Logo
Unionpedia
Communication
Get it on Google Play
New! Download Unionpedia on your Android™ device!
Free
Faster access than browser!
 

Economics

+ Save concept

Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. [1]

511 relations: Absolute advantage, Academic degree, Achaemenid Empire, Adam Smith, Adverse selection, Advocacy group, Agent (economics), Agent-based computational economics, Aggregate demand, Aggregation problem, Agricultural subsidy, Alfred Marshall, Allocative efficiency, American Economic Association, Amos Tversky, An Essay on the Nature and Significance of Economic Science, An Essay on the Principle of Population, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek, Ancient Rome, Applied economics, Applied mathematics, Arab world, Aristotle, Artificial Life (journal), Auburn University, Austrian School, Émile Durkheim, Balanced budget, Bank, Bankruptcy, Barter, Behavioral economics, Behaviorism, Ben Bernanke, Boeotia, Budget, Budget constraint, Business cycle, Business economics, Business ethics, Calculus, Capital (economics), Capital formation, Capital market, Capital structure, Capitalism, Carbon tax, Central bank, Ceteris paribus, ..., Chanakya, China, Choice, Circular flow of income, Circulating capital, Classical antiquity, Classical economics, Cognitive bias, Coincidence of wants, Communication, Comparative advantage, Comparative economic systems, Competition (economics), Complex adaptive system, Computer science, Constitutional economics, Consumer choice, Consumption (economics), Contract theory, Convergence (economics), Corporation, Cost–benefit analysis, Crowding out (economics), Daniel Kahneman, Das Kapital, Data set, David Ricardo, Decision theory, Decision-making, Deficit spending, Definitions of economics, Deirdre McCloskey, Dependency theory, Developing country, Development economics, Diminishing returns, Discouraged worker, Distortion (economics), Distribution (economics), Division of labour, Duopoly, Dynamic network analysis, East Coast of the United States, Ecological economics, Ecological Economics (journal), Econ Journal Watch, Econometrics, Economic cost, Economic data, Economic development, Economic efficiency, Economic equilibrium, Economic geography, Economic growth, Economic history, Economic ideology, Economic model, Economic nationalism, Economic policy, Economic sociology, Economic union, Economica, Economics, Economics (textbook), Economics of religion, Economics of science, Economics terminology that differs from common usage, Economies of agglomeration, Economies of scale, Economy, Economy of Cuba, Economy of Laos, Economy of North Korea, Econophysics, Education economics, Effective demand, Efficient-market hypothesis, Emissions trading, Empirical evidence, Encyclopædia Britannica, Endogenous growth theory, Energy economics, Energy supply, Entropy, Environmental economics, Equity (economics), Evolutionary biology, Evolutionary economics, Exchange rate, Exchange-rate flexibility, Exogeny, Experiment, Experimental economics, Externality, Factors of production, Falsifiability, Family economics, Federal government of the United States, Feminist economics, Finance, Financial crisis, Financial crisis of 2007–2008, Financial economics, Financial instrument, Financial market, Financial regulation, Fiscal multiplier, Fiscal policy, Fixed capital, Floating exchange rate, Foundations of Economic Analysis, Four Asian Tigers, Francis Amasa Walker, Fraser's Magazine, Free market, Free trade, Freiburg school, Full employment, Futures exchange, Gains from trade, Game theory, Gary Becker, General equilibrium theory, Genetically modified crops, Georg Simmel, George Akerlof, Globalization, Glossary of economics, Goods, Goods and services, Government budget balance, Great Depression, Green economy, Gross National Happiness, Growth accounting, Guns versus butter model, Health economics, Herman Daly, Hesiod, Heterodox economics, Heuristics in judgment and decision-making, Historian, History of India, Homo economicus, Household, Human behavior, Human capital, Ibn Khaldun, If Women Counted, Imperfect competition, Import quota, Income distribution, Income–consumption curve, Incomplete markets, Index of economics articles, Individual, Industrial organization, Inflation, Information asymmetry, Information economics, Input–output model, Institution, Institutional economics, Insurance, Intermediate good, International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, International finance, International Monetary Fund, International monetary systems, Investment (macroeconomics), Invisible hand, IS–LM model, Jean-Baptiste Say, Joan Robinson, John Hicks, John Maynard Keynes, John McMurtry, John Stuart Mill, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Joseph Stiglitz, Journal of Economic Education, Journal of Economic Perspectives, Journal of Economic Theory, Julian Simon, Julie A. Nelson, Karl Marx, Keynesian economics, Labor mobility, Labor theory of value, Labour economics, Laissez-faire, Land (economics), Lausanne School, Law and economics, Law of demand, Léon Walras, Leisure, Liberal arts education, Linear algebra, Linear programming, Lionel Robbins, Liquidationism (economics), List of economics films, List of free-trade agreements, List of Latin phrases (E), List of multilateral free-trade agreements, List of national and international statistical services, Local government, Long run and short run, Macroeconomics, Mainstream economics, Management, Managerial economics, Marginal cost, Marginal revenue, Marginal utility, Marginalism, Marilyn Waring, Mark Granovetter, Market (economics), Market clearing, Market economy, Market failure, Market power, Market structure, Market system, Mathematical optimization, Max Weber, McCloskey critique, Measures of national income and output, Mechanism design, Medium of exchange, Mercantilism, Mesopotamia, Michael Perelman, Microeconomics, Microfoundations, Milton Friedman, Minimum wage, Mixed economy, Modernity, Monetarism, Monetary economics, Monetary policy, Money, Money supply, Monopolistic competition, Monopoly, Monopsony, Moral hazard, Mutual exclusivity, Nassim Nicholas Taleb, National accounts, Natural experiment, Natural law, Natural monopoly, Natural science, Nature, Nature (journal), Negative income tax, Negative relationship, Neoclassical economics, Neoclassical synthesis, Neuroeconomics, New classical macroeconomics, New Keynesian economics, Nicholas Barr, Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen, Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, Nominal rigidity, Normal good, Normative economics, Nuclear strategy, Objectivity (philosophy), Observational study, Occasional Discourse on the Negro Question, Oeconomicus, Okun's law, Oligopsony, On the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation, Operations research, Opportunity cost, Ordinal utility, Organization, Oskar Morgenstern, Outline of economics, Outline of physical science, Output (economics), Output gap, Outsourcing, Paradigm, Pareto efficiency, Partnership, Paul Joskow, Paul Samuelson, Per capita, Perfect competition, Perfect information, Permanent income hypothesis, Peter Hedström, Philip Mirowski, Physiocracy, Planned economy, Policy, Political agenda, Political economy, Political faction, Political science, Politics, Population growth, Positive economics, Post-Keynesian economics, Potential output, Poverty, Preference (economics), Price, Price elasticity of supply, Price level, Price system, Principles of Economics (Marshall), Principles of Political Economy, Private good, Product (business), Production (economics), Production–possibility frontier, Productive efficiency, Profit maximization, Proportionality (mathematics), Public bad, Public choice, Public economics, Public good, Public policy, Public sector, Purchasing power, Qin Shi Huang, Qualitative economics, Quantity theory of money, Ramsey–Cass–Koopmans model, Rational choice theory, Rational expectations, Real business-cycle theory, Real gross domestic product, Real versus nominal value (economics), Recession, Redistribution of income and wealth, Regression analysis, Regulation, Regulatory economics, Renaissance, Rent regulation, Rent-seeking, Replication (statistics), Research program, Resource allocation, Restructuring, Returns to scale, Reuters, Rhetoric, Ricardian equivalence, Richard Swedberg, Risk aversion, Robert Lucas Jr., Ronald Coase, Satire, Say's Political Economy, Scarcity, Schools of economic thought, Science, Scientific American, Scientific control, Scottish people, Service (economics), Slavery, Slope, Social relation, Social science, Social Security (United States), Socialism, Society, Socioeconomics, Sociology, State (polity), State government, Statistical significance, Statistics, Stimulus (economics), Stock and flow, Stockholm school (economics), Structural change, Structural unemployment, Structuralist economics, Substitution effect, Supply and demand, Supply-side economics, Surplus value, Sustainability, Tariff, Tax cut, Tax incidence, Taylor & Francis, Technical progress (economics), Technology, The American Economic Review, The dismal science, The Economist, The Economists' Voice, The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money, The Journal of Law and Economics, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, The New York Times, The New York Times Magazine, The Philosophy of Money, The Problem of Social Cost, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, The Reverend, The Theory of Wages, The Ultimate Resource, The Wealth of Nations, Theorem, Theory of forms, Theory of Games and Economic Behavior, Theory of the firm, Thermodynamics, Thermoeconomics, Thomas Aquinas, Thomas Carlyle, Thomas Robert Malthus, Trade, Trade union, Transaction cost, Transfer payment, Treasury, Trust law, Ultimatum game, Uncertainty, Unemployment, Unit of account, United States, United States federal budget, University, University of Cambridge, Unpaid work, Utility, Value (ethics), Value and Capital, Victorian era, Wealth, Web directory, Welfare, West Coast of the United States, Women's work, Workforce, Workforce productivity, World Bank Group, World energy consumption, World population, World-systems theory. Expand index (461 more) »

Absolute advantage

In economics, the principle of absolute advantage refers to the ability of a party (an individual, or firm, or country) to produce a greater quantity of a good, product, or service than competitors, using the same amount of resources.

New!!: Economics and Absolute advantage · See more »

Academic degree

An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher education, normally at a college or university.

New!!: Economics and Academic degree · See more »

Achaemenid Empire

The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.

New!!: Economics and Achaemenid Empire · See more »

Adam Smith

Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era.

New!!: Economics and Adam Smith · See more »

Adverse selection

Adverse selection is a term commonly used in economics, insurance, and risk management that describes a situation where market participation is affected by asymmetric information.

New!!: Economics and Adverse selection · See more »

Advocacy group

Advocacy groups (also known as pressure groups, lobby groups, campaign groups, interest groups, or special interest groups) use various forms of advocacy in order to influence public opinion and/or policy.

New!!: Economics and Advocacy group · See more »

Agent (economics)

In economics, an agent is an actor and more specifically a decision maker in a model of some aspect of the economy.

New!!: Economics and Agent (economics) · See more »

Agent-based computational economics

Agent-based computational economics (ACE) is the area of computational economics that studies economic processes, including whole economies, as dynamic systems of interacting agents.

New!!: Economics and Agent-based computational economics · See more »

Aggregate demand

In macroeconomics, aggregate demand (AD) or domestic final demand (DFD) is the total demand for final goods and services in an economy at a given time.

New!!: Economics and Aggregate demand · See more »

Aggregation problem

An aggregate in economics is a summary measure describing a market or economy.

