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Western culture

Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Western lifestyle, or European civilization, is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems, and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe, having both indigenous and foreign origin. [1]

579 relations: Accordion, ACE inhibitor, Acropolis of Athens, Aesthetics, African American, Age of Discovery, Age of Enlightenment, Agnosticism, Ainslie Embree, Albania, Alexander Pushkin, Alexander the Great, American football, Americas, Ancient Anatolia, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek religion, Ancient Rome, Anglosphere, Animal sacrifice, Antibiotics, Apollo 11, Aqueduct of Segovia, Arabian Peninsula, Archery, Aristotle, Art, Association football, Atheism, Athens, Atom, Atomic nucleus, Australasia, Australia, Australian rules football, Authoritarianism, Ballet, Ballroom dance, Barbarian, Barcelona, Barcelona Pavilion, Baroque, Baruch Spinoza, Baseball, Basketball, Battery (electricity), Belief, Bella Rosenfeld, Beta blocker, Bible, ..., Bicycle, Biot–Savart law, Blind experiment, Blood sport, Blues, Bohr model, Book, Brasília, British Empire, Bruce Thornton, Bulgaria, Bullfighting, Byzantine Empire, Byzantine–Ottoman Wars, Caecilius Statius, Calculus, Camera, Candido Portinari, Canon law, Capitalism, Car, Caravaggio, Carol Gluck, Cathedral, Cathode ray tube, Catholic Church, Catholicism, Celtic knot, Celtic polytheism, Celtic Reconstructionist Paganism, Celts, Charge card, Charlemagne, Chemical element, Christendom, Christian, Christianity, Chromatography, Chromosome, Cicero, Civil and political rights, Civilization, Clarinet, Classical antiquity, Classical architecture, Classical tradition, Classicism, Classics, Clinical chemistry, Coligny calendar, Colonial empire, Colosseum, Common law, Commonwealth of Nations, Complex analysis, Concerto, Concrete, Constantine the Great, Constitutionalism, Coptic alphabet, Corinthian order, Corpus Juris Civilis, Coulomb's law, Counterculture, Cradle of civilization, Credit card, Cricket, CT scan, Cultural artifact, Cultural heritage, Culture, Culture during the Cold War, Custom (law), Cyrillic script, Czech Republic, Dance music, Dante Alighieri, David George Hogarth, David Hume, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium, Death, Desire and Loss in Western Culture, Debate, Decline and modernization of the Ottoman Empire, Democracy, Demotic (Egyptian), Denis Diderot, Developing country, Diabetes mellitus, Dictionnaire philosophique, Diego Rivera, Diesel engine, Dionysus, Discus throw, DNA, DNA sequencing, Donald Henderson, Doric order, Double-entry bookkeeping system, East–West Schism, Eastern Christianity, Eastern Orthodox Church, Eastern world, Economic growth, Edgar Allan Poe, Education, Egalitarianism, Egypt, Egyptian hieroglyphs, Eiffel Tower, El Escorial, Electric generator, Electric motor, Electrocardiography, Electromagnetism, Electron, Electron microscope, Electrophoresis, Empire, Empiricism, Encarta, Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopédie, Endoscopy, Enlightened absolutism, Ethics, Etymology, Euclidean vector, Europe, European diaspora, European Journalism Observatory, European Union, Evidence-based medicine, Evolution, Fall of Constantinople, Fall of the Western Roman Empire, Far East, Ferdinand Magellan, Feudalism, Film, Fiqh, First Sino-Japanese War, Florence, Folk dance, Folk music, Folklore, Four-stroke engine, France, Francis Bacon, Franks, Freedom of the press, Freethought, Funk, Gaelic football, Gaul, Genetics, Georgetown University, Germ theory of disease, Germanic paganism, Germanic peoples, Germany, Gladiator, Glass, Global spread of the printing press, Globalization, Golf, Gothic alphabet, Gothic architecture, Great Divergence, Greater India, Greater Iran, Greco-Persian Wars, Greco-Roman world, Greco-Roman wrestling, Greece, Greek alphabet, Greek East and Latin West, Greek mythology, Greek scholars in the Renaissance, Greeks, Gross domestic product, Group theory, Guns, Germs, and Steel, Hagia Sophia, Heathenry (new religious movement), Heavy metal music, Heian period, Hellenism (religion), Hellenistic period, Hellenistic philosophy, Hellenization, Herodotus, High Middle Ages, Hip hop, Hippie, Hispanidad, History, History of anatomy, History of science, History of Western civilization, Holy Roman Empire, Homer, Homo sapiens, Homogeneity and heterogeneity, Hormonal contraception, Hormone, Human, Human migration, Human rights, Humanism, Iliad, Immanuel Kant, Immunoassay, Imperialism, India, Industrial Revolution, Inkjet printing, Insulin, Integrated circuit, Internet, Ionic order, Ipsos MORI, Iran, Iraq, Irreligion, Istanbul, Italo-Roman neopaganism, Italy, J. R. R. 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Huntington, San Lorenzo de El Escorial, Satellite navigation, Satyricon, Saxophone, Scholasticism, School, Schwangau, Science, Scientific method, Scientific revolution, Second Industrial Revolution, Secular humanism, Segovia, Seminary, Serbia, Ska, Skepticism, Skyscraper, Slavic mythology, Slavic neopaganism, Slavs, Slovakia, Smallpox, Soap opera, Social equality, Society, Socrates, Sonata, South Pole, Soviet Union, Species, Spectrophotometry, Spectroscopy, Spiš Castle, Spišské Podhradie, Square dance, Standard of living, Statistical mechanics, Statistics, Steam engine, Step dance, Stethoscope, Stillman Drake, String quartet, Subculture, Sydney, Sydney Opera House, Symphony, Syncretism, Synthetic diamond, Synthetic rubber, Syria, Table tennis, Techno, Technology, Telephone, Tennis, Tensor, The Globe and Mail, The Hindu, The Renaissance, The Tale of Genji, Theory of relativity, Theremin, Thermodynamics, Tigris–Euphrates river system, Tokugawa shogunate, Topology, Tradition, Tragedy, Transformer, Transistor, Trivium, Trombone, Troy, Tsar, Turkey, Tyrannosaurus, United Kingdom, United States, University, Uranus, Vatican Secret Archives, Venice, Victor Davis Hanson, Victor Hugo, Victoria (Australia), Victorian architecture, Vienna, Villa Savoye, Violin, Vitamin, Voltaire, Voyager 2, Walter Camp, Water wheel, Western Christianity, Western Europe, Western law, Western media, Western religions, Western Roman Empire, Western world, Westernization, Wicca, William Shakespeare, Winter Palace, World Wide Web, X-ray, 1896 Summer Olympics. 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Accordion

Accordions (from 19th-century German Akkordeon, from Akkord - "musical chord, concord of sounds") are a family of box-shaped musical instruments of the bellows-driven free-reed aerophone type, colloquially referred to as a squeezebox.

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ACE inhibitor

An angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor) is a pharmaceutical drug used primarily for the treatment of hypertension (elevated blood pressure) and congestive heart failure.

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Acropolis of Athens

The Acropolis of Athens (Ἀκρόπολις; Ακρόπολη Αθηνών Akrópoli Athinón) is an ancient citadel located on a high rocky outcrop above the city of Athens and contains the remains of several ancient buildings of great architectural and historic significance, the most famous being the Parthenon.

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Aesthetics

Aesthetics (also spelled æsthetics and esthetics also known in Greek as Αισθητική, or "Aisthētiké") is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.

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African American

African American, also referred to as Black American or Afro-American, is an ethnic group of Americans (citizens or residents of the United States) with total or partial ancestry from any of the native populations of Sub-Saharan Africa.

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Age of Discovery

The Age of Discovery is an informal and loosely defined European historical period from the 15th century to the 18th century, marking the time in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture.

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Age of Enlightenment

The Age of Enlightenment or simply the Enlightenment or Age of Reason is an era from the 1620s to the 1780s in which cultural and intellectual forces in Western Europe emphasized reason, analysis, and individualism rather than traditional lines of authority.

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Agnosticism

Agnosticism is the view that the truth values of certain claims – especially metaphysical and religious claims such as whether or not God, the divine or the supernatural exist – are unknown and perhaps unknowable.

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Ainslie Embree

Ainslie Thomas Embree (born January 1, 1921) is an American Indologist and historian.

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Albania

Albania (or sometimes,; Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia, Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially known as the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.

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Alexander Pushkin

Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin (a) was a Russian poet, playwright, and novelist of the Romantic eraBasker, Michael.

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Alexander the Great

Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μέγας, Aléxandros ho Mégas, from the Greek ἀλέξω (alexō) "defend" and ἀνδρ- (andr-), the stem of ἀνήρ (anēr) "man" and means "protector of men") was a King (Basileus) of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;. and a member of the Argead dynasty, a famous ancient Greek royal house.

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American football

American football (referred to as football in the United States and Canada, also known as gridiron elsewhere) is a sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end.

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Americas

The Americas, or America,"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language (ISBN 0-19-214183-X).

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Ancient Anatolia

Ancient Anatolia may refer to.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (circa 600 AD).

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Ancient Greek religion

Ancient Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs, rituals, and mythology originating in ancient Greece in the form of both popular public religion and cult practices.

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Ancient Rome

Ancient Rome was an Italic civilization that began on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC.

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Anglosphere

Anglosphere refers to a set of English-speaking nations with a similar cultural heritage, based upon populations originating from the nations of the British Isles (England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland), and which today maintain close political and military cooperation.

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Animal sacrifice

Animal sacrifice is the ritual killing and offering of an animal to appease or maintain favour with a deity.

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Antibiotics

Antibiotics or antibacterials are a type of antimicrobial used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infection.

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Apollo 11

Apollo 11 was the spaceflight that landed the first humans on the Moon, Americans Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin, on July 20, 1969, at 20:18 UTC.

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Aqueduct of Segovia

The Aqueduct of Segovia (or more precisely, the aqueduct bridge) is a Roman aqueduct and one of the most significant and best-preserved ancient monuments left on the Iberian Peninsula.

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Arabian Peninsula

The Arabian Peninsula (شبه الجزيرة العربية or جزيرة العرب), also known as Arabia, is a peninsula of Western Asia situated north-east of Africa on the Arabian plate.

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Archery

Archery is the practice or skill of using a bow to propel arrows.

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Aristotle

Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης, Aristotélēs; 384322 BC) was a Greek philosopher and scientist born in the Macedonian city of Stagira, Chalkidice, on the northern periphery of Classical Greece.

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Art

Art is a diverse range of human activities and the products of those activities, usually involving imaginative or technical skill.

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Association football

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.

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Atheism

Atheism is, in a broad sense, the rejection of belief in the existence of deities.

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Athens

Athens (Αθήνα, Athína,; Ἀθῆναι, Athēnai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.

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Atom

An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.

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Atomic nucleus

The nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom.

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Australasia

Australasia, a region of Oceania, comprises Australia, New Zealand, the island of New Guinea, and neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean.

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Australia

Australia (colloquially), officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is an Oceanian country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands.

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Australian rules football

Australian rules football, officially known as Australian football, also called football, footy, or Aussie rules (and in some regions marketed as AFL after the Australian Football League, the pre-eminent and fully professional Australian football league in the country), is a sport played between two teams of eighteen players on the field of either an Australian football ground, a modified cricket field, or a similarly sized sports venue.

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Authoritarianism

Authoritarianism is a form of government.

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Ballet

Ballet is a type of performance dance that originated in the Italian Renaissance courts of the 15th century and later developed into a concert dance form in France and Russia.

