166 relations: A Mathematician's Apology, Abel Prize, Academia, Accounting, Actuary, Ada Lovelace, Age of Enlightenment, Alan Turing, Alexander Grothendieck, Alfréd Rényi, Alfred Adler, Alhazen, Alicia Boole Stott, American Mathematical Society, Analytical skill, Andrey Kolmogorov, Applied mathematics, Archimedes, Aryabhata, Association for Women in Mathematics, Astronomy, Augustin-Louis Cauchy, Autonomy, Émilie du Châtelet, Évariste Galois, Balzan Prize, Bernhard Riemann, Bhāskara II, Blaise Pascal, Bonaventura Cavalieri, Brahmagupta, Business, C. P. Snow, Calculus, Carl Friedrich Gauss, Carl Friedrich Gauss Prize, Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi, Chern Medal, Concept, Crafoord Prize, Critical thinking, Data, David Hilbert, Derivative (finance), Dictionary of Occupational Titles, Doctorate, Economics, Edgar Allan Poe, Edward Frenkel, Emmy Noether, ..., Engineering, Euclid, European Mathematical Society, Felix Klein, Fibonacci, Fields Medal, François Viète, Frederick William University, Friedrich Schleiermacher, G. H. Hardy, Georg Cantor, Gerolamo Cardano, Giuseppe Peano, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Graduate school, Henri Poincaré, Hermann Weyl, History of mathematics, Human computer, Hypatia, Isaac Newton, Jacob Bernoulli, Johann Bernoulli, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Edensor Littlewood, John von Neumann, Joseph Fourier, Joseph-Louis Lagrange, Julia Robinson, Knowledge, Kurt Gödel, Laboratory, Leonhard Euler, Leroy P. Steele Prize, List of amateur mathematicians, List of women in mathematics, Lists of mathematicians, Luca Pacioli, Lucasian Professor of Mathematics, Maria Gaetana Agnesi, Mark Kac, Mary Cartwright, Maryam Mirzakhani, Master's degree, Mathematical Association of America, Mathematical joke, Mathematical model, Mathematical problem, Mathematical sciences, Mathematics, Men of Mathematics, Mental calculator, Michael Harris (mathematician), Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī, Navigation, Neal Koblitz, Nemmers Prize in Mathematics, Nevanlinna Prize, Niccolò Fontana Tartaglia, Niels Henrik Abel, Nikolai Lobachevsky, Norbert Wiener, Number, Numerical analysis, Olga Ladyzhenskaya, Olga Oleinik, Olga Taussky-Todd, Omar Khayyám, Optics, Paul Erdős, Paul Halmos, Physics, Pierre de Fermat, Pierre-Simon Laplace, Prelims, Professional, Pure mathematics, Pythagoras, Pythagoreanism, Quantity, Raoul Bott, Rózsa Péter, René Descartes, Research, Robert Boyle, Robert Hooke, Robert Recorde, Rolf Schock Prizes, Science, Seminar, Share price, Shaw Prize, Sofia Kovalevskaya, Sophie Germain, Space, Srinivasa Ramanujan, Stanislaw Ulam, Statistician, Stochastic calculus, Stock, Structure, Thales, Thales' theorem, The Renaissance, Thesis, Thomas Simpson, Tom Lehrer, Tullio Levi-Civita, Undergraduate education, University of Cambridge, University of Oxford, Valuation of options, William Dunham (mathematician), William Rowan Hamilton, Wolf Prize, World War II. Expand index (116 more) » « Shrink index
A Mathematician's Apology is a 1940 essay by British mathematician G. H. Hardy.
The Abel Prize is an international prize awarded annually by the Government of Norway to one or more outstanding mathematicians.
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Academia is the internationally recognized establishment of professional scholars and students, usually centered around colleges and universities, who are engaged in higher education and research.
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Accounting or Accountancy is the measurement, processing and communication of financial information about economic entities.
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An actuary is a business professional who deals with the measurement and management of risk and uncertainty.