New!!: Economics and Aggregation problem · See more »

Agricultural subsidy

An agricultural subsidy is a governmental subsidy paid to agribusinesses, agricultural organizations and farms to supplement their income, manage the supply of agricultural commodities, and influence the cost and supply of such commodities.

New!!: Economics and Agricultural subsidy · See more »

Alfred Marshall

Alfred Marshall, FBA (26 July 1842 – 13 July 1924) was one of the most influential economists of his time.

New!!: Economics and Alfred Marshall · See more »

Allocative efficiency

Allocative efficiency is a state of the economy in which production represents consumer preferences; in particular, every good or service is produced up to the point where the last unit provides a marginal benefit to consumers equal to the marginal cost of producing.

New!!: Economics and Allocative efficiency · See more »

American Economic Association

The American Economic Association (AEA) is a learned society in the field of economics, headquartered in Nashville, Tennessee.

New!!: Economics and American Economic Association · See more »

Amos Tversky

Amos Nathan Tversky (עמוס טברסקי; March 16, 1937 – June 2, 1996) was a cognitive and mathematical psychologist, a student of cognitive science, a collaborator of Daniel Kahneman, and a figure in the discovery of systematic human cognitive bias and handling of risk.

New!!: Economics and Amos Tversky · See more »

An Essay on the Nature and Significance of Economic Science

Lionel Robbins' Essay (1932, 1935, 2nd ed., 158 pp.) sought to define more precisely economics as a science and to derive substantive implications.

New!!: Economics and An Essay on the Nature and Significance of Economic Science · See more »

An Essay on the Principle of Population

The book An Essay on the Principle of Population was first published anonymously in 1798, but the author was soon identified as Thomas Robert Malthus.

New!!: Economics and An Essay on the Principle of Population · See more »

Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

New!!: Economics and Ancient Greece · See more »

Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

New!!: Economics and Ancient Greek · See more »

Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

New!!: Economics and Ancient Rome · See more »

Applied economics

Applied economics is the application of economic theory and econometrics in specific settings.

New!!: Economics and Applied economics · See more »

Applied mathematics

Applied mathematics is the application of mathematical methods by different fields such as science, engineering, business, computer science, and industry.

New!!: Economics and Applied mathematics · See more »

Arab world

The Arab world (العالم العربي; formally: Arab homeland, الوطن العربي), also known as the Arab nation (الأمة العربية) or the Arab states, currently consists of the 22 Arab countries of the Arab League.

New!!: Economics and Arab world · See more »

Aristotle

Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.

New!!: Economics and Aristotle · See more »

Artificial Life (journal)

Artificial Life is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that covers the study of man-made systems that exhibit the behavioral characteristics of natural living systems.

New!!: Economics and Artificial Life (journal) · See more »

Auburn University

Auburn University (AU or Auburn) is a public research university in Auburn, Alabama, United States.

New!!: Economics and Auburn University · See more »

Austrian School

The Austrian School is a school of economic thought that is based on methodological individualism—the concept that social phenomena result from the motivations and actions of individuals.

New!!: Economics and Austrian School · See more »

Émile Durkheim

David Émile Durkheim (or; April 15, 1858 – November 15, 1917) was a French sociologist.

New!!: Economics and Émile Durkheim · See more »

Balanced budget

A balanced budget (particularly that of a government) is a budget in which revenues are equal to expenditures.

New!!: Economics and Balanced budget · See more »

Bank

A bank is a financial institution that accepts deposits from the public and creates credit.

New!!: Economics and Bank · See more »

Bankruptcy

Bankruptcy is a legal status of a person or other entity that cannot repay debts to creditors.

New!!: Economics and Bankruptcy · See more »

Barter

In trade, barter is a system of exchange where participants in a transaction directly exchange goods or services for other goods or services without using a medium of exchange, such as money.

New!!: Economics and Barter · See more »

Behavioral economics

Behavioral economics studies the effects of psychological, cognitive, emotional, cultural and social factors on the economic decisions of individuals and institutions and how those decisions vary from those implied by classical theory.

New!!: Economics and Behavioral economics · See more »

Behaviorism

Behaviorism (or behaviourism) is a systematic approach to understanding the behavior of humans and other animals.

New!!: Economics and Behaviorism · See more »

Ben Bernanke

Ben Shalom Bernanke (born December 13, 1953) is an American economist at the Brookings Institution who served two terms as Chairman of the Federal Reserve, the central bank of the United States, from 2006 to 2014.

New!!: Economics and Ben Bernanke · See more »

Boeotia

Boeotia, sometimes alternatively Latinised as Boiotia, or Beotia (Βοιωτία,,; modern transliteration Voiotía, also Viotía, formerly Cadmeis), is one of the regional units of Greece.

New!!: Economics and Boeotia · See more »

Budget

A budget is a financial plan for a defined period of time, usually a year.It may also include planned sales volumes and revenues, resource quantities, costs and expenses, assets, liabilities and cash flows.

New!!: Economics and Budget · See more »

Budget constraint

A budget constraint represents all the combinations of goods and services that a consumer may purchase given current prices within his or her given income.

New!!: Economics and Budget constraint · See more »

Business cycle

The business cycle, also known as the economic cycle or trade cycle, is the downward and upward movement of gross domestic product (GDP) around its long-term growth trend.

New!!: Economics and Business cycle · See more »

Business economics

Business economics is a field in applied economics which uses economic theory and quantitative methods to analyze business enterprises and the factors contributing to the diversity of organizational structures and the relationships of firms with labour, capital and product markets.

New!!: Economics and Business economics · See more »

Business ethics

Business ethics (also known as corporate ethics) is a form of applied ethics or professional ethics, that examines ethical principles and moral or ethical problems that can arise in a business environment.

New!!: Economics and Business ethics · See more »

Calculus

Calculus (from Latin calculus, literally 'small pebble', used for counting and calculations, as on an abacus), is the mathematical study of continuous change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of generalizations of arithmetic operations.

New!!: Economics and Calculus · See more »

Capital (economics)

In economics, capital consists of an asset that can enhance one's power to perform economically useful work.

New!!: Economics and Capital (economics) · See more »

Capital formation

Capital formation is a concept used in macroeconomics, national accounts and financial economics.

New!!: Economics and Capital formation · See more »

Capital market

A capital market is a financial market in which long-term debt (over a year) or equity-backed securities are bought and sold.

New!!: Economics and Capital market · See more »

Capital structure

In finance, particularly corporate finance capital structure is the way a corporation finances its assets through some combination of equity, debt, or hybrid securities.

New!!: Economics and Capital structure · See more »

Capitalism

Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.

New!!: Economics and Capitalism · See more »

Carbon tax

A carbon tax is a tax levied on the carbon content of fuels.

New!!: Economics and Carbon tax · See more »

Central bank

A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages a state's currency, money supply, and interest rates.

New!!: Economics and Central bank · See more »

Ceteris paribus

Ceteris paribus or caeteris paribus is a Latin phrase meaning "other things equal".

New!!: Economics and Ceteris paribus · See more »

Chanakya

Chanakya (IAST:,; fl. c. 4th century BCE) was an Indian teacher, philosopher, economist, jurist and royal advisor.

New!!: Economics and Chanakya · See more »

China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

New!!: Economics and China · See more »

Choice

Choice involves decision making.

New!!: Economics and Choice · See more »

Circular flow of income

The circular flow of income or circular flow is a model of the economy in which the major exchanges are represented as flows of money, goods and services, etc.

New!!: Economics and Circular flow of income · See more »

Circulating capital

Circulating capital includes intermediate goods and operating expenses, i.e., short-lived items that are used in production and used up in the process of creating other goods or services.

New!!: Economics and Circulating capital · See more »

Classical antiquity

Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.

New!!: Economics and Classical antiquity · See more »

Classical economics

Classical economics or classical political economy (also known as liberal economics) is a school of thought in economics that flourished, primarily in Britain, in the late 18th and early-to-mid 19th century.

New!!: Economics and Classical economics · See more »

Cognitive bias

A cognitive bias is a systematic pattern of deviation from norm or rationality in judgment.

New!!: Economics and Cognitive bias · See more »

Coincidence of wants

The coincidence of wants (often known as double coincidence of wants) is the situation where the supplier of good A wants good B and the supplier of good B wants good A. It is an important category of transaction costs that impose severe limitations on economies lacking a medium of exchange (such as money), which have to rely on barter or other in-kind transactions.

New!!: Economics and Coincidence of wants · See more »

Communication

Communication (from Latin commūnicāre, meaning "to share") is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules.

New!!: Economics and Communication · See more »

Comparative advantage

The law or principle of comparative advantage holds that under free trade, an agent will produce more of and consume less of a good for which they have a comparative advantage.

New!!: Economics and Comparative advantage · See more »

Comparative economic systems

Comparative economic systems is the subfield of economics dealing with the comparative study of different systems of economic organization, such as capitalism, socialism, feudalism and the mixed economy.

New!!: Economics and Comparative economic systems · See more »

Competition (economics)

In economics, competition is a condition where different economic firmsThis article follows the general economic convention of referring to all actors as firms; examples in include individuals and brands or divisions within the same (legal) firm.

New!!: Economics and Competition (economics) · See more »

Complex adaptive system

A complex adaptive system is a system in which a perfect understanding of the individual parts does not automatically convey a perfect understanding of the whole system's behavior.

New!!: Economics and Complex adaptive system · See more »

Computer science

Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.

New!!: Economics and Computer science · See more »

Constitutional economics

Constitutional economics is a research program in economics and constitutionalism that has been described as explaining the choice "of alternative sets of legal-institutional-constitutional rules that constrain the choices and activities of economic and political agents".

New!!: Economics and Constitutional economics · See more »

Consumer choice

The theory of consumer and choice is the branch of microeconomics that relates preferences to consumption expenditures and to consumer demand curves.

New!!: Economics and Consumer choice · See more »

Consumption (economics)

Consumption is the process in which consumers (customers or buyers) purchase items on the market.

New!!: Economics and Consumption (economics) · See more »

Contract theory

In economics, contract theory studies how economic actors can and do construct contractual arrangements, generally in the presence of asymmetric information.

New!!: Economics and Contract theory · See more »

Convergence (economics)

The idea of convergence in economics (also sometimes known as the catch-up effect) is the hypothesis that poorer economies' per capita incomes will tend to grow at faster rates than richer economies.

New!!: Economics and Convergence (economics) · See more »

Corporation

A corporation is a company or group of people or an organisation authorized to act as a single entity (legally a person) and recognized as such in law.

New!!: Economics and Corporation · See more »

Cost–benefit analysis

Cost–benefit analysis (CBA), sometimes called benefit costs analysis (BCA), is a systematic approach to estimate the strengths and weaknesses of alternatives (for example in transactions, activities, functional business requirements or projects investments); it is used to determine options that provide the best approach to achieve benefits while preserving savings.

