaco di Roma Capitale) is an elected politician who, along with the Rome’s City Council (Assemblea Capitolina) of 48 members, is accountable for the strategic government of Rome.
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Medieval communes in the European Middle Ages had sworn allegiances of mutual defense (both physical defense and of traditional freedoms) among the citizens of a town or city.
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Mediolanum, the ancient Milan, was originally an Insubrian city, but afterwards became an important Roman city in northern Italy.
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The term Mediterranean climate is one typical of the Mediterranean Basin and is a particular variety of subtropical climate.
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In Greek mythology, Menelaus (Μενέλαος, Menelaos) was a king of Mycenaean (pre-Dorian) Sparta, the husband of Helen of Troy, and a central figure in the Trojan War.
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Metalworking is the process of working with metals to create individual parts, assemblies, or large-scale structures.
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Metres above mean sea level (MAMSL), or simply metres above sea level (MASL or m.a.s.l.), is a standard metric measurement in metres of the elevation of a location in reference to historic mean sea level; the determination of what actually constitutes mean sea level over time however, may be determined by other parameters, such as the effects of climate history and climate change, and may have differed in the past, as well as in the future, from that established by historic, modern, documented elevations.
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A metropolis is a large city or urban area which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for regional or international connections, commerce, and communications.
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The Metropolitan city (Città metropolitana in Italian) is an administrative division of Italy, operative since 2014.
The Metropolitan City of Capital Rome (Città metropolitana di Roma Capitale) is a metropolitan city in the Lazio region, Italy.
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The Metropolitan Museum of Art (colloquially The Met), located in New York City, is the largest art museum in the United States and among the most visited art museums in the world.
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Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni (6 March 1475 – 18 February 1564), was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect, poet, and engineer of the High Renaissance who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art.
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In European history, the Middle Ages or Medieval period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
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Milan (or; Milano; Milanese: Milan), the second-most populous city in Italy, serves as the capital of Lombardy.
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Minerva (Etruscan: Menrva) was the Roman goddess of wisdom and sponsor of arts, trade, and strategy.
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The Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Ministero degli affari esteri or MAE) is the foreign ministry of the government of the Republic of Italy.
The Mithraic Mysteries were a mystery religion practiced in the Roman Empire from about the 1st to 4th centuries AD.
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A monarch is the sovereign head of state in a monarchy.
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Monte Mario is the highest (139 m) hill in Rome, Italy.
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Monti is the name of one of the twenty-two Rioni of Rome, rione I, located in Municipio I. The name literally means mountains in Italian and comes from the fact that the Esquiline and the Viminal Hills, and parts of the Quirinal and the Caelian Hills belonged to this rione.
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Montreal (Montréal) is a city in the Canadian province of Quebec.
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A monument is a type of structure that was explicitly created to commemorate a person or important event, or which has become important to a social group as a part of their remembrance of historic times or cultural heritage, or as an example of historic architecture.
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Mosaic is the art of creating images with an assemblage of small pieces of colored glass, stone, or other materials.
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Moses (מֹשֶׁה, Modern Tiberian ISO 259-3; ܡܘܫܐ Moushe; موسى; Mωϋσῆς in both the Septuagint and the New Testament) is a prophet in Abrahamic religions.
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The Mosque of Rome (Moschea di Roma), situated in Parioli, is the largest mosque outside the entire Islamic world, Russia and India.
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Multan (مُلتان), is a city in Punjab, Pakistan.
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Mumbai (also known as Bombay, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra.
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A Muslim, sometimes spelled Moslem, relates to a person who follows the religion of Islam, a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion based on the Quran.
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Mythology is a collection of myths, especially one belonging to a particular religious or cultural tradition of a group of people–their collection of stories they tell to explain nature, history, and customs–or the study of such myths.
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Naples (Napoli, Neapolitan: nNapule; Neapolis; Νεάπολις, meaning "new city") is the capital of the Italian region Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy, after Rome and Milan.
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Napoléon Bonaparte (born Napoleone di Buonaparte; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the Revolutionary Wars.
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Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the only President (1848–52) of the French Second Republic and, as Napoleon III, the Emperor (1852–70) of the Second French Empire.
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The Italian National Institute of Statistics (Italian: Istituto Nazionale di Statistica; Istat) is the main producer of official statistics in Italy.
NATO Defense College (NDC) is an international military college for North Atlantic Treaty Organization countries in Rome, Italy.
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A nature reserve (natural reserve, bioreserve, (natural/nature) preserve or (national/nature) conserve) is a protected area of importance for wildlife, flora, fauna or features of geological or other special interest, which is reserved and managed for conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research.
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Nazi Germany or the Third Reich (Drittes Reich) are common English names for the period of history in Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a dictatorship under the control of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
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Neapolitan (autonym: (’o n)napulitano; napoletano) is the language of much of southern continental Italy, including the city of Naples.
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Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century.
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Neoclassicism (from Greek νέος nèos and κλασσικός klassikòs classicus) is the name given to Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of Ancient Greece or Ancient Rome.
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Nepotism is favoritism granted to relatives.
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The Nerva–Antonine dynasty was a dynasty of seven Roman Emperors who ruled over the Roman Empire from 96 AD to 192 AD.
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New Delhi is a district in Delhi which serves as the capital of India and seat of the executive, legislative, and judiciary branches of the Government of India.
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The New World is one of the names used for the Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).
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New York is a state in the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.
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New York – often called New York City or the City of New York to distinguish it from the State of New York, of which it is a part – is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York metropolitan area, the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States and one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world.
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Nicola Salvi or Niccolò Salvi (6 August 1697 (Rome) – 8 February 1751 (Rome)) was an Italian architect; among his few projects completed is the famous Trevi fountain in Rome, Italy.
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Nicomedia (Νικομήδεια, Nikomedeia; modern İzmit) was an ancient city in what is now Turkey, founded in 712/11 BC as a Megarian colony and was originally known as Astacus (Ancient Greek: Ἀστακός, "lobster").
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Saturnino "Nino" Manfredi (22 March 1921 – 4 June 2004) was one of the most prominent Italian actors in the commedia all'italiana genre.
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The Norman conquest of England was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled as William the Conqueror.
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The Normans (Normands; Nortmanni) were the people who in the 10th and 11th centuries gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.
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Numa Pompilius (753–673 BC; reigned 715–673 BC) was the second king of Rome, succeeding Romulus.
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An obelisk (UK:; US:, from ὀβελίσκος obeliskos; diminutive of ὀβελός obelos, "spit, nail, pointed pillar") is a tall, four-sided, narrow tapering monument which ends in a pyramid-like shape or pyramidion at the top.
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Oceanus (Ὠκεανός Ōkeanós) was a divine figure in classical antiquity, believed by the ancient Greeks and Romans to be the divine personification of the sea, an enormous river encircling the world.
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Flavius Odoacer (433–493), also known as Flavius Odovacer (Odoacre, OdoacerusLouis Maimbourg, The History of Arianism, Volume 2, 1729 Odoaker), was a soldier, who in 476 became the first King of Italy (476–493).