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Augusta Ada King, Countess of Lovelace (née Byron; 10 December 1815 – 27 November 1852) was an English mathematician and writer, chiefly known for her work on Charles Babbage's early mechanical general-purpose computer, the Analytical Engine.
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The Age of Enlightenment or simply the Enlightenment or Age of Reason is an era from the 1620s to the 1780s in which cultural and intellectual forces in Western Europe emphasized reason, analysis, and individualism rather than traditional lines of authority.
Alan Mathison Turing, OBE, FRS (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was a British pioneering computer scientist, mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst, theoretical biologist, and marathon and ultra distance runner.
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Alexander Grothendieck (28 March 1928 – 13 November 2014) was a German-born French mathematician who became the leading figure in the creation of modern algebraic geometry.
Alfréd Rényi (20 March 1921 – 1 February 1970) was a Hungarian mathematician who made contributions in combinatorics, graph theory, number theory but mostly in probability theory.
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Alfred W. Adler (February 7, 1870 – May 28, 1937) was an Austrian medical doctor, psychotherapist, and founder of the school of individual psychology.
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(أبو علي، الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم), frequently referred to as Ibn al-Haytham (Arabic: ابن الهيثم, Latinized as AlhazenNow deprecated. or Alhacen; 965 – 1040), was an Arab Muslim polymath and philosopher who is widely considered as one of the most influential scientists of all time.
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Alicia Boole Stott (June 8, 1860 – December 17, 1940) was an Irish-English mathematician.
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The American Mathematical Society (AMS) is an association of professional mathematicians dedicated to the interests of mathematical research and scholarship, and serves the national and international community through its publications, meetings, advocacy and other programs.
Analytical skill is the ability to visualize, articulate, conceptualize or solve both complex and uncomplicated problems by making decisions that are sensible given the available information.
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Andrey Nikolaevich Kolmogorov (a, 25 April 1903 – 20 October 1987) was a 20th-century Soviet mathematician who made significant contributions to the mathematics of probability theory, topology, intuitionistic logic, turbulence, classical mechanics, algorithmic information theory and computational complexity.
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Applied mathematics is a branch of mathematics that deals with mathematical methods that find use in science, engineering, business, computer science, and industry.
Archimedes of Syracuse (Ἀρχιμήδης; BC – BC) was an Ancient Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer.
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Aryabhata (आर्यभट; IAST) or Aryabhata I (476–550 CE) was the first of the major mathematician-astronomers from the classical age of Indian mathematics and Indian astronomy.
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The Association for Women in Mathematics (AWM) is a professional society whose mission is to encourage women and girls to study and to have active careers in the mathematical sciences, and to promote equal opportunity for and the equal treatment of women and girls in the mathematical sciences.
Astronomy is a natural science which is the study of celestial objects (such as stars, galaxies, planets, moons, asteroids, comets and nebulae), the physics, chemistry, and evolution of such objects, and phenomena that originate outside the atmosphere of Earth, including supernovae explosions, gamma ray bursts, and cosmic microwave background radiation.
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Baron Augustin-Louis Cauchy FRS FRSE (21 August 1789 – 23 May 1857) was a French mathematician reputed as a pioneer of analysis.
Autonomy (Ancient Greek: αὐτονομία autonomia from αὐτόνομος autonomos from αὐτο- auto- "self" and νόμος nomos, "law", hence when combined understood to mean "one who gives oneself one's own law") is a concept found in moral, political, and bioethical philosophy.
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Gabrielle Émilie Le Tonnelier de Breteuil, marquise du Châtelet (17 December 1706 – 10 September 1749) was a French mathematician, physicist, and author during the Age of Enlightenment.
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Évariste Galois (25 October 1811 – 31 May 1832) was a French mathematician born in Bourg-la-Reine.
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The International Balzan Prize Foundation awards four annual monetary prizes to people or organizations who have made outstanding achievements in the fields of humanities, natural sciences, culture, as well as for endeavours for peace and the brotherhood of man.
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Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann (September 17, 1826 – July 20, 1866) was an influential German mathematician who made lasting and revolutionary contributions to analysis, number theory, and differential geometry.