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Ballroom dance

Ballroom dance is a set of partner dances, which are enjoyed both socially and competitively around the world.

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Barbarian

A barbarian is a human who is perceived to be uncivilized or primitive.

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Barcelona

Barcelona is the capital city of the autonomous community of Catalonia in Spain and Spain's second most populated city, with a population of 1.6 million within its administrative limits.

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Barcelona Pavilion

The Barcelona Pavilion (Pavelló alemany; Pabellón alemán; "German Pavilion"), designed by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, was the German Pavilion for the 1929 International Exposition in Barcelona, Spain.

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Baroque

The Baroque is often thought of as a period of artistic style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, architecture, literature, dance, theater, and music.

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Baruch Spinoza

Baruch Spinoza (born Benedito de Espinosa; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677, later Benedict de Spinoza) was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi Portuguese origin.

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Baseball

Baseball is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of nine players each who take turns batting and fielding.

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Basketball

Basketball is a sport played by two teams of five players on a rectangular court.

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Battery (electricity)

An electric battery is a device consisting of two or more electrochemical cells that convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy.

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Belief

Belief is the state of mind in which a person thinks something to be the case, with or without there being empirical evidence to prove that something is the case with factual certainty.

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Bella Rosenfeld

Bella Rosenfeld Chagall (Бэлла Розенфельд-Шагал, 1895, Vitebsk – September 2, 1944, New York State), was the wife of Marc Chagall and a writer.

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Beta blocker

Beta blockers (β-blockers, beta-adrenergic blocking agents, beta antagonists, beta-adrenergic antagonists, beta-adrenoreceptor antagonists, or beta adrenergic receptor antagonists) are a class of drugs that are particularly used for the management of cardiac arrhythmias, protecting the heart from a second heart attack (myocardial infarction) after a first heart attack (secondary prevention), and, in certain cases, hypertension.

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Bible

The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of texts sacred in Judaism and Christianity.

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Bicycle

A bicycle, often called a bike or cycle, is a human-powered, pedal-driven, single-track vehicle, having two wheels attached to a frame, one behind the other.

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Biot–Savart law

In physics, specifically electromagnetism, the Biot–Savart law is an equation describing the magnetic field generated by an electric current.

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Blind experiment

A blind or blinded experiment is an experiment in which information about the test is kept from the participant until after the test.

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Blood sport

Bloodsport or blood sport is a category of sports or entertainment that causes bloodshed.

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Blues

Blues is a genre and musical form that originated in African-American communities in the "Deep South" of the United States around the end of the 19th century.

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Bohr model

In atomic physics, the Rutherford–Bohr model or Bohr model, introduced by Niels Bohr in 1913, depicts the atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in circular orbits around the nucleus—similar in structure to the solar system, but with attraction provided by electrostatic forces rather than gravity.

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Book

A book is a set of written, printed, illustrated, or blank sheets, made of ink, paper, parchment, or other materials, fastened together to hinge at one side.

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Brasília

Brasília is the federal capital of Brazil and seat of government of the Federal District.

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British Empire

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom.

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Bruce Thornton

Bruce S. Thornton (born August 2, 1953) is an American classicist at California State University, Fresno, and research fellow at Stanford University's Hoover Institution.

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Bulgaria

Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.

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Bullfighting

Bullfighting (corrida de toros or toreo; tourada), also known as tauromachia or tauromachy (es_tauromaquia_001.ogg, tauromaquia; from ταυρομαχία "bull-fight"), is a traditional spectacle of Spain, Portugal, southern France and some Latin American countries (Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela and Peru), in which one or more bulls are fought in a bullring.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, or Eastern Roman Empire, was the predominantly Greek-speaking continuation of the eastern part of the Roman Empire during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages.

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Byzantine–Ottoman Wars

The Byzantine–Ottoman Wars were a series of decisive conflicts between the Ottoman Turks and Byzantines that led to the final destruction of the Byzantine Empire and the rise of the Ottoman Empire.

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Caecilius Statius

Statius Caecilius, also known as Caecilius Statius (c. 220 BC – c. 166 BC), was a Roman comic poet.

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Calculus

Calculus is the mathematical study of change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of operations and their application to solving equations.

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Camera

A camera is an optical instrument for recording images, which may be stored locally, transmitted to another location, or both.

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Candido Portinari

Candido Portinari (December 29, 1903 – February 6, 1962) was one of the most important Brazilian painters and also a prominent and influential practitioner of the neo-realism style in painting.

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Canon law

Canon law is the body of laws and regulations made by ecclesiastical authority (Church leadership), for the government of a Christian organization or church and its members.

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Capitalism

Capitalism is an economic system in which trade, industry, and the means of production are privately owned and operated via profit and loss calculation (price signals) through the price system.

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Car

A car is a wheeled, self-powered motor vehicle used for transportation.

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Caravaggio

Michelangelo Merisi (Michael Angelo Merigi or Amerighi) da Caravaggio (29 September 1571 in Milan – 18 July? 1610) was an Italian painter active in Rome, Naples, Malta, and Sicily between 1592 (1595?) and 1610.

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Carol Gluck

Carol Gluck (born November 12, 1941 in Chicago, Illinois) is an American academic and Japanologist.

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Cathedral

A cathedral (French: cathédrale from Latin: cathedra, "seat" from the Greek kathedra (καθέδρα), seat, bench, from kata "down" + hedra seat, base, chair) is a Christian church which contains the seat of a bishop, thus serving as the central church of a diocese, conference, or episcopate.

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Cathode ray tube

The cathode ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube containing one or more electron guns, and a phosphorescent screen used to view images.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is, the largest Christian church, with more than 1.25 billion members worldwide.

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Catholicism

Catholicism (from Greek καθολικισμός, katholikismos, "universal doctrine") and its adjectival form Catholic are used as broad terms for describing specific traditions in the Christian churches in theology, doctrine, liturgy, ethics, and spirituality.

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Celtic knot

Celtic knots are a variety of knots and stylized graphical representations of knots used for decoration, used extensively in the Celtic style of Insular art.

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Celtic polytheism

Celtic polytheism, commonly known as Celtic paganism, comprises the religious beliefs and practices adhered to by the Iron Age people of Western Europe now known as the Celts, roughly between 500 BCE and 500 CE, spanning the La Tène period and the Roman era, and in the case of the Insular Celts the British and Irish Iron Age.

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Celtic Reconstructionist Paganism

Celtic Reconstructionist Paganism (also Celtic Reconstructionism or CR) is a polytheistic reconstructionist approach to Celtic Neopaganism, emphasising historical accuracy over eclecticism such as is found in many forms of Neo-druidism.

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Celts

The Celts (occasionally, see pronunciation of ''Celtic'') were people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.

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Charge card

A charge card is a card that provides a payment method enabling the cardholder to make purchases which are paid for by the card issuer, to whom the cardholder becomes indebted.

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Charlemagne

Charlemagne (2 April 742/747/748Karl Ferdinand Werner: Das Geburtsdatum Karls des Großen, in: Francia 1, 1973, pp. 115–157;Matthias Becher: Neue Überlegungen zum Geburtsdatum Karls des Großen, in: Francia 19/1, 1992, pp. 37-60;R. McKitterick: Charlemagne. Cambridge 2008, p. 72.28 January 814), also known as Charles the Great (Carolus or Karolus Magnus) or Charles I, was King of the Franks who united most of Western Europe during the early Middle Ages and laid the foundations for modern France and Germany.

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Chemical element

A chemical element (or element) is a chemical substance consisting of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (i.e. the same atomic number, Z).

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Christendom

Christendom has several meanings.

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Christian

A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth.

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Christianity

ChristianityFrom the Ancient Greek word Χριστός, Christos, a translation of the Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", together with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Chromatography

Chromatography (from Greek χρῶμα chroma which means "color" and γράφειν graphein "to write") is the collective term for a set of laboratory techniques for the separation of mixtures.

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Chromosome

A chromosome (''chromo-'' + ''-some'') is a packaged and organized structure containing most of the DNA of a living organism.

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Cicero

Marcus Tullius Cicero (Κικέρων, Kikerōn; 3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman philosopher, politician, lawyer, orator, political theorist, consul and constitutionalist.

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Civil and political rights

Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations and private individuals, and which ensure one's ability to participate in the civil and political life of the society and state without discrimination or repression.

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Civilization

A civilization (US) or civilisation (UK) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification, symbolic communication forms (typically, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.

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Clarinet

The clarinet is a family of woodwind instruments that have a single-reed mouthpiece, a straight cylindrical tube with an approximately cylindrical bore, and a flaring bell.

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Classical antiquity

Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.

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Classical architecture

Classical architecture usually denotes architecture which is more or less consciously derived from the principles of Greek and Roman architecture of classical antiquity, or sometimes even more specifically, from the works of Vitruvius.

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Classical tradition

The Western classical tradition is the reception of classical Greco-Roman antiquity by later cultures, especially the post-classical West, involving texts, imagery, objects, ideas, institutions, monuments, architecture, cultural artifacts, rituals, practices, and sayings.

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Classicism

Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for a classical period, classical antiquity in the Western tradition, as setting standards for taste which the classicists seek to emulate.

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Classics

Classics (also Classical Studies) is the study of the languages, literature, laws, philosophy, history, art, archaeology and other material culture of Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome; especially during Classical Antiquity (ca. BCE 600 – AD 600).

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Clinical chemistry

Clinical chemistry (also known as chemical pathology, clinical biochemistry or medical biochemistry) is the area of clinical pathology that is generally concerned with analysis of bodily fluids.

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Coligny calendar

The Coligny calendar is a peg calendar (or parapegma) made in Roman Gaul in ca.

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Colonial empire

The Colonial empires began with a race of exploration between the then most advanced maritime powers, Portugal and Spain, in the 15th century.

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Colosseum

The Colosseum or Coliseum, also known as the Flavian Amphitheatre (Latin: Amphitheatrum Flavium; Italian: Anfiteatro Flavio or Colosseo), is an oval amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy.

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Common law

Common law (also known as case law or precedent) is law developed by judges through decisions of courts and similar tribunals that decide individual cases, as opposed to statutes adopted through the legislative process or regulations issued by the executive branch.

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Commonwealth of Nations

The Commonwealth of Nations, commonly known as the Commonwealth (formerly the British Commonwealth), is an intergovernmental organization of 53 member states that were mostly territories of the former British Empire.

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Complex analysis

Complex analysis, traditionally known as the theory of functions of a complex variable, is the branch of mathematical analysis that investigates functions of complex numbers.

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Concerto

A concerto (from the concerto, plural concerti or, often, the anglicised form concertos) is a musical composition usually composed in three parts or movements, in which (usually) one solo instrument (for instance, a piano, violin, cello or flute) is accompanied by an orchestra or concert band.

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Concrete

Concrete is a composite material composed of aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement which hardens over time.

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Constantine the Great

Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Greek: Κωνσταντίνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine (in the Orthodox Church as Saint Constantine the Great, Equal-to-the-Apostles), was a Roman Emperor from 306 to 337 AD of Illyrian ancestry.

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Constitutionalism

Constitutionalism is "a complex of ideas, attitudes, and patterns of behavior elaborating the principle that the authority of government derives from and is limited by a body of fundamental law".

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Coptic alphabet

The Coptic alphabet is the script used for writing the Coptic language.

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Corinthian order

The Corinthian order is the last developed of the three principal classical orders of ancient Greek and Roman architecture.