New!!: Economics and Cost–benefit analysis · See more »

Crowding out (economics)

In economics, crowding out is argued by some economists to be a phenomenon that occurs when increased government involvement in a sector of the market economy substantially affects the remainder of the market, either on the supply or demand side of the market.

New!!: Economics and Crowding out (economics) · See more »

Daniel Kahneman

Daniel Kahneman (דניאל כהנמן; born March 5, 1934) is an Israeli-American psychologist notable for his work on the psychology of judgment and decision-making, as well as behavioral economics, for which he was awarded the 2002 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences (shared with Vernon L. Smith).

New!!: Economics and Daniel Kahneman · See more »

Das Kapital

Das Kapital, also known as Capital.

New!!: Economics and Das Kapital · See more »

Data set

A data set (or dataset) is a collection of data.

New!!: Economics and Data set · See more »

David Ricardo

David Ricardo (18 April 1772 – 11 September 1823) was a British political economist, one of the most influential of the classical economists along with Thomas Malthus, Adam Smith and James Mill.

New!!: Economics and David Ricardo · See more »

Decision theory

Decision theory (or the theory of choice) is the study of the reasoning underlying an agent's choices.

New!!: Economics and Decision theory · See more »

Decision-making

In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the cognitive process resulting in the selection of a belief or a course of action among several alternative possibilities.

New!!: Economics and Decision-making · See more »

Deficit spending

Deficit spending is the amount by which spending exceeds revenue over a particular period of time, also called simply deficit, or budget deficit; the opposite of budget surplus.

New!!: Economics and Deficit spending · See more »

Definitions of economics

There are a variety of modern definitions of economics.

New!!: Economics and Definitions of economics · See more »

Deirdre McCloskey

Deirdre Nansen McCloskey (born September 11, 1942), born Donald N. McCloskey, is the Distinguished Professor of Economics, History, English, and Communication at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC).

New!!: Economics and Deirdre McCloskey · See more »

Dependency theory

Dependency theory is the notion that resources flow from a "periphery" of poor and underdeveloped states to a "core" of wealthy states, enriching the latter at the expense of the former.

New!!: Economics and Dependency theory · See more »

Developing country

A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.

New!!: Economics and Developing country · See more »

Development economics

Development economics is a branch of economics which deals with economic aspects of the development process in low income countries.

New!!: Economics and Development economics · See more »

Diminishing returns

In economics, diminishing returns is the decrease in the marginal (incremental) output of a production process as the amount of a single factor of production is incrementally increased, while the amounts of all other factors of production stay constant.

New!!: Economics and Diminishing returns · See more »

Discouraged worker

In economics, a discouraged worker is a person of legal employment age who is not actively seeking employment or who does not find employment after long-term unemployment.

New!!: Economics and Discouraged worker · See more »

Distortion (economics)

A distortion is "any departure from the ideal of perfect competition that therefore interferes with economic agents maximizing social welfare when they maximize their own".

New!!: Economics and Distortion (economics) · See more »

Distribution (economics)

In economics, distribution is the way total output, income, or wealth is distributed among individuals or among the factors of production (such as labour, land, and capital).

New!!: Economics and Distribution (economics) · See more »

Division of labour

The division of labour is the separation of tasks in any system so that participants may specialize.

New!!: Economics and Division of labour · See more »

Duopoly

A duopoly (from Greek δύο, duo (two) + πωλεῖν, polein (to sell)) is a form of oligopoly where only two sellers exist in one market.

New!!: Economics and Duopoly · See more »

Dynamic network analysis

Dynamic network analysis (DNA) is an emergent scientific field that brings together traditional social network analysis (SNA), link analysis (LA), social simulation and multi-agent systems (MAS) within network science and network theory.

New!!: Economics and Dynamic network analysis · See more »

East Coast of the United States

The East Coast of the United States is the coastline along which the Eastern United States meets the North Atlantic Ocean.

New!!: Economics and East Coast of the United States · See more »

Ecological economics

Ecological economics (also called eco-economics, ecolonomy or bioeconomics of Georgescu-Roegen) is both a transdisciplinary and an interdisciplinary field of academic research addressing the interdependence and coevolution of human economies and natural ecosystems, both intertemporally and spatially.

New!!: Economics and Ecological economics · See more »

Ecological Economics (journal)

Ecological Economics is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by Elsevier on behalf of the International Society for Ecological Economics.

New!!: Economics and Ecological Economics (journal) · See more »

Econ Journal Watch

Econ Journal Watch is a triannual peer-reviewed electronic journal established in 2004.

New!!: Economics and Econ Journal Watch · See more »

Econometrics

Econometrics is the application of statistical methods to economic data and is described as the branch of economics that aims to give empirical content to economic relations.

New!!: Economics and Econometrics · See more »

Economic cost

Economic cost is the combination of gains and losses of any goods that have a value attached to them by any one individual.

New!!: Economics and Economic cost · See more »

Economic data

Economic data or economic statistics are data (quantitative measures) describing an actual economy, past or present.

New!!: Economics and Economic data · See more »

Economic development

economic development wikipedia Economic development is the process by which a nation improves the economic, political, and social well-being of its people.

New!!: Economics and Economic development · See more »

Economic efficiency

Economic efficiency is, roughly speaking, a situation in which nothing can be improved without something else being hurt.

New!!: Economics and Economic efficiency · See more »

Economic equilibrium

In economics, economic equilibrium is a state where economic forces such as supply and demand are balanced and in the absence of external influences the (equilibrium) values of economic variables will not change.

New!!: Economics and Economic equilibrium · See more »

Economic geography

Economic geography is the study of the location, distribution and spatial organization of economic activities across the world.

New!!: Economics and Economic geography · See more »

Economic growth

Economic growth is the increase in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time.

New!!: Economics and Economic growth · See more »

Economic history

Economic history is the study of economies or economic phenomena of the past.

New!!: Economics and Economic history · See more »

Economic ideology

An economic ideology distinguishes itself from economic theory in being normative rather than just explanatory in its approach.

New!!: Economics and Economic ideology · See more »

Economic model

In economics, a model is a theoretical construct representing economic processes by a set of variables and a set of logical and/or quantitative relationships between them.

New!!: Economics and Economic model · See more »

Economic nationalism

Economic nationalism, or economic patriotism, refers to an ideology that favors state interventionism in the economy, with policies that emphasize domestic control of the economy, labor, and capital formation, even if this requires the imposition of tariffs and other restrictions on the movement of labor, goods and capital.

New!!: Economics and Economic nationalism · See more »

Economic policy

The economic policy of governments covers the systems for setting levels of taxation, government budgets, the money supply and interest rates as well as the labour market, national ownership, and many other areas of government interventions into the economy.

New!!: Economics and Economic policy · See more »

Economic sociology

Economic sociology is the study of the social cause and effect of various economic phenomena.

New!!: Economics and Economic sociology · See more »

Economic union

An economic union is a type of trade bloc which is composed of a common market with a customs union.

New!!: Economics and Economic union · See more »

Economica

Economica is a peer-reviewed academic journal of generalist economics published on behalf of the London School of Economics by Wiley-Blackwell.

New!!: Economics and Economica · See more »

Economics

Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

New!!: Economics and Economics · See more »

Economics (textbook)

Economics is an introductory textbook by American economists Paul Samuelson and William Nordhaus.

New!!: Economics and Economics (textbook) · See more »

Economics of religion

The Economics of Religion concerns both the application of economic techniques to the study of religion and the relationship between economic and religious behaviours.

New!!: Economics and Economics of religion · See more »

Economics of science

The economics of science aims to understand the impact of science on the advance of technology, to explain the behavior of scientists, and to understand the efficiency or inefficiency of scientific institutions and markets.

New!!: Economics and Economics of science · See more »

Economics terminology that differs from common usage

In any technical subject, words commonly used in everyday life acquire very specific technical meanings, and confusion can arise when someone is uncertain of the intended meaning of a word.

New!!: Economics and Economics terminology that differs from common usage · See more »

Economies of agglomeration

Economies of agglomeration considers the effects of urban agglomeration, it is a topic of urban economics.

New!!: Economics and Economies of agglomeration · See more »

Economies of scale

In microeconomics, economies of scale are the cost advantages that enterprises obtain due to their scale of operation (typically measured by amount of output produced), with cost per unit of output decreasing with increasing scale.

New!!: Economics and Economies of scale · See more »

Economy

An economy (from Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the production, distribution, or trade, and consumption of goods and services by different agents.

New!!: Economics and Economy · See more »

Economy of Cuba

Cuba has a planned economy dominated by state-run enterprises.

New!!: Economics and Economy of Cuba · See more »

Economy of Laos

The economy of the Lao People's Democratic Republic is rapidly growing, as a result of decentralized government control and encouragement of private enterprise since 1986.

New!!: Economics and Economy of Laos · See more »

Economy of North Korea

The economy of North Korea is a centrally planned system, where the role of market allocation schemes is limited, though increasing.

New!!: Economics and Economy of North Korea · See more »

Econophysics

Econophysics is an interdisciplinary research field, applying theories and methods originally developed by physicists in order to solve problems in economics, usually those including uncertainty or stochastic processes and nonlinear dynamics.

New!!: Economics and Econophysics · See more »

Education economics

Education economics or the economics of education is the study of economic issues relating to education, including the demand for education, the financing and provision of education, and the comparative efficiency of various educational programs and policies.

New!!: Economics and Education economics · See more »

Effective demand

In economics, effective demand (ED) in a market is the demand for a product or service which occurs when purchasers are constrained in a different market.

New!!: Economics and Effective demand · See more »

Efficient-market hypothesis

The efficient-market hypothesis (EMH) is a theory in financial economics that states that asset prices fully reflect all available information.

New!!: Economics and Efficient-market hypothesis · See more »

Emissions trading

Emissions trading, or cap and trade, is a government, market-based approach to controlling pollution by providing economic incentives for achieving reductions in the emissions of pollutants.

New!!: Economics and Emissions trading · See more »

Empirical evidence

Empirical evidence, also known as sensory experience, is the information received by means of the senses, particularly by observation and documentation of patterns and behavior through experimentation.

New!!: Economics and Empirical evidence · See more »

Encyclopædia Britannica

The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.

New!!: Economics and Encyclopædia Britannica · See more »

Endogenous growth theory

Endogenous growth theory holds that economic growth is primarily the result of endogenous and not external forces.

New!!: Economics and Endogenous growth theory · See more »

Energy economics

Energy economics is a broad scientific subject area which includes topics related to supply and use of energy in societies.

