285 relations: Absorbance, Adhesive, Aluminium nitride, Ammonia, Angle of incidence (optics), Aphakia, Apoptosis, Aramid, Arc welding, Archimedes Palimpsest, Argon, Argon fluoride laser, Atmosphere of Earth, Atom, Avobenzone, Barcode, Biochemistry, Bird vision, Black body, Black-body radiation, Blacklight, Blacklight paint, Bug zapper, Carbon black, Carbon monoxide, Cataract, Cell (biology), Cell cycle, Cerium, Cheilitis, Chemical reaction, Chemical structure, Chemistry, Cholecalciferol, Circadian rhythm, Circular dichroism, Colias eurytheme, Collagen, Collect, Conjugated system, Cornea, Corona discharge, Counterfeit, Covalent bond, Curing (chemistry), Darier's disease, Dermatology, Dermatomyositis, Deuterium arc lamp, Diode-pumped solid-state laser, ..., Direct DNA damage, Disinfectant, DNA, DNA sequencing, Dopant, Drug discovery, Dye, Dye penetrant inspection, Electric arc, Electromagnetic radiation, Electromagnetic spectrum, Entomology, Enzyme, EPROM, European Space Agency, Evolution, Excimer, Excimer lamp, Excimer laser, Excited state, Extreme ultraviolet, Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer, Extreme ultraviolet lithography, Eye protection, Fauna, Flashtube, Fluorescence, Fluorescent lamp, Fluorescent lamps and health, Forensic science, Frameshift mutation, Free-space optical communication, Fused quartz, Gas laser, Gemstone, Genetics, Glasses, Green fluorescent protein, Green-veined white, Health, High-energy visible light, High-performance liquid chromatography, Human skin color, Hydrazine, Hydrocarbon, Hydrogen, Hydrophobe, Immune system, Incandescent light bulb, Indirect DNA damage, Infrared, Ink, Ink cartridge, Inspection, Integrated circuit, International Organization for Standardization, Ionization, Ionizing radiation, Iron, Johann Wilhelm Ritter, John William Draper, Kindler syndrome, Laser, Laser diode, Laser engraving, Latin, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Lens (anatomy), Light, Light therapy, Light-emitting diode, Lighting, Lightning, List of cutaneous conditions, Liver, Lyman-alpha line, Magnesium fluoride, Magnetic particle inspection, Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization, Medical imaging, Medical robot, Meiosis, Melanin, Melanoma, Mercury (element), Mercury-vapor lamp, Metal-halide lamp, Microorganism, Mineral, Mitosis, Mold, MSSTA, Mutation, Nanometre, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, New Scientist, Nitrogen, Nitrogen laser, Nitrogen oxide, NIXT, Nocturnality, Nondestructive testing, Nonlinear optics, Nucleic acid quantitation, Nucleotide excision repair, Octyl methoxycinnamate, Oil spill, Opacity (optics), Optical brightener, Optical coating, Optical fiber, Optical storage, Organic compound, Oxybenzone, Oxygen, Oxyrhynchus, Ozone, Ozone depletion, Ozone layer, Paint, Painting, Papyrus, Passport, Pasteurization, Pathogen, Pemphigus erythematosus, Pepper spray, Phosphor, Phosphor banded stamp, Photocatalysis, Photocathode, Photochemistry and Photobiology, Photodiode, Photodissociation, Photoionization, Photokeratitis, Photolithography, Photomultiplier, Photon, Photon energy, Photoprotection, Photoreceptor cell, Photorefractive keratectomy, Picture framing glass, Pigment, Pinguecula, Pollen, Poly(methyl methacrylate), Polycarbonate, Polymer, Polymer degradation, Polymerization, Printed circuit board, Printing, Protein, Psoralen, Psoriasis, Pterygium, PUVA therapy, Pyrimidine, Pyrimidine dimer, Quartz, Radiation, Radiometer, Raman scattering, Rayleigh scattering, Reactive oxygen species, Reactivity (chemistry), Redox, Reptile, Retina, Rosacea, Satellite, Semiconductor, Semiconductor device fabrication, Sensor, Serotonin, Silicon carbide, Silver chloride, Sjögren syndrome, Skin cancer, Soda–lime glass, Solar constant, Solar water disinfection, Solid-state laser, Spectrofluorometer, Spectrometer, Spore, Star, Sterilization (microbiology), Stratum corneum, Sulfur, Sun, Sun protective clothing, Sun tanning, Sunburn, Sunlight, Sunscreen, Surface energy, Surface roughness, Synchrotron light source, Systemic lupus erythematosus, Tanning lamp, Thermal radiation, Thermoplastic, Thymine, Titanium dioxide, Transparency and translucency, Ultraviolet, Ultraviolet astronomy, Ultraviolet catastrophe, Ultraviolet communication in butterflies, Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation, Ultraviolet index, Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, UV coating, UV curing, UV degradation, Valence electron, Victor Schumann, Villa of the Papyri, Vitamin D, Vitiligo, Volatile organic compound, Wastewater, Water treatment, Watercolor painting, Watermark, Wavelength, Weather testing of polymers, Wood's glass, X-ray, Xenon arc lamp, Zinc oxide. Expand index (235 more) » « Shrink index
In chemistry, absorbance or decadic absorbance is the common logarithm of the ratio of incident to transmitted radiant power through a material, and spectral absorbance or spectral decadic absorbance is the common logarithm of the ratio of incident to transmitted spectral radiant power through a material.