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Corpus Juris Civilis

The Corpus Juris (or Iuris) Civilis ("Body of Civil Law") is the modern name for a collection of fundamental works in jurisprudence, issued from 529 to 534 by order of Justinian I, Eastern Roman Emperor.

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Coulomb's law

Coulomb's law, or Coulomb's inverse-square law, is a law of physics describing the electrostatic interaction between electrically charged particles.

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Counterculture

A counterculture (also written counter-culture) is a subculture whose values and norms of behavior differ substantially from those of mainstream society, often in opposition to mainstream cultural mores.Eric Donald Hirsch.

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Cradle of civilization

The cradle of civilization is a term referring to locations where, according to current archaeological data, civilization is understood to have emerged.

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Credit card

A credit card is a payment card issued to users (cardholders) as a method of payment.

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Cricket

Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players each on a field at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard-long pitch.

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CT scan

A CT scan, also called X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT) or computerized axial tomography scan (CAT scan), makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual 'slices') of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.

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Cultural artifact

Cultural artifact, or artefact, is a term used in the social sciences, particularly anthropology, ethnology, and sociology for anything created by humans which gives information about the culture of its creator and users.

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Cultural heritage

Cultural heritage is the legacy of physical artifacts and intangible attributes of a group or society that are inherited from past generations, maintained in the present and bestowed for the benefit of future generations.

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Culture

Culture is, in the words of E.B. Tylor, "that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society." Cambridge English Dictionary states that culture is, "the way of life, especially the general customs and beliefs, of a particular group of people at a particular time." As a defining aspect of what it means to be human, culture is a central concept in anthropology, encompassing the range of phenomena that are transmitted through social learning in human societies.

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Culture during the Cold War

The Cold War (1947–91) was reflected in culture through music, movies, books, television and other media, as well as sports and social beliefs and behavior.

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Custom (law)

Custom in law is the established pattern of behavior that can be objectively verified within a particular social setting.

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Cyrillic script

The Cyrillic script is an alphabetic writing system employed across Eastern Europe and north and central Asia.

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Czech Republic

The Czech Republic (Česká republika) is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.

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Dance music

Dance music is music composed specifically to facilitate or accompany dancing.

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Dante Alighieri

Durante degli Alighieri, simply called Dante (c. 1265–1321), was a major Italian poet of the late Middle Ages.

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David George Hogarth

David George Hogarth (23 May 1862 – 6 November 1927) was a British archaeologist and scholar associated with T. E. Lawrence and Arthur Evans.

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David Hume

David Hume (7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of radical philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.

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De revolutionibus orbium coelestium

De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) is the seminal work on the heliocentric theory of the Renaissance astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543).

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Death, Desire and Loss in Western Culture

Death, Desire and Loss in Western Culture is a sociology book written by Jonathan Dollimore, published in 1998.

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Debate

Debate is contention in argument; strife, dissension, quarrelling, controversy; especially a formal discussion of subjects before a public assembly or legislature, in Parliament or in any deliberative assembly.

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Decline and modernization of the Ottoman Empire

During the period of decline and modernization of the Ottoman Empire (1828–1908), the empire faced challenges in defending itself against foreign invasion and occupation.

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Democracy

Democracy, or democratic government, is "a system of government in which all the people of a state or polity...

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Demotic (Egyptian)

Demotic (from δημοτικός dēmotikós, "popular") is the ancient Egyptian script derived from northern forms of hieratic used in the Nile Delta, and the stage of the Egyptian language written in this script, following Late Egyptian and preceding Coptic.

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Denis Diderot

Denis Diderot (5 October 1713 – 31 July 1784) was a French philosopher, art critic, and writer.

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Developing country

A developing country, also called a less developed country or underdeveloped country, is a nation with an underdeveloped industrial base, and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.

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Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.

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Dictionnaire philosophique

The Dictionnaire philosophique (Philosophical Dictionary) is an encyclopedic dictionary published by Voltaire in 1764.

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Diego Rivera

Diego María de la Concepción Juan Nepomuceno Estanislao de la Rivera y Barrientos Acosta y Rodríguez, known as Diego Rivera (December 8, 1886 – November 24, 1957) was a prominent Mexican painter and the husband of Frida Kahlo.

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Diesel engine

The diesel engine (also known as a compression-ignition or 'CI' engine) is an internal combustion engine in which ignition of the fuel that has been injected into the combustion chamber is initiated by the high temperature which a gas achieves when greatly compressed (adiabatic compression).

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Dionysus

Dionysus (Διόνυσος, Dionysos) is the god of the grape harvest, winemaking and wine, of ritual madness, fertility, theatre and religious ecstasy in Greek mythology.

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Discus throw

The discus throw is a track and field event in which an athlete throws a heavy disc—called a discus—in an attempt to mark a farther distance than his or her competitors.

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DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a molecule that carries most of the genetic instructions used in the development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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DNA sequencing

DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule.

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Donald Henderson

Donald Ainslie Henderson (born September 7, 1928), known as D.A. Henderson, is an American physician and epidemiologist, who headed the international effort during the 1960s to eradicate smallpox.

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Doric order

The Doric order was one of the three orders of ancient Greek or classical architecture; the other two canonical orders were the Ionic and the Corinthian.

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Double-entry bookkeeping system

Double-entry bookkeeping, in accounting, is a system of bookkeeping so named because every entry to an account requires a corresponding and opposite entry to a different account.

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East–West Schism

The East–West Schism is the break of communion between what are now the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches, and which began in the 11th century.

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Eastern Christianity

Eastern Christianity consists of four main church families: the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox Churches, the Assyrian Church of the East and the Eastern Catholic Churches.

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Eastern Orthodox Church

The Eastern Orthodox Church, officially the Orthodox Catholic Church, also referred to as the Orthodox Church, Eastern Orthodoxy, and Orthodoxy, is the second largest Christian Church in the world, with an estimated 225–300 million adherents.

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Eastern world

The term Eastern world refers very broadly to the various cultures or social structures and philosophical systems of Asia or geographically the countries and cultures east of Europe.

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Economic growth

Economic growth is the increase in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time.

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Edgar Allan Poe

Edgar Allan Poe (born Edgar Poe; January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American author, poet, editor, and literary critic, widely regarded as a central figure of Romanticism in the United States and American literature as a whole.

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Education

Education is the process of facilitating learning.

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Egalitarianism

Egalitarianism—or, rarely, equalitarianism or equalism—is a trend of thought that favors equality for all people.

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Egypt

Egypt (مِصر, مَصر), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia, via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Egyptian hieroglyphs

Egyptian hieroglyphs (Egyptian: mdw·w-nṯr, "god's words") were a formal writing system used by the ancient Egyptians that combined logographic and alphabetic elements.

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Eiffel Tower

The Eiffel Tower ('tour Eiffel') is an iron lattice tower located on the Champ de Mars in Paris, France.

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El Escorial

The Royal Site of San Lorenzo de El Escorial (Monasterio y Sitio de El Escorial en Madrid), commonly known as El Escorial, is a historical residence of the King of Spain, in the town of San Lorenzo de El Escorial, about northwest of the capital, Madrid, in Spain.

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Electric generator

In electricity generation, a generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy for use in an external circuit.

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Electric motor

An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.

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Electrocardiography

Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG*) is the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time using electrodes placed on a patient's body.

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Electromagnetism

Electromagnetism is a branch of physics which involves the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.

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Electron

The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, with a negative elementary electric charge.

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Electron microscope

An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.

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Electrophoresis

Electrophoresis is the motion of dispersed particles relative to a fluid under the influence of a spatially uniform electric field.

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Empire

An empire is defined as "an aggregate of nations or people ruled over by an emperor or other powerful sovereign or government, usually a territory of greater extent than a kingdom, as the former British Empire, French Empire, Russian Empire, Byzantine Empire or Roman Empire." An empire can be made solely of contiguous territories such as the Austro-Hungarian Empire, or of territories far remote from the homeland, such as a colonial empire.

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Empiricism

Empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.

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Encarta

Microsoft Encarta was a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation from 1993 to 2009.

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Encyclopædia Britannica

The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.

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Encyclopédie

Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers (Encyclopaedia, or a Systematic Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Crafts) is a general encyclopedia published in France between 1751 and 1772, with later supplements, revised editions, and translations.

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Endoscopy

Endoscopy means looking inside and typically refers to looking inside the body for medical reasons using an endoscope, an instrument used to examine the interior of a hollow organ or cavity of the body.

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Enlightened absolutism

Enlightened absolutism (also called by modern historians benevolent absolutism) is a form of absolute monarchy or despotism inspired by the Enlightenment.

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Ethics

Ethics, or moral philosophy, is the branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.

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Etymology

Etymology is the study of the history of words, their origins, and how their form and meaning have changed over time.

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Euclidean vector

In mathematics, physics, and engineering, a Euclidean vector (sometimes called a geometric or spatial vector, or—as here—simply a vector) is a geometric object that has magnitude (or length) and direction and can be added to other vectors according to vector algebra.

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Europe

Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.

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European diaspora

The European diaspora consists of European people and their descendants who emigrated from Europe. The diaspora is concentrated in countries such as the United States, Brazil, Argentina, Canada, Australia, Venezuela, Mexico, Cuba, South Africa, Chile, New Zealand, Puerto Rico and Uruguay as well as smaller populations around the globe. Emigration from Europe began on a large scale during the European colonial empires of the 18th to 19th centuries and continues to the present day. This concerns especially the Spanish Empire in the 16th to 17th centuries (expansion of the Hispanosphere), the British Empire in the 17th to 19th centuries (expansion of the Anglosphere), the Portuguese Empire and the Russian Empire in the 19th century (expansion to Central Asia and the Russian Far East). From 1815 to 1932, 60 million people left Europe (with many returning home), primarily to "areas of European settlement" in the Americas (especially to the United States, Canada, Argentina and Brazil), Australia, New Zealand and Siberia. These populations also multiplied rapidly in their new habitat; much more so than the populations of Africa and Asia. As a result, on the eve of World War One, 38% of the world’s total population was of European ancestry. In Asia, European-derived populations (specifically Russians) predominate in Northern Asia, which is part of the Russian Federation. Africa has no countries with European-derived majorities, but there are significant minorities in South Africa and Namibia. The countries in the Americas that received a major wave of European immigrants from 1871 to 1960 were: the United States (27 million), Argentina (6.5 million), Brazil (4.5 million), Canada (4 million), Venezuela (more than 1 million), Cuba (610,000), Uruguay (600,000); other countries received a more modest immigration flow (accounting for less than 10% of total European emigration to Latin America) were: Chile (183,000), and Peru (150,000),.

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European Journalism Observatory

The European Journalism Observatory (EJO) is a network of media research institutes sharing a common goal: to reduce the gap between communications research and media practitioners, to make relevant results research accessible to broader audiences, to study “best practices” in journalism and analyze trends in the media industry.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a politico-economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Evidence-based medicine

Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is an approach to medical practice intended to optimize decision-making by emphasizing the use of evidence from well designed and conducted research.

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Evolution

Evolution is change in the heritable traits of biological populations over successive generations.

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Fall of Constantinople

The Fall of Constantinople (Άλωση της Κωνσταντινούπολης, Alōsē tēs Kōnstantinoupolēs; İstanbul'un Fethi Conquest of Istanbul) was the capture of the capital of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire by an invading army of the Ottoman Empire on Tuesday, 29 May 1453.

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Fall of the Western Roman Empire

The Fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called Fall of the Roman Empire or Fall of Rome) was the period of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which it failed to enforce its rule, and its vast territory was divided into numerous successor polities.