New!!: Economics and Energy economics · See more »

Energy supply

Energy supply is the delivery of fuels or transformed fuels to point of consumption.

New!!: Economics and Energy supply · See more »

Entropy

In statistical mechanics, entropy is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system.

New!!: Economics and Entropy · See more »

Environmental economics

Environmental economics is a sub-field of economics that is concerned with environmental issues.

New!!: Economics and Environmental economics · See more »

Equity (economics)

Equity or economic equality is the concept or idea of fairness in economics, particularly in regard to taxation or welfare economics.

New!!: Economics and Equity (economics) · See more »

Evolutionary biology

Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth, starting from a single common ancestor.

New!!: Economics and Evolutionary biology · See more »

Evolutionary economics

Evolutionary economics is part of mainstream economics as well as a heterodox school of economic thought that is inspired by evolutionary biology.

New!!: Economics and Evolutionary economics · See more »

Exchange rate

In finance, an exchange rate is the rate at which one currency will be exchanged for another.

New!!: Economics and Exchange rate · See more »

Exchange-rate flexibility

A flexible exchange-rate system is a monetary system that allows the exchange rate to be determined by supply and demand.

New!!: Economics and Exchange-rate flexibility · See more »

Exogeny

In a variety of contexts, exogeny or exogeneity is the fact of an action or object originating externally.

New!!: Economics and Exogeny · See more »

Experiment

An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis.

New!!: Economics and Experiment · See more »

Experimental economics

Experimental economics is the application of experimental methods to study economic questions.

New!!: Economics and Experimental economics · See more »

Externality

In economics, an externality is the cost or benefit that affects a party who did not choose to incur that cost or benefit.

New!!: Economics and Externality · See more »

Factors of production

In economics, factors of production, resources, or inputs are which is used in the production process to produce output—that is, finished goods and services.

New!!: Economics and Factors of production · See more »

Falsifiability

A statement, hypothesis, or theory has falsifiability (or is falsifiable) if it can logically be proven false by contradicting it with a basic statement.

New!!: Economics and Falsifiability · See more »

Family economics

Family economics applies basic economic concepts such as production, division of labor, distribution, and decision making to the study of the family.

New!!: Economics and Family economics · See more »

Federal government of the United States

The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.

New!!: Economics and Federal government of the United States · See more »

Feminist economics

Feminist economics is the critical study of economics including its methodology, epistemology, history and empirical research, attempting to overcome alleged androcentric (male and patriarchal) biases.

New!!: Economics and Feminist economics · See more »

Finance

Finance is a field that is concerned with the allocation (investment) of assets and liabilities (known as elements of the balance statement) over space and time, often under conditions of risk or uncertainty.

New!!: Economics and Finance · See more »

Financial crisis

A financial crisis is any of a broad variety of situations in which some financial assets suddenly lose a large part of their nominal value.

New!!: Economics and Financial crisis · See more »

Financial crisis of 2007–2008

The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.

New!!: Economics and Financial crisis of 2007–2008 · See more »

Financial economics

Financial economics is the branch of economics characterized by a "concentration on monetary activities", in which "money of one type or another is likely to appear on both sides of a trade".

New!!: Economics and Financial economics · See more »

Financial instrument

Financial instruments are monetary contracts between parties.

New!!: Economics and Financial instrument · See more »

Financial market

A financial market is a market in which people trade financial securities and derivatives such as futures and options at low transaction costs.

New!!: Economics and Financial market · See more »

Financial regulation

Financial regulation is a form of regulation or supervision, which subjects financial institutions to certain requirements, restrictions and guidelines, aiming to maintain the integrity of the financial system.

New!!: Economics and Financial regulation · See more »

Fiscal multiplier

In economics, the fiscal multiplier (not to be confused with monetary multiplier) is the ratio of a change in national income to the change in government spending that causes it.

New!!: Economics and Fiscal multiplier · See more »

Fiscal policy

In economics and political science, fiscal policy is the use of government revenue collection (mainly taxes) and expenditure (spending) to influence the economy.

New!!: Economics and Fiscal policy · See more »

Fixed capital

Fixed capital is a concept in economics and accounting, first theoretically analyzed in some depth by the economist David Ricardo.

New!!: Economics and Fixed capital · See more »

Floating exchange rate

A floating exchange rate (also called a fluctuating or flexible exchange rate) is a type of exchange-rate regime in which a currency's value is allowed to fluctuate in response to foreign-exchange market mechanisms.

New!!: Economics and Floating exchange rate · See more »

Foundations of Economic Analysis

Foundations of Economic Analysis is a book by Paul A. Samuelson published in 1947 (Enlarged ed., 1983) by Harvard University Press.

New!!: Economics and Foundations of Economic Analysis · See more »

Four Asian Tigers

The Four Asian Tigers, Four Asian Dragons or Four Little Dragons, are the economies of Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan, which underwent rapid industrialization and maintained exceptionally high growth rates (in excess of 7 percent a year) between the early 1960s (mid-1950s for Hong Kong) and 1990s.

New!!: Economics and Four Asian Tigers · See more »

Francis Amasa Walker

Francis Amasa Walker (July 2, 1840 – January 5, 1897) was an American economist, statistician, journalist, educator, academic administrator, and military officer in the Union Army.

New!!: Economics and Francis Amasa Walker · See more »

Fraser's Magazine

Fraser's Magazine for Town and Country was a general and literary journal published in London from 1830 to 1882, which initially took a strong Tory line in politics.

New!!: Economics and Fraser's Magazine · See more »

Free market

In economics, a free market is an idealized system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.

New!!: Economics and Free market · See more »

Free trade

Free trade is a free market policy followed by some international markets in which countries' governments do not restrict imports from, or exports to, other countries.

New!!: Economics and Free trade · See more »

Freiburg school

__notoc__ The Freiburg School (Freiburger Schule) is a school of economic thought founded in the 1930s at the University of Freiburg.

New!!: Economics and Freiburg school · See more »

Full employment

Full employment means that everyone who wants a job have all the hours of work they need on "fair wages".

New!!: Economics and Full employment · See more »

Futures exchange

A futures exchange or futures market is a central financial exchange where people can trade standardized futures contracts; that is, a contract to buy specific quantities of a commodity or financial instrument at a specified price with delivery set at a specified time in the future.

New!!: Economics and Futures exchange · See more »

Gains from trade

In economics, gains from trade are the net benefits to economic agents from being allowed an increase in voluntary trading with each other.

New!!: Economics and Gains from trade · See more »

Game theory

Game theory is "the study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers".

New!!: Economics and Game theory · See more »

Gary Becker

Gary Stanley Becker (December 2, 1930 – May 3, 2014) was an American economist and empiricist.

New!!: Economics and Gary Becker · See more »

General equilibrium theory

In economics, general equilibrium theory attempts to explain the behavior of supply, demand, and prices in a whole economy with several or many interacting markets, by seeking to prove that the interaction of demand and supply will result in an overall general equilibrium.

New!!: Economics and General equilibrium theory · See more »

Genetically modified crops

Genetically modified crops (GMCs, GM crops, or biotech crops) are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been modified using genetic engineering methods.

New!!: Economics and Genetically modified crops · See more »

Georg Simmel

Georg Simmel (1 March 1858 – 28 September 1918) was a German sociologist, philosopher, and critic.

New!!: Economics and Georg Simmel · See more »

George Akerlof

George Arthur Akerlof (born June 17, 1940) is an American economist who is a University Professor at the McCourt School of Public Policy at Georgetown University and Koshland Professor of Economics Emeritus at the University of California, Berkeley.

New!!: Economics and George Akerlof · See more »

Globalization

Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.

New!!: Economics and Globalization · See more »

Glossary of economics

Most of the terms listed in Wikipedia glossaries are already defined and explained within Wikipedia itself.

New!!: Economics and Glossary of economics · See more »

Goods

In economics, goods are materials that satisfy human wants and provide utility, for example, to a consumer making a purchase of a satisfying product.

New!!: Economics and Goods · See more »

Goods and services

Goods are items that are tangible, such as pens, salt, apples, oganesson, and hats.

New!!: Economics and Goods and services · See more »

Government budget balance

A government budget is a financial statement presenting the government's proposed revenues and spending for a financial year.

New!!: Economics and Government budget balance · See more »

Great Depression

The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.

New!!: Economics and Great Depression · See more »

Green economy

The green economy is defined as an economy that aims at reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities, and that aims for sustainable development without degrading the environment.

New!!: Economics and Green economy · See more »

Gross National Happiness

Gross National Happiness (also known by the acronym: GNH) is a philosophy that guides the government of Bhutan.

New!!: Economics and Gross National Happiness · See more »

Growth accounting

Growth accounting is a procedure used in economics to measure the contribution of different factors to economic growth and to indirectly compute the rate of technological progress, measured as a residual, in an economy.

New!!: Economics and Growth accounting · See more »

Guns versus butter model

In macroeconomics, the guns versus butter model is an example of a simple production–possibility frontier.

New!!: Economics and Guns versus butter model · See more »

Health economics

Health economics is a branch of economics concerned with issues related to efficiency, effectiveness, value and behavior in the production and consumption of health and healthcare.

New!!: Economics and Health economics · See more »

Herman Daly

Herman Edward Daly (born July 21, 1938) is an American ecological and Georgist economist and emeritus professor at the School of Public Policy of University of Maryland, College Park in the United States.

New!!: Economics and Herman Daly · See more »

Hesiod

Hesiod (or; Ἡσίοδος Hēsíodos) was a Greek poet generally thought by scholars to have been active between 750 and 650 BC, around the same time as Homer.

New!!: Economics and Hesiod · See more »

Heterodox economics

Heterodoxy is a term that may be used in contrast with orthodoxy in schools of economic thought or methodologies, that may be beyond neoclassical economics.

New!!: Economics and Heterodox economics · See more »

Heuristics in judgment and decision-making

In psychology, heuristics are simple, efficient rules which people often use to form judgments and make decisions.

New!!: Economics and Heuristics in judgment and decision-making · See more »

Historian

A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past, and is regarded as an authority on it.

New!!: Economics and Historian · See more »

History of India

The history of India includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent; the advancement of civilisation from the Indus Valley Civilisation to the eventual blending of the Indo-Aryan culture to form the Vedic Civilisation; the rise of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism;Sanderson, Alexis (2009), "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo, Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009.

New!!: Economics and History of India · See more »

Homo economicus

The term homo economicus, or economic man, is a caricature of economic theory framed as a "mythical species" or word play on homo sapiens, and used in pedagogy.

New!!: Economics and Homo economicus · See more »

Household

A household consists of one or more people who live in the same dwelling and also share meals or living accommodation, and may consist of a single family or some other grouping of people.