An adhesive, also known as glue, cement, mucilage, or paste, is any substance applied to one surface, or both surfaces, of two separate items that binds them together and resists their separation.
Aluminium nitride (AlN) is a nitride of aluminium.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
In geometric optics, the angle of incidence is the angle between a ray incident on a surface and the line perpendicular to the surface at the point of incidence, called the normal.
Aphakia is the absence of the lens of the eye, due to surgical removal, a perforating wound or ulcer, or congenital anomaly.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
Aramid fibers are a class of heat-resistant and strong synthetic fibers.
Arc welding is a process that is used to join metal to metal by using electricity to create enough heat to melt metal, and the melted metals when cool result in a binding of the metals.
The Archimedes Palimpsest is a parchment codex palimpsest, which originally was a 10th-century Byzantine Greek copy of an otherwise unknown work of Archimedes of Syracuse and other authors.
Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18.
The argon fluoride laser (ArF laser) is a particular type of excimer laser, which is sometimes (more correctly) called an exciplex laser.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
Avobenzone (trade names Parsol 1789, Milestab 1789, Eusolex 9020, Escalol 517, Neo Heliopan 357 and others, INCI Butyl Methoxydibenzoylmethane) is an oil-soluble ingredient used in sunscreen products to absorb the full spectrum of UVA rays.
A barcode (also bar code) is an optical, machine-readable, representation of data; the data usually describes something about the object that carries the barcode.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
Vision is the most important sense for birds, since good eyesight is essential for safe flight, and this group has a number of adaptations which give visual acuity superior to that of other vertebrate groups; a pigeon has been described as "two eyes with wings".
A black body is an idealized physical body that absorbs all incident electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or angle of incidence.
Black-body radiation is the thermal electromagnetic radiation within or surrounding a body in thermodynamic equilibrium with its environment, or emitted by a black body (an opaque and non-reflective body).
A blacklight (or often black light), also referred to as a UV-A light, Wood's lamp, or simply ultraviolet light, is a lamp that emits long-wave (UV-A) ultraviolet light and not much visible light.
Black light paint or black light fluorescent paint is luminous paint that glows under a black light.
A bug zapper, more formally called an electrical discharge insect control system, electric insect killer or (insect) electrocutor trap, is a device that attracts and kills flying insects that are attracted by light.
Carbon black (subtypes are acetylene black, channel black, furnace black, lamp black and thermal black) is a material produced by the incomplete combustion of heavy petroleum products such as FCC tar, coal tar, ethylene cracking tar, with the addition of a small amount of vegetable oil.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye which leads to a decrease in vision.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells.
Cerium is a chemical element with symbol Ce and atomic number 58.
Cheilitis is inflammation of the lips.
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.
A chemical structure determination includes a chemist's specifying the molecular geometry and, when feasible and necessary, the electronic structure of the target molecule or other solid.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
Cholecalciferol, also known as vitamin D3 and colecalciferol, is a type of vitamin D which is made by the skin, found in some foods, and taken as a dietary supplement.
A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.
Circular dichroism (CD) is dichroism involving circularly polarized light, i.e., the differential absorption of left- and right-handed light.