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Oligarchy is a form of power structure in which power effectively rests with a small number of people.
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In war, in the event of the imminent capture of a city, the government/military structure of the nation that controls the city will sometimes declare it an open city, thus announcing that they have abandoned all defensive efforts.
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The optimates ("Best Men," singular optimas; also known as boni, "Good Men") were the traditionalist Senatorial majority of the late Roman Republic.
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The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an international economic organisation of 34 countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
An origin myth is a myth that purports to describe the origin of some feature of the natural or social world.
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The Orsini family is an Italian noble family; it was one of the most influential princely families in medieval Italy and renaissance Rome.
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The Orto Botanico dell'Università di Roma "La Sapienza" (12 hectares), also known as the Orto Botanico di Roma, is a botanical garden operated by the Sapienza University of Rome and located at Largo Cristina di Svezia 24, Rome, Italy.
The Osci (also called Opici, Opsci, Obsci, Opicans, Όπικοί, Όσκοί), were an Italic people of Campania and Latium adiectum during Roman times.
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Ostia is a large neighbourhood in the X Municipio of the comune of Rome, Italy.
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The Ostrogothic Kingdom was established by the Ostrogoths in Italy and neighbouring areas from 493 to 553.
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Otto II (955 – December 7, 983), called the Red (Rufus), was Holy Roman Emperor from 973 until his death in 983.
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Otto III (Jun/Jul 980 - 23 January 1002) was Holy Roman Emperor from 996 until his early death in 1002.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Italy: Italy – unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe, located primarily upon the Italian Peninsula.
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A palace is a grand residence, especially a royal residence or the home of a head of state or some other high-ranking dignitary, such as a bishop or archbishop.
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The Palatine Hill (Collis Palatium or Mons Palatinus; Palatino) is the centermost of the Seven Hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city.
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Palazzo Barberini is a palace in Rome, facing the Piazza Barberini in Rione Trevi.
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The Palazzo Chigi is a palace or noble residence in Rome and the official residence of the Prime Minister of the Italian Republic.
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The Palazzo della Cancelleria (Italian for "Palace of the Chancellery", meaning the Papal Chancellery) is a Renaissance palace in Rome, Italy, situated between the present Corso Vittorio Emanuele II and the Campo de' Fiori, in the rione of Parione.
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The Palazzo della Civiltà Italiana, also known as the Palazzo della Civiltà del Lavoro or simply the Colosseo Quadrato (Square Colosseum), is an icon of Fascist architecture.
The Palazzo della Farnesina is an Italian government building located between Monte Mario and the Tiber River in the Foro Italico area in Rome, Italy.
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Palazzo Farnese is one of the most important High Renaissance palaces in Rome.
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Palazzo Madama in Rome is the seat of the Senate of the Italian Republic.
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The Palazzo Montecitorio is a palace in Rome and the seat of the Italian Chamber of Deputies.
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The Palazzo Spada is a palace in the historic centre of Rome, Italy.
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The Palazzo di Venezia (formerly Palace of St. Mark) is a palazzo (palace) in central Rome, Italy, just north of the Capitoline Hill.
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Pallacanestro Virtus Roma, known for sponsorship reasons as Acea Virtus Roma, is an Italian professional basketball club based in Rome, Lazio.
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The Pamphili (often with the final long i orthography, Pamphilj) are one of the papal families deeply entrenched in Roman Catholic Church, Roman and Italian politics of the 16th and 17th centuries.
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The Pantheon (or; Pantheon,Infrequently Latinized as Pantheum, as in Pliny's ''Natural History'' (XXXVI.38): "The Pantheon of Agrippa was embellished by Diogenes of Athens; and among the supporting members of this temple there are Caryatids that are almost in a class of their own, and the same is true of the figures on the angles of the pediment, which are, however, not so well known because of their lofty position," as translated by D.E. Eichholz (Agrippae Pantheum decoravit Diogenes Atheniensis; in columnis templi eius Caryatides probantur inter pauca operum, sicut in fastigio posita signa, sed propter altitudinem loci minus celebrata). from Greek Πάνθεον meaning "every god") is a building in Rome, Italy, on the site of an earlier building commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD).
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Paolo Portoghesi (born 2 November 1931, Rome) is an Italian architect, theorist, historian and professor of architecture at the University La Sapienza in Rome.
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A papal conclave is a meeting of the College of Cardinals convened to elect a new Bishop of Rome, also known as the Pope.
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The Papal Palace of Castel Gandolfo, or the Apostolic Palace of Castel Gandolfo from its Italian name Palazzo Apostolico di Castel Gandolfo, is a 17th-century papal palace in the city of Castel Gandolfo, Italy.
The Papal States were territories in the Italian Peninsula under the sovereign direct rule of the pope, from the 700s until 1870.
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Auditorium Parco della Musica is a large multi-functional public music complex in Rome, Italy.
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Paris (UK:; US:; French) is the capital and most-populous city of France.
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Pasquino or Pasquin (Latin: Pasquillus) is the name used by Romans since the early modern period to describe a battered Hellenistic-style statue dating to the 3rd century BC, which was unearthed in the Parione district of Rome in the 15th century.
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In Christianity, the Passion (translation of Greek πάσχειν paschein, 'to suffer') is the short final period in the life of Jesus covering his visit to Jerusalem and leading to his execution by crucifixion, an event central to Christian beliefs.
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Pastoralism is the branch of agriculture concerned with the raising of livestock.
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The term patrician (patricius, πατρίκιος, patrikios) originally referred to a group of ruling class families in ancient Rome.
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Paul the Apostle (Paulos; c. 5 – c. 67), originally known as Saul of Tarsus (שאול התרסי; Saulos Tarseus), was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of Christ to the first-century world.
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Pecorino is the name of a family of hard Italian cheeses made from ewe's milk.
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Pippin the Younger (c. 714 - 24 September 768), often known under the mistranslation Pippin the Short (French: Pépin le Bref; German: Pippin der Kleine), was a King of the Franks from 751 until his death.
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Sir Peter Paul Rubens (28 June 1577 – 30 May 1640) was a Flemish Baroque painter.
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Philip IV (April–June 1268 – 29 November 1314), called the Fair (Philippe le Bel) or the Iron King (le Roi de fer), was King of France from 1285 until his death.
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Philip Romolo Neri, Cong. Orat., (Italian: Filippo Romolo Neri; 21 July 1515 – 25 May 1595), known as the Apostle of Rome, was an Italian priest noted for founding a society of secular clergy called the Congregation of the Oratory.
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Piazza del Popolo is a large urban square in Rome.
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Piazza di Monte Citorio or Piazza Montecitorio is a piazza in Rome.
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Piazza Navona is a piazza in Rome, Italy.
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Piazza Venezia is the central hub of Rome, Italy, in which several thoroughfares intersect, including the Via dei Fori Imperiali and the Via del Corso.
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The Pietà (1498–1499) is a work of Renaissance sculpture by Michelangelo Buonarroti, housed in St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City.
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Pietro Perugino (c. 1446/1450 – 1523), born Pietro Vannucci, was an Italian Renaissance painter of the Umbrian school, who developed some of the qualities that found classic expression in the High Renaissance.