New!!: Economics and Household · See more »

Human behavior

Human behavior is the responses of individuals or groups of humans to internal and external stimuli.

New!!: Economics and Human behavior · See more »

Human capital

Human capital is a term popularized by Gary Becker, an economist and Nobel Laureate from the University of Chicago, and Jacob Mincer.

New!!: Economics and Human capital · See more »

Ibn Khaldun

Ibn Khaldun (أبو زيد عبد الرحمن بن محمد بن خلدون الحضرمي.,; 27 May 1332 – 17 March 1406) was a fourteenth-century Arab historiographer and historian.

New!!: Economics and Ibn Khaldun · See more »

If Women Counted

If Women Counted (1988) by Marilyn Waring, former New Zealand Member of Parliament, is a book in academic feminism, political economy and feminist economics.

New!!: Economics and If Women Counted · See more »

Imperfect competition

In economic theory, imperfect competition is a type of market structure showing some but not all features of competitive markets.

New!!: Economics and Imperfect competition · See more »

Import quota

An import quota is a type of trade restriction that sets a physical limit on the quantity of a good that can be imported into a country in a given period of time.

New!!: Economics and Import quota · See more »

Income distribution

In economics, income distribution is how a nation’s total GDP is distributed amongst its population.

New!!: Economics and Income distribution · See more »

Income–consumption curve

In economics and particularly in consumer choice theory, the income-consumption curve is a curve in a graph in which the quantities of two goods are plotted on the two axes; the curve is the locus of points showing the consumption bundles chosen at each of various levels of income.

New!!: Economics and Income–consumption curve · See more »

Incomplete markets

In economics, incomplete markets are markets in which the number of Arrow–Debreu securities is less than the number of states of nature.

New!!: Economics and Incomplete markets · See more »

Index of economics articles

This aims to be a complete article list of economics topics.

New!!: Economics and Index of economics articles · See more »

Individual

An individual is that which exists as a distinct entity.

New!!: Economics and Individual · See more »

Industrial organization

In economics, industrial organization or industrial economy is a field that builds on the theory of the firm by examining the structure of (and, therefore, the boundaries between) firms and markets.

New!!: Economics and Industrial organization · See more »

Inflation

In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.

New!!: Economics and Inflation · See more »

Information asymmetry

In contract theory and economics, information asymmetry deals with the study of decisions in transactions where one party has more or better information than the other.

New!!: Economics and Information asymmetry · See more »

Information economics

Information economics or the economics of information is a branch of microeconomic theory that studies how information and information systems affect an economy and economic decisions.

New!!: Economics and Information economics · See more »

Input–output model

In economics, an input–output model is a quantitative economic technique that represents the interdependencies between different branches of a national economy or different regional economies.

New!!: Economics and Input–output model · See more »

Institution

Institutions are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior".

New!!: Economics and Institution · See more »

Institutional economics

Institutional economics focuses on understanding the role of the evolutionary process and the role of institutions in shaping economic behaviour.

New!!: Economics and Institutional economics · See more »

Insurance

Insurance is a means of protection from financial loss.

New!!: Economics and Insurance · See more »

Intermediate good

Intermediate goods or producer goods or semi-finished products are goods, such as partly finished goods, used as inputs in the production of other goods including final goods.

New!!: Economics and Intermediate good · See more »

International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences

The International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, originally edited by Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes, is a 26-volume work published by Elsevier.

New!!: Economics and International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences · See more »

International finance

International finance (also referred to as international monetary economics or international macroeconomics) is the branch of financial economics broadly concerned with monetary and macroeconomic interrelations between two or more countries.

New!!: Economics and International finance · See more »

International Monetary Fund

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.

New!!: Economics and International Monetary Fund · See more »

International monetary systems

International monetary systems are sets of internationally agreed rules, conventions and supporting institutions, that facilitate international trade, cross border investment and generally the reallocation of capital between nation states.

New!!: Economics and International monetary systems · See more »

Investment (macroeconomics)

In macroeconomics, investment is the amount of goods purchased per unit time which are not consumed at the present time.

New!!: Economics and Investment (macroeconomics) · See more »

Invisible hand

The invisible hand is a term used by Adam Smith to describe the unintended social benefits of an individual's self-interested actions.

New!!: Economics and Invisible hand · See more »

IS–LM model

The IS–LM model, or Hicks–Hansen model, is a macroeconomic tool that shows the relationship between interest rates (ordinate) and assets market (also known as real output in goods and services market plus money market, as abscissa).

New!!: Economics and IS–LM model · See more »

Jean-Baptiste Say

Jean-Baptiste Say (5 January 1767 – 15 November 1832) was a French economist and businessman who had classically liberal views and argued in favor of competition, free trade and lifting restraints on business.

New!!: Economics and Jean-Baptiste Say · See more »

Joan Robinson

Joan Violet Robinson FBA (31 October 1903 – 5 August 1983), previously Joan Violet Maurice, was a British economist well known for her wide-ranging contributions to economic theory.

New!!: Economics and Joan Robinson · See more »

John Hicks

Sir John Richard Hicks (8 April 1904 – 20 May 1989) was a British economist.

New!!: Economics and John Hicks · See more »

John Maynard Keynes

John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes (5 June 1883 – 21 April 1946), was a British economist whose ideas fundamentally changed the theory and practice of macroeconomics and the economic policies of governments.

New!!: Economics and John Maynard Keynes · See more »

John McMurtry

John McMurtry, FRSC is University Professor Emeritus of Philosophy at the University of Guelph, Canada.

New!!: Economics and John McMurtry · See more »

John Stuart Mill

John Stuart Mill, also known as J.S. Mill, (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant.

New!!: Economics and John Stuart Mill · See more »

John von Neumann

John von Neumann (Neumann János Lajos,; December 28, 1903 – February 8, 1957) was a Hungarian-American mathematician, physicist, computer scientist, and polymath.

New!!: Economics and John von Neumann · See more »

Joseph Schumpeter

Joseph Alois Schumpeter (8 February 1883 – 8 January 1950) was an Austrian political economist.

New!!: Economics and Joseph Schumpeter · See more »

Joseph Stiglitz

Joseph Eugene Stiglitz (born February 9, 1943) is an American economist and a professor at Columbia University.

New!!: Economics and Joseph Stiglitz · See more »

Journal of Economic Education

The Journal of Economic Education (JEE) offers original peer-reviewed articles on teaching economics.

New!!: Economics and Journal of Economic Education · See more »

Journal of Economic Perspectives

The Journal of Economic Perspectives (JEP) is an economic journal published by the American Economic Association.

New!!: Economics and Journal of Economic Perspectives · See more »

Journal of Economic Theory

The Journal of Economic Theory, often referred to as JET, is an important scholarly journal in the field of economics.

New!!: Economics and Journal of Economic Theory · See more »

Julian Simon

Julian Lincoln Simon (February 12, 1932 – February 8, 1998) was an American professor of business administration at the University of Maryland and a Senior Fellow at the Cato Institute at the time of his death, after previously serving as a longtime economics and business professor at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

New!!: Economics and Julian Simon · See more »

Julie A. Nelson

Julie A. Nelson (born 1956) is an American feminist economist and professor of economics at the University of Massachusetts Boston, most known for her application of feminist theory to questions of the definition of the discipline of economics, and its models and methodology.

New!!: Economics and Julie A. Nelson · See more »

Karl Marx

Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.

New!!: Economics and Karl Marx · See more »

Keynesian economics

Keynesian economics (sometimes called Keynesianism) are the various macroeconomic theories about how in the short run – and especially during recessions – economic output is strongly influenced by aggregate demand (total demand in the economy).

New!!: Economics and Keynesian economics · See more »

Labor mobility

Labor or worker mobility is the geographical and occupational movement of workers.

New!!: Economics and Labor mobility · See more »

Labor theory of value

The labor theory of value (LTV) is a theory of value that argues that the economic value of a good or service is determined by the total amount of "socially necessary labor" required to produce it, rather than by the use or pleasure its owner gets from it (demand) and its scarcity value (supply).

New!!: Economics and Labor theory of value · See more »

Labour economics

Labour economics seeks to understand the functioning and dynamics of the markets for wage labour.

New!!: Economics and Labour economics · See more »

Laissez-faire

Laissez-faire (from) is an economic system in which transactions between private parties are free from government intervention such as regulation, privileges, tariffs and subsidies.

New!!: Economics and Laissez-faire · See more »

Land (economics)

In economics, land comprises all naturally occurring resources as well as geographic land.

New!!: Economics and Land (economics) · See more »

Lausanne School

The Lausanne School of economics, sometimes referred to as the Mathematical School, refers to the neoclassical economics school of thought surrounding Léon Walras and Vilfredo Pareto.

New!!: Economics and Lausanne School · See more »

Law and economics

Law and economics or economic analysis of law is the application of economic theory (specifically microeconomic theory) to the analysis of law that began mostly with scholars from the Chicago school of economics.

New!!: Economics and Law and economics · See more »

Law of demand

In microeconomics, the law of demand states that, "conditional on all else being equal, as the price of a good increases (↑), quantity demanded decreases (↓); conversely, as the price of a good decreases (↓), quantity demanded increases (↑)".

New!!: Economics and Law of demand · See more »

Léon Walras

Marie-Esprit-Léon Walras (16 December 1834 – 5 January 1910) was a French mathematical economist and Georgist.

New!!: Economics and Léon Walras · See more »

Leisure

Leisure has often been defined as a quality of experience or as free time. Free time is time spent away from business, work, job hunting, domestic chores, and education, as well as necessary activities such as eating and sleeping.

New!!: Economics and Leisure · See more »

Liberal arts education

Liberal arts education (from Latin "free" and "art or principled practice") can claim to be the oldest programme of higher education in Western history.

New!!: Economics and Liberal arts education · See more »

Linear algebra

Linear algebra is the branch of mathematics concerning linear equations such as linear functions such as and their representations through matrices and vector spaces.

New!!: Economics and Linear algebra · See more »

Linear programming

Linear programming (LP, also called linear optimization) is a method to achieve the best outcome (such as maximum profit or lowest cost) in a mathematical model whose requirements are represented by linear relationships.

New!!: Economics and Linear programming · See more »

Lionel Robbins

Lionel Charles Robbins, Baron Robbins, (22 November 1898 – 15 May 1984) was a British economist, and prominent member of the economics department at the London School of Economics.

New!!: Economics and Lionel Robbins · See more »

Liquidationism (economics)

Liquidationism denotes the heterodox Austrian school belief in economics that no actions to mitigate the effects of recessions should be taken by the government or the central bank, but, rather, that the "temporary pain" of companies being liquidated, on account of crises, is a solution in itself.

