259 relations: Acid anhydride, Adenosine triphosphate, Agriculture, Albright and Wilson, Algal bloom, Alkoxide, Allotropes of phosphorus, Allotropy, Ambrose Godfrey, Amorphous solid, Antoine Lavoisier, Apatite, Atomic number, Îles du Connétable, Baking powder, Band gap, Berne Convention (1906), Beta particle, Biomonitoring, Bone, Bone ash, Boston, Bremsstrahlung, Brownstone, Calcium phosphate, Calcium phosphide, Carbon disulfide, Carbon monoxide, Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Cassiopeia A, Charcoal, Charles Sauria, Chelation, Chemical element, Chemiluminescence, China, Code of Federal Regulations, Coke (fuel), Combustibility and flammability, Condensation reaction, Copper sulfate, Cornea, Corrosion, Cubic crystal system, DEA list of chemicals, Debridement, Density, Der Spiegel, Detergent, Dicalcium phosphate, ..., Dietary Reference Intake, Diphosphane, Diphosphorus, Distillation, DNA, Dopant, Drug Enforcement Administration, Ecosystem, Edaphology, Ephedrine, Ester, European Food Safety Authority, Eutrophication, Extrinsic semiconductor, Fertilizer, Flame retardant, Florida, Fungicide, Gas flare, Gasoline, Glycerol, Grantham, Graphite, Greek language, Greek mythology, Guano, Guano Islands Act, Half-life, Hamburg, Hemoglobin, Hennig Brand, Herbicide, Hexachlorophosphazene, Hybridization probe, Hydrazine, Hydrogen, Hydrogen embrittlement, Hydroiodic acid, Hydroxylapatite, Hypophosphatemia, Hypophosphoric acid, Hypophosphorous acid, Idaho, Immediately dangerous to life or health, Incendiary device, Inorganic Chemistry (journal), Insecticide, Iodine, Ion, Iron, Isoelectronicity, Isotope, James Burgess Readman, Johan Gottlieb Gahn, Johann von Löwenstern-Kunckel, Johann Wilhelm Hittorf, Journal of Nutrition, Kerosene, Lead, Lead dioxide, Lewis acids and bases, Life, Limiting factor, Lucifer, M34 grenade, Malnutrition, Match, Mercury (planet), Miamisburg, Ohio, Military, Milky Way, Mineral, Mineral (nutrient), Molecular orbital theory, Molotov cocktail, Monocalcium phosphate, Monoclinic crystal system, Morocco, Napalm, National Academy of Medicine, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Nature (journal), Necrosis, Nerve agent, Neurotoxin, Niagara Falls, Nitrate, Northern blot, Nucleic acid, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Organophosphate, Organophosphorus compound, Orthorhombic crystal system, Oxygen, Oxygen-free copper, Partial pressure, Peak phosphorus, Pearson symbol, Permissible exposure limit, Pesticide, Phenol, Philosopher's stone, Phosphate, Phosphate minerals, Phosphide, Phosphine, Phospholipid, Phosphor, Phosphor bronze, Phosphorescence, Phosphoric acid, Phosphoric acids and phosphates, Phosphorite, Phosphorous acid, Phosphorus (morning star), Phosphorus halide, Phosphorus pentabromide, Phosphorus pentachloride, Phosphorus pentafluoride, Phosphorus pentaiodide, Phosphorus pentasulfide, Phosphorus pentoxide, Phosphorus sesquisulfide, Phosphorus tribromide, Phosphorus trichloride, Phosphorus trifluoride, Phosphorus triiodide, Phosphorus trioxide, Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance, Phosphoryl chloride, Phosphorylation, Phossy jaw, Placentia, Newfoundland and Labrador, Plasticizer, Pnictogen, Poison, Polyphosphazene, Potassium chlorate, Pseudoephedrine, PUREX, Pyrophoricity, Pyrophosphoric acid, Radiation protection, Radioactive tracer, Radionuclide, Reactivity (chemistry), Recommended exposure limit, Redox, Refeeding syndrome, Reference Daily Intake, Refractive index, Retort, Reuse of excreta, RNA, Robert Boyle, Russia, Salt, Schreibersite, Science (journal), Sewage, Sewage sludge, Slag, Smoke bomb, Smoke screen, Sodium triphosphate, Sodium-vapor lamp, Soil, Southern blot, Space group, Spent nuclear fuel, Spin (physics), Steel, Submerged-arc furnace for phosphorus production, Sulfur, Sulfuric acid, Sunlight, Supernova, Supernova nucleosynthesis, Supernova remnant, Sweden, Tennessee, Thermal decomposition, Toxicity, Tracer ammunition, Triangular bipyramid, Tributyl phosphate, Tricalcium phosphate, Triclinic crystal system, Trimer (chemistry), Triphenyl phosphate, Triphenyl phosphite, Triphenylphosphine, Triphosphoric acid, Triphosphorus pentanitride, United States Geological Survey, Uranium, Uranyl, Urine, Utah, Venus, Volatility (chemistry), Water fluoridation, Water treatment, Weapon, White phosphorus munitions, World War I, World War II, X-ray, Zeppelin. Expand index (209 more) » « Shrink index
An acid anhydride is formed when two acid structures combine with loss of a water molecule.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Albright and Wilson was founded in 1856 as a United Kingdom manufacturer of potassium chlorate and white phosphorus for the match industry.