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Far East

The Far East is an alternate geographical term in English (with equivalents in many other languages – see the infobox on the right for examples), that usually refers to East Asia (including Northeast Asia), the Russian Far East (part of North Asia), and Southeast Asia.

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Ferdinand Magellan

Ferdinand Magellan (or; Fernão de Magalhães,; Fernando de Magallanes,; c. 1480 – 27 April 1521) was a Portuguese explorer who organised the Spanish expedition to the East Indies from 1519 to 1522, resulting in the first circumnavigation of the Earth.

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Feudalism

Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.

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Film

A film, also called a movie, motion picture or photoplay, is a series of still images which, when shown on a screen, creates the illusion of moving images due to the phi phenomenon.

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Fiqh

Fiqh (فقه) is Islamic jurisprudence.

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First Sino-Japanese War

The First Sino-Japanese War (1 August 1894 – 17 April 1895) was fought between the Qing Empire of China and the Empire of Japan, primarily over control of Korea.

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Florence

Florence (Firenze, alternative obsolete form: Fiorenza; Latin: Florentia) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany and of the province of Florence.

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Folk dance

Folk dances are dances developed by groups of people that reflect the traditional life of the people of a certain country or region.

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Folk music

Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival.

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Folklore

Folklore can be described as traditional art, literature, knowledge, and practices that are passed on in large part through oral communication and example.

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Four-stroke engine

A four-stroke engine (also known as four-cycle) is an internal combustion (IC) engine in which the piston completes four separate strokes while turning a crankshaft.

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France

France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state comprising territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.

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Francis Bacon

Francis Bacon, Viscount St.

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Franks

The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) are historically first known as a group of Germanic tribes that roamed the land between the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, and second as the people of Gaul who merged with the Gallo-Roman populations during succeeding centuries, passing on their name to modern-day France and becoming part of the heritage of the modern day French people.

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Freedom of the press

Freedom of the press or freedom of the media is the freedom of communication and expression through mediums including various electronic media and published materials.

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Freethought

Freethought (also formatted free thought) is a philosophical viewpoint which holds that positions regarding truth should be formed on the basis of logic, reason, and empiricism, rather than authority, tradition, or other dogmas.

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Funk

Funk is a music genre that originated in the mid- to late 1960s when African American musicians created a rhythmic, danceable new form of music through a mixture of soul music, jazz, and rhythm and blues (R&B).

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Gaelic football

Gaelic football (Irish: Peil Ghaelach; short name Peil or Caid), commonly referred to as football or Gaelic, is an Irish team sport.

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Gaul

Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, parts of Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.

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Genetics

Genetics is the study of genes, heredity, and genetic variation in living organisms.

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Georgetown University

Georgetown University is a private research university in Washington, D.C. Founded in 1789, it is the oldest Catholic and Jesuit institution of higher education in the United States.

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Germ theory of disease

The germ theory of disease states that some diseases are caused by microorganisms.

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Germanic paganism

Germanic paganism refers to the theology and religious practices of the Germanic peoples from the Iron Age until their Christianization during the Medieval period.

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Germanic peoples

The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin, identified by their use of the Germanic languages which diversified out of Proto-Germanic starting during the Pre-Roman Iron Age.

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Germany

Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a federal parliamentary republic in western-central Europe.

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Gladiator

A gladiator (gladiator, "swordsman", from gladius, "sword") was an armed combatant who entertained audiences in the Roman Republic and Roman Empire in violent confrontations with other gladiators, wild animals, and condemned criminals.

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Glass

Glass is an amorphous (non-crystalline) solid which is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in things like window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.

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Global spread of the printing press

The global spread of the printing press began with the later development of the European version of the movable type printing press by Johannes Gutenberg in Mainz, Germany in 1450 using the simple 26 letter German alphabet as opposed to Bi Sheng using over 100,000 visually complex individual ancient Chinese characters in the earlier Han Chinese movable type technology.

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Globalization

Globalization (or globalisation) is the process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas and other aspects of culture.

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Golf

Golf is a club and ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible.

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Gothic alphabet

The Gothic alphabet is an alphabet for writing the Gothic language, created in the 4th century by Ulfilas (or Wulfila) for the purpose of translating the Bible.

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Gothic architecture

Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished during the high and late medieval period.

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Great Divergence

The Great Divergence, a term coined by Samuel Huntington (also known as the European miracle, a term coined by Eric Jones in 1981), referring to the process by which the Western world (i.e. Western Europe and the parts of the New World where its people became the dominant populations) overcame pre-modern growth constraints and emerged during the 19th century as the most powerful and wealthy world civilization of the time, eclipsing Qing China, Mughal India, Tokugawa Japan, and the Ottoman Empire.

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Greater India

Greater India was the historical extent of the culture of India beyond the Indian subcontinent.

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Greater Iran

Greater Iran (fa, Irān-e Bozorg, fa, Irānzamīn) refers to the regions of the Caucasus, West Asia, Central Asia, and South Asia that have significant Iranian cultural influence due to having been either long historically ruled by the various Iranian and Persian empires (such as those of the Medes, Achaemenids, Parthians, Sassanians, Samanids, Safavids, and Afsharids and the Qajar Empire), having considerable aspects of Persian culture in their own culture due to extensive contact with the various Empires based in Persia (e.g., those regions and peoples in the North Caucasus that were not under direct Iranian rule), or are simply nowadays still inhabited by a significant amount of Iranian people who patronize their respective cultures (as it goes for the western parts of South Asia, Bahrain and China).

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Greco-Persian Wars

The Greco-Persian Wars (also often called the Persian Wars) were a series of conflicts between the Achaemenid Empire of Persia (modern day Iran) and Greek city-states that started in 499 BC and lasted until 449 BC.

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Greco-Roman world

The Greco-Roman world, Greco-Roman culture, or the term Greco-Roman (or; spelled Graeco-Roman in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth), when used as an adjective, as understood by modern scholars and writers, refers to those geographical regions and countries that culturally (and so historically) were directly, long-term, and intimately influenced by the language, culture, government and religion of the ancient Greeks and Romans.

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Greco-Roman wrestling

Greco-Roman (US) or Graeco-Roman (UK) wrestling is a style of wrestling that is practiced worldwide.

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Greece

Greece (Ελλάδα), officially the Hellenic Republic (Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία) and known since ancient times as Hellas (Greek: Ελλάς), is a country located in southeastern Europe.

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Greek alphabet

The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the 8th century BC.

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Greek East and Latin West

"Greek East" and "Latin West" are terms used to distinguish between the two parts of the Greco-Roman world, specifically the eastern regions where Greek was the lingua franca, and the western parts where Latin filled this role.

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Greek mythology

Greek mythology is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices.

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Greek scholars in the Renaissance

The migration waves of Byzantine scholars and émigrés in the period following the Crusader sacking of Constantinople and the end of the Byzantine Empire in 1453, is considered by many scholars key to the revival of Greek and Roman studies that led to the development of the Renaissance humanism and science.

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Greeks

The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, Albania, Anatolia, Southern Italy, and other regions. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered around the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.

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Gross domestic product

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is a measure of the size of an economy.

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Group theory

In mathematics and abstract algebra, group theory studies the algebraic structures known as groups.

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Guns, Germs, and Steel

Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies is a 1997 transdisciplinary nonfiction book by Jared Diamond, professor of geography and physiology at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).

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Hagia Sophia

Hagia Sophia (from the, "Holy Wisdom"; Sancta Sophia or Sancta Sapientia; Ayasofya) is a former Christian patriarchal basilica (church), later an imperial mosque, and now a museum (Ayasofya Müzesi) in Istanbul, Turkey.

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Heathenry (new religious movement)

Heathenry, also termed Heathenism or Germanic Neopaganism, is a contemporary Pagan new religious movement whose practitioners seek to imitate the pre-Christian religions adhered to by the Germanic peoples of Iron Age and Early Medieval Europe, using surviving historical, archaeological, and folkloric evidence as a basis.

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Heavy metal music

Heavy metal is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in the United Kingdom and the United States.

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Heian period

The is the last division of classical Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185.

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Hellenism (religion)

Hellenism (Greek: Ἑλληνισμός), the Hellenic ethnic religion (Ἑλληνικὴ εθνική θρησκεία), also commonly known as Hellenismos, Dodekatheism (Δωδεκαθεϊσμός), or Olympianism, refers to various religious movements that revive ancient Greek religious practices, publicly, emerging since the 1990s.

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Hellenistic period

The Hellenistic period covers the period of ancient Greek (Hellenic) history and Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.

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Hellenistic philosophy

Hellenistic philosophy is the period of Western philosophy that was developed in the Hellenistic civilization following Aristotle and ending with the beginning of Neoplatonism.

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Hellenization

Hellenization (American English) or Hellenisation (British) is the historical spread of ancient Greek culture and, to a lesser extent, language, over foreign peoples conquered by Greece or brought into its sphere of influence, particularly during the Hellenistic period following the campaigns of Alexander the Great (King of Macedon 336–323 BCE).

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Herodotus

Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος Hēródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus, Caria (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484–425 BC).

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High Middle Ages

The High Middle Ages or High Medieval Period was the period of European history around the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries (c. 1001–1300).

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Hip hop

Hip hop or hip-hop is a Black sub-cultural movement that formed during the early 1970s exclusively by African Americans residing in the South Bronx in New York City.

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Hippie

A hippie (or hippy) is a member of a subculture that was originally a youth movement that started in the United States during the mid-1960s and spread to other countries around the world.

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Hispanidad

The Hispanidad (Hispanicity) are the community formed by all the people and countries that share a common Hispanic heritage and cultural pattern.

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History

History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past, particularly how it relates to humans.

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History of anatomy

The history of anatomy extends from the earliest examinations of sacrificial victims to the sophisticated analyses of the body performed by modern scientists.

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History of science

The history of science is the study of the development of science and scientific knowledge, including both the natural sciences and social sciences.

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History of Western civilization

Western civilization traces its roots back to Europe and the Mediterranean.

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Holy Roman Empire

The Holy Roman Empire (Latin: Sacrum Romanum Imperium, German: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.

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Homer

Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is best known as the author of the Iliad and the Odyssey.

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Homo sapiens

Homo sapiens (Latin: "wise man") is the binomial nomenclature (also known as the scientific name) for the human species.

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Homogeneity and heterogeneity

Homogeneity and heterogeneity are concepts often used in the sciences and statistics relating to the uniformity in a substance or organism.

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Hormonal contraception

Hormonal contraception refers to birth control methods that act on the endocrine system.

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Hormone

A hormone (from Greek ὁρμή, "impetus") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.

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Human

Modern humans (Homo sapiens, primarily ssp. Homo sapiens sapiens) are the only extant members of the hominin clade (or human clade), a branch of the great apes; they are characterized by erect posture and bipedal locomotion, manual dexterity and increased tool use, and a general trend toward larger, more complex brains and societies.

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Human migration

Human migration is the movement by people from one place to another with the intention of settling temporarily or permanently in the new location.

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Human rights

Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, Dec 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved Aug.

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Humanism

Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism, empiricism) over established doctrine or faith (fideism).

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Iliad

The Iliad (Ἰλιάς, in Classical Attic; sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium) is an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer.

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Immanuel Kant

Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher, who is considered the central figure of modern philosophy.

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Immunoassay

An immunoassay is a biochemical test that measures the presence or concentration of a macromolecule in a solution through the use of an antibody or immunoglobulin.

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Imperialism

Imperialism is a type of advocacy of empire.

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India

India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia.