New!!: Economics and Liquidationism (economics) · See more »

List of economics films

This is a list of economics films.

New!!: Economics and List of economics films · See more »

List of free-trade agreements

The List of free-trade agreements has been split into.

New!!: Economics and List of free-trade agreements · See more »

List of Latin phrases (E)

Additional sources.

New!!: Economics and List of Latin phrases (E) · See more »

List of multilateral free-trade agreements

This is a list of multilateral free-trade agreements, between several countries all treated equally.

New!!: Economics and List of multilateral free-trade agreements · See more »

List of national and international statistical services

The following is a list of national and international statistical services.

New!!: Economics and List of national and international statistical services · See more »

Local government

A local government is a form of public administration which, in a majority of contexts, exists as the lowest tier of administration within a given state.

New!!: Economics and Local government · See more »

Long run and short run

In microeconomics, the long run is the conceptual time period in which there are no fixed factors of production, so that there are no constraints preventing changing the output level by changing the capital stock or by entering or leaving an industry.

New!!: Economics and Long run and short run · See more »

Macroeconomics

Macroeconomics (from the Greek prefix makro- meaning "large" and economics) is a branch of economics dealing with the performance, structure, behavior, and decision-making of an economy as a whole.

New!!: Economics and Macroeconomics · See more »

Mainstream economics

Mainstream economics may be used to describe the body of knowledge, theories, and models of economics, as taught across universities, that are generally accepted by economists as a basis for discussion.

New!!: Economics and Mainstream economics · See more »

Management

Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body.

New!!: Economics and Management · See more »

Managerial economics

Managerial economics deals with the application of the economic concepts,theories,tools and methodologies to solve practical problems in a business.it helps the manager in decision making and acts as a link between practice and theory".

New!!: Economics and Managerial economics · See more »

Marginal cost

In economics, marginal cost is the change in the opportunity cost that arises when the quantity produced is incremented by one unit, that is, it is the cost of producing one more unit of a good.

New!!: Economics and Marginal cost · See more »

Marginal revenue

In microeconomics, marginal revenue (R') is the additional revenue that will be generated by increasing product sales by one unit.

New!!: Economics and Marginal revenue · See more »

Marginal utility

In economics, utility is the satisfaction or benefit derived by consuming a product; thus the marginal utility of a good or service is the change in the utility from an increase in the consumption of that good or service.

New!!: Economics and Marginal utility · See more »

Marginalism

Marginalism is a theory of economics that attempts to explain the discrepancy in the value of goods and services by reference to their secondary, or marginal, utility.

New!!: Economics and Marginalism · See more »

Marilyn Waring

Marilyn Joy Waring (born 7 October 1952) is a New Zealand feminist, politician, activist for female human rights and environmental issues, development consultant and United Nations expert, and author and academic, known as a principal founder of the discipline of feminist economics.

New!!: Economics and Marilyn Waring · See more »

Mark Granovetter

Mark Granovetter (born October 20, 1943) is an American sociologist and professor at Stanford University.

New!!: Economics and Mark Granovetter · See more »

Market (economics)

A market is one of the many varieties of systems, institutions, procedures, social relations and infrastructures whereby parties engage in exchange.

New!!: Economics and Market (economics) · See more »

Market clearing

In economics, market clearing is the process by which, in an economic market, the supply of whatever is traded is equated to the demand, so that there is no leftover supply or demand.

New!!: Economics and Market clearing · See more »

Market economy

A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.

New!!: Economics and Market economy · See more »

Market failure

In economics, market failure is a situation in which the allocation of goods and services by a free market is not efficient, often leading to a net social welfare loss.

New!!: Economics and Market failure · See more »

Market power

In economics and particularly in industrial organization, market power is the ability of a firm to profitably raise the market price of a good or service over marginal cost.

New!!: Economics and Market power · See more »

Market structure

Market structure has historically emerged in two separate types of discussions in economics, that of Adam Smith on the one hand, and that of Karl Marx on the other hand.

New!!: Economics and Market structure · See more »

Market system

A market system is any systematic process enabling many market players to bid and ask: helping bidders and sellers interact and make deals.

New!!: Economics and Market system · See more »

Mathematical optimization

In mathematics, computer science and operations research, mathematical optimization or mathematical programming, alternatively spelled optimisation, is the selection of a best element (with regard to some criterion) from some set of available alternatives.

New!!: Economics and Mathematical optimization · See more »

Max Weber

Maximilian Karl Emil "Max" Weber (21 April 1864 – 14 June 1920) was a German sociologist, philosopher, jurist, and political economist.

New!!: Economics and Max Weber · See more »

McCloskey critique

The McCloskey critique refers to a critique of post-1940s "official modernist" methodology in economics, inherited from logical positivism in philosophy.

New!!: Economics and McCloskey critique · See more »

Measures of national income and output

A variety of measures of national income and output are used in economics to estimate total economic activity in a country or region, including gross domestic product (GDP), gross national product (GNP), net national income (NNI), and adjusted national income also called as NNI at factor cost (NNI* adjusted for natural resource depletion).

New!!: Economics and Measures of national income and output · See more »

Mechanism design

Mechanism design is a field in economics and game theory that takes an engineering approach to designing economic mechanisms or incentives, toward desired objectives, in strategic settings, where players act rationally.

New!!: Economics and Mechanism design · See more »

Medium of exchange

A medium of exchange is a tradeable entity used to avoid the inconveniences of a pure barter system.

New!!: Economics and Medium of exchange · See more »

Mercantilism

Mercantilism is a national economic policy designed to maximize the trade of a nation and, historically, to maximize the accumulation of gold and silver (as well as crops).

New!!: Economics and Mercantilism · See more »

Mesopotamia

Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.

New!!: Economics and Mesopotamia · See more »

Michael Perelman

Michael Perelman (born October 1, 1939) is an American economist and economic historian, currently professor of economics at California State University, Chico.

New!!: Economics and Michael Perelman · See more »

Microeconomics

Microeconomics (from Greek prefix mikro- meaning "small") is a branch of economics that studies the behavior of individuals and firms in making decisions regarding the allocation of scarce resources and the interactions among these individuals and firms.

New!!: Economics and Microeconomics · See more »

Microfoundations

In economics, the term microfoundations refers to the microeconomic analysis of the behavior of individual agents such as households or firms that underpins a macroeconomic theory (Barro, 1993, Glossary, p. 594).

New!!: Economics and Microfoundations · See more »

Milton Friedman

Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American economist who received the 1976 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his research on consumption analysis, monetary history and theory, and the complexity of stabilization policy.

New!!: Economics and Milton Friedman · See more »

Minimum wage

A minimum wage is the lowest remuneration that employers can legally pay their workers.

New!!: Economics and Minimum wage · See more »

Mixed economy

A mixed economy is variously defined as an economic system blending elements of market economies with elements of planned economies, free markets with state interventionism, or private enterprise with public enterprise.

New!!: Economics and Mixed economy · See more »

Modernity

Modernity, a topic in the humanities and social sciences, is both a historical period (the modern era), as well as the ensemble of particular socio-cultural norms, attitudes and practices that arose in the wake of Renaissance, in the "Age of Reason" of 17th-century thought and the 18th-century "Enlightenment".

New!!: Economics and Modernity · See more »

Monetarism

Monetarism is a school of thought in monetary economics that emphasizes the role of governments in controlling the amount of money in circulation.

New!!: Economics and Monetarism · See more »

Monetary economics

Monetary economics is a branch of economics that provides a framework for analyzing money in its functions as a medium of exchange, store of value, and unit of account.

New!!: Economics and Monetary economics · See more »

Monetary policy

Monetary policy is the process by which the monetary authority of a country, typically the central bank or currency board, controls either the cost of very short-term borrowing or the monetary base, often targeting an inflation rate or interest rate to ensure price stability and general trust in the currency.

New!!: Economics and Monetary policy · See more »

Money

Money is any item or verifiable record that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts in a particular country or socio-economic context.

New!!: Economics and Money · See more »

Money supply

In economics, the money supply (or money stock) is the total value of monetary assets available in an economy at a specific time.

New!!: Economics and Money supply · See more »

Monopolistic competition

Monopolistic competition is a type of imperfect competition such that many producers sell products that are differentiated from one another (e.g. by branding or quality) and hence are not perfect substitutes.

New!!: Economics and Monopolistic competition · See more »

Monopoly

A monopoly (from Greek μόνος mónos and πωλεῖν pōleîn) exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity.

New!!: Economics and Monopoly · See more »

Monopsony

In economics, a monopsony (from Ancient Greek μόνος (mónos) "single" + ὀψωνία (opsōnía) "purchase") is a market structure in which only one buyer interacts with many would-be sellers of a particular product.

New!!: Economics and Monopsony · See more »

Moral hazard

In economics, moral hazard occurs when someone increases their exposure to risk when insured.

New!!: Economics and Moral hazard · See more »

Mutual exclusivity

In logic and probability theory, two events (or propositions) are mutually exclusive or disjoint if they cannot both occur (be true).

New!!: Economics and Mutual exclusivity · See more »

Nassim Nicholas Taleb

Nassim Nicholas Taleb (نسيم نقولا طالب., alternatively Nessim or Nissim, born 1960) is a Lebanese–American essayist, scholar, statistician, former trader, and risk analyst, whose work focuses on problems of randomness, probability, and uncertainty.

New!!: Economics and Nassim Nicholas Taleb · See more »

National accounts

National accounts or national account systems (NAS) are the implementation of complete and consistent accounting techniques for measuring the economic activity of a nation.

New!!: Economics and National accounts · See more »

Natural experiment

A natural experiment is an empirical study in which individuals (or clusters of individuals) exposed to the experimental and control conditions are determined by nature or by other factors outside the control of the investigators, but the process governing the exposures arguably resembles random assignment.

New!!: Economics and Natural experiment · See more »

Natural law

Natural law (ius naturale, lex naturalis) is a philosophy asserting that certain rights are inherent by virtue of human nature, endowed by nature—traditionally by God or a transcendent source—and that these can be understood universally through human reason.

New!!: Economics and Natural law · See more »

Natural monopoly

A natural monopoly is a monopoly in an industry in which high infrastructural costs and other barriers to entry relative to the size of the market give the largest supplier in an industry, often the first supplier in a market, an overwhelming advantage over potential competitors.

New!!: Economics and Natural monopoly · See more »

Natural science

Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.

New!!: Economics and Natural science · See more »

Nature

Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe.

New!!: Economics and Nature · See more »

Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

New!!: Economics and Nature (journal) · See more »

Negative income tax

In economics, a negative income tax (NIT) is a progressive income tax system where people earning below a certain amount receive supplemental pay from the government instead of paying taxes to the government.