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Bhāskara (also known as Bhāskarācārya ("Bhāskara the teacher"), and as Bhāskara II to avoid confusion with Bhāskara I) (1114–1185), was an Indian mathematician and astronomer.
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Blaise Pascal (19 June 1623 – 19 August 1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer and Christian philosopher.
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Bonaventura Francesco Cavalieri (in Latin, Cavalerius) (1598 – 30 November 1647) was an Italian mathematician and a Jesuat.
Brahmagupta (ब्रह्मगुप्त) (598–c.670 CE) was an Indian mathematician and astronomer who wrote two works on mathematics and astronomy: the Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta (Extensive Treatise of Brahma) (628), a theoretical treatise, and the Khaṇḍakhādyaka, a more practical text.
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A business, also known as an enterprise or a firm, is an organization involved in the of goods, services, or both to consumers.
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Charles Percy Snow, Baron Snow, Kt., CBE (15 October 1905 – 1 July 1980), was an English physical chemist and novelist who also served in several important positions in the British Civil Service and briefly in the UK government.
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Calculus is the mathematical study of change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of operations and their application to solving equations.
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Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (Gauß,; Carolus Fridericus Gauss) (30 April 177723 February 1855) was a German mathematician who contributed significantly to many fields, including number theory, algebra, statistics, analysis, differential geometry, geodesy, geophysics, mechanics, electrostatics, astronomy, matrix theory, and optics.
The Carl Friedrich Gauss Prize for Applications of Mathematics is a mathematics award, granted jointly by the International Mathematical Union and the German Mathematical Society for "outstanding mathematical contributions that have found significant applications outside of mathematics".
Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi (10 December 1804 – 18 February 1851) was a German mathematician, who made fundamental contributions to elliptic functions, dynamics, differential equations, and number theory.
The Chern Medal is an international award recognizing outstanding lifelong achievement of the highest level in the field of mathematics.
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A concept is an abstraction or generalization from experience or the result of a transformation of existing ideas.
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The Crafoord Prize is an annual science prize established in 1980 by Holger Crafoord, a Swedish industrialist, and his wife Anna-Greta Crafoord.
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Critical thinking, also called critical analysis, is clear, rational thinking involving critique.
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Data is a set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables; restated, pieces of data are individual pieces of information.
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David Hilbert (23 January 1862 – 14 February 1943) was a German mathematician.
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In finance, a derivative is a contract that derives its value from the performance of an underlying entity.
The Dictionary of Occupational Titles or D-O-T (DOT) refers to a publication produced by the United States Department of Labor which helped employers, government officials, and workforce development professionals to define over 13,000 different types of work, from 1938 to the late 1990s.
A doctorate (from Latin docere, "to teach") or doctor's degree (from Latin doctor, "teacher") or doctoral degree is an academic degree (Ph.D. or Ed.D.) awarded by universities that, in most countries, qualifies the holder to teach at the university level in the degree's field, or to work in a specific profession.
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Economics is the social science that seeks to describe the factors which determine the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services.
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Edgar Allan Poe (born Edgar Poe; January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American author, poet, editor, and literary critic, widely regarded as a central figure of Romanticism in the United States and American literature as a whole.
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Edward Vladimirovich Frenkel is a mathematician working in representation theory, algebraic geometry, and mathematical physics.
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Emmy Noether (official name Amalie Emmy Noether; 23 March 1882 – 14 April 1935) was a German mathematician known for her contributions to abstract algebra and theoretical physics.
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Engineering is the application of mathematics, empirical evidence and scientific, economic, social, and practical knowledge in order to invent, design, build, maintain, research, and improve, structures, machines, tools, systems, components, materials, and processes.
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Euclid (Εὐκλείδης Eukleidēs; fl. 300 BC), sometimes called Euclid of Alexandria to distinguish him from Euclid of Megara, was a Greek mathematician, often referred to as the "Father of Geometry".