Colias eurytheme, the orange sulphur, also known as the alfalfa butterfly and in its larval stage as the alfalfa caterpillar, is a butterfly of the family Pieridae, where it belongs to the lowland group of "clouded yellows and sulphurs" subfamily Coliadinae.
Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies.
The collect is a short general prayer of a particular structure used in Christian liturgy.
In chemistry, a conjugated system is a system of connected p-orbitals with delocalized electrons in molecules which are conventionally represented as having alternating single and multiple bonds, which in general may lower the overall energy of the molecule and increase stability.
The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber.
A corona discharge is an electrical discharge brought on by the ionization of a fluid such as air surrounding a conductor that is electrically charged.
The counterfeit means to imitate something.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
Curing is a term in polymer chemistry and process engineering that refers to the toughening or hardening of a polymer material by cross-linking of polymer chains, brought about by electron beams, heat, or chemical additives.
Darier's disease (DAR), also known as Darier disease, Darier–White disease, Dyskeratosis follicularis, and Keratosis follicularis,Freedberg, et al.
Dermatology (from ancient Greek δέρμα, derma which means skin and λογία, logia) is the branch of medicine dealing with the skin, nails, hair and its diseases.
Dermatomyositis (DM) is a long term inflammatory disorder which affects muscles.
A deuterium arc lamp (or simply deuterium lamp) is a low-pressure gas-discharge light source often used in spectroscopy when a continuous spectrum in the ultraviolet region is needed.
Diode-pumped solid-state lasers (DPSSLs) are solid-state lasers made by pumping a solid gain medium, for example, a ruby or a neodymium-doped YAG crystal, with a laser diode.
Direct DNA damage can occur when DNA directly absorbs a UVB photon, or for numerous other reasons.
Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to the surface of non-living objects to destroy microorganisms that are living on the objects.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule.
A dopant, also called a doping agent, is a trace impurity element that is inserted into a substance (in very low concentrations) to alter the electrical or optical properties of the substance.
In the fields of medicine, biotechnology and pharmacology, drug discovery is the process by which new candidate medications are discovered.
A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied.
Dye penetrant inspection (DPI), also called liquid penetrate inspection (LPI) or penetrant testing (PT), is a widely applied and low-cost inspection method used to locate surface-breaking defects in all non-porous materials (metals, plastics, or ceramics).
An electric arc, or arc discharge, is an electrical breakdown of a gas that produces an ongoing electrical discharge.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum) of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies.
Entomology is the scientific study of insects, a branch of zoology.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
An EPROM (rarely EROM), or erasable programmable read-only memory, is a type of memory chip that retains its data when its power supply is switched off.
The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
An excimer (originally short for excited dimer) is a short-lived dimeric or heterodimeric molecule formed from two species, at least one of which has completely filled valence shell by electrons (for example, noble gases).
An excimer lamp (or excilamp) is a source of ultraviolet light produced by spontaneous emission of excimer (exciplex) molecules.
An excimer laser, sometimes more correctly called an exciplex laser, is a form of ultraviolet laser which is commonly used in the production of microelectronic devices, semiconductor based integrated circuits or "chips", eye surgery, and micromachining.
In quantum mechanics, an excited state of a system (such as an atom, molecule or nucleus) is any quantum state of the system that has a higher energy than the ground state (that is, more energy than the absolute minimum).
Extreme ultraviolet radiation (EUV or XUV) or high-energy ultraviolet radiation is electromagnetic radiation in the part of the electromagnetic spectrum spanning wavelengths from 124 nm down to 10 nm, and therefore (by the Planck–Einstein equation) having photons with energies from 10 eV up to 124 eV (corresponding to 124 nm to 10 nm respectively).
The Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) was a space telescope for ultraviolet astronomy, launched on June 7, 1992.
Extreme ultraviolet lithography (also known as EUV or EUVL) is a next-generation lithography technology using an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength, currently expected to be 13.5 nm.
Eye protection is protective gear for the eyes, which comes in many types depending upon the threat that is to be reduced.
Fauna is all of the animal life of any particular region or time.
A flashtube, also called a flashlamp, is an electric arc lamp designed to produce extremely intense, incoherent, full-spectrum white light for very short durations.
Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.
A fluorescent lamp, or fluorescent tube, is a low-pressure mercury-vapor gas-discharge lamp that uses fluorescence to produce visible light.