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Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

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Inkjet printing

Inkjet printing is a type of computer printing that recreates a digital image by propelling droplets of ink onto paper, plastic, or other substrates.

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Insulin

Insulin (from the Latin, insula meaning island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells in the pancreas.

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Integrated circuit

An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small plate ("chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.

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Internet

The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link billions of devices worldwide.

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Ionic order

The Ionic order (Ιωνικός ρυθμός) forms one of the three orders of classical architecture, the other two canonic orders being the Doric and the Corinthian.

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Ipsos MORI

Ipsos MORI is the second largest market research organisation in the United Kingdom, formed by a merger of Ipsos UK and MORI, two of Britain's leading survey companies, in October 2005.

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Iran

Iran (or; ایران), historically known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia.

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Iraq

Iraq (or; العراق, Kurdish: Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq (Arabic: جمهورية العراق; كۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia.

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Irreligion

Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence of religion, an indifference towards religion, a rejection of religion, or hostility towards religion.

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Istanbul

Istanbul (İstanbul), once known as Constantinople, is the most populous city in Turkey, and the country's economic, cultural, and historical center.

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Italo-Roman neopaganism

Italo-Roman Neopaganism, known variously as Religio Romana (Roman religion) in Latin, the Roman Way to the Gods in Italian and Spanish (via romana agli dei and camino romano a los dioses, respectively), Cultus Deorum Romanorum (worship of the Roman gods), Italo-Roman Tradition or Romano-Italic Tradition, is a contemporary reconstructionist movement reviving traditional Roman and Italic religious cults consisting of loosely related organizations.

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Italy

Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe.

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J. R. R. Tolkien

John Ronald Reuel Tolkien (Tolkien pronounced his surname, see his phonetic transcription published on the illustration in The Return of the Shadow: The History of The Lord of the Rings, Part One. Christopher Tolkien. London: Unwin Hyman, 1988. (The History of Middle-earth; 6) ISBN 0-04-440162-0. In General American the surname is also pronounced. This pronunciation no doubt arose by analogy with such words as toll and polka, or because General American speakers realise as, while often hearing British as; thus or General American become the closest possible approximation to the Received Pronunciation for many American speakers. Wells, John. 1990. Longman pronunciation dictionary. Harlow: Longman, ISBN 0-582-05383-8 3 January 18922 September 1973) was an English writer, poet, philologist, and university professor who is best known as the author of the classic high-fantasy works The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, and The Silmarillion.

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Jamaica

Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea, comprising the third-largest island of the Greater Antilles.

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James II of Scotland

James II (Middle Scots: Iames Stewart; 16 October 1430 – 3 August 1460), who reigned as king of Scots from 1437 on, was the son of James I and Joan Beaufort.

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James Joseph Walsh

James Joseph Walsh, M.D., LL.D., Litt.D., Sc.D. (1865–1942) was an American physician and author.

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James Naismith

James Naismith (November 6, 1861 – November 28, 1939) was a Canadian American physical educator, physician, chaplain, sports coach and innovator.

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Jan van Eyck

Jan van Eyck (before c. 1390 – 9 July 1441) was an Early Netherlandish painter active in Bruges and one of the most significant Northern Renaissance artists of the 15th century.

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Jared Diamond

Jared Mason Diamond (born September 10, 1937) is an American scientist and author best known for his popular science books The Third Chimpanzee (1991), Guns, Germs, and Steel (1997, awarded a Pulitzer Prize), Collapse (2005) and The World Until Yesterday (2012).

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Javelin

A javelin is a light spear designed primarily to be thrown, historically as a ranged weapon, but today predominantly for sport.

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Jazz

Jazz is a genre of music that originated in African American communities in the United States in the late 19th and early 20th century.

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Jean le Rond d'Alembert

Jean-Baptiste le Rond d'Alembert (16 November 1717 – 29 October 1783) was a French mathematician, mechanician, physicist, philosopher, and music theorist.

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Jesus

Jesus (Ἰησοῦς; 7–2 BC to AD 30–33), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ, is the central figure of Christianity, whom the teachings of most Christian denominations hold to be the Son of God.

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Jewish culture

Jewish culture is the diverse international culture of the Jews.

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Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Johann Wolfgang Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman.

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John Locke

John Locke FRS (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and known as the "Father of Classical Liberalism".

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Jonathan Dollimore

Jonathan G Dollimore (born 1948 in Leighton Buzzard) is an English sociologist and social theorist in the fields of Renaissance literature (especially drama), gender studies, queer theory (queer studies), art, censorship, history of ideas, death studies, decadence, and cultural theory.

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Jorge Luis Borges

Jorge Francisco Isidoro Luis Borges KBE (24 August 1899 – 14 June 1986), was an Argentine short-story writer, essayist, poet and translator, and a key figure in Spanish language literature.

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Jousting

Jousting is a martial game or hastilude between two horsemen each wielding a lance with a blunted tip, often as part of a tournament.

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Judaism

Judaism (from Iudaismus, derived from Greek Ἰουδαϊσμός, originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; in Hebrew:, Yahadut, the distinctive characteristics of the Judean ethnos) encompasses the religion, philosophy, culture and way of life of the Jewish people.

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La Croix

La Croix (English: The Cross) is a daily French general-interest Roman Catholic newspaper. It is published in Paris and distributed throughout France, with a circulation of just under 110,000 as of 2009.

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Laïcité

French secularity (French: laïcité, pronounced) is the absence of religious involvement in government affairs especially the prohibition of religious influence in the determination of state policies.

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Land of Israel

The Land of Israel (אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל ʼÉreṣ Yiśrāʼēl, Eretz Yisrael) is one of several names for an area of indefinite geographical extension in the Southern Levant.

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Laser printing

Laser printing is an electrostatic digital printing process.

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Late Antiquity

Late Antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages, in both mainland Europe and the Mediterranean world.

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Latin alphabet

The classical Latin alphabet, also known as the Roman alphabet, is a writing system that evolved from the visually similar Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet.

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Latin America

Latin America is a region of the Americas that comprises countries where Romance languages are predominant; primarily Spanish and Portuguese, but also French.

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Latin translations of the 12th century

Latin translations of the 12th century were spurred by a major search by European scholars for new learning unavailable in Christian Europe at the time; their search led them to areas of southern Europe, particularly in central Spain and Sicily, which recently had come under Christian rule following their reconquest in the late 11th century.

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Law

Law is a system of rules that are enforced through social institutions to govern behaviour.

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Le Corbusier

Charles-Édouard Jeanneret-Gris, who was better known as Le Corbusier (October 6, 1887 – August 27, 1965), was a Swiss-French architect, designer, painter, urban planner, writer, and one of the pioneers of what is now called modern architecture.

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Leo Tolstoy

Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy (Лев Никола́евич Толсто́й,; –), usually referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian novelist regarded as one of the greatest of all time.

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Leonardo da Vinci

Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci, more commonly Leonardo da Vinci, (15 April 1452 – 2 May 1519) was an Italian polymath whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography.

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Les Demoiselles d'Avignon

Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (The Young Ladies of Avignon, and originally titled The Brothel of Avignon) is a large oil painting created in 1907 by the Spanish artist Pablo Picasso (1881–1973).

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Letters on the English

Lettres philosophiques (or Letters Concerning the English Nation) is a series of essays written by Voltaire based on his experiences living in England between 1726 and 1729 (though from 1707 the country was part of the Kingdom of Great Britain).

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Levant

The Levant (Arabic: المشرق Naim, Samia, Dialects of the Levant, in Weninger, Stefan et al. (eds.), The Semitic Languages: An International Handbook, Berlin/Boston: Walter de Gruyter (2011), p. 921) is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the eastern Mediterranean.

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Liberal arts education

The liberal arts (Latin: artes liberales) are those subjects or skills that in classical antiquity were considered essential for a free person (Latin: liberal, "worthy of a free person") to know in order to take an active part in civic life, something that (for Ancient Greece) included participating in public debate, defending oneself in court, serving on juries, and most importantly, military service.

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Liberal democracy

Liberal democracy is a political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of liberalism.

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Liberation theology

Liberation theology has been described as "an interpretation of Christian faith out of the experience of the poor...an attempt to read the Bible and key Christian doctrines with the eyes of the poor", or "the message of the gospels", restored from "the first three centuries it was...

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Library

A library is a collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing.

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Light-emitting diode

A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source.

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Liquid-crystal display

A liquid-crystal display (LCD) is a flat panel display, electronic visual display, or video display that uses the light modulating properties of liquid crystals.

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List of Greek and Latin roots in English

The following is an alphabetical list of Greek and Latin roots, stems, and prefixes very commonly used in the English language.

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List of national legal systems

The contemporary legal systems of the world are generally based on one of three basic systems: common law, civil law and religious law, or combinations of these.

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Locomotive

A locomotive or engine is a rail transport vehicle that provides the motive power for a train.

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Longitude by chronometer

Longitude by chronometer is a method, in navigation, of determining longitude using a marine chronometer, which was developed by John Harrison during the first half of the eighteenth century.

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Lope de Vega

Félix Lope de Vega y Carpio (25 November 1562 – 27 August 1635) was a Spanish playwright, poet and novelist.

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Ludwig Mies van der Rohe

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (born Maria Ludwig Michael Mies; March 27, 1886 – August 17, 1969) was a German-American architect.

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Ludwig von Pastor

Ludwig Pastor, later Ludwig von Pastor, Freiherr von Campersfelden (31 January 1854 – 30 September 1928), was a German historian and a diplomat for Austria.

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Lusophone

Lusophones (lusófonos) are people who speak the Portuguese language, either as native speakers or as learners.

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Machine tool

A machine tool is a machine for shaping or machining metal or other rigid materials, usually by cutting, boring, grinding, shearing, or other forms of deformation.

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Mahabharata

The Mahabharata or Mahābhārata (US; UK; महाभारतम्) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Ramayana.

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Marc Chagall

Marc Zakharovich Chagall (28 March 1985) was a Russian-French artist.

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Mars Exploration Rover

NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Mission (MER) is an ongoing robotic space mission involving two rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, exploring the planet Mars.

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Mathematical logic

Mathematical logic is a subfield of mathematics exploring the applications of formal logic to mathematics.

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Maxwell's equations

Maxwell's equations are a set of partial differential equations that, together with the Lorentz force law, form the foundation of classical electrodynamics, classical optics, and electric circuits.

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Mechanics

Mechanics (Greek μηχανική) is an area of science concerned with the behavior of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effects of the bodies on their environment.

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Medical ultrasound

Medical ultrasound (also known as diagnostic sonography or ultrasonography) is a diagnostic imaging technique based on the application of ultrasound.

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Meiji period

The, also known as the Meiji era, is a Japanese era which extended from September 8, 1868 through July 30, 1912.

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Mesopotamia

Mesopotamia (from the Μεσοποταμία " between rivers"; بلاد الرافدين bilād ar-rāfidayn; میان‌رودان miyān rodān; ܒܝܬ ܢܗܪܝܢ Beth Nahrain "land of rivers") is a name for the area of the Tigris–Euphrates river system, corresponding to modern-day Iraq, Kuwait, the northeastern section of Syria, as well as parts of southeastern Turkey and of southwestern Iran.