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The European Mathematical Society (EMS) is a European organization dedicated to the development of mathematics in Europe.
Christian Felix Klein (25 April 1849 – 22 June 1925) was a German mathematician and mathematics educator, known for his work in group theory, complex analysis, non-Euclidean geometry, and on the connections between geometry and group theory.
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Leonardo Bonacci (c. 1170 – c. 1250)known as Fibonacci, and also Leonardo of Pisa, Leonardo Pisano Bigollo, Leonardo Fibonacciwas an Italian mathematician, considered to be "the most talented Western mathematician of the Middle Ages".
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The Fields Medal is a prize awarded to two, three, or four mathematicians under 40 years of age at the International Congress of the International Mathematical Union (IMU), a meeting that takes place every four years.
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François Viète (Latin: Franciscus Vieta; 1540 – 23 February 1603), Seigneur de la Bigotière, was a French mathematician whose work on new algebra was an important step towards modern algebra, due to its innovative use of letters as parameters in equations.
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The Frederick William University (Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität, Alma Mater Berolinensis) was a university in Berlin, Germany.
Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher (November 21, 1768 – February 12, 1834) was a German theologian, philosopher, and biblical scholar known for his attempt to reconcile the criticisms of the Enlightenment with traditional Protestant Christianity.
Godfrey Harold ("G. H.") Hardy FRS (7 February 1877 – 1 December 1947) was an English mathematician, known for his achievements in number theory and mathematical analysis.
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Georg Ferdinand Ludwig Philipp Cantor (– January 6, 1918) was a German mathematician.
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Gerolamo (or Girolamo, or Geronimo) Cardano (Jérôme Cardan; Hieronymus Cardanus; 24 September 1501 – 21 September 1576) was an Italian mathematician, physician, astrologer, philosopher and gambler, best known as the earliest founder of probability and the establisher of the binomial coefficients and the binomial theorem, which was comprised in his book, Opus novum de proportionibus.
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Giuseppe Peano (27 August 1858 – 20 April 1932) was an Italian mathematician.
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Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (also Godefroi Guillaume Leibnitz,; or; July 1, 1646 – November 14, 1716) was a German polymath and philosopher, and to this day he occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy.
A graduate school (sometimes shortened as "grad school") is a school that awards advanced academic degrees (i.e. master's and doctoral degrees) with the general requirement that students must have earned a previous undergraduate (bachelor's) degree with a high grade point average.
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Jules Henri Poincaré (29 April 1854 – 17 July 1912) was a French mathematician, theoretical physicist, engineer, and a philosopher of science.
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Hermann Klaus Hugo Weyl, (9 November 1885 – 8 December 1955) was a German mathematician, theoretical physicist and philosopher.
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The area of study known as the history of mathematics is primarily an investigation into the origin of discoveries in mathematics and, to a lesser extent, an investigation into the mathematical methods and notation of the past.
The term "computer", in use from the early 17th century (the first known written reference dates from 1613), meant "one who computes": a person performing mathematical calculations, before electronic computers became commercially available.
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Hypatia (or; Ὑπατία Hypatía) (born c. AD 350 – 370; died 415) was a Greek mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher in Egypt, then a part of the Eastern Roman Empire.
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Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 164220 March 1726/7) was an English physicist and mathematician (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time and as a key figure in the scientific revolution.
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Jacob Bernoulli (also known as James or Jacques; – 16 August 1705) was one of the many prominent mathematicians in the Bernoulli family.
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Johann Bernoulli (also known as Jean or John; – 1 January 1748) was a Swiss mathematician and was one of the many prominent mathematicians in the Bernoulli family.
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Johann Wolfgang Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman.
John Edensor Littlewood (9 June 1885 – 6 September 1977) was a British mathematician, best known for his achievements in analysis, number theory and differential equations.
John von Neumann (Hungarian: Neumann János,; December 28, 1903 – February 8, 1957) was a Hungarian-American pure and applied mathematician, physicist, inventor, polymath, and polyglot.