Fluorescent lamps have been suggested to affect human health in various ways.
Forensic science is the application of science to criminal and civil laws, mainly—on the criminal side—during criminal investigation, as governed by the legal standards of admissible evidence and criminal procedure.
A frameshift mutation (also called a framing error or a reading frame shift) is a genetic mutation caused by indels (insertions or deletions) of a number of nucleotides in a DNA sequence that is not divisible by three.
Free-space optical communication (FSO) is an optical communication technology that uses light propagating in free space to wirelessly transmit data for telecommunications or computer networking.
Fused quartz or fused silica is glass consisting of silica in amorphous (non-crystalline) form.
A gas laser is a laser in which an electric current is discharged through a gas to produce coherent light.
A gemstone (also called a gem, fine gem, jewel, precious stone, or semi-precious stone) is a piece of mineral crystal which, in cut and polished form, is used to make jewelry or other adornments.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
Glasses, also known as eyeglasses or spectacles, are devices consisting of glass or hard plastic lenses mounted in a frame that holds them in front of a person's eyes, typically using a bridge over the nose and arms which rest over the ears.
The green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a protein composed of 238 amino acid residues (26.9 kDa) that exhibits bright green fluorescence when exposed to light in the blue to ultraviolet range.
The green-veined white (Pieris napi) is a butterfly of the family Pieridae.
Health is the ability of a biological system to acquire, convert, allocate, distribute, and utilize energy with maximum efficiency.
In ophthalmology, high-energy visible light (HEV light) is high-frequency, high-energy light in the violet/blue band from 400 to 450 nm in the visible spectrum.
High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC; formerly referred to as high-pressure liquid chromatography), is a technique in analytical chemistry used to separate, identify, and quantify each component in a mixture.
Human skin color ranges in variety from the darkest brown to the lightest hues.
Hydrazine is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula (also written), called diamidogen, archaically.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
An incandescent light bulb, incandescent lamp or incandescent light globe is an electric light with a wire filament heated to such a high temperature that it glows with visible light (incandescence).
Indirect DNA damage occurs when a UV-photon is absorbed in the human skin by a chromophore that does not have the ability to convert the energy into harmless heat very quickly.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
Ink is a liquid or paste that contains pigments or dyes and is used to color a surface to produce an image, text, or design.
An ink cartridge or inkjet cartridge is a component of an inkjet printer that contains the ink that is deposited onto paper during printing.
An inspection is, most generally, an organized examination or formal evaluation exercise.
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
Ionization or ionisation, is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions, often in conjunction with other chemical changes.
Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Johann Wilhelm Ritter (16 December 1776 – 23 January 1810) was a German chemist, physicist and philosopher.
John William Draper (May 5, 1811 – January 4, 1882) was an English-born American scientist, philosopher, physician, chemist, historian and photographer.
Kindler syndrome (also known as "bullous acrokeratotic poikiloderma of Kindler and Weary") is a rare congenital disease of the skin caused by a mutation in the KIND1 gene.
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.
A laser diode, (LD), injection laser diode (ILD), or diode laser is a semiconductor device similar to a light-emitting diode in which the laser beam is created at the diode's junction.
Laser engraving, which is a subset of laser marking, is the practice of using lasers to engrave an object.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is an American federal research facility in Livermore, California, United States, founded by the University of California, Berkeley in 1952.
The lens is a transparent, biconvex structure in the eye that, along with the cornea, helps to refract light to be focused on the retina.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Light therapy—or phototherapy, classically referred to as heliotherapy—consists of exposure to daylight or to specific wavelengths of light using polychromatic polarised light, lasers, light-emitting diodes, fluorescent lamps, dichroic lamps or very bright, full-spectrum light.
A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source.
Lighting or illumination is the deliberate use of light to achieve a practical or aesthetic effect.
Lightning is a sudden electrostatic discharge that occurs typically during a thunderstorm.
Many conditions affect the human integumentary system—the organ system covering the entire surface of the body and composed of skin, hair, nails, and related muscle and glands.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
the Lyman-alpha line In physics, the Lyman-alpha line, sometimes written as Ly-α line, is a spectral line of hydrogen, or more generally of one-electron ions, in the Lyman series, emitted when the electron falls from the n.