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Middle Ages

In European history, the Middle Ages or Medieval period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Middle East

The Middle EastArabic: الشرق الأوسط,; Armenian: Միջին Արևելք, Merdzavor Arevelk’; Azerbaijani: Orta Şərq; French: Moyen-Orient; Georgian: ახლო აღმოსავლეთი, akhlo aghmosavleti; Greek: Μέση Ανατολή, Mési Anatolí; Hebrew: המזרח התיכון, Ha'Mizrah Ha'Tihon; Kurdish: Rojhilata Navîn; Persian: خاورمیانه, khāvar-miyāneh; Somali: Bariga Dhexe; Soranî Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, rrojhellatî nayn; Turkish: Orta Doğu; Urdu: مشرق وسطی, hashrq vsty (also called the Mid East) is a eurocentric description of a region centered on Western Asia and Egypt.

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Miguel de Cervantes

Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (or;; 29 September 1547 (assumed)22 April 1616), often simply called Cervantes, was a Spanish novelist, poet, and playwright.

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Miles Franklin

Stella Maria Sarah Miles Franklin, known as Miles Franklin (14 October 187919 September 1954) was an Australian writer and feminist who is best known for her novel My Brilliant Career, self-published in 1901.

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Mobile phone

A mobile phone (also known as a cellular phone, cell phone, hand phone, or simply a phone) is a phone that can make and receive telephone calls over a radio link while moving around a wide geographic area.

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Modern history

Modern history, also referred to as the modern period or the modern era, is the historiographical approach to the timeframe after the post-classical era (known as the Middle Ages).

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Modern paganism

Modern paganism, also known as contemporary paganism, and neopaganism, is a group of contemporary religious movements influenced by or claiming to be derived from the various historical pagan beliefs of pre-modern Europe.

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Molecular biology

Molecular biology concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between the different types of DNA, RNA and proteins and their biosynthesis, and studies how these interactions are regulated.

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Molière

Jean-Baptiste Poquelin, known by his stage name Molière (1622–1673), was a French playwright and actor who is considered to be one of the greatest masters of comedy in Western literature.

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Mona Lisa

The Mona Lisa (Monna Lisa or La Gioconda, La Joconde) is a half-length portrait of a woman by the Italian artist Leonardo da Vinci, which has been acclaimed as "the best known, the most visited, the most written about, the most sung about, the most parodied work of art in the world".

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Monarchy

A monarchy is a form of government in which sovereignty is actually or nominally embodied in one or several individual(s) reigning until death or abdication.

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Monastery

A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, whether monks or nuns, and whether living in communities or alone (hermits).

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Monotheism

Monotheism is defined by the Encyclopædia Britannica as belief in the existence of one god or in the oneness of God.

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Montenegro

Montenegro (or or; Montenegrin: Crna Gora / Црна Гора, meaning "Black Mountain") is a sovereign state in Southeastern Europe.

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Mughal Empire

The Mughal Empire or Mogul Empire, self-designated as Gurkani (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān, meaning "son-in-law"), was an empire established and ruled by a Persianate dynasty of Chagatai Turco-Mongol origin that extended over large parts of the Indian subcontinent and Afghanistan.

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Murasaki Shikibu

Murasaki Shikibu (紫 式部, Lady Murasaki) (c. 973 or 978 – c. 1014 or 1031) was a Japanese novelist, poet and lady-in-waiting at the Imperial court during the Heian period.

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Music video

A music video or song video is a short film integrating a song and imagery, produced for promotional or artistic purposes.

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National Congress of Brazil

The National Congress (Congresso Nacional) is the legislative body of Brazil's federal government.

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Natural law

Natural law is a philosophy that certain rights or values are inherent by virtue of human nature, and universally cognizable through human reason.

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Near East

Near East (Proche-Orient) is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.

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NEAR Shoemaker

The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous - Shoemaker (NEAR Shoemaker), renamed after its 1996 launch in honor of planetary scientist Eugene Shoemaker, was a robotic space probe designed by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory for NASA to study the near-Earth asteroid Eros from close orbit over a period of a year.

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Neologism

A neologism (from Greek νέο- néo-, "new" and λόγος lógos, "speech, utterance") is the name for a relatively new or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been accepted into mainstream language.

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Neptune

Neptune is the eighth and farthest planet from the Sun in the Solar System.

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Netball

Netball is a ball sport played by two teams of seven players.

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Netherlands

The Netherlands (Nederland) is the main "constituent country" (land) of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

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Neuschwanstein Castle

Neuschwanstein Castle (Schloss Neuschwanstein,, "New Swanstone Castle") is a nineteenth-century Romanesque Revival palace on a rugged hill above the village of Hohenschwangau near Füssen in southwest Bavaria, Germany.

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Neutron

The neutron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, with no net electric charge and a mass slightly larger than that of a proton.

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New Age

The New Age is a term applied to a range of spiritual or religious beliefs and practices that developed in Western nations during the 1970s.

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News media

The news media or news industry are those elements of the mass media that focus on delivering news to the general public or a target public.

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Newspaper circulation

A newspaper's circulation is the number of copies it distributes on an average day.

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Nicene Creed

The Nicene Creed (Greek: or, Latin: Symbolum Nicaenum) is a profession of faith widely used in Christian liturgy.

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Nicolaus Copernicus

Nicolaus Copernicus (Mikołaj Kopernik; Nikolaus Kopernikus; 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe.

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Nitrogen fixation

Nitrogen fixation is a process in which nitrogen (N2) in the atmosphere is converted into ammonium (NH4+) or nitrogen dioxide, for example.

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Norm (social)

Norms are cultural products (including values, customs, and traditions)Sherif, M. (1936).

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North America

North America is a continent wholly within the Northern Hemisphere and almost wholly within the Western Hemisphere.

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Novel

A novel is a long narrative, normally in prose, which describes fictional characters and events, usually in the form of a sequential story.

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Nuclear magnetic resonance

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon in which nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiation.

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Nuclear power

Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power station.

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Nuclear reactor

A nuclear reactor, formerly known as atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a sustained nuclear chain reaction.

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Nudity

Nudity or nakedness is the state of wearing no clothing.

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Objectivity (philosophy)

Objectivity is a central philosophical concept, related to reality and truth, which has been variously defined by sources.

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Occidentalism

The term Occidentalism is used to refer to images of "The West" in one of two main ways: a) stereotyped and sometimes dehumanizing views on the Western world, including Europe and the English-speaking world; and b), ideologies or visions of the West developed in either the West or non-West. The former definition stresses negative constructions of the West and is often focused on the Islamic world. The latter approach has a broader range and includes both positive and negative representations. The term was used in the latter sense by James G. Carrier in his book Occidentalism: Images of the West (1995), and subsequently by Ian Buruma and Avishai Margalit in their book Occidentalism: the West in the Eyes of its Enemies (2004). The term is an inversion of Orientalism, Edward Said’s label for stereotyped Western views of the East. A number of earlier books had also used the term, sometimes with different meanings, such as Chen Xiaomei's Occidentalism: A Theory of Counter-Discourse in Post-Mao China (New York: Oxford, 1995).

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Oceania

Oceania (Pronunciation: The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) ISBN 0-19-861263-X — p.1282 "Oceania /ˌəʊsɪˈɑːnɪə, -ʃɪ-/". or), also known as Oceanica, is a region centered on the islands of the tropical Pacific Ocean.

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Ohm's law

Ohm's law states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the potential difference across the two points.

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Oil painting

Oil painting is the process of painting with pigments that are binded with a medium of drying oil.

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Olympia, Greece

Olympia (Greek: Ὀλυμπία;; Olympía), a sanctuary of ancient Greece in Elis on the Peloponnese peninsula, is known for having been the site of the Olympic Games in classical times.

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Olympic Games

The modern Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques) are the leading international sporting event featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions.

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Openness

Openness is an overarching concept or philosophy that is characterized by an emphasis on transparency and free, unrestricted access to knowledge and information, as well as collaborative or cooperative management and decision-making rather than a central authority.

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Opera

Opera (English plural: operas; Italian plural: opere) is an art form in which singers and musicians perform a dramatic work combining text (libretto) and musical score, usually in a theatrical setting.

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Oratorio

An oratorio is a large musical composition for orchestra, choir, and soloists.

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Orchestra

An orchestra is a large instrumental ensemble that contains sections of string (violin, viola, cello and double bass), brass, woodwind, and percussion instruments.

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Organisation internationale de la Francophonie

The Organisation internationale de la Francophonie (OIF), generally known as the Francophonie (La Francophonie), but also called International Organisation of La Francophonie in English language context, is an international organization representing countries and regions where French is the first ("mother") or customary language; and/or where a significant proportion of the population are francophones (French speakers); and/or where there is a notable affiliation with French culture.

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Orient

The Orient means the East.

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Orientalism

Orientalism is a term that is used by art historians, literary and cultural studies scholars for the imitation or depiction of aspects in Middle Eastern, South Asian, African and East Asian cultures (Eastern cultures).

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Oscar Niemeyer

Oscar Ribeiro de Almeida Niemeyer Soares Filho (December 15, 1907 – December 5, 2012), known as Oscar Niemeyer, was a Brazilian architect who is considered to be one of the key figures in the development of modern architecture.

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Oscar Wilde

Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (16 October 185430 November 1900) was an Irish author, playwright and poet.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دَوْلَتِ عَلِيّهٔ عُثمَانِیّه Devlet-i Aliyye-i Osmâniyye, Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti) which is also known as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was an empire founded in 1299 by Oghuz Turks under Osman I in northwestern Anatolia.

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Outer space

Outer space, or just space, is the void that exists between celestial bodies, including the Earth.

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Pablo Picasso

Pablo Ruiz y Picasso, also known as Pablo Picasso (25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973), was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, poet and playwright who spent most of his adult life in France.

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Paradigm

In science and epistemology (the theory of knowledge), a paradigm is a distinct set of concepts or thought patterns, including theories, research methods, postulates, and standards for what constitutes legitimate contributions to a field.

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Paris

Paris (UK:; US:; French) is the capital and most-populous city of France.

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Parliamentary system

A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state in which the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from, and is held accountable to, the legislature (parliament); the executive and legislative branches are thus interconnected.

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Peloponnese

The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Πελοπόννησος, Pelopónnēsos; see also list of Greek place names) is a peninsula and geographic region in southern Greece.

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Persecution of Jews

Persecution of Jews has occurred on many occasions and at widely different geographical locations.

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Perspective (graphical)

Perspective (from perspicere to see through) in the graphic arts is an approximate representation, on a flat surface (such as paper), of an image as it is seen by the eye.

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Petrochemical

Petrochemicals are chemical products derived from petroleum.

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Petronius

Gaius Petronius Arbiter (c. 27 – 66 AD) was a Roman courtier during the reign of Nero.

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Pew Research Center

The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American think tank based in Washington, D.C., that provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.

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Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica

Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Latin for "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy"), often referred to as simply the Principia, is a work in three books by Sir Isaac Newton, in Latin, first published 5 July 1687.

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Philosophy

Philosophy is the study of the general and fundamental nature of reality, existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.

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Photocopier

A photocopier (also known as a copier or copy machine) is a machine that makes paper copies of documents and other visual images quickly and cheaply.

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Piano

The piano (an abbreviation of pianoforte) is a musical instrument played using a keyboard.

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Pierre de Coubertin

Pierre de Frédy, Baron de Coubertin (1 January 1863 – 2 September 1937) was a French educator and historian, and founder of the International Olympic Committee.

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Pipe organ

The pipe organ (also known as church organ or chapel organ) is a musical instrument that produces sound by driving pressurized air (called wind) through pipes selected via a keyboard.

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Plasma display

A plasma display panel (PDP) is a type of flat panel display common to large TV displays or larger.

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Plato

Plato (Greek: Πλάτων Plátōn "broad" in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher and mathematician in Classical Greece, and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.