New!!: Economics and Negative income tax · See more »

Negative relationship

In statistics, there is a negative relationship or inverse relationship between two variables if higher values of one variable tend to be associated with lower values of the other.

New!!: Economics and Negative relationship · See more »

Neoclassical economics

Neoclassical economics is an approach to economics focusing on the determination of goods, outputs, and income distributions in markets through supply and demand.

New!!: Economics and Neoclassical economics · See more »

Neoclassical synthesis

The neoclassical synthesis was a post-World War II academic movement in economics that worked towards absorbing the macroeconomic thought of John Maynard Keynes into neoclassical economics.

New!!: Economics and Neoclassical synthesis · See more »

Neuroeconomics

Neuroeconomics and Economic Psychology is an interdisciplinary field that seeks to explain human decision making, the ability to process multiple alternatives and to follow a course of action.

New!!: Economics and Neuroeconomics · See more »

New classical macroeconomics

New classical macroeconomics, sometimes simply called new classical economics, is a school of thought in macroeconomics that builds its analysis entirely on a neoclassical framework.

New!!: Economics and New classical macroeconomics · See more »

New Keynesian economics

New Keynesian economics is a school of contemporary macroeconomics that strives to provide microeconomic foundations for Keynesian economics.

New!!: Economics and New Keynesian economics · See more »

Nicholas Barr

Nicholas Barr FRSA is a British economist, currently serving as professor of public economics at the London School of Economics (LSE).

New!!: Economics and Nicholas Barr · See more »

Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen

Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen (born Nicolae Georgescu, 4 February 1906 – 30 October 1994) was a Romanian American mathematician, statistician and economist.

New!!: Economics and Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen · See more »

Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences

The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences (officially Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne, or the Swedish National Bank's Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel), commonly referred to as the Nobel Prize in Economics, is an award for outstanding contributions to the field of economics, and generally regarded as the most prestigious award for that field.

New!!: Economics and Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences · See more »

Nominal rigidity

Nominal rigidity, also known as price-stickiness or wage-stickiness, describes a situation in which the nominal price is resistant to change.

New!!: Economics and Nominal rigidity · See more »

Normal good

In economics, a normal good is any good for which demand increases when income increases, i.e. with a positive income elasticity of demand.

New!!: Economics and Normal good · See more »

Normative economics

Normative economics (as opposed to positive economics) is a part of economics that expresses value or normative judgments about economic fairness or what the outcome of the economy or goals of public policy ought to be.

New!!: Economics and Normative economics · See more »

Nuclear strategy

Nuclear strategy involves the development of doctrines and strategies for the production and use of nuclear weapons.

New!!: Economics and Nuclear strategy · See more »

Objectivity (philosophy)

Objectivity is a central philosophical concept, objective means being independent of the perceptions thus objectivity means the property of being independent from the perceptions, which has been variously defined by sources.

New!!: Economics and Objectivity (philosophy) · See more »

Observational study

In fields such as epidemiology, social sciences, psychology and statistics, an observational study draws inferences from a sample to a population where the independent variable is not under the control of the researcher because of ethical concerns or logistical constraints.

New!!: Economics and Observational study · See more »

Occasional Discourse on the Negro Question

The essay "Occasional Discourse on the Negro Question" was written by the Scottish essayist Thomas Carlyle about the acceptability of using black slaves and indentured servants.

New!!: Economics and Occasional Discourse on the Negro Question · See more »

Oeconomicus

The Oeconomicus (Οἰκονομικός) by Xenophon is a Socratic dialogue principally about household management and agriculture.

New!!: Economics and Oeconomicus · See more »

Okun's law

In economics, Okun's law (named after Arthur Melvin Okun, who proposed the relationship in 1962) is an empirically observed relationship between unemployment and losses in a country's production.

New!!: Economics and Okun's law · See more »

Oligopsony

An oligopsony (from Ancient Greek ὀλίγοι (oligoi) "few" + ὀψωνία (opsōnia) "purchase") is a market form in which the number of buyers is small while the number of sellers in theory could be large.

New!!: Economics and Oligopsony · See more »

On the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation

On the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation (19 April 1817) is a book by David Ricardo on economics.

New!!: Economics and On the Principles of Political Economy and Taxation · See more »

Operations research

Operations research, or operational research in British usage, is a discipline that deals with the application of advanced analytical methods to help make better decisions.

New!!: Economics and Operations research · See more »

Opportunity cost

In microeconomic theory, the opportunity cost, also known as alternative cost, is the value (not a benefit) of the choice in terms of the best alternative while making a decision.

New!!: Economics and Opportunity cost · See more »

Ordinal utility

In economics, an ordinal utility function is a function representing the preferences of an agent on an ordinal scale.

New!!: Economics and Ordinal utility · See more »

Organization

An organization or organisation is an entity comprising multiple people, such as an institution or an association, that has a collective goal and is linked to an external environment.

New!!: Economics and Organization · See more »

Oskar Morgenstern

Oskar Morgenstern (January 24, 1902 – July 26, 1977) was a German-born economist.

New!!: Economics and Oskar Morgenstern · See more »

Outline of economics

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to economics: Economics – analyzes the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

New!!: Economics and Outline of economics · See more »

Outline of physical science

Physical science is a branch of natural science that studies non-living systems, in contrast to life science.

New!!: Economics and Outline of physical science · See more »

Output (economics)

Output in economics is the "quantity of goods or services produced in a given time period, by a firm, industry, or country", whether consumed or used for further production.

New!!: Economics and Output (economics) · See more »

Output gap

The GDP gap or the output gap is the difference between actual GDP or actual output and potential GDP.

New!!: Economics and Output gap · See more »

Outsourcing

In business, outsourcing is an agreement in which one company contracts its own internal activity to a different company.

New!!: Economics and Outsourcing · See more »

Paradigm

In science and philosophy, a paradigm is a distinct set of concepts or thought patterns, including theories, research methods, postulates, and standards for what constitutes legitimate contributions to a field.

New!!: Economics and Paradigm · See more »

Pareto efficiency

Pareto efficiency or Pareto optimality is a state of allocation of resources from which it is impossible to reallocate so as to make any one individual or preference criterion better off without making at least one individual or preference criterion worse off.

New!!: Economics and Pareto efficiency · See more »

Partnership

A partnership is an arrangement where parties, known as partners, agree to cooperate to advance their mutual interests.

New!!: Economics and Partnership · See more »

Paul Joskow

Paul Lewis Joskow (born June 30, 1947) is an American economist and professor.

New!!: Economics and Paul Joskow · See more »

Paul Samuelson

Paul Anthony Samuelson (15 May 1915 – 13 December 2009) was an American economist and the first American to win the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences.

New!!: Economics and Paul Samuelson · See more »

Per capita

Per capita is a Latin prepositional phrase: per (preposition, taking the accusative case, meaning "by means of") and capita (accusative plural of the noun caput, "head").

New!!: Economics and Per capita · See more »

Perfect competition

In economics, specifically general equilibrium theory, a perfect market is defined by several idealizing conditions, collectively called perfect competition.

New!!: Economics and Perfect competition · See more »

Perfect information

In economics, perfect information is a feature of perfect competition.

New!!: Economics and Perfect information · See more »

Permanent income hypothesis

The permanent income hypothesis (PIH) is an economic theory attempting to describe how agents spread consumption over their lifetimes.

New!!: Economics and Permanent income hypothesis · See more »

Peter Hedström

Peter Hedström is one of the founders of the field of analytical sociology.

New!!: Economics and Peter Hedström · See more »

Philip Mirowski

Philip Mirowski (born 21 August 1951, Jackson, Michigan) is a historian and philosopher of economic thought at the University of Notre Dame.

New!!: Economics and Philip Mirowski · See more »

Physiocracy

Physiocracy (from the Greek for "government of nature") is an economic theory developed by a group of 18th century Enlightenment French economists who believed that the wealth of nations was derived solely from the value of "land agriculture" or "land development" and that agricultural products should be highly priced.

New!!: Economics and Physiocracy · See more »

Planned economy

A planned economy is a type of economic system where investment and the allocation of capital goods take place according to economy-wide economic and production plans.

New!!: Economics and Planned economy · See more »

Policy

A policy is a deliberate system of principles to guide decisions and achieve rational outcomes.

New!!: Economics and Policy · See more »

Political agenda

A political agenda is a list of subjects or problems to which government officials as well as individuals outside the government are paying serious attention at any given time.

New!!: Economics and Political agenda · See more »

Political economy

Political economy is the study of production and trade and their relations with law, custom and government; and with the distribution of national income and wealth.

New!!: Economics and Political economy · See more »

Political faction

A political faction is a group of individuals within a larger entity, such as a political party, a trade union or other group, or simply a political climate, united by a particular common political purpose that differs in some respect to the rest of the entity.

New!!: Economics and Political faction · See more »

Political science

Political science is a social science which deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts, and political behavior.

New!!: Economics and Political science · See more »

Politics

Politics (from Politiká, meaning "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group.

New!!: Economics and Politics · See more »

Population growth

In biology or human geography, population growth is the increase in the number of individuals in a population.

New!!: Economics and Population growth · See more »

Positive economics

Positive economics (as opposed to normative economics) is the branch of economics that concerns the description and explanation of economic phenomena.

New!!: Economics and Positive economics · See more »

Post-Keynesian economics

Post-Keynesian economics is a school of economic thought with its origins in The General Theory of John Maynard Keynes, with subsequent development influenced to a large degree by Michał Kalecki, Joan Robinson, Nicholas Kaldor, Sidney Weintraub, Paul Davidson, Piero Sraffa and Jan Kregel.

New!!: Economics and Post-Keynesian economics · See more »

Potential output

In economics, potential output (also referred to as "natural gross domestic product") refers to the highest level of real gross domestic product (potential output) that can be sustained over the long term.

New!!: Economics and Potential output · See more »

Poverty

Poverty is the scarcity or the lack of a certain (variant) amount of material possessions or money.

New!!: Economics and Poverty · See more »

Preference (economics)

In economics and other social sciences, preference is the ordering of alternatives based on their relative utility, a process which results in an optimal "choice" (whether real or theoretical).

New!!: Economics and Preference (economics) · See more »

Price

In ordinary usage, a price is the quantity of payment or compensation given by one party to another in return for one unit of goods or services.

New!!: Economics and Price · See more »

Price elasticity of supply

Price elasticity of supply (PES or Es) is a measure used in economics to show the responsiveness, or elasticity, of the quantity supplied of a good or service to a change in its price.

New!!: Economics and Price elasticity of supply · See more »

Price level

The general price level is a hypothetical daily measure of overall prices for some set of goods and services (the consumer basket), in an economy or monetary union during a given interval (generally one day), normalized relative to some base set.