Magnesium fluoride is an inorganic compound with the formula MgF2.
pipeline to check for stress corrosion cracking using what is known as the "black and white" method. No indications of cracking appear in this picture; the only marks are the "footprints" of the magnetic yoke and drip marks. pipeline showing indications of stress corrosion cracking (two clusters of small black lines) revealed by MPI. Cracks that would normally have been invisible are detectable due to the magnetic particles clustering at the crack openings. The scale at the bottom is numbered in centimetres. Magnetic particle Inspection (MPI) is a non-destructive testing (NDT) process for detecting surface and shallow subsurface discontinuities in ferromagnetic materials such as iron, nickel, cobalt, and some of their alloys.
In mass spectrometry, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is an ionization technique that uses a laser energy absorbing matrix to create ions from large molecules with minimal fragmentation.
Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).
A medical robot is a robot used in the medical sciences.
Meiosis (from Greek μείωσις, meiosis, which means lessening) is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them.
Melanin (from μέλας melas, "black, dark") is a broad term for a group of natural pigments found in most organisms.
Melanoma, also known as malignant melanoma, is a type of cancer that develops from the pigment-containing cells known as melanocytes.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
A mercury-vapor lamp is a gas discharge lamp that uses an electric arc through vaporized mercury to produce light.
A metal-halide lamp is an electrical lamp that produces light by an electric arc through a gaseous mixture of vaporized mercury and metal halides (compounds of metals with bromine or iodine).
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei.
A mold or mould (is a fungus that grows in the form of multicellular filaments called hyphae.
The Multi-spectral solar telescope array, or MSSTA, was a sounding rocket payload built by Professor A.B.C. Walker, Jr. at Stanford University in the 1990s to test EUV/XUV imaging of the Sun using normal incidence EUV-reflective multilayer optics.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; pronounced, like "Noah") is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.
New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
A nitrogen laser is a gas laser operating in the ultraviolet rangeC.
Nitrogen oxide may refer to a binary compound of oxygen and nitrogen, or a mixture of such compounds.
The NIXT, or Normal Incidence X-ray Telescope, was a sounding rocket payload flown in the 1990s by Professor Leon Golub of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, to prototype normal-incidence (conventional) optical designs in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) solar imaging.
Nocturnality is an animal behavior characterized by being active during the night and sleeping during the day.
Nondestructive testing or non-destructive testing (NDT) is a wide group of analysis techniques used in science and technology industry to evaluate the properties of a material, component or system without causing damage.
Nonlinear optics (NLO) is the branch of optics that describes the behavior of light in nonlinear media, that is, media in which the dielectric polarization P responds nonlinearly to the electric field E of the light.
In molecular biology, quantitation of nucleic acids is commonly performed to determine the average concentrations of DNA or RNA present in a mixture, as well as their purity.
Nucleotide excision repair is a DNA repair mechanism.
Octyl methoxycinnamate or ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (INCI) or octinoxate (USAN), trade names Eusolex 2292 and Uvinul MC80, is an organic compound that is an ingredient in some sunscreens and lip balms.
An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment, especially the marine ecosystem, due to human activity, and is a form of pollution.
Opacity is the measure of impenetrability to electromagnetic or other kinds of radiation, especially visible light.
Optical brighteners, optical brightening agents (OBAs), fluorescent brightening agents (FBAs), or fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs), are chemical compounds that absorb light in the ultraviolet and violet region (usually 340-370 nm) of the electromagnetic spectrum, and re-emit light in the blue region (typically 420-470 nm) by fluorescence.
An optical coating is one or more thin layers of material deposited on an optical component such as a lens or mirror, which alters the way in which the optic reflects and transmits light.
An optical fiber or optical fibre is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair.
Optical storage is the storage of data on an optically readable medium.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Oxybenzone or benzophenone-3 (trade names Milestab 9, Eusolex 4360, Escalol 567, KAHSCREEN BZ-3) is an organic compound.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Oxyrhynchus (Ὀξύρρυγχος Oxýrrhynkhos; "sharp-nosed"; ancient Egyptian Pr-Medjed; Coptic Pemdje; modern Egyptian Arabic El Bahnasa) is a city in Middle Egypt, located about 160 km south-southwest of Cairo, in the governorate of Al Minya.
Ozone, or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula.