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Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier (21 March 1768 – 16 May 1830) was a French mathematician and physicist born in Auxerre and best known for initiating the investigation of Fourier series and their applications to problems of heat transfer and vibrations.
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Joseph-Louis Lagrange, born Giuseppe Lodovico Lagrangia or Giuseppe Ludovico De la Grange Tournier (also reported as Giuseppe Luigi Lagrange or Lagrangia) (25 January 1736 – 10 April 1813) was an Italian Enlightenment Era mathematician and astronomer.
Julia Hall Bowman Robinson (December 8, 1919 – July 30, 1985) was an American mathematician best known for her work on decision problems and Hilbert's Tenth Problem.
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Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.
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Kurt Friedrich Gödel (April 28, 1906 – January 14, 1978) was an Austrian, and later American, logician, mathematician, and philosopher.
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A laboratory (or; informally, lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed.
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Leonhard Euler (17071783) was a pioneering Swiss mathematician and physicist.
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The Leroy P. Steele Prizes are awarded every year by the American Mathematical Society, for distinguished research work and writing in the field of mathematics.
This is a list of amateur mathematicians—people whose primary vocation did not involve mathematics (or any similar discipline) yet made notable, and sometimes important, contributions to the field of mathematics.
This is a list of women who have made noteworthy contributions to or achievements in mathematics.
This is a list of lists of mathematicians. Lists by nationality, ethnicity or religion.
Fra Luca Bartolomeo de Pacioli (sometimes Paccioli or Paciolo; 1447–1517) was an Italian mathematician, Franciscan friar, collaborator with Leonardo da Vinci, and a seminal contributor to the field now known as accounting.
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The Lucasian Chair of Mathematics is a mathematics professorship in the University of Cambridge, England; its holder is known as the Lucasian Professor.
Maria Gaetana Agnesi (16 May 1718 – 9 January 1799) was an Italian mathematician and philosopher.
Mark Kac (Polish: Marek Kac; 3 August 1914 – 26 October 1984) was a Polish American mathematician.
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Dame Mary Lucy Cartwright DBE FRSE FRS (17 December 1900 – 3 April 1998) was a British mathematician.
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Maryam Mirzakhani (مریم میرزاخانی; born May 1977) is an Iranian mathematician working in the United States.
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A master's degree (from Latin magister) is an academic degree awarded by universities upon completion of a course of study demonstrating a mastery or high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice.
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The Mathematical Association of America (MAA) is a professional society that focuses on mathematics accessible at the undergraduate level.
A mathematical joke is a form of humor which relies on aspects of mathematics or a stereotype of mathematicians to derive humor.
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A mathematical model is a description of a system using mathematical concepts and language.
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A mathematical problem is a problem that is amenable to being represented, analyzed, and possibly solved, with the methods of mathematics.
Mathematical sciences is a group of areas of study that includes, in addition to mathematics, those academic disciplines that are primarily mathematical in nature but may not be universally considered subfields of mathematics proper.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, “knowledge, study, learning”) is the study of topics such as quantity (numbers), structure, space, and change.
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Men of Mathematics: The Lives and Achievements of the Great Mathematicians from Zeno to Poincare is a book on the history of mathematics published in 1937 by Scottish-born American mathematician and science fiction writer E. T. Bell (1883-1960).
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Mental calculators are people with a prodigious ability in some area of mental calculation, such as multiplying large numbers or factoring large numbers.
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Michael Howard Harris (born 1954) is an American mathematician.
There is some confusion in the literature on whether al-Khwārizmī's full name is or.
Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another.
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Neal I. Koblitz (born December 24, 1948) is a Professor of Mathematics at the University of Washington in the Department of Mathematics.
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The Frederic Esser Nemmers Prize in Mathematics is awarded biennially from Northwestern University.
The Rolf Nevanlinna Prize (named in honor of Rolf Nevanlinna) is awarded once every 4 years at the International Congress of Mathematicians, for outstanding contributions in Mathematical Aspects of Information Sciences including.