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Pluralism (political philosophy)

Pluralism as a political philosophy is the recognition and affirmation of diversity within a political body, which permits the peaceful coexistence of different interests, convictions and lifestyles.

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Pogrom

A pogrom is a violent riot aimed at massacre or persecution of an ethnic or religious group, particularly one aimed at Jews.

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Political philosophy

Political philosophy, or political theory, is the study of topics such as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever.

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Political system

A political system is a system of politics and government.

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Polka

The Polka is a Central European dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas.

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Polyethylene

Polyethylene (abbreviated PE) or polyethene (IUPAC name polyethene or poly(methylene)) is the most common plastic.

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Polypropylene

Polypropylene (PP), also known as polypropene, is a thermoplastic polymer used in a wide variety of applications including packaging and labeling, textiles (e.g., ropes, thermal underwear and carpets), stationery, plastic parts and reusable containers of various types, laboratory equipment, loudspeakers, automotive components, and polymer banknotes.

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Polystyrene

Polystyrene (PS) is a synthetic aromatic polymer made from the monomer styrene.

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Polytheism

Polytheism refers to the worship of or belief in multiple deities usually assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses, along with their own religions and rituals.

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Polytheistic reconstructionism

Polytheistic reconstructionism (Reconstructionism) is an approach to paganism first emerging in the late 1960s to early 1970s, and gathered momentum in the 1990s to 2000s.

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Polyvinyl chloride

Polyvinyl chloride, more correctly but unusually poly(vinyl chloride), commonly abbreviated PVC, is the third-most widely produced synthetic plastic polymer, after polyethylene and polypropylene.

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Pop music

Pop music (a term that originally derives from an abbreviation of "popular") is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form in the Western world during the 1950s and 1960s, deriving from rock and roll.

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Pope

The Pope (papa; from πάππας pappas, a child's word for father) is the Bishop of Rome and the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.

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Popular culture

Popular culture or pop culture is the entirety of ideas, perspectives, attitudes, images, and other phenomena that are within the mainstream of a given culture, especially Western culture of the early to mid 20th century and the emerging global mainstream of the late 20th and early 21st century.

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Popular music

The term popular music belongs to any of a number of musical genres "having wide appeal" and typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry.

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Portrait

A portrait is a painting, photograph, sculpture, or other artistic representation of a person, in which the face and its expression is predominant.

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Positron emission tomography

Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine, functional imaging technique that produces a three-dimensional image of functional processes in the body.

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Presidential system

A presidential system is a system of government where a head of government is also head of state and leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.

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Printing press

A printing press is a device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring the ink.

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Procedural justice

Procedural justice is the idea of fairness in the processes that resolve disputes and allocate resources.

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Propeller

A propeller is a type of fan that transmits power by converting rotational motion into thrust.

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Protein sequencing

Protein sequencing is a technique to determine the amino acid sequence of a protein, as well as which conformation the protein adopts and the extent to which it is complexed with any non-peptide molecules.

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Protestant Reformation

The Protestant Reformation, often referred to simply as the Reformation, was the schism within Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther, John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli and other early Protestant Reformers.

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Protestantism

Protestantism is a form of Christian faith and practice which originated with the Protestant Reformation, a movement against what its followers considered to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church.

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Proto-Indo-European religion

Proto-Indo-European religion is not directly attested, but reconstruction has been attempted based on the existence of similarities among the deities, religious practices and mythologies of the Indo-European peoples.

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Proton

| magnetic_moment.

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Publishing

Publishing is the process of production and dissemination of literature, music, or information — the activity of making information available to the general public.

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Pula

Pula or Pola (Pola Italian and Istro-Romanian; Colonia Pietas Iulia Pola Pollentia Herculanea; Slovene and Chakavian: Pulj, Polei, Ancient Greek: Πόλαι, Polae) is the largest city in Istria County, Croatia, situated at the southern tip of the Istria peninsula, with a population of 57,460 (2011).

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Pula Arena

The Pula Arena is the name of the amphitheatre located in Pula, Croatia.

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Qing dynasty

The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing, also called the Empire of the Great Qing, or the Manchu dynasty, was the last imperial dynasty of China, ruling from 1644 to 1912 with a brief, abortive restoration in 1917.

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Quadrivium

The quadrivium (plural: quadrivia and its use for the four subjects has been attributed to Boethius or Cassiodorus in the 6th century. Together, the trivium and the quadrivium comprised the seven liberal arts (based on thinking skills), as opposed to the practical arts (such as medicine and architecture). The quadrivium consisted of arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy. These followed the preparatory work of the trivium made up of grammar, logic, and rhetoric. In turn, the quadrivium was considered preparatory work for the serious study of philosophy (sometimes called the "liberal art par excellence") and theology.

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Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, or quantum theory), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental branch of physics concerned with processes involving, for example, atoms and photons.

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Radiography

Radiography is an imaging technique that uses electromagnetic radiation other than visible light, especially X-rays, to view the internal structure of a non-uniformly composed and opaque object (i.e. a non-transparent object of varying density and composition) such as the human body.

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Rationalism

In epistemology, rationalism is the view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification".

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Real income

Real income is the income of individuals or nations after adjusting for inflation.

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Reason

Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, applying logic, establishing and verifying facts, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.

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Reggae

Reggae is a music genre that originated in Jamaica in the late 1960s.

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Relativism

Relativism is the concept that points of view have no absolute truth or validity, having only relative, subjective value according to differences in perception and consideration.

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Religion in ancient Rome

Religion in ancient Rome encompasses the ancestral ethnic religion of the city of Rome that the Romans used to define themselves as a people, as well as the adopted religious practices of peoples brought under Roman rule.

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René Descartes

René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 159611 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist who spent about 20 years of his life in the Dutch Republic.

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Rh disease

Rh disease (also known as Rhesus isoimmunisation, Rh (D) disease, Rhesus incompatibility, Rhesus disease, RhD Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn, Rhesus D Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn or RhD HDN) is one of the causes of hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN).

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Rhythm and blues

Rhythm and blues, often abbreviated as R&B or RnB, is a genre of popular African-American music that originated in the 1940s.

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Robert Lucas, Jr.

Robert Emerson Lucas, Jr. (born September 15, 1937) is an American economist at the University of Chicago.

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Rock and roll

Rock and roll (often written as rock & roll or rock 'n' roll) is a genre of popular music that originated and evolved in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950s,Jim Dawson and Steve Propes, What Was the First Rock'n'Roll Record (1992), ISBN 0-571-12939-0.

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Rock music

Rock music is a genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the 1950s, and developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and later, particularly in the United Kingdom and the United States.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum; Ancient and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων Basileia tōn Rhōmaiōn) was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Roman law

Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome, including Roman Military Jurisdiction and the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the 12 Tables (c. 449 BC), to the Corpus Juris Civilis (AD 529) ordered by Eastern Roman emperor Justinian I. The historical importance of Roman defication is reflected by the continued use of Latin legal terminology in legal systems influenced by it.

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Romance-speaking Europe

Latin Europe or Romance-speaking Europe is the area of Europe where Romance languages (those derived from Latin) are either official, co-official, or significantly used.

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Romanesque architecture

Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches.

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Romanticism

Romanticism (also the Romantic era or the Romantic period) was an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.

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Rome

Rome (Roma, Rōma) is a city and special comune (named "Roma Capitale") in Italy.

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Rugby football

Rugby football is a style of football that developed at Rugby School in Rugby, Warwickshire and was one of many versions of football played at English public schools during the 19th century.

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Rugby World Cup

The Rugby World Cup is a men's rugby union tournament contested every four years between the top international teams.

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Rule of law

The rule of law is the legal principle that law should govern a nation, as opposed to being governed by arbitrary decisions of individual government officials.

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Runes

Runes (Proto-Norse: (runo), Old Norse: rún) are the letters in a set of related alphabets known as runic alphabets, which were used to write various Germanic languages before the adoption of the Latin alphabet and for specialised purposes thereafter.

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Russia

Russia (Ru-Россия.ogg), also officially known as the Russian Federation (a), is a country in northern Eurasia.

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Sacred bull

The worship of the Sacred Bull throughout the ancient world is most familiar to the Western world in the biblical episode of the idol of the Golden Calf.

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Saint Petersburg

Saint Petersburg (p) is the second largest city in Russia, politically incorporated as a federal subject (a federal city).

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Samuel P. Huntington

Samuel Phillips Huntington (April 18, 1927 – December 24, 2008) was an influential American conservative political scientist, adviser and academic.

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San Lorenzo de El Escorial

San Lorenzo de El Escorial, also known as El Escorial de Arriba is a town and municipality in the Community of Madrid, Spain, located to the northwest of the region in the southeastern side of the Sierra de Guadarrama, at the foot of Mount Abantos and Las Machotas, from Madrid.

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Satellite navigation

A satellite navigation or satnav system is a system of satellites that provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning with global coverage.

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Satyricon

The Satyricon, or Satyricon liber ("The Book of Satyrlike Adventures), is a Latin work of fiction believed to have been written by Gaius Petronius, though the manuscript tradition identifies the author as a certain Titus Petronius.

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Saxophone

The saxophone (also referred to as the sax) is a family of woodwind instruments.

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Scholasticism

Scholasticism is a method of critical thought which dominated teaching by the academics ("scholastics," or "schoolmen") of medieval universities in Europe from about 1100 to 1700, and a program of employing that method in articulating and defending dogma in an increasingly pluralistic context.

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School

A school is an institution designed for the teaching of students (or "pupils") under the direction of teachers.

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Schwangau

Schwangau is a municipality in the district of Ostallgäu in Bavaria, Germany.

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Science

ScienceFrom Latin scientia, meaning "knowledge".

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Scientific method

The scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge.

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Scientific revolution

The scientific revolution was the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed views of society and nature.

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Second Industrial Revolution

The Second Industrial Revolution, also known as the Technological Revolution, was a phase of the larger Industrial Revolution roughly corresponding to the later half of the 19th century, sometime between 1840 and 1860 until World War I. It is considered to have begun around the time of the introduction of Bessemer steel in the 1850s and culminated in early factory electrification, mass production and the production line.

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Secular humanism

The philosophy or life stance of secular humanism (alternatively known by some adherents as Humanism, specifically with a capital H to distinguish it from other forms of humanism) embraces human reason, ethics, and philosophical naturalism while specifically rejecting religious dogma, supernaturalism, pseudoscience, and superstition as the basis of morality and decision making.

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Segovia

Segovia is a city in the autonomous region of Castile and León, Spain.

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Seminary

A seminary, theological college, divinity school is an educational institution for educating students (sometimes called seminarians) in theology, generally to prepare them for ordination as clergy or for other ministry.

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Serbia

Serbia (Србија, Srbija), officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија, Republika Srbija), is a sovereign state situated at the crossroads between Central and Southeast Europe, covering the southern part of the Pannonian Plain and the central Balkans.

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Ska

Ska (Jamaican) is a music genre that originated in Jamaica in the late 1950s and was the precursor to rocksteady and reggae.

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Skepticism

Skepticism or scepticism (see spelling differences) is generally any questioning attitude towards unempirical knowledge or opinions/beliefs stated as facts, or doubt regarding claims that are taken for granted elsewhere.

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Skyscraper

A skyscraper is a tall, continuously habitable building of over 40 floors, mostly designed for office, commercial and residential uses.

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Slavic mythology

Slavic mythology is the mythological aspect of the polytheistic religion that was practised by the Slavs before Christianisation.