An algal bloom is a rapid increase or accumulation in the population of algae in freshwater or marine water systems, and is recognized by the discoloration in the water from their pigments.
An alkoxide is the conjugate base of an alcohol and therefore consists of an organic group bonded to a negatively charged oxygen atom.
Elemental phosphorus can exist in several allotropes, the most common of which are white and red solids.
Allotropy or allotropism is the property of some chemical elements to exist in two or more different forms, in the same physical state, known as allotropes of these elements.
Ambrose Godfrey-Hanckwitz FRS (1660 – 15 January 1741), also known as Gottfried Hankwitz, also written Hanckewitz, or Ambrose Godfrey as he preferred to be known, was a German-born British phosphorus manufacturer and apothecary.
In condensed matter physics and materials science, an amorphous (from the Greek a, without, morphé, shape, form) or non-crystalline solid is a solid that lacks the long-range order that is characteristic of a crystal.
Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution;; 26 August 17438 May 1794) CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) was a French nobleman and chemist who was central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and who had a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology.
Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals, usually referring to hydroxylapatite, fluorapatite and chlorapatite, with high concentrations of OH−, F− and Cl− ions, respectively, in the crystal.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
The Îles du Connétable (Constable Islands) are two islands within French Guiana (Grand Connétable and Petit Connétable) that were claimed under the Guano Islands Act of 1856 for the United States of America.
Baking powder is a dry chemical leavening agent, a mixture of a carbonate or bicarbonate and a weak acid and is used for increasing the volume and lightening the texture of baked goods.
In solid-state physics, a band gap, also called an energy gap or bandgap, is an energy range in a solid where no electron states can exist.
__notoc__ The Berne Convention (formally, the International Convention respecting the Prohibition of the Use of White (Yellow) Phosphorus in the Manufacture of Matches (Convention internationale sur l'interdiction de l'emploi du phosphore blanc (jaune) dans l'industrie des allumettes)) of 1906 is a multilateral treaty negotiated in Berne, Switzerland, which prohibits the use of white phosphorus in the manufacture of matches.
A beta particle, also called beta ray or beta radiation, (symbol β) is a high-energy, high-speed electron or positron emitted by the radioactive decay of an atomic nucleus during the process of beta decay.
In analytical chemistry, biomonitoring is the measurement of the body burden of toxic chemical compounds, elements, or their metabolites, in biological substances.
A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.
Bone ash is a white material produced by the calcination of bones.
Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.
Bremsstrahlung, from bremsen "to brake" and Strahlung "radiation"; i.e., "braking radiation" or "deceleration radiation", is electromagnetic radiation produced by the deceleration of a charged particle when deflected by another charged particle, typically an electron by an atomic nucleus.
Brownstone is a brown Triassic-Jurassic sandstone which was once a popular building material.
Calcium phosphate is a family of materials and minerals containing calcium ions (Ca2+) together with inorganic phosphate anions.
Calcium phosphide (CP) is the inorganic compound with the formula Ca3P2.