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The Pincian Hill (Pincio, from Latin Mons Pincius) is a hill in the northeast quadrant of the historical center of Rome.
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The Pineto Regional Park is a protected natural area of Lazio, Italy, instituted in 1987.
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Plautia Urgulanilla (fl. 1st century) was the first wife of the future Roman Emperor Claudius.
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In ancient Rome, the plebs were the general body of free Roman citizens who were not patricians, as determined by the census.
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Plovdiv (Пловдив) is the second-largest city in Bulgaria with a population of 341,567 inhabitants as of 2015.
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Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος); c. AD 46 – AD 120) was a Greek historian, biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.
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The politics of Italy is conducted through a constitutional republic with a multi-party system.
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In music, polyphony is a texture consisting of two or more simultaneous lines of independent melody, as opposed to a musical texture with just one voice which is called monophony, and in difference from musical texture with one dominant melodic voice accompanied by chords which is called homophony.
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Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (29 September 106 BC – 29 September 48 BC), usually known in English as Pompey or Pompey the Great, was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic.
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The Pons Aemilius (Ponte Emilio), today called Ponte Rotto, is the oldest Roman stone bridge in Rome, Italy.
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The Pons Cestius (Ponte Cestio, meaning "Cestius' Bridge") is a Roman stone bridge in Rome, Italy, spanning the Tiber to the west of the Tiber Island.
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The Pons Fabricius (Ponte Fabricio, meaning "Fabricius' Bridge") or Ponte dei Quattro Capi, is the oldest Roman bridge in Rome, Italy, still existing in its original state.
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The Milvian (or Mulvian) Bridge (Ponte Molle or Ponte Milvio, Latin: Pons Milvius or Pons Mulvius) is a bridge over the Tiber in northern Rome, Italy.
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The Ponte Nomentano (called Pons Lamentanus in the Middle Ages) is a Roman bridge in Rome, Italy, which carried the Via Nomentana over the Aniene (Anio).
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Ponte Sant'Angelo, once the Aelian Bridge or Pons Aelius, meaning the Bridge of Hadrian, is a Roman bridge in Rome, Italy, completed in 134 AD by Roman Emperor Hadrian, to span the Tiber, from the city center to his newly constructed mausoleum, now the towering Castel Sant'Angelo.
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Ponte Sisto is a bridge in Rome's historic centre, spanning the river Tiber.
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Ponte Vittorio Emanuele II is a bridge in Rome constructed to designs of 1886 by the architect Ennio De Rossi.
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The Pontifex Maximus (Latin, literally: "greatest pontiff" or "greatest bridge-builder") was the high priest of the College of Pontiffs (Collegium Pontificum) in ancient Rome.
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The Pontifical Biblical Institute (it: Pontificio Istituto Biblico) in Rome, Italy is an institution of the Holy See run by the Jesuits that offers instruction at the university level.
The Pontifical Croatian College of St.
The Pontifical Gregorian University (Pontificia Università Gregoriana; also known as the Gregorianum, or the PUG) is a pontifical university located in Rome, Italy.
The Pontifical Lateran University (Pontificia Università Lateranense or Lateranum) is a prestigious university by pontifical right based in Rome, Italy.
The Pontifical North American College is a Roman Catholic educational institution in Rome, Italy that forms seminarians for priestly ministry in the dioceses of the United States and elsewhere, and that provides a residence for priests from the United States and elsewhere who are pursuing graduate studies or continuing formation programs in Rome.
The Pontifical Oriental Institute (Pontificium Institutum Orientalium Studiorum, Pontificio Instituto Orientale) is the premier center for the study of Eastern Christianity in Rome, Italy.
Pontifical universities in Rome are pontifical universities where seminarians from different Roman Colleges are enrolled for major classes.
Pontifical universities are "academic institutes established or approved directly by the Holy See, composed of three main ecclesiastical faculties (Theology, Philosophy and Canon Law) and at least one other faculty.
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Pontius Pilate (or; Latin: Pontius Pīlātus, Πόντιος Πιλᾶτος, Pontios Pīlātos) was the fifth prefect of the Roman province of Judaea from AD 26–36.
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The Pope (papa; from πάππας pappas, a child's word for father) is the Bishop of Rome and the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
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Pope Adrian IV (Adrianus IV; – 1 September 1159), born Nicholas Breakspear, was pope from 4 December 1154 to his death in 1159.
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Pope Alexander VI, born Roderic Llançol i de Borja (Rodrigo Lanzol y de Borja; 1 January 1431 – 18 August 1503), was Pope from 11 August 1492 until his death.
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Pope Benedict XIV (Benedictus XIV; 31 March 1675 – 3 May 1758), born Prospero Lorenzo Lambertini, was pope from 17 August 1740 to his death in 1758.
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Pope Boniface VIII (Bonifatius VIII; c. 1230 – 11 October 1303), born Benedetto Caetani, was Pope from 24 December 1294 to his death in 1303.
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Pope Clement VII (Clemens VII; 26 May 1478 – 25 September 1534), born Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici, was Pope from 19 November 1523 to his death in 1534.
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Pope Eugene III (Eugenius III; ca. 1080 – 8 July 1153), born Pietro dei Paganelli di Montemagno, was Pope from 15 February 1145 to his death in 1153.
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Saint Gregory VII (Gregorius VII; 1015/1028 – 25 May 1085), born Hildebrand of Sovana (Ildebrando da Soana), was Pope from 22 April 1073 to his death in 1085.
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Pope Gregory XI (Gregorius XI; c. 1329 – 27 March 1378) was Pope from 30 December 1370 to his death in 1378.
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Pope Innocent III (Innocentius III; 1160 or 1161 – 16 July 1216) reigned from 8 January 1198 to his death.
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Pope Julius II (Iulius II; 5 December 1443 – 21 February 1513), nicknamed "The Fearsome Pope" and "The Warrior Pope", born Giuliano della Rovere, was Pope from 1 November 1503 to his death in 1513.
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Pope Leo III (750 – 12 June 816 AD) was Pope from 795 to his death in 816.
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Pope Saint Leo IV (790 – 17 July 855) was Pope from 10 April 847 to his death in 855.
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Pope Leo X (11 December 1475 – 1 December 1521), born Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, was Pope from 9 March 1513 to his death in 1521.
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Pope Lucius II (Lucius II; died 15 February 1145), born Gherardo Caccianemici dal Orso, was Pope from 9 March 1144 to his death in 1145.
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Pope Martin V (Martinus V; January/February 1369 – 20 February 1431), born Otto (or Oddone) Colonna, was Pope from 11 November 1417 to his death in 1431.
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Pope Nicholas V (Nicholaus V) (15 November 1397 – 24 March 1455), born Tommaso Parentucelli, was Pope from 6 March 1447 until his death in 1455.
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Pope Paul III (Paulus III; 29 February 1468 – 10 November 1549), born Alessandro Farnese, was Pope from 13 October 1534 to his death in 1549.