New!!: Economics and Price level · See more »

Price system

In economics, a price system is a component of any economic system that uses prices expressed in any form of money for the valuation and distribution of goods and services and the factors of production.

New!!: Economics and Price system · See more »

Principles of Economics (Marshall)

Principles of Economics is a leading political economy or economics textbook of Alfred Marshall (1842–1924), first published in 1890.

New!!: Economics and Principles of Economics (Marshall) · See more »

Principles of Political Economy

Principles of Political Economy (1848) by John Stuart Mill was one of the most important economics or political economy textbooks of the mid-nineteenth century.

New!!: Economics and Principles of Political Economy · See more »

Private good

A private good is defined in economics as "an item that yields positive benefits to people" that is excludable, i.e. its owners can exercise private property rights, preventing those who have not paid for it from using the good or consuming its benefits; and rivalrous, i.e. consumption by one necessarily prevents that of another.

New!!: Economics and Private good · See more »

Product (business)

In marketing, a product is anything that can be offered to a market that might satisfy a want or need.

New!!: Economics and Product (business) · See more »

Production (economics)

Production is a process of combining various material inputs and immaterial inputs (plans, know-how) in order to make something for consumption (the output).

New!!: Economics and Production (economics) · See more »

Production–possibility frontier

A production–possibility frontier (PPF) or production possibility curve (PPC) is the possible tradeoff of producing combinations of goods with constant technology and resources per unit time.

New!!: Economics and Production–possibility frontier · See more »

Productive efficiency

Productive efficiency is a situation in which the economy could not produce any more of one good without sacrificing production of another good.

New!!: Economics and Productive efficiency · See more »

Profit maximization

In economics, profit maximization is the short run or long run process by which a firm may determine the price, input, and output levels that lead to the greatest profit.

New!!: Economics and Profit maximization · See more »

Proportionality (mathematics)

In mathematics, two variables are proportional if there is always a constant ratio between them.

New!!: Economics and Proportionality (mathematics) · See more »

Public bad

A public bad, in economics, is the symmetry of a public good.

New!!: Economics and Public bad · See more »

Public choice

Public choice or public choice theory is "the use of economic tools to deal with traditional problems of political science".

New!!: Economics and Public choice · See more »

Public economics

Public economics (or economics of the public sector) is the study of government policy through the lens of economic efficiency and equity.

New!!: Economics and Public economics · See more »

Public good

In economics, a public good is a good that is both non-excludable and non-rivalrous in that individuals cannot be effectively excluded from use and where use by one individual does not reduce availability to others.

New!!: Economics and Public good · See more »

Public policy

Public policy is the principled guide to action taken by the administrative executive branches of the state with regard to a class of issues, in a manner consistent with law and institutional customs.

New!!: Economics and Public policy · See more »

Public sector

The public sector (also called the state sector) is the part of the economy composed of both public services and public enterprises.

New!!: Economics and Public sector · See more »

Purchasing power

Purchasing power (sometimes retroactively called adjusted for inflation) is the number and quality or value of goods and services that can be purchased with a unit of currency.

New!!: Economics and Purchasing power · See more »

Qin Shi Huang

Qin Shi Huang (18 February 25910 September 210) was the founder of the Qin dynasty and was the first emperor of a unified China.

New!!: Economics and Qin Shi Huang · See more »

Qualitative economics

Qualitative economics is the representation and analysis of information about the direction of change (+, -, or 0) in some economic variable(s) as related to change of some other economic variable(s).

New!!: Economics and Qualitative economics · See more »

Quantity theory of money

In monetary economics, the quantity theory of money (QTM) states that the general price level of goods and services is directly proportional to the amount of money in circulation, or money supply.

New!!: Economics and Quantity theory of money · See more »

Ramsey–Cass–Koopmans model

The Ramsey–Cass–Koopmans model, or Ramsey growth model, is a neoclassical model of economic growth based primarily on the work of Frank P. Ramsey, with significant extensions by David Cass and Tjalling Koopmans.

New!!: Economics and Ramsey–Cass–Koopmans model · See more »

Rational choice theory

Rational choice theory, also known as choice theory or rational action theory, is a framework for understanding and often formally modeling social and economic behavior.

New!!: Economics and Rational choice theory · See more »

Rational expectations

In economics, "rational expectations" are model-consistent expectations, in that agents inside the model are assumed to "know the model" and on average take the model's predictions as valid.

New!!: Economics and Rational expectations · See more »

Real business-cycle theory

Real business-cycle theory (RBC theory) is a class of new classical macroeconomics models in which business-cycle fluctuations to a large extent can be accounted for by real (in contrast to nominal) shocks.

New!!: Economics and Real business-cycle theory · See more »

Real gross domestic product

Real Gross Domestic Product (real GDP) is a macroeconomic measure of the value of economic output adjusted for price changes (i.e., inflation or deflation).

New!!: Economics and Real gross domestic product · See more »

Real versus nominal value (economics)

In economics, a real value of a good or other entity has been adjusted for inflation, enabling comparison of quantities as if prices had not changed.

New!!: Economics and Real versus nominal value (economics) · See more »

Recession

In economics, a recession is a business cycle contraction which results in a general slowdown in economic activity.

New!!: Economics and Recession · See more »

Redistribution of income and wealth

Redistribution of income and redistribution of wealth are respectively the transfer of income and of wealth (including physical property) from some individuals to others by means of a social mechanism such as taxation, charity, welfare, public services, land reform, monetary policies, confiscation, divorce or tort law.

New!!: Economics and Redistribution of income and wealth · See more »

Regression analysis

In statistical modeling, regression analysis is a set of statistical processes for estimating the relationships among variables.

New!!: Economics and Regression analysis · See more »

Regulation

Regulation is an abstract concept of management of complex systems according to a set of rules and trends.

New!!: Economics and Regulation · See more »

Regulatory economics

Regulatory economics is the economics of regulation.

New!!: Economics and Regulatory economics · See more »

Renaissance

The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.

New!!: Economics and Renaissance · See more »

Rent regulation

Rent regulation is a system of laws, administered by a court or a public authority, which aim to ensure the quality and affordability of housing and tenancies on the rental market for land.

New!!: Economics and Rent regulation · See more »

Rent-seeking

In public choice theory and in economics, rent-seeking involves seeking to increase one's share of existing wealth without creating new wealth.

New!!: Economics and Rent-seeking · See more »

Replication (statistics)

In engineering, science, and statistics, replication is the repetition of an experimental condition so that the variability associated with the phenomenon can be estimated.

New!!: Economics and Replication (statistics) · See more »

Research program

A research program (UK: research programme) is a professional network of scientists conducting basic research.

New!!: Economics and Research program · See more »

Resource allocation

In economics, resource allocation is the assignment of available resources to various uses.

New!!: Economics and Resource allocation · See more »

Restructuring

Restructuring is the corporate management term for the act of reorganizing the legal, ownership, operational, or other structures of a company for the purpose of making it more profitable, or better organized for its present needs.

New!!: Economics and Restructuring · See more »

Returns to scale

In economics, returns to scale and economies of scale are related but different terms that describe what happens as the scale of production increases in the long run, when all input levels including physical capital usage are variable (chosen by the firm).

New!!: Economics and Returns to scale · See more »

Reuters

Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.

New!!: Economics and Reuters · See more »

Rhetoric

Rhetoric is the art of discourse, wherein a writer or speaker strives to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations.

New!!: Economics and Rhetoric · See more »

Ricardian equivalence

The Ricardian equivalence proposition (also known as the Ricardo–de Viti–Barro equivalence theorem) is an economic hypothesis holding that consumers are forward looking and so internalize the government's budget constraint when making their consumption decisions.

New!!: Economics and Ricardian equivalence · See more »

Richard Swedberg

Richard Swedberg (born May 18, 1948) is a Swedish sociologist.

New!!: Economics and Richard Swedberg · See more »

Risk aversion

In economics and finance, risk aversion is the behavior of humans (especially consumers and investors), when exposed to uncertainty, in attempting to lower that uncertainty.

New!!: Economics and Risk aversion · See more »

Robert Lucas Jr.

Robert Emerson Lucas Jr. (born September 15, 1937) is an American economist at the University of Chicago.

New!!: Economics and Robert Lucas Jr. · See more »

Ronald Coase

Ronald Harry Coase (29 December 1910 – 2 September 2013) was a British economist and author.

New!!: Economics and Ronald Coase · See more »

Satire

Satire is a genre of literature, and sometimes graphic and performing arts, in which vices, follies, abuses, and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, ideally with the intent of shaming individuals, corporations, government, or society itself into improvement.

New!!: Economics and Satire · See more »

Say's Political Economy

Traité d'économie politique or in English "A Treatise on Political Economy; or The Production, Distribution, and Consumption of Wealth" or more commonly, Say's Political Economy was written by Jean-Baptiste Say.

New!!: Economics and Say's Political Economy · See more »

Scarcity

Scarcity refers to the limited availability of a commodity, which may be in demand in the market.

New!!: Economics and Scarcity · See more »

Schools of economic thought

In the history of economic thought, a school of economic thought is a group of economic thinkers who share or shared a common perspective on the way economies work.

New!!: Economics and Schools of economic thought · See more »

Science

R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.

New!!: Economics and Science · See more »

Scientific American

Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.

New!!: Economics and Scientific American · See more »

Scientific control

A scientific control is an experiment or observation designed to minimize the effects of variables other than the independent variable.

New!!: Economics and Scientific control · See more »

Scottish people

The Scottish people (Scots: Scots Fowk, Scottish Gaelic: Albannaich), or Scots, are a nation and ethnic group native to Scotland. Historically, they emerged from an amalgamation of two Celtic-speaking peoples, the Picts and Gaels, who founded the Kingdom of Scotland (or Alba) in the 9th century. Later, the neighbouring Celtic-speaking Cumbrians, as well as Germanic-speaking Anglo-Saxons and Norse, were incorporated into the Scottish nation. In modern usage, "Scottish people" or "Scots" is used to refer to anyone whose linguistic, cultural, family ancestral or genetic origins are from Scotland. The Latin word Scoti originally referred to the Gaels, but came to describe all inhabitants of Scotland. Considered archaic or pejorative, the term Scotch has also been used for Scottish people, primarily outside Scotland. John Kenneth Galbraith in his book The Scotch (Toronto: MacMillan, 1964) documents the descendants of 19th-century Scottish pioneers who settled in Southwestern Ontario and affectionately referred to themselves as 'Scotch'. He states the book was meant to give a true picture of life in the community in the early decades of the 20th century. People of Scottish descent live in many countries other than Scotland. Emigration, influenced by factors