Ozone depletion describes two related events observed since the late 1970s: a steady lowering of about four percent in the total amount of ozone in Earth's atmosphere(the ozone layer), and a much larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozone around Earth's polar regions.
The ozone layer or ozone shield is a region of Earth's stratosphere that absorbs most of the Sun's ultraviolet radiation.
Paint is any liquid, liquefiable, or mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a thin layer, converts to a solid film.
Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a solid surface (support base).
Papyrus is a material similar to thick paper that was used in ancient times as a writing surface.
A passport is a travel document, usually issued by a country's government, that certifies the identity and nationality of its holder primarily for the purpose of international travel.
Pasteurization or pasteurisation is a process in which packaged and non-packaged foods (such as milk and fruit juice) are treated with mild heat (Today, pasteurization is used widely in the dairy industry and other food processing industries to achieve food preservation and food safety. This process was named after the French scientist Louis Pasteur, whose research in the 1880s demonstrated that thermal processing would inactivate unwanted microorganisms in wine. Spoilage enzymes are also inactivated during pasteurization. Most liquid products are heat treated in a continuous system where heat can be applied using plate heat exchanger and/or direct or indirect use of steam and hot water. Due to the mild heat there are minor changes to the nutritional quality of foods as well as the sensory characteristics. Pascalization or high pressure processing (HPP) and Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) are non-thermal processes that are also used to pasteurize foods.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.
Pemphigus erythematosus (also known as "Senear–Usher syndrome") is simply a localized form of pemphigus foliaceus with features of lupus erythematosus.
Pepper spray (also known as capsicum spray) is a lachrymatory agent (a chemical compound that irritates the eyes to cause tears, pain, and temporary blindness) used in policing, riot control, crowd control, and self-defense, including defense against dogs and bears.
A phosphor, most generally, is a substance that exhibits the phenomenon of luminescence.
Phosphor bands were introduced on British stamps from 1959 as a replacement for the previous graphite lined stamps as an aid in the mechanical sorting of mail.
In chemistry, photocatalysis is the acceleration of a photoreaction in the presence of a catalyst.
A photocathode is a negatively charged electrode in a light detection device such as a photomultiplier or phototube that is coated with a photosensitive compound.
Photochemistry and Photobiology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that publishes original research papers, rapid communications, research notes, technical notes, invited articles, and reviews covering photochemistry and photobiology.
A photodiode is a semiconductor device that converts light into an electrical current.
Photodissociation, photolysis, or photodecomposition is a chemical reaction in which a chemical compound is broken down by photons.
Photoionization is the physical process in which an ion is formed from the interaction of a photon with an atom or molecule.
Photokeratitis or ultraviolet keratitis is a painful eye condition caused by exposure of insufficiently protected eyes to the ultraviolet (UV) rays from either natural (e.g. intense sunlight) or artificial (e.g. the electric arc during welding) sources.
Photolithography, also termed optical lithography or UV lithography, is a process used in microfabrication to pattern parts of a thin film or the bulk of a substrate.
Photomultiplier tubes (photomultipliers or PMTs for short), members of the class of vacuum tubes, and more specifically vacuum phototubes, are extremely sensitive detectors of light in the ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
Photon energy is the energy carried by a single photon.
Photoprotection is the biochemical process that helps organisms cope with molecular damage caused by sunlight.
A photoreceptor cell is a specialized type of neuroepithelial cell found in the retina that is capable of visual phototransduction.
Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and laser-assisted sub-epithelial keratectomy (or laser epithelial keratomileusis) (LASEK) are laser eye surgery procedures intended to correct a person's vision, reducing dependency on glasses or contact lenses.
Picture framing glass ("glazing," "conservation glass," "museum quality glass") usually refers to flat glass or acrylic ("plexi") used for framing artwork and for presenting art objects in a display box (also, "conservation framing").
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.
A pinguecula is a common type of conjunctival degeneration in the eye.
Pollen is a fine to coarse powdery substance comprising pollen grains which are male microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells).
Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), also known as acrylic or acrylic glass as well as by the trade names Crylux, Plexiglas, Acrylite, Lucite, and Perspex among several others (see below), is a transparent thermoplastic often used in sheet form as a lightweight or shatter-resistant alternative to glass.