Carbon disulfide is a colorless volatile liquid with the formula CS2.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
Carl Wilhelm Scheele (9 December 1742 – 21 May 1786) was a Swedish Pomeranian and German pharmaceutical chemist.
Cassiopeia A (Cas A) is a supernova remnant (SNR) in the constellation Cassiopeia and the brightest extrasolar radio source in the sky at frequencies above 1 GHz.
Charcoal is the lightweight black carbon and ash residue hydrocarbon produced by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances.
Marc Charles Sauria (25 April 1812 – 22 August 1895) was a French chemist credited for inventing phosphorus-based matches in 1830–1831.
Chelation is a type of bonding of ions and molecules to metal ions.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
Chemiluminescence (also chemoluminescence) is the emission of light (luminescence), as the result of a chemical reaction.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) is the codification of the general and permanent rules and regulations (sometimes called administrative law) published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the federal government of the United States.
Coke is a fuel with a high carbon content and few impurities, usually made from coal.
Flammable materials are those that ignite more easily than other materials, whereas those that are harder to ignite or burn less vigorously are combustible.
A condensation reaction is a class of an organic addition reaction that proceeds in a step-wise fashion to produce the addition product, usually in equilibrium, and a water molecule (hence named condensation).
Copper sulfate may refer to.
The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber.
Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide.
In crystallography, the cubic (or isometric) crystal system is a crystal system where the unit cell is in the shape of a cube.
The United States Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) maintains lists regarding the classification of illicit drugs (see DEA Schedules).
Debridement is the medical removal of dead, damaged, or infected tissue to improve the healing potential of the remaining healthy tissue.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
Der Spiegel (lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.
A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with cleaning properties in dilute solutions.
Dicalcium phosphate is the calcium phosphate with the formula CaHPO4 and its dihydrate. The "di" prefix in the common name arises because the formation of the HPO42– anion involves the removal of two protons from phosphoric acid, H3PO4. It is also known as dibasic calcium phosphate or calcium monohydrogen phosphate. Dicalcium phosphate is used as a food additive, it is found in some toothpastes as a polishing agent and is a biomaterial.
The Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) is a system of nutrition recommendations from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academies (United States).
Diphosphane is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula P2H4.
Diphosphorus is an inorganic chemical with the chemical formula.
Distillation is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by selective boiling and condensation.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
A dopant, also called a doping agent, is a trace impurity element that is inserted into a substance (in very low concentrations) to alter the electrical or optical properties of the substance.
The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is a United States federal law enforcement agency under the United States Department of Justice, tasked with combating drug smuggling and use within the United States.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
Edaphology (from Greek ἔδαφος, edaphos, "ground", and -λογία, -logia) is one of two main divisions of soil science, the other being pedology.
Ephedrine is a medication and stimulant.
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is the agency of the European Union (EU) that provides independent scientific advice and communicates on existing and emerging risks associated with the food chain.
Eutrophication (from Greek eutrophos, "well-nourished"), or hypertrophication, is when a body of water becomes overly enriched with minerals and nutrients that induce excessive growth of plants and algae.
An extrinsic semiconductor is one that has been doped, that is, into which a doping agent has been introduced, giving it different electrical properties than the intrinsic (pure) semiconductor.
A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
The term flame retardants subsumes a diverse group of chemicals which are added to manufactured materials, such as plastics and textiles, and surface finishes and coatings.
Florida (Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States.
Fungicides are biocidal chemical compounds or biological organisms used to kill parasitic fungi or their spores.
A gas flare, alternatively known as a flare stack, is a gas combustion device used in industrial plants such as petroleum refineries, chemical plants, natural gas processing plants as well as at oil or gas production sites having oil wells, gas wells, offshore oil and gas rigs and landfills.
Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.
Glycerol (also called glycerine or glycerin; see spelling differences) is a simple polyol compound.
Grantham is a town in the South Kesteven district of Lincolnshire, England.
Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Greek mythology is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices.
Guano (from Quechua wanu via Spanish) is the accumulated excrement of seabirds and bats.
The Guano Islands Act (enacted August 18, 1856, codified at §§ 1411-1419) is a United States federal law passed by the U.S. Congress that enables citizens of the United States to take possession of unclaimed islands containing guano deposits.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.
Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.
Hennig Brand (c. 1630c. 1692 or c. 1710) was a merchant and alchemist in Hamburg.
Herbicides, also commonly known as weedkillers, are chemical substances used to control unwanted plants.
Hexachlorophosphazene is an inorganic compound with the formula (NPCl2)3.
In molecular biology, a hybridization probe is a fragment of DNA or RNA of variable length (usually 100–1000 bases long) which can be radioactively labeled.
Hydrazine is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula (also written), called diamidogen, archaically.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydrogen embrittlement is the process by which hydride-forming metals such as titanium, vanadium, zirconium, tantalum, and niobium become brittle and fracture due to the introduction and subsequent diffusion of hydrogen into the metal.
Hydroiodic acid (or hydriodic acid) is a highly acidic aqueous solution of hydrogen iodide (HI) (concentrated solution usually 48 - 57% HI).
Hydroxylapatite, also called hydroxyapatite (HA), is a naturally occurring mineral form of calcium apatite with the formula Ca5(PO4)3(OH), but is usually written Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 to denote that the crystal unit cell comprises two entities.
Hypophosphatemia is an electrolyte disturbance in which there is an abnormally low level of phosphate in the blood.
Hypophosphoric acid is a mineral acid with the formula H4P2O6, with phosphorus in a formal oxidation state of +4.
Hypophosphorous acid is a phosphorus oxoacid and a powerful reducing agent with molecular formula H3PO2.
Idaho is a state in the northwestern region of the United States.
The term immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) is defined by the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) as exposure to airborne contaminants that is "likely to cause death or immediate or delayed permanent adverse health effects or prevent escape from such an environment." Examples include smoke or other poisonous gases at sufficiently high concentrations.
Incendiary weapons, incendiary devices or incendiary bombs are weapons designed to start fires or destroy sensitive equipment using fire (and sometimes used as anti-personnel weaponry), that use materials such as napalm, thermite, magnesium powder, chlorine trifluoride, or white phosphorus.
Inorganic Chemistry is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Chemical Society since 1962.
Insecticides are substances used to kill insects.
Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Isoelectronicity is the phenomenon of two or more chemical species (atoms, molecules, radicals, ions etc.) differing in the atoms that comprise them but having the same number of valence electrons and the same structure (that is, the same number of atoms with the same connectivity).
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Dr James Burgess Readman FRSE FCS FSSA (c.1850–1927) was a Scottish chemist who invented an electric furnace for creating phosphorus invented in 1888 and patented in 1889.
Johan Gottlieb Gahn (19 August 1745 – 8 December 1818) was a Swedish chemist and metallurgist who discovered manganese in 1774.
Johann Kunckel, awarded Swedish nobility in 1693 under the Swedish name von Löwenstern-Kunckel and the German version of the name Kunckel von Löwenstern (1630 - prob. 20 March 1703), German chemist, was born in 1630 (or 1638), near Rendsburg, his father being alchemist to the court of Holstein.
Johann Wilhelm Hittorf (27 March 1824 – 28 November 1914) was a German physicist who was born in Bonn and died in Münster, Germany.
The Journal of Nutrition is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Society for Nutrition.
Kerosene, also known as paraffin, lamp oil, and coal oil (an obsolete term), is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid which is derived from petroleum.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Lead(IV) oxide, commonly called lead dioxide or plumbic oxide or anhydrous plumbic acid (sometimes wrongly called lead peroxide) is a chemical compound with the formula PbO2.
A Lewis acid is a chemical species that contains an empty orbital which is capable of accepting an electron pair from a Lewis base to form a Lewis adduct.
Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.
A limiting factor is a variable of a system that, if subject to a small change, causes a non-negligible change in an output or other measure of the system.
Lucifer is a name that, according to dictionaries of the English language, refers either to the Devil or to the planet Venus when appearing as the morning star.
The M34 White Phosphorus Smoke Grenade or "Willie Pete" was a smoke / incendiary grenade manufactured by Rocky Mountain Arsenal from the late 1950s and used by U.S. forces during the Vietnam War and was also used during the First Gulf War.
Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.
A match is a tool for starting a fire.