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Pope Pius II (Pius PP., Pio II), born Enea Silvio Bartolomeo Piccolomini (Latin Aeneas Silvius Bartholomeus; 18 October 1405 – 14 August 1464) was Pope from 19 August 1458 to his death in 1464.
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Pope Pius IV (31 March 1499 – 9 December 1565), born Giovanni Angelo Medici, was Pope from 25 December 1559 to his death in 1565.
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Pope Pius IX (Pio IX; 13 May 1792 – 7 February 1878), born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, reigned from 16 June 1846 to his death in 1878.
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Pope Sixtus IV (Xystus IV; 21 July 1414 – 12 August 1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was Pope from 9 August 1471 to his death in 1484.
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Pope Sixtus V or Xystus V (13 December 1521 – 27 August 1590), born Felice Peretti di Montalto, was Pope from 24 April 1585 to his death in 1590.
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Pope Sylvester I (died 31 December 335), whose name is also spelled Silvester, was pope from 31 January, 314 to his death in 335.
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Pope Urban VIII (Urbanus VIII; baptised 5 April 1568 – 29 July 1644), reigned as Pope from 6 August 1623 to his death in 1644.
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Populares ("favoring the people", singular popularis) were leaders in the late Roman Republic who relied on the people's assemblies and tribunate to acquire political power.
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Port of Civitavecchia is the seaport of Civitavecchia, Metropolitan City of Rome, Italy.
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Porta Pia is a gate in the Aurelian Walls of Rome, Italy.
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A postal code (also known locally in various English-speaking countries throughout the world as a postcode, post code, Eircode, PIN Code or ZIP Code) is a series of letters and/or digits, sometimes including spaces or punctuation, included in a postal address for the purpose of sorting mail.
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Prada S.p.A. is an Italian luxury fashion house, specializing in ready-to-wear leather and fashion accessories, shoes, luggage, perfumes, watches, etc., founded in 1913 by Mario Prada.
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The Latin term praetorium — or prœtorium or pretorium — originally signified a general’s tent within a Roman castra, castellum, or encampment.
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Prati is a historic neighbourhood (rione) of Rome in the centre of the city, bordering with the north of the Vatican State, within Rome's Municipio I. Its logo is the shape of Hadrian's mausoleum, in a blue color on a silver background.
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The President of the French Republic (Président de la République française), is the executive head of state of the French Fifth Republic.
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The President of the Italian Republic (Presidente della Repubblica Italiana) is the head of state of Italy and, in that role, represents national unity and guarantees that Italian politics comply with the Constitution.
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Price controls are governmental restrictions on the prices that can be charged for goods and services in a market.
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The ministerial orders of the Roman Catholic Church are those of bishop, presbyter (more commonly called priest in English), and deacon.
The Prime Minister of Italy, officially the President of the Council of Ministers of the Italian Republic (Italian: Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri della Repubblica Italiana), is the head of government of the Italian Republic.
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Princeps (plural: principes) is a Latin word meaning "first in time or order; the first, foremost, chief, the most eminent, distinguished, or noble; the first man, first person." This article is devoted to a number of specific historical meanings the word took, in approximate historical order.
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The principate (27 BC – 284 AD), the first period of the Roman Empire, extended from the beginning of the reign of Augustus Caesar to the Crisis of the Third Century, after which it evolved into the dominate.
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A prisoner in the Vatican or prisoner of the Vatican (Prigioniero del Vaticano; Captivus Vaticani) is how Pope Pius IX was described following the capture of Rome by the armed forces of the Kingdom of Italy on 20 September 1870.
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The properties of the Holy See are regulated by the 1929 Lateran Treaty signed with the Kingdom of Italy.
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The Protestant Reformation, often referred to simply as the Reformation, was the schism within Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther, John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli and other early Protestant Reformers.
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The Province of Rome (Provincia di Roma) was one of the five provinces of Lazio, Italy.
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The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage from 264 BC to 146 BC.
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The Pyramid of Cestius (in Italian, Piramide di Caio Cestio or Piramide Cestia) is an ancient pyramid in Rome, Italy, near the Porta San Paolo and the Protestant Cemetery.
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Pyrrhus (Πύρρος, Pyrrhos; 319/318–272 BC) was a Greek general and statesman of the Hellenistic period.
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San Lorenzo is a district (quartiere) in Rome, Italy.
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Quebec (or; Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.
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The Quirinal Hill (Collis Quirinalis) is one of the Seven Hills of Rome, at the north-east of the city center.
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The Quirinal Palace (known in Italian as the Palazzo del Quirinale or simply Quirinale) is a historic building in Rome, Italy, one of the three current official residences of the President of the Italian Republic, together with Villa Rosbery in Naples and tenuta di Castelporziano.
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Quo Vadis (a Latin phrase meaning "Where are you going?") is a 1951 American epic film made by MGM in Technicolor.
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Raja (also spelled rajah, from Sanskrit राजा) is a term for a monarch or princely rulers in South and Southeast Asia.
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Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino (April 6 or March 28, 1483April 6, 1520), known as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance.
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The four Raphael Rooms (Stanze di Raffaello) form a suite of reception rooms in the place, the public part of the papal apartments in the Palace of the Vatican.
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Ravenna (also; Ravêna) is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna, in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy.
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A referendum (in some countries synonymous with plebiscite — or a vote on a ballot question) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to vote on a particular proposal.
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The regions of Italy (Italian: regioni) are the first-level administrative divisions of the country, constituting its second NUTS administrative level.
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Relative humidity (abbreviated RH) is the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor to the equilibrium vapor pressure of water at the same temperature.
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Religion in ancient Rome encompasses the ancestral ethnic religion of the city of Rome that the Romans used to define themselves as a people, as well as the adopted religious practices of peoples brought under Roman rule.
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Renaissance architecture is the architecture of the period between the early 15th and early 17th centuries in different regions of Europe, demonstrating a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture.
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Renaissance music is music written in Europe during the Renaissance.
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A republic (from res publica) is a form of government or country in which power resides in elected individuals representing the citizen body and government leaders exercise power according to the rule of law.
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The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations, Springtime of the Peoples or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848.
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Ridolfo Ghirlandaio (or Ghirlandajo) (Florence 14 February 1483 – 6 June 1561) was an Italian Renaissance painter active mainly in Florence.
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Rione (plural: rioni) is the name given to a neighbourhood in several Italian cities.
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A rione of Rome (pl. rioni) is a traditional administrative division of the city of Rome.
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Robert Guiscard (– 17 July 1085) was a Norman adventurer conspicuous in the conquest of southern Italy and Sicily.
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Roma Termini (in Italian, Stazione Termini or Stazione di Roma Termini - Giovanni Paolo II) is the main railway station of Rome, Italy.
Roma Tiburtina is the second largest railway station in Rome, after Roma Termini.
Roma Tre University. (Università degli Studi Roma Tre) is an Italian public research university located in Rome, Italy, with its main campus situated in the Ostiense quarter. Founded in 1992 by the Ministry of Public Education, under the request of several professors of the Sapienza University of Rome, it was the third public university to be established in the metropolitan area of Rome. The university comprises 8 schools and 32 departments, enrolling 35,338 students and having 1,370 academic and professional staff. At present, the university offers 54 undergraduate degree programs, 75 master's degree programs, 16 doctoral schools and five PhD programs. It is the second-largest university of Rome by enrollment and one of the largest research-based institutions in the country.