Polycarbonates (PC) are a group of thermoplastic polymers containing carbonate groups in their chemical structures.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
Polymer degradation is a change in the properties—tensile strength, color, shape, etc.—of a polymer or polymer-based product under the influence of one or more environmental factors such as heat, light or chemicals such as acids, alkalis and some salts.
In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.
A printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components or electrical components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from one or more sheet layers of copper laminated onto and/or between sheet layers of a non-conductive substrate.
Printing is a process for reproducing text and images using a master form or template.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Psoralen (also called psoralene) is the parent compound in a family of natural products known as furocoumarins.
Psoriasis is a long-lasting autoimmune disease characterized by patches of abnormal skin.
Pterygium refers to any winglike triangular membrane occurring in the neck, eyes, knees, elbows, ankles or digits.
PUVA (psoralen and ultraviolet A) is an ultraviolet light therapy treatment for eczema, psoriasis, graft-versus-host disease, vitiligo, mycosis fungoides, large-plaque parapsoriasis and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma using the sensitizing effects of the drug psoralen.
Pyrimidine is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound similar to pyridine.
Pyrimidine dimers are molecular lesions formed from thymine or cytosine bases in DNA via photochemical reactions.
Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.
In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.
A radiometer or roentgenometer is a device for measuring the radiant flux (power) of electromagnetic radiation.
Raman scattering or the Raman effect is the inelastic scattering of a photon by molecules which are excited to higher vibrational or rotational energy levels.
Rayleigh scattering (pronounced), named after the British physicist Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt), is the (dominantly) elastic scattering of light or other electromagnetic radiation by particles much smaller than the wavelength of the radiation.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen.
In chemistry, reactivity is the impetus for which a chemical substance undergoes a chemical reaction, either by itself or with other materials, with an overall release of energy.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.
The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.
Rosacea is a long-term skin condition that typically affects the face.
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.
Semiconductor device fabrication is the process used to create the integrated circuits that are present in everyday electrical and electronic devices.
In the broadest definition, a sensor is a device, module, or subsystem whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment and send the information to other electronics, frequently a computer processor.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
Silicon carbide (SiC), also known as carborundum, is a semiconductor containing silicon and carbon.
Silver chloride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula AgCl.
Sjögren syndrome (SjS, SS) is a long-term autoimmune disease in which the moisture-producing glands of the body are affected.
Skin cancers are cancers that arise from the skin.
Soda–lime glass, also called soda–lime–silica glass, is the most prevalent type of glass, used for windowpanes and glass containers (bottles and jars) for beverages, food, and some commodity items.
The solar constant is a flux density measuring mean solar electromagnetic radiation (solar irradiance) per unit area.
Solar water disinfection (SoDis) is a type of portable water purification that uses solar energy to make biologically-contaminated (e.g. bacteria, viruses, protozoa and worms) water safe to drink.
A solid-state laser is a laser that uses a gain medium that is a solid, rather than a liquid such as in dye lasers or a gas as in gas lasers.
A spectrofluorometer is an instrument which takes advantage of fluorescent properties of some compounds in order to provide information regarding their concentration and chemical environment in a sample.
A spectrometer is a scientific instrument used to separate and measure spectral components of a physical phenomenon.
In biology, a spore is a unit of sexual or asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival, often for extended periods of time, in unfavourable conditions.
A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.
Sterilization (or sterilisation) refers to any process that eliminates, removes, kills, or deactivates all forms of life and other biological agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, spore forms, prions, unicellular eukaryotic organisms such as Plasmodium, etc.) present in a specified region, such as a surface, a volume of fluid, medication, or in a compound such as biological culture media.
The stratum corneum (Latin for 'horny layer') is the outermost layer of the epidermis, consisting of dead cells (corneocytes).
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
Sun protective clothing is clothing specifically designed for sun protection and is produced from a fabric rated for its level of ultraviolet (UV) protection.
Sun tanning or simply tanning is the process whereby skin color is darkened or tanned.
Sunburn is a form of radiation burn that affects living tissue, such as skin, that results from an overexposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, commonly from the sun.
Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light.
Sunscreen, also known as sunblock, sun cream or suntan lotion, is a lotion, spray, gel or other topical product that absorbs or reflects some of the sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation and thus helps protect against sunburn.
Surface Free energy, or interfacial free energy, quantifies the disruption of intermolecular bonds that occur when a surface is created.
Surface roughness often shortened to roughness, is a component of surface texture.