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Niccolò Fontana Tartaglia (1499/1500, Brescia – 13 December 1557, Venice) was an Italian mathematician, engineer (designing fortifications), a surveyor (of topography, seeking the best means of defense or offense) and a bookkeeper from the then-Republic of Venice (now part of Italy).
Niels Henrik Abel (5 August 1802 – 6 April 1829) was a Norwegian mathematician who made pioneering contributions in a variety of fields.
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Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky (a; &ndash) was a Russian mathematician and geometer, known primarily for his work on hyperbolic geometry, otherwise known as Lobachevskian geometry.
Norbert Wiener (November 26, 1894 – March 18, 1964) was an American mathematician and philosopher.
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A number is a mathematical object used to count, measure and label.
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Numerical analysis is the study of algorithms that use numerical approximation (as opposed to general symbolic manipulations) for the problems of mathematical analysis (as distinguished from discrete mathematics).
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Olga Aleksandrovna Ladyzhenskaya (Óльга Алекса́ндровна Лады́женская) (7 March 1922 – 12 January 2004) was a Soviet and Russian mathematician.
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Olga Arsenievna Oleinik (О́льга Арсе́ньевна Оле́йник) (2 July 1925 – 13 October 2001) was a Soviet mathematician who conducted pioneering work on the theory of partial differential equations, the theory of strongly inhomogeneous elastic media, and the mathematical theory of boundary layers.
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Olga Taussky-Todd (August 30, 1906, Olomouc, Moravia – October 7, 1995, Pasadena, California) was an Austrian and later Czech-American mathematician.
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Omar Khayyám; born (غیاثالدین ابوالفتح عمر ابراهیم خیام نیشابورﻯ,; 18 May 1048 – 4 December 1131), was a Persian mathematician, astronomer, philosopher, and poet, who is widely considered to be one of the most influential scientists of all time.
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Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.
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Paul Erdős (Erdős Pál; 26 March 1913 – 20 September 1996) was a Hungarian mathematician.
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Paul Richard Halmos (Halmos Pál; March 3, 1916 – October 2, 2006) was a Hungarian-Jewish-born American mathematician who made fundamental advances in the areas of mathematical logic, probability theory, statistics, operator theory, ergodic theory, and functional analysis (in particular, Hilbert spaces).
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Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phúsis "nature") is the natural science that involves the study of matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion through space and time, along with related concepts such as energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." More broadly, it is the general analysis of nature, conducted in order to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines, perhaps the oldest through its inclusion of astronomy. Over the last two millennia, physics was a part of natural philosophy along with chemistry, certain branches of mathematics, and biology, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, the natural sciences emerged as unique research programs in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms of other sciences while opening new avenues of research in areas such as mathematics and philosophy. Physics also makes significant contributions through advances in new technologies that arise from theoretical breakthroughs. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism or nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization, and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
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Pierre de Fermat (17 August 1601 – 12 January 1665) was a French lawyer at the Parlement of Toulouse, France, and a mathematician who is given credit for early developments that led to infinitesimal calculus, including his technique of adequality.
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Pierre-Simon, marquis de Laplace (23 March 1749 – 5 March 1827) was an influential French scholar whose work was important to the development of mathematics, statistics, physics, and astronomy.
The use of the term Prelim (short for preliminary examination) varies and is synonymous with qualifying exam, but it generally refers to an examination (usually one from a sequence) that qualifies a student to continue studies at a higher level, and/or allow the student to comprehend his/her studies and see how prepared they are for the looming examinations.
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A professional is a member of a profession or any person who earns their living from a specified activity.
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Broadly speaking, pure mathematics is mathematics that studies entirely abstract concepts.
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Pythagoras of Samos (Samian, or simply Πυθαγόρας; Πυθαγόρης in Ionian Greek) was an Ionian Greek philosopher, mathematician, and has been credited as the founder of the movement called Pythagoreanism.
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Pythagoreanism originated in the 5th century BCE, based on teachings, or beliefs held by Pythagoras and his followers, the Pythagoreans, who were considerably influenced by mathematics, music and astronomy.