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Roman art refers to the visual arts made in Ancient Rome and in the territories of the Roman Empire.
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The Roman Campagna, or just Campagna, is a low-lying area surrounding Rome in the Lazio region of central Italy, with an area of approximately.
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Note: This article is based on the "Catholic Encyclopedia" 1913 and contains a large amount of out-dated information throughout, including the numbers of students.
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The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum; Ancient and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων Basileia tōn Rhōmaiōn) was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
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The Roman Forum (Forum Romanum, Foro Romano) is a rectangular forum (plaza) surrounded by the ruins of several important ancient government buildings at the center of the city of Rome.
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The Roman Ghetto or Ghetto of Rome, Ghetto di Roma, was a Jewish ghetto established in 1555 in the Rione Sant'Angelo, in Rome, Italy, in the area surrounded by present-day Via del Portico d'Ottavia, Lungotevere dei Cenci, Via del Progresso and Via di Santa Maria del Pianto, close to the River Tiber and the Theatre of Marcellus.
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Roman Holiday is a 1953 American romantic comedy directed and produced by William Wyler.
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The Roman Kingdom (Rēgnum Rōmānum) was the period of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a monarchical form of government of the city of Rome and its territories.
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Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome, including Roman Military Jurisdiction and the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the 12 Tables (c. 449 BC), to the Corpus Juris Civilis (AD 529) ordered by Eastern Roman emperor Justinian I. The historical importance of Roman defication is reflected by the continued use of Latin legal terminology in legal systems influenced by it.
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Roman mythology is the body of traditional stories pertaining to ancient Rome's legendary origins and religious system, as represented in the literature and visual arts of the Romans.
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In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin: provincia, pl. provinciae) was the basic, and, until the Tetrarchy (293 AD), largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside of Italy.
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The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the period of ancient Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
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The Roman Republic was proclaimed on 15 February 1798 after Louis Alexandre Berthier, a general of Napoleon, had invaded the city of Rome on 10 February.
The Roman Republic was a state declared on February 9, 1849, when the government of Papal States was temporarily replaced by a republican government due to Pope Pius IX's flight to Gaeta.
In music history, the Roman School was a group of composers of predominantly church music, in Rome, during the 16th and 17th centuries, therefore spanning the late Renaissance and early Baroque eras.
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The Roman Senate was a political institution in ancient Rome.
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Romanesco is a regional language or sociolect subsumed within the Italian language spoken in Rome.
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Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches.
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Romanization or Latinization (or Romanisation or Latinisation: see spelling differences)—in the historical and cultural meanings of both terms—indicate different historical processes, such as acculturation, integration and assimilation of newly incorporated and peripheral populations by the Roman Republic and the later Roman Empire.
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Rome was a department of the First French Empire in present-day Italy.
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Rome is a British-American-Italian historical drama television series created by John Milius, William J. MacDonald and Bruno Heller.
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Rome 2020 (Italian: Roma 2020) was a proposed bid for the 2020 Summer Olympics by the city of Rome and the Italian National Olympic Committee.
The Rome Metro (Metropolitana di Roma) is an underground public transportation system that operates in Rome, Italy.
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The Rome metropolitan area is centred on the city of Rome, the Italian capital, in Lazio, Italy.
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The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (often referred to as the International Criminal Court Statute or the Rome Statute) is the treaty that established the International Criminal Court (ICC).
Rome Urbe Airport (Aeroporto di Roma-Urbe) is a small civilian airport in Rome, situated in the northern part of the city, between Via Salaria and the Tiber River, about 2.7 NM (5 km, 3.1 mi) inside the Greater Ring Road (Italian: Grande Raccordo Anulare or GRA), the circular motorway around the city.
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Romulus and Remus were the twin brothers and main characters of Rome's foundation myth.
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Romulus Augustus (born perhaps around 461 – died after 476, and was apparently still alive as late as 507) was an Emperor (alleged usurper) reigning over the Western Roman Empire from 31 October 475 until 4 September 476.
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The Rospigliosi family is an ancient noble Italian family from Pistoia.
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The Rugby Roma Olimpic 1930 (italian for Amateur Sport Club Rugby Roma Olimpic) are an ex Italian professional rugby union team.
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Rugby union, or simply rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century.
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Società Sportiva Lazio, commonly referred to as Lazio, is a professional Italian sports club based in Rome, most known for its football activity.
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Polisportiva S.S. Lazio Rugby 1927, based in Roma, is an Italian professional rugby union team.
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The Sabines (Sabini; Σαβῖνοι) were an Italic tribe that lived in the central Apennines of ancient Italy, also inhabiting Latium north of the Anio before the founding of Rome.
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The Sack of Rome of May 1084 was a Norman sack, the result of the pope's call for aid from the duke of Apulia, Robert Guiscard.
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The Sack of Rome on 6 May 1527 was a military event carried out by the mutinous troops of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor in Rome, then part of the Papal States.
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The Sack of Rome occurred on August 24, 410.
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The sack of 455 was the second of three sacks of Rome; it was conducted by the Vandals, who were then at war with the usurping Western Roman Emperor Petronius Maximus.
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Saint Peter (Petrus, Petros, Syriac/Aramaic: ܫܸܡܥܘܿܢ ܟܹ݁ܐܦ݂ܵܐ, Shemayon Keppa, שמעון בר יונה; died 64 AD), also known as Simon Peter, Simeon, or Simōn, according to the New Testament, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, leaders of the early Christian Church.
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The Salesians of Don Bosco (or the Salesian Society, officially named the Society of St. Francis de Sales) is a Roman Catholic religious institute founded in the late nineteenth century by Saint John Bosco to help poor children during the Industrial Revolution.
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Saltimbocca (also saltinbocca) (Italian for jumps in the mouth) is a dish (popular in southern Switzerland, Italy, Spain and Greece) made of veal lined or topped with prosciutto and sage or basil; marinated in wine, oil or saltwater depending on the region or one's own taste.
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The Samnites were an Italic people living in Samnium in south-central Italy who fought several wars with the Roman Republic.
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The church of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane (Saint Charles at the Four Fountains), also called San Carlino, is a Roman Catholic church in Rome, Italy.
The Church of St.
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San Pietro in Montorio is a church in Rome, Italy, which includes in its courtyard the Tempietto, a small commemorative martyrium (tomb) built by Donato Bramante.
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San Sebastiano fuori le mura (Saint Sebastian outside the walls), or San Sebastiano ad Catacumbas (Saint Sebastian at the Catacombs), is a basilica in Rome, central Italy.
Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi, known as Sandro Botticelli (c. 1445Patrick, Renaissance and Reformation vol 1, 2007. Other sources give 1446, 1447 or 1444–45. – May 17, 1510), was an Italian painter of the Early Renaissance.