Mercury is the smallest and innermost planet in the Solar System.
Miamisburg is a city in Montgomery County, Ohio, United States.
A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.
The Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our Solar System.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
In the context of nutrition, a mineral is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life.
In chemistry, molecular orbital (MO) theory is a method for determining molecular structure in which electrons are not assigned to individual bonds between atoms, but are treated as moving under the influence of the nuclei in the whole molecule.
A Molotov cocktail, also known as a petrol bomb, bottle bomb, poor man's grenade, Molotovin koktaili (Finnish), polttopullo (Finnish), fire bomb (not to be confused with an actual fire bomb) or just Molotov, commonly shortened as Molly, is a generic name used for a variety of bottle-based improvised incendiary weapons.
Monocalcium phosphate is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ca(H2PO4)2 ("ACMP" or "CMP-A" for anhydrous monocalcium phosphate).
In crystallography, the monoclinic crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Napalm is a mixture of a gelling agent and either gasoline (petrol) or a similar fuel.
The National Academy of Medicine (NAM), formerly called the Institute of Medicine (IoM), is an American nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Necrosis (from the Greek νέκρωσις "death, the stage of dying, the act of killing" from νεκρός "dead") is a form of cell injury which results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by autolysis.
Nerve agents, sometimes also called nerve gases, are a class of organic chemicals that disrupt the mechanisms by which nerves transfer messages to organs.
Neurotoxins are toxins that are poisonous or destructive to nerve tissue (causing neurotoxicity).
Niagara Falls is the collective name for three waterfalls that straddle the international border between the Canadian province of Ontario and the American state of New York.
Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u.
The northern blot, or RNA blot,Gilbert, S. F. (2000) Developmental Biology, 6th Ed.
Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor.
Organophosphates (also known as phosphate esters) are a class of organophosphorus compounds with the general structure O.
Organophosphorus compounds are organic compounds containing phosphorus.
In crystallography, the orthorhombic crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Oxygen-free copper (OFC) or oxygen-free high thermal conductivity (OFHC) copper is a group of wrought high conductivity copper alloys that have been electrolytically refined to reduce the level of oxygen to.001% or below.
In a mixture of gases, each gas has a partial pressure which is the hypothetical pressure of that gas if it alone occupied the entire volume of the original mixture at the same temperature.
Peak phosphorus is a concept to describe the point in time when humanity reaches the maximum global production rate of phosphorus as an industrial and commercial raw material.
The Pearson symbol, or Pearson notation, is used in crystallography as a means of describing a crystal structure, and was originated by W.B. Pearson.
The permissible exposure limit (PEL or OSHA PEL) is a legal limit in the United States for exposure of an employee to a chemical substance or physical agent such as loud noise.
Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.
Phenol, also known as phenolic acid, is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH.
The philosopher's stone, or stone of the philosophers (lapis philosophorum) is a legendary alchemical substance capable of turning base metals such as mercury into gold (from the Greek χρυσός khrusos, "gold", and ποιεῖν poiēin, "to make") or silver.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
Phosphate minerals are those minerals that contain the tetrahedrally coordinated phosphate (PO43−) anion along with the freely substituting arsenate (AsO43−) and vanadate (VO43−).
In chemistry, a phosphide is a compound containing the P3− ion or its equivalent.
Phosphine (IUPAC name: phosphane) is the compound with the chemical formula PH3.
Phospholipids are a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes.
A phosphor, most generally, is a substance that exhibits the phenomenon of luminescence.
Phosphor bronze is an alloy of copper with 0.5–11% of tin and 0.01–0.35% phosphorus.
Phosphorescence is a type of photoluminescence related to fluorescence.
Phosphoric acid (also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V) acid) is a mineral (inorganic) and weak acid having the chemical formula H3PO4.
There are various kinds of phosphoric acids and phosphates.
Phosphorite, phosphate rock or rock phosphate is a non-detrital sedimentary rock which contains high amounts of phosphate minerals.
Phosphorous acid is the compound described by the formula H3PO3.
Phosphorus (Greek Φωσφόρος Phōsphoros) is the Morning Star, the planet Venus in its morning appearance.
There are three series of binary phosphorus halides, containing phosphorus in the oxidation states +5, +3 and +2.