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Slavic neopaganism

Slavic neopaganism or the Slavic native faith, is the contemporary continuation of the ethnic religion of the Slavic peoples (codified in the corpus of Slavic mythology).

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Slavs

The Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group living in Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Southeast Europe, North Asia and Central Asia, who speak the Indo-European Slavic languages, and share, to varying degrees, certain cultural traits and historical backgrounds.

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Slovakia

Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a country in Central Europe.

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Smallpox

Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by either of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.

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Soap opera

A soap opera, soapie, or soap is a serial drama on television or radio which features related story lines about the lives of many characters.

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Social equality

Social equality is a state of affairs in which all people within a specific society or isolated group have the same status in certain respects, often including civil rights, freedom of speech, property rights, and equal access to social goods and services.

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Society

A human society is a group of people involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social grouping sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.

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Socrates

Socrates (Σωκράτης, Sōkrátēs; 470/469 – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy.

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Sonata

Sonata (Italian:, pl. sonate; from Latin and Italian: sonare, "to sound"), in music, literally means a piece played as opposed to a cantata (Latin and Italian cantare, "to sing"), a piece sung.

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South Pole

The South Pole, also known as the Geographic South Pole, Celestial South Pole, or Terrestrial South Pole, is one of the two points where the Earth's axis of rotation intersects its surface (also see Celestial pole).

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Soviet Union

The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (a) abbreviated to USSR (r) or shortened to the Soviet Union (p), was a Marxist–Leninist state on the Eurasian continent that existed between 1922 and 1991.

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Species

In biology, a species (abbreviated sp., with the plural form species abbreviated spp.) is one of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank.

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Spectrophotometry

In chemistry, spectrophotometry is the quantitative measurement of the reflection or transmission properties of a material as a function of wavelength.

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Spectroscopy

Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.

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Spiš Castle

The ruins of Spiš Castle (Spišský hrad.,; Szepesi vár; Zipser Burg) in eastern Slovakia form one of the largest castle sites in Central Europe.

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Spišské Podhradie

Spišské Podhradie (Kirchdrauf; Szepesváralja) is a town in Spiš in the Prešov Region of Slovakia.

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Square dance

A square dance is a dance for four couples (eight dancers) arranged in a square, with one couple on each side, facing the middle of the square.

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Standard of living

Standard of living refers to the level of wealth, comfort, material goods and necessities available to a certain socioeconomic class in a certain geographic area.

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Statistical mechanics

Statistical mechanics is a branch of theoretical physics that studies, using probability theory, the average behaviour of a mechanical system where the state of the system is uncertain.

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Statistics

Statistics is the study of the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.

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Steam engine

A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid.

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Step dance

Step dance is the generic term for dance styles where the footwork is the most important part of the dance.

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Stethoscope

The stethoscope is an acoustic medical device for auscultation, or listening to the internal sounds of an animal or human body.

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Stillman Drake

Stillman Drake (December 24, 1910 – October 6, 1993) was a Canadian historian of science best known for his work on Galileo Galilei (1564–1642).

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String quartet

A string quartet is a musical ensemble of four string players – two violin players, a viola player and a cellist – or a piece written to be performed by such a group.

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Subculture

In sociology and cultural studies, a subculture is a group of people within a culture that differentiates itself from the parent culture to which it belongs, often maintaining some of its founding principles.

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Sydney

Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania.

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Sydney Opera House

The Sydney Opera House is a multi-venue performing arts centre in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

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Symphony

A symphony is an extended musical composition in Western classical music, most often written for orchestra.

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Syncretism

Syncretism is the combining of different, often contradictory beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.

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Synthetic diamond

Synthetic diamond (also known as cultured diamond or cultivated diamond) is diamond produced in an artificial process, as opposed to natural diamonds, which are created by geological processes.

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Synthetic rubber

Synthetic rubber, invariably a polymer, is any type of artificial elastomer mainly synthesised from petroleum byproducts.

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Syria

Syria (سوريا or سورية, Sūriyā or Sūrīyah), officially the Syrian Arab Republic, is a country in Western Asia.

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Table tennis

Table tennis, also known as ping pong, is a sport in which two or four players hit a lightweight ball back and forth across a table using a small, round bat.

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Techno

Techno is a form of electronic dance music that emerged in Detroit, Michigan, in the United States during the mid-to-late 1980s.

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Technology

Technology (from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is the collection of techniques, skills, methods and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation.

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Telephone

A telephone, or phone, is a telecommunications device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be heard directly.

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Tennis

Tennis is a racquet sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles).

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Tensor

Tensors are geometric objects that describe linear relations between geometric vectors, scalars, and other tensors.

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The Globe and Mail

The Globe and Mail is a nationally distributed Canadian newspaper owned by The Woodbridge Company, based in Toronto and printed in six cities across the country.

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The Hindu

The Hindu is an English-language Indian daily newspaper.

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The Renaissance

The Renaissance is a period in Europe, from the 14th to the 17th century, considered the bridge between the Middle Ages and modern history.

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The Tale of Genji

is a classic work of Japanese literature written by the noblewoman and lady-in-waiting Murasaki Shikibu in the early years of the 11th century, around the peak of the Heian period.

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Theory of relativity

The theory of relativity, or simply relativity in physics, usually encompasses two theories by Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity.

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Theremin

The theremin (originally known as the ætherphone/etherphone, thereminophone or termenvox/thereminvox) is an early electronic musical instrument controlled without physical contact by the thereminist (performer).

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Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics is a branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.

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Tigris–Euphrates river system

The Tigris and Euphrates, with their tributaries, form a major river system in Western Asia.

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Tokugawa shogunate

The Tokugawa shogunate, also known as the and the, was the last feudal Japanese military government which existed between 1603 and 1868.

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Topology

In mathematics, topology (from the Greek τόπος, place, and λόγος, study), is the study of topological spaces.

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Tradition

A tradition is a belief or behavior passed down within a group or society with symbolic meaning or special significance with origins in the past.

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Tragedy

Tragedy (from the τραγῳδία, tragōidia) is a form of drama based on human suffering that invokes in its audience an accompanying catharsis or pleasure in the viewing.

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Transformer

A transformer is an electrical device that transfers electrical energy between two or more circuits through electromagnetic induction.

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Transistor

A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals and electrical power.

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Trivium

The Trivium is a systematic method of critical thinking used to derive factual certainty from information perceived with the traditional five senses: sight, sound, taste, touch, and smell.

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Trombone

The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family.

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Troy

Troy (Ἴλιον, Ilion, or Ἴλιος, Ilios; and Τροία, Troia; Trōia and Īlium;Trōia is the typical Latin name for the city. Ilium is a more poetic term: Hittite: Wilusa or Truwisa; Truva) was a city situated in what is known from Classical sources as Asia Minor, now northwest Anatolia in modern Turkey, located south of the southwest end of the Dardanelles/Hellespont and northwest of Mount Ida at Hisarlık.

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Tsar

Tsar (Old Church Slavonic: ц︢рь (usually written thus with a tilde) or цар, цaрь; also Czar or Tzar in Latin alphabet languages) is a title used to designate certain European Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers.

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Turkey

Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Turkish), is a parliamentary republic in Eurasia, largely located in Western Asia, with the smaller portion of Eastern Thrace in Southeast Europe.

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Tyrannosaurus

Tyrannosaurus (or ("tyrant lizard", from the Ancient Greek tyrannos (τύραννος), "tyrant", and sauros (σαῦρος), "lizard")) is a genus of coelurosaurian theropod dinosaur.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.

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University

A university (universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which grants academic degrees in various subjects and typically provides undergraduate education and postgraduate education.

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Uranus

Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun.

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Vatican Secret Archives

The Vatican Secret Archives ('Archivum Secretum Apostolicum Vaticanum'; 'Archivio Segreto Vaticano') is the central repository in the Vatican City for all of the acts promulgated by the Holy See.

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Venice

Venice (Venezia; alternative obsolete form: Vinegia; Venetian: Venèxia; Venetiae; Benetke) is a city in northeastern Italy sited on a group of 118 small islands separated by canals and linked by bridges.

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Victor Davis Hanson

Victor Davis Hanson (born September 5, 1953) is an American military historian, columnist, former classics professor, and scholar of ancient warfare.

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Victor Hugo

Victor Marie Hugo (26 February 1802 – 22 May 1885) was a French poet, novelist, and dramatist of the Romantic movement.

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Victoria (Australia)

Victoria (abbreviated as Vic) is a state in the south-east of Australia.

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Victorian architecture

Victorian architecture is a series of architectural revival styles in the mid-to-late 19th century.

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Vienna

Vienna (Wien) is the capital and largest city of Austria, and one of the nine states of Austria.

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Villa Savoye

Villa Savoye is a modernist villa in Poissy, in the outskirts of Paris, France.

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Violin

The violin, also called a fiddle, is a string instrument, usually with four strings tuned in perfect fifths.

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Vitamin

A vitamin (and) is an organic compound and a vital nutrient that an organism requires in limited amounts.

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Voltaire

François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian, and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of expression, and separation of church and state.

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Voyager 2

Voyager 2 is a space probe launched by NASA on August 20, 1977 to study the outer planets.

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Walter Camp

Walter Chauncey Camp (April 7, 1859 – March 14, 1925) was an American football player, coach, and sports writer known as the "Father of American Football".

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Water wheel

A water wheel is a machine for converting the energy of free-flowing or falling water into useful forms of power, often in a watermill.

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Western Christianity

Western Christianity consists of the Latin Church of the Catholic Church and a variety of Protestant denominations.

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Western Europe

Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.

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Western law

Western law refers to the legal traditions of Western culture.

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Western media

The Western media refers to the news media of the Western world.

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Western religions

Western religions refer to religions that originated within Western culture, and are thus historically, culturally, and theologically distinct from the Eastern religions.

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Western Roman Empire

In historiography, the Western Roman Empire consists of the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any one time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court, coequal with (or only nominally subordinate to) that administering the eastern half.

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Western world

The Western world, also known as the West and the Occident (from Latin: occidens "sunset, West"; as contrasted with the Orient), is a term referring to different nations depending on the context.

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Westernization

Westernization or Westernisation (see spelling differences), also Europeanization/Europeanisation or occidentalization/occidentalisation (from the Occident, meaning the Western world; see "occident" in the dictionary), is a process whereby societies come under or adopt Western culture in areas such as industry, technology, law, politics, economics, lifestyle, diet, clothing, language, alphabet, religion, philosophy, and values.

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Wicca

Wicca is a modern pagan, witchcraft religion.

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William Shakespeare

William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised) – 23 April 1616) was an English:poet,:playwright, actor and an Italophile, who is widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.

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Winter Palace

The Winter Palace (p) in Saint Petersburg, Russia, was, from 1732 to 1917, the official residence of the Russian monarchs.

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World Wide Web

The World Wide Web (www, W3) is an information space where documents and other web resources are identified by URLs, interlinked by hypertext links, and can be accessed via the Internet.

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X-ray

X-radiation (composed of X-rays) is a form of electromagnetic radiation.

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1896 Summer Olympics

The 1896 Summer Olympics (Θερινοί Ολυμπιακοί Αγώνες 1896), officially known as the Games of the I Olympiad, was a multi-sport event held in Athens, Greece, from 6 to 15 April 1896.

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Criticism of Western Culture, Criticism of Western culture, Non-western, The Western Civilization, Western Civ, Western Civilisation, Western Civilization, Western Culture, Western Cultures, Western civilisation, Western civilization, Western civilzation, Western cultural norms, Western cultures, Western identity, Western people.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Western_culture

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