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The Basilica of the Holy Cross in Jerusalem (Basilica Sanctae Crucis in Hierusalem, Basilica di Santa Croce in Gerusalemme) is a Roman Catholic minor basilica and titular church in rione Esquilino, Rome, Italy.
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Santa Maria dell'Anima (Our Lady of the Soul) is a Roman Catholic church in central Rome, Italy, just west of the Piazza Navona and near the Santa Maria della Pace church.
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The Basilica of St.
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The Basilica of Santa Maria in Trastevere (Our Lady in Trastevere) is a titular minor basilica in the Trastevere district of Rome, and one of the oldest churches of Rome.
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Santa Maria sopra Minerva (Saint Mary above Minerva, Sancta Maria supra Minervam) is one of the major churches of the Roman Catholic Order of Preachers (better known as the Dominicans) at Rome, Italy.
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The Basilica of Saint Praxedes (Basilica Sanctae Praxedis, Basilica di Santa Prassede all’Esquillino), commonly known in Italian as Santa Prassede, is an ancient titular church and minor basilica in Rome, Italy, located near the papal basilica of Saint Mary Major.
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Santi Quattro Coronati is an ancient basilica in Rome, Italy.
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The Sapienza University of Rome, officially Sapienza – Università di Roma, also called simply Sapienza or the "University of Rome", is a collegiate research university located in Rome, Italy.
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The Sasanian Empire (or; also known as Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire), known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian language, was the last Iranian empire before the rise of Islam, ruled by the Sasanian dynasty from 224 AD to 651 AD.
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The Scala Sancta (Holy Stairs, Scala Santa) are a set of 28 white marble steps located within a building in Rome near the Lateran Basilica and is an extraterritorial property of the Holy See.
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Scam City is a television show which started airing on Travel + Escape in June 2012, and has subsequently aired on the National Geographic Channel, and in Australia on the subscription channel Nat Geo People.
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The Scots College (or The Pontifical Scots College) in Rome is the main seminary for the training of men for the priesthood from the dioceses of the Roman Catholic Church in Scotland.
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The Second Triumvirate is the name historians have given to the official political alliance of Gaius Octavius (Octavian, Caesar Augustus), Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony), and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, formed on 26 November 43 BC with the enactment of the Lex Titia, the adoption of which is viewed as marking the end of the Roman Republic.
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A seminary, theological college, divinity school is an educational institution for educating students (sometimes called seminarians) in theology, generally to prepare them for ordination as clergy or for other ministry.
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Semolina is the coarse, purified wheat middlings of durum wheat used in making pasta, breakfast cereals, puddings, and couscous.
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The Senate of the Republic (Senato della Repubblica) is a house of the bicameral Italian Parliament (the other one is the Chamber of Deputies).
Seoul – officially the Seoul Special City – is the capital and largest metropolis of South Korea, forming the heart of the Seoul Capital Area, which includes the surrounding Incheon metropolis and Gyeonggi province, the world's second largest metropolitan area with over 25.6 million people.
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Serie A, also called Serie A TIM due to sponsorship by Telecom Italia, is a professional league competition for football clubs located at the top of the Italian football league system and has been operating for over eighty years since the 1929–30 season.
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The Servian Wall (Murus Servii Tullii, Mura serviane) was a defensive barrier constructed around the city of Rome in the early 4th century BC.
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In economics, a service is an intangible commodity.
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Servius Tullius was the legendary sixth king of Rome, and the second of its Etruscan dynasty.
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The Italian Meteorological Service is an organizational unit of the Italian Air Force (Servizio Meteorologico dell'Aeronautica Militare), and as such, the national meteorological service in Italy.
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The Seven Pilgrim Churches of Rome are seven ancient and major churches in Rome, central to a religious pilgrimage to the city.
The Severan dynasty was a Roman imperial dynasty, which ruled the Roman Empire between 193 and 235.
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Sicilia was the first province acquired by the Roman Republic, organized in 241 BC as a proconsular governed territory, in the aftermath of the First Punic War with Carthage.
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In Greek mythology, Silenus (Greek: Σειληνός Seilēnos) was a companion and tutor to the wine god Dionysus.
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Simony (pron. or) is the act of selling church offices and roles.
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The Sistine Chapel (Sacellum Sixtinum; Cappella Sistina) is a chapel in the Apostolic Palace, the official residence of the Pope, in Vatican City.
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The Six Nations Championship is an annual international rugby union competition involving six European sides: England, France, Ireland, Italy, Scotland and Wales.
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The Society of Jesus (Societas Iesu, S.J., SJ or SI) is a male religious congregation of the Catholic Church.
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The Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta (Sovrano Militare Ordine Ospedaliero di San Giovanni di Gerusalemme di Rodi e di Malta, Supremus Ordo Militaris Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani Rhodius et Melitensis), also known as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM), Order of Malta or Knights of Malta, is a Roman Catholic lay religious order of, traditionally, a military, chivalrous and noble nature.
The Spanish Steps (Scalinata di Trinità dei Monti) are a set of steps in Rome, Italy, climbing a steep slope between the Piazza di Spagna at the base and Piazza Trinità dei Monti, dominated by the Trinità dei Monti church at the top.
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Spartacus (Σπάρτακος; accessdate) (111–71 BC) was a Thracian gladiator who, along with the Gauls Crixus, Oenomaus, Castus and Gannicus, was one of the escaped slave leaders in the Third Servile War, a major slave uprising against the Roman Republic.
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The Papal Basilica of St.
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The Stadio Flaminio is a stadium in Rome.
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The Stadio Olimpico is the main and largest sports facility of Rome, Italy.
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Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (c. 138 BC – 78 BC), known commonly as Sulla, was a Roman general and statesman.
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Sulla's first civil war was one of a series of civil wars in ancient Rome, between Gaius Marius and Sulla, between 88 and 87 BC.
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Sutri is a town and comune in the province of Viterbo, about from Rome and about south of Viterbo.
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Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania.
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The talking statues of Rome (or the Congregation of Wits) provided an outlet for a form of anonymous political expression in Rome.
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For other uses, see Tarentum (disambiguation). Taranto (early Italian: Tarento from Tarentum; Ancient Greek: Τάρᾱς Tarās; Modern Greek: Τάραντας Tarantas; Tarantino "Tarde") is a coastal city in Apulia, Southern Italy.
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The Teatro dell'Opera di Roma (Rome Opera House) is an opera house in Rome, Italy.
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Tehran (also Romanized as Tehrān) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.
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Telecom Italia is an Italian telecommunications company which provides telephony services, mobile services, and DSL data services.
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Temple University, commonly referred to as Temple, is a comprehensive public research university (formerly private) in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States.
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Testaccio is the 20th rione of Rome, deriving its name from Monte Testaccio.
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The term "tetrarchy" (from the Greek τετραρχία "leadership of four ") describes any form of government where power is divided among four individuals, but in modern usage usually refers to the system instituted by Roman Emperor Diocletian in 293, marking the end of the Crisis of the Third Century and the recovery of the Roman Empire.
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The Decameron (From the Greek: δέκα - ten & μέρα - day) (Italian: Decameron or Decamerone), subtitled Prince Galehaut (Old Prencipe Galeotto), is a collection of novellas by the 14th-century Italian author Giovanni Boccaccio (1313–1375).