A synchrotron light source is a source of electromagnetic radiation (EM) usually produced by a storage ring, for scientific and technical purposes.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), also known simply as lupus, is an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in many parts of the body.
Tanning lamps (sometimes called tanning bulbs in the United States or tanning tubes in Europe) are the part of a tanning bed, booth or other tanning device which produces ultraviolet light responsible for tanning.
Thermal radiation is electromagnetic radiation generated by the thermal motion of charged particles in matter.
A thermoplastic, or thermosoftening plastic, is a plastic material, a polymer, that becomes pliable or moldable above a specific temperature and solidifies upon cooling.
---> Thymine (T, Thy) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA that are represented by the letters G–C–A–T.
Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV) oxide or titania, is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium, chemical formula.
In the field of optics, transparency (also called pellucidity or diaphaneity) is the physical property of allowing light to pass through the material without being scattered.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
Ultraviolet astronomy is the observation of electromagnetic radiation at ultraviolet wavelengths between approximately 10 and 320 nanometres; shorter wavelengths—higher energy photons—are studied by X-ray astronomy and gamma ray astronomy.
The ultraviolet catastrophe, also called the Rayleigh–Jeans catastrophe, was the prediction of late 19th century/early 20th century classical physics that an ideal black body at thermal equilibrium will emit radiation in all frequency ranges, emitting more energy as the frequency increases.
Butterflies, or members of the Papilionoidea superfamily, use two ultraviolet signals, UV reflectance or absorbance as a communication system.
Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) is a disinfection method that uses short-wavelength ultraviolet (UV-C) light to kill or inactivate microorganisms by destroying nucleic acids and disrupting their DNA, leaving them unable to perform vital cellular functions.
The ultraviolet index or UV Index is an international standard measurement of the strength of sunburn-producing ultraviolet (UV) radiation at a particular place and time.
Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) refers to the measurement of kinetic energy spectra of photoelectrons emitted by molecules which have absorbed ultraviolet photons, in order to determine molecular orbital energies in the valence region.
Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy or ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry (UV–Vis or UV/Vis) refers to absorption spectroscopy or reflectance spectroscopy in the ultraviolet-visible spectral region.
A UV coating is a surface treatment which either is cured by ultraviolet radiation, or which protects the underlying material from such radiation's harmful effects.
UV curing is a process in which ultraviolet light and visible light is used to initiate a photochemical reaction that generates a crosslinked network of polymers.
Many natural and synthetic polymers are attacked by ultraviolet radiation, and products using these materials may crack or disintegrate if they are not UV-stable.
In chemistry, a valence electron is an outer shell electron that is associated with an atom, and that can participate in the formation of a chemical bond if the outer shell is not closed; in a single covalent bond, both atoms in the bond contribute one valence electron in order to form a shared pair.
Victor Schumann (December 21, 1841 – September 1, 1913) was a physicist and spectroscopist who in 1893 discovered the vacuum ultraviolet.
The Villa of the Papyri (Villa dei Papiri, also known as Villa dei Pisoni) is named after its unique library of papyri (or scrolls), but is also one of the most luxurious houses in all of Herculaneum and in the Roman world.
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.
Vitiligo is a long-term skin condition characterized by patches of the skin losing their pigment.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are organic chemicals that have a high vapor pressure at ordinary room temperature.
Wastewater (or waste water) is any water that has been affected by human use.
Water treatment is any process that improves the quality of water to make it more acceptable for a specific end-use.
Watercolor (American English) or watercolour (British English; see spelling differences), also aquarelle (French, diminutive of Latin aqua "water"), is a painting method in which the paints are made of pigments suspended in a water-based solution.
A watermark is an identifying image or pattern in paper that appears as various shades of lightness/darkness when viewed by transmitted light (or when viewed by reflected light, atop a dark background), caused by thickness or density variations in the paper.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
Weather testing of polymers is the controlled polymer degradation and polymer coating degradation under lab or natural conditions.
Wood's glass is an optical filter glass invented in 1903 by American physicist Robert Williams Wood (1868–1955), which allows ultraviolet and infrared light to pass through, while blocking most visible light.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
A xenon arc lamp is a highly specialized type of gas discharge lamp, an electric light that produces light by passing electricity through ionized xenon gas at high pressure.
Zinc oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula ZnO.
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