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Quantity is a property that can exist as a magnitude or multitude.
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Raoul Bott, (September 24, 1923 – December 20, 2005) was a Hungarian-American mathematician known for numerous basic contributions to geometry in its broad sense.
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Rózsa Péter, born Politzer, (17 February 1905 – 16 February 1977) was a Hungarian mathematician.
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René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 159611 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist who spent about 20 years of his life in the Dutch Republic.
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Research comprises "creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.
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Robert Boyle FRS was an Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist and inventor born in Lismore, County Waterford, Ireland.
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Robert Hooke FRS (– 3 March 1703) was an English natural philosopher, architect and polymath.
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Robert Recorde (ca. 1512–1558) was a Welsh physician and mathematician.
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The Rolf Schock Prizes were established and endowed by bequest of philosopher and artist Rolf Schock (1933–1986).
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ScienceFrom Latin scientia, meaning "knowledge".
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A seminar is a form of academic instruction, either at an academic institution or offered by a commercial or professional organization.
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A share price is the price of a single share of a number of saleable stocks of a company, derivative or other financial asset.
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The Shaw Prize is an annual award first presented by the Shaw Prize Foundation in 2004.
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Sofia Vasilyevna Kovalevskaya (Со́фья Васи́льевна Ковале́вская) (–) was the first major Russian female mathematician, responsible for important original contributions to analysis, differential equations and mechanics, and the first woman appointed to a full professorship in Northern Europe.
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Marie-Sophie Germain (1 April 1776 – 27 June 1831) was a French mathematician, physicist, and philosopher.
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Space is the boundless three-dimensional extent in which objects and events have relative position and direction.
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Srinivasa Ramanujan Iyengar (22 December 188726 April 1920) was an Indian mathematician and autodidact who, with almost no formal training in pure mathematics, made extraordinary contributions to mathematical analysis, number theory, infinite series, and continued fractions.
Stanisław Marcin Ulam (pronounced; 13 April 1909 – 13 May 1984) was a Polish-American mathematician.
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A statistician is someone who works with theoretical or applied statistics.
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Stochastic calculus is a branch of mathematics that operates on stochastic processes.
The stock (also capital stock) of a corporation constitutes the equity stake of its owners.
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Structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system, or the object or system so organized.
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Thales of Miletus (Θαλῆς (ὁ Μιλήσιος), Thalēs; 624 – c. 546 BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher and mathematician from Miletus in Asia Minor and one of the Seven Sages of Greece.
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In geometry, Thales' theorem states that if A, B and C are points on a circle where the line is a diameter of the circle, then the angle ∠ABC is a right angle.
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The Renaissance is a period in Europe, from the 14th to the 17th century, considered the bridge between the Middle Ages and modern history.
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A thesis or dissertation is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings.
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Thomas Simpson FRS (20 August 1710 – 14 May 1761) was a British mathematician, inventor and eponym of Simpson's rule to approximate definite integrals.
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Thomas Andrew Lehrer (born April 9, 1928) is an American singer-songwriter, satirist, pianist, and mathematician.
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Tullio Levi-Civita, FRS (29 March 1873 – 29 December 1941) was an Italian mathematician, most famous for his work on absolute differential calculus (tensor calculus) and its applications to the theory of relativity, but who also made significant contributions in other areas.
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Undergraduate education is the post-secondary education previous to the postgraduate education.
The University of CambridgeThe corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.
The University of Oxford (informally Oxford University or simply Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
In finance, a price (premium) is paid or received for purchasing or selling options.
William Wade Dunham (born 1947) is an American writer who was originally trained in topology but became interested in the history of mathematics and specializes in Leonhard Euler.
Sir William Rowan Hamilton (midnight, 3–4 August 1805 – 2 September 1865) was an Irish physicist, astronomer, and mathematician, who made important contributions to classical mechanics, optics, and algebra.
The Wolf Prize is an international award granted in Israel, that has been presented most years since 1978 to living scientists and artists for "achievements in the interest of mankind and friendly relations among people...
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World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier.
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