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The Guardian is a British national daily newspaper.
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The Life Aquatic with Steve Zissou is a 2004 American comedy-drama film directed, co-written, and co-produced by Wes Anderson.
The Passion of the Christ (sometimes referred to as The Passion) is a 2004 American epic biblical drama film directed by Mel Gibson and starring Jim Caviezel as Jesus Christ.
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The Renaissance is a period in Europe, from the 14th to the 17th century, considered the bridge between the Middle Ages and modern history.
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Theodora (circa 870 – 916) was a senatrix and serenissima vestaratrix of Rome.
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Theodore Roosevelt (October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919), often referred to as Teddy or TR, was an American statesman, author, explorer, soldier, naturalist, and reformer who served as the 26th President of the United States, from 1901 to 1909.
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Theodosius I (Flavius Theodosius Augustus; 11 January 347 – 17 January 395), also known as Theodosius the Great, was Roman Emperor from 379 to 395. Theodosius was the last emperor to rule over both the eastern and the western halves of the Roman Empire. On accepting his elevation, he campaigned against Goths and other barbarians who had invaded the Empire; he failed to kill, expel, or entirely subjugate them, and after the Gothic War they established a homeland south of the Danube, in Illyricum, within the empire's borders. He fought two destructive civil wars, in which he defeated the usurpers Magnus Maximus and Eugenius at great cost to the power of the Empire. He also issued decrees that effectively made orthodox Nicene Christianity the official state church of the Roman Empire."Edict of Thessolonica": See Codex Theodosianus XVI.1.2 He neither prevented nor punished the destruction of prominent Hellenistic temples of classical antiquity, including the Temple of Apollo in Delphi and the Serapeum in Alexandria. He dissolved the order of the Vestal Virgins in Rome. In 393, he banned the pagan rituals of the Olympics in Ancient Greece. It was not until the end of the 19th century, in 1896, that Olympics were held again. After his death, Theodosius' young sons Arcadius and Honorius inherited the East and West halves respectively, and the Roman Empire was never again re-united.
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In ancient Rome, thermae (from Greek θερμός thermos, "hot") and balneae (from Greek βαλανεῖον balaneion) were facilities for bathing.
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The Third Servile War (73–71 BC), also called the Gladiator War and the War of Spartacus by Plutarch, was the last of a series of unrelated and unsuccessful slave rebellions against the Roman Republic, known collectively as the Roman Servile Wars.
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The Tiber (Latin Tiberis, Italian Tevere) is the third-longest river in Italy, rising in the Apennine Mountains in Emilia-Romagna and flowing through Umbria and Lazio, where it is joined by the Aniene river, to the Tyrrhenian Sea.
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The Tiber Island (Isola Tiberina, Latin: Insula Tiberina) is the only island in the Tiber river which runs through Rome.
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Tiberius (Tiberius Caesar Dīvī Augustī Fīlius Augustus; 16 November 42 BC – 16 March 37 AD) was a Roman Emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD.
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Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus (Latin: TI·SEMPRONIVS·TI·F·P·N·GRACCVS; born c. 169–164 – c. 133 BC): Plutarch says Tiberius "was not yet thirty when he was slain." was a Roman Popularis politician of the 2nd century BC, together with Gaius Gracchus, one of the Gracchi brothers.
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Tirana (Standard Tiranë; regional Gheg Albanian: Tirona) is the capital and largest city of Albania.
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(), officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, and is both the capital and largest city of Japan.
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Tongeren (Tongres, Tongern) is a city and municipality located in the Belgian province of Limburg, in the southeastern corner of the Flemish region of Belgium.
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The Torre dei Conti is a medieval fortified tower in Rome, Italy, located near the Colosseum and the Roman Forum.
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The Torre delle Milizie ("Tower of the Militia") is a fortified tower in Rome, Italy, located between the Trajan's Market in the Imperial fora to the east and the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, ''Angelicum'' to the west.
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A town square is an open public space commonly found in the heart of a traditional town used for community gatherings.
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Trajan (Imperator Caesar Nerva Traianus Divi Nervae filius Augustus; September 18, 53 – August 8, 117 AD) was Roman emperor from 98 AD until his death in 117 AD.
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Trajan's Column (Colonna Traiana, COLVMNA·TRAIANI) is a Roman triumphal column in Rome, Italy, that commemorates Roman emperor Trajan's victory in the Dacian Wars.
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Trajan's Forum (Latin: Forum Traiani) was the last of the Imperial fora to be constructed in ancient Rome.
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Trajan's Market is a large complex of ruins in the city of Rome, Italy, located on the Via dei Fori Imperiali, at the opposite end to the Colosseum.
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Trastevere is the 13th rione of Rome, on the west bank of the Tiber, south of Vatican City, and within Municipio I. Its name comes from the Latin trans Tiberim, meaning literally "beyond the Tiber".
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The Treaties of the European Union are a set of international treaties between the European Union (EU) member states which sets out the EU's constitutional basis.
The Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe (TCE), (commonly referred to as the European Constitution or as the Constitutional Treaty), was an unratified international treaty intended to create a consolidated constitution for the European Union (EU).
The Treaty of Rome, officially the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community (TEEC), is an international agreement that led to the founding of the European Economic Community (EEC) on 1 January 1958.
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The Treaty of Tordesillas (Tratado de Tordesilhas, Tratado de Tordesillas), signed at Tordesillas on June 7, 1494, and authenticated at Setúbal, Portugal, divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between Portugal and the Crown of Castile, along a meridian 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde islands, off the west coast of Africa.
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The Trevi Fountain (Fontana di Trevi) is a fountain in the Trevi district in Rome, Italy, designed by Italian architect Nicola Salvi and completed by Pietro Bracci.
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Tribunus, in English tribune, was the title of various elected officials in Ancient Rome.
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Carlo Alberto Salustri (Rome, 1873-1950) was an Italian dialect poet, better known by his pen name of Trilussa (an anagram of his surname, “Salustri”).
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In Greek mythology, the Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans (Greeks) after Paris of Troy took Helen from her husband Menelaus, king of Sparta.
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A trolleybus (also known as trolley bus, trolley coach, trackless trolley, trackless tram Joyce, J.; King, J. S.; and Newman, A. G. (1986). British Trolleybus Systems, pp. 9, 12. London: Ian Allan Publishing. ISBN 0-7110-1647-X. or trolleyDunbar, Charles S. (1967). Buses, Trolleys & Trams. Paul Hamlyn Ltd. (UK). Republished 2004 with ISBN 0-7537-0970-8 or 9780753709702.) is an electric bus that draws its electricity from overhead wires (generally suspended from roadside posts) using spring-loaded trolley poles.
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Tuff (from the Italian tufo) is a type of rock made of volcanic ash ejected from a vent during a volcanic eruption.
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Tullus Hostilius (r. 673 BC – 642 BC) was the legendary third king of Rome.
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Tunis (تونس; Amazigh: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ) is the capital of Tunisia.