Phosphorus pentabromide is a reactive, yellow solid of formula PBr5, which has the structure PBr4+ Br− in the solid state but in the vapor phase is completely dissociated to PBr3 and Br2.
Phosphorus pentachloride is the chemical compound with the formula PCl5.
Phosphorus pentafluoride, PF5, is a phosphorus halide.
Phosphorus pentaiodide is an inorganic compound with formula PI5.
Phosphorus pentasulfide is the inorganic compound with the formula P2S5 or dimer P4S10.
Phosphorus pentoxide is a chemical compound with molecular formula P4O10 (with its common name derived from its empirical formula, P2O5).
Phosphorus sesquisulfide is the inorganic compound with the formula 43.
Phosphorus tribromide is a colourless liquid with the formula PBr3.
Phosphorus trichloride is a chemical compound of phosphorus and chlorine, having the chemical formula PCl3.
Phosphorus trifluoride (formula PF3), is a colorless and odorless gas.
Phosphorus triiodide (PI3) is an unstable red solid which reacts violently with water.
Phosphorus trioxide is the chemical compound with the molecular formula P4O6.
Phosphorus-31 NMR spectroscopy is an analytical chemistry technique that uses nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to study chemical compounds that contain phosphorus.
Phosphoryl chloride (commonly called phosphorus oxychloride) is a colourless liquid with the formula 3.
In chemistry, phosphorylation of a molecule is the attachment of a phosphoryl group.
Phossy jaw, formally known as phosphorus necrosis of the jaw, was an occupational disease of those who have worked with white phosphorus (also known as yellow phosphorus) without proper safeguards.
Placentia is a town located in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador Canada, It consists of the "Argentia Industrial Park" and amalgamated communities of Townside, Freshwater, Dunville, and Jerseyside.
Plasticizers (UK: plasticisers) or dispersants are additives that increase the plasticity or decrease the viscosity of a material.
A pnictogen is one of the chemical elements in group 15 of the periodic table.
In biology, poisons are substances that cause disturbances in organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity.
Polyphosphazenes include a wide range of hybrid inorganic-organic polymers with a number of different skeletal architectures that the backbone P-N-P-N-P-N-.
Potassium chlorate is a compound containing potassium, chlorine and oxygen atoms, with the molecular formula KClO3.
Pseudoephedrine (PSE) is a sympathomimetic drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes.
PUREX is a chemical method used to purify fuel for nuclear reactors or nuclear weapons.
A pyrophoric substance (from Greek πυροφόρος, pyrophoros, "fire-bearing") ignites spontaneously in air at or below 55 °C (130 °F).
Pyrophosphoric acid, also known under the name diphosphoric acid, is colorless, odorless, hygroscopic and is soluble in water, diethyl ether, and ethyl alcohol.
Radiation protection, sometimes known as radiological protection, is defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as "The protection of people from harmful effects of exposure to ionizing radiation, and the means for achieving this".
A radioactive tracer, or radioactive label, is a chemical compound in which one or more atoms have been replaced by a radionuclide so by virtue of its radioactive decay it can be used to explore the mechanism of chemical reactions by tracing the path that the radioisotope follows from reactants to products.
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
In chemistry, reactivity is the impetus for which a chemical substance undergoes a chemical reaction, either by itself or with other materials, with an overall release of energy.
A recommended exposure limit (REL) is an occupational exposure limit that has been recommended by the United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for adoption as a permissible exposure limit.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Refeeding syndrome is a syndrome consisting of metabolic disturbances that occur as a result of reinstitution of nutrition to patients who are starved, severely malnourished or metabolically stressed due to severe illness.
The Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily intake level of a nutrient that is considered to be sufficient to meet the requirements of 97–98% of healthy individuals in every demographic in the United States.
In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.
In a chemistry laboratory, a retort is a glassware device used for distillation or dry distillation of substances.
Reuse of excreta (or re-use or use of excreta) refers to the safe, beneficial use of animal or human excreta, i.e. feces (or faeces in British English) and urine.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
Robert Boyle (25 January 1627 – 31 December 1691) was an Anglo-Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, and inventor.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.