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The Tuscan dialect (dialetto toscano) is an Italo-Dalmatian lect mainly spoken in Tuscany, Italy.
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Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal and social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.
The Tyrrhenian Sea (Mari Tirrenu, Mer Tyrrhénienne, Mar Tirreno, Mar Tirreno, Mare Tirrenu, Mari Tirrenu) is part of the Mediterranean Sea off the western coast of Italy.
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The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN).
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UNIDROIT (formally, the International Institute for the Unification of Private Law; French: Institut international pour l'unification du droit privé) is an intergovernmental organization on harmonization of private international law; its projects include drafting of international conventions and production of model laws.
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Unione Rugby Capitolina is an Italian rugby union club, based in Rome.
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The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization to promote international co-operation.
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The Campus Bio-Medico University (Università Campus Bio-Medico) is a university founded in 1991 in Rome, Italy.
The University of Rome II also known as University of Rome Tor Vergata (Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata) is a public research university located in Rome, Italy.
The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe, or group of tribes, who were first heard of in southern Poland, but later moved around Europe establishing kingdoms in Spain and later North Africa in the 5th century.
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Vatican City (Città del Vaticano; Civitas Vaticana), officially the Vatican City State (Stato della Città del Vaticano; Status Civitatis Vaticanae), is a walled enclave within the city of Rome.
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Vatican Hill (Mons Vaticanus, colle Vaticano) is a hill located across the Tiber river from the traditional seven hills of Rome.
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The Vatican Apostolic Library (Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana), more commonly called the Vatican Library or simply the Vat, is the library of the Holy See, located in Vatican City.
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The Vatican Museums (Musei Vaticani) are the museums of the Vatican City and are located within the city's boundaries.
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Vault (French voûte, from Italian volta) is an architectural term for an arched form used to provide a space with a ceiling or roof.
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In music history, the Venetian School was the body and work of composers working in Venice from about 1550 to around 1610.
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Venice (Venezia; alternative obsolete form: Vinegia; Venetian: Venèxia; Venetiae; Benetke) is a city in northeastern Italy sited on a group of 118 small islands separated by canals and linked by bridges.
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Gianni Versace S.p.A., usually referred to as Versace, is an Italian fashion company and trade name founded by Gianni Versace in 1978.
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Vesta is the virgin goddess of the hearth, home, and family in Roman religion.
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Via Condotti (officially Via dei Condotti) is a busy and fashionable street of Rome, Italy.
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Via della Conciliazione (Road of the Conciliation) is a street in the Rione of Borgo within Rome, Italy.
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Via Tiburtina is an ancient road in Italy leading east-northeast from Rome to Tivoli (Latin, Tibur).
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A villa was originally an ancient Roman upper-class country house.
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Villa Ada is a park in Rome, Italy, with a surface of it is the second largest in the city after Villa Doria Pamphili.
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Villa Borghese may refer to.
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Villa Borghese is a landscape garden in the naturalistic English manner in Rome, containing a number of buildings, museums (see Galleria Borghese) and attractions.
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The Villa Celimontana (previously known as Villa Mattei) is a villa on the Caelian Hill in Rome, best known for its gardens.
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The Villa Doria Pamphili is a seventeenth-century villa with what is today the largest landscaped public park in Rome, Italy.
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The Villa Farnesina is a Renaissance suburban villa in the Via della Lungara, in the district of Trastevere in Rome, central Italy.
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The Villa Medici is a mannerist villa and an architectural complex with a garden contiguous with the larger Borghese gardens, on the Pincian Hill next to Trinità dei Monti in Rome, Italy.
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Villa Sciarra is a park in Rome named for the villa at its centre.
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The Viminal Hill (Latin Collis Viminalis, Italian Viminale) is the smallest of the famous seven hills of Rome.
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Publius Vergilius Maro (October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period.
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The Visigoths (UK:; US:, Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, or Wisi) were branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths.
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See also Viterbo, Texas and Viterbo University.
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Volcanic rock (often shortened to volcanics in scientific contexts) is a rock formed from magma erupted from a volcano.
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The Volsci were an Italic tribe, well known in the history of the first century of the Roman Republic.
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Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as "Washington", "the District", or simply "D.C.", is the capital of the United States.
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Water polo is a team water sport.
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The Western Bloc or Capitalist Bloc during the Cold War refers to the countries allied with the United States and NATO against the Soviet Union and its allies.
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Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Western lifestyle, or European civilization, is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems, and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe, having both indigenous and foreign origin.
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Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
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In historiography, the Western Roman Empire consists of the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any one time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court, coequal with (or only nominally subordinate to) that administering the eastern half.
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The Western Schism or Papal Schism was a split within the Roman Catholic Church from 1378 to 1417.
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William Howard Taft (September 15, 1857 – March 8, 1930) was an American jurist and statesman who served as both the 27th President of the United States (1909–1913) and later the 10th Chief Justice of the United States (1921–1930).
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Various lists of the Wonders of the World have been compiled from antiquity to the present day, to catalogue the world's most spectacular natural wonders and manmade structures.
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Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was an American politician and academic who served as the 28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921.
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The World Food Programme (WFP; French: Programme Alimentaire Mondial; Italian: Programma Alimentare Mondiale; Spanish: Programa Mundial de Alimentos) is the food assistance branch of the United Nations and the world's largest humanitarian organization addressing hunger and promoting food security.
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A World Heritage Site is a place (such as a building, city, complex, desert, forest, island, lake, monument, or mountain) that is listed by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as being of special cultural or physical significance.
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In 7 BC, Augustus divided the city of Rome into 14 administrative regions (Latin regiones).
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During the Middle Ages, Rome was divided into a number of administrative regions (Latin, regiones), usually numbering between twelve and fourteen, which changed over time.
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The 1934 FIFA World Cup was the second FIFA World Cup, the world championship for men's national association football teams.
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The 1960 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVII Olympiad (Italian: Giochi della XVII Olimpiade), was an international multi-sport event held from August 25 to September 11, 1960 in Rome, Italy.
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The 1990 FIFA World Cup was the 14th FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial international football world championship tournament.
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The 2004 MTV Europe Music Awards were held at Tor di Valle Racecourse, Rome, Italy.
The 2020 Summer Olympics, officially known as the and commonly known as Tokyo 2020, is a major international multi-sport event due to be celebrated in the tradition of the Olympic Games as governed by the International Olympic Committee (IOC).
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The 25 Luglio (Italian for "July 25th") denotes the events in spring and summer 1943 in Italy, which culminated with the meeting of the Grand Council of Fascism on 24–25 July 1943, the passing of a vote of no confidence against Benito Mussolini, and the change of the Italian government.
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Capital city of italy, Capital of Italy, Città Eterna, City of Rome, City of the Seven Hills, Comune di Roma, Demographics of Rome, Italian capital, ROME, Roma (city), Roma, Italia, Roma, Italy, Rome (Italy), Rome, Italy, Rome, Lazio, Rome, Republic and Empire, Rome,Italy, Rōma, Symbols and Trivia of Rome, Symbols and trivia of Rome, The weather in Rome, UN/LOCODE:ITROM.