Schreibersite is generally a rare iron nickel phosphide mineral, (Fe,Ni)3P, though common in iron-nickel meteorites.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Sewage (or domestic wastewater or municipal wastewater) is a type of wastewater that is produced from a community of people.
Sewage sludge refers to the residual, semi-solid material that is produced as a by-product during sewage treatment of industrial or municipal wastewater.
Slag is the glass-like by-product left over after a desired metal has been separated (i.e., smelted) from its raw ore.
A smoke bomb is a firework designed to produce smoke upon ignition.
A smoke screen is smoke released to mask the movement or location of military units such as infantry, tanks, aircraft or ships.
Sodium triphosphate (STP), also sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), or tripolyphosphate (TPP)) is an inorganic compound with formula Na5P3O10. It is the sodium salt of the polyphosphate penta-anion, which is the conjugate base of triphosphoric acid. It is produced on a large scale as a component of many domestic and industrial products, especially detergents. Environmental problems associated with eutrophication are attributed to its widespread use.
A sodium-vapor lamp is a gas-discharge lamp that uses sodium in an excited state to produce light at a characteristic wavelength near 589 nm.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
A Southern blot is a method used in molecular biology for detection of a specific DNA sequence in DNA samples.
In mathematics, physics and chemistry, a space group is the symmetry group of a configuration in space, usually in three dimensions.
Spent nuclear fuel, occasionally called used nuclear fuel, is nuclear fuel that has been irradiated in a nuclear reactor (usually at a nuclear power plant).
In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
The Submerged-arc furnace for phosphorus production is a particular sub-type of electric arc furnace used to produce phosphorus and other products.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light.
A supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is a transient astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a star's life, either a massive star or a white dwarf, whose destruction is marked by one final, titanic explosion.
Supernova nucleosynthesis is a theory of the nucleosynthesis of the natural abundances of the chemical elements in supernova explosions, advanced as the nucleosynthesis of elements from carbon to nickel in massive stars by Fred Hoyle in 1954.
A supernova remnant (SNR) is the structure resulting from the explosion of a star in a supernova.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Tennessee (translit) is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States.
Thermal decomposition, or thermolysis, is a chemical decomposition caused by heat.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
Tracer ammunition (tracers) are bullets or cannon caliber projectiles that are built with a small pyrotechnic charge in their base.
In geometry, the triangular bipyramid (or dipyramid) is a type of hexahedron, being the first in the infinite set of face-transitive bipyramids.
Tributyl phosphate, known commonly as TBP, is an organophosphorus compound with the chemical formula (CH3CH2CH2CH2O)3PO.
Tricalcium phosphate (sometimes abbreviated TCP) is a calcium salt of phosphoric acid with the chemical formula Ca3(PO4)2.
Triclinic (a ≠ b ≠ c and α ≠ β ≠ γ) In crystallography, the triclinic (or anorthic) crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems.
In chemistry, a trimer is a molecule or an anion formed by combination or association of three molecules or ions of the same substance.
Triphenyl phosphate (TPhP) is the chemical compound with the formula OP(OC6H5)3.
Triphenyl phosphite is the chemical compound with the formula P(OC6H5)3.
Triphenylphosphine (IUPAC name: triphenylphosphane) is a common organophosphorus compound with the formula P(C6H5)3 - often abbreviated to PPh3 or Ph3P.
Triphosphoric acid (also tripolyphosphoric acid), with formula H5P3O10, is a condensed form of phosphoric acid.
Triphosphorus pentanitride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula P3N5.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
The uranyl ion is an oxycation of uranium in the oxidation state +6, with the chemical formula.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
Utah is a state in the western United States.
Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.
In chemistry and physics, volatility is quantified by the tendency of a substance to vaporize.
Water fluoridation is the controlled addition of fluoride to a public water supply to reduce tooth decay.
Water treatment is any process that improves the quality of water to make it more acceptable for a specific end-use.
A weapon, arm or armament is any device used with intent to inflict damage or harm.
White phosphorus is a material made from a common allotrope of the chemical element phosphorus that is used in smoke, tracer, illumination, and incendiary munitions.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
A Zeppelin is a type of rigid airship named after the German Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin who pioneered rigid airship development at the beginning of the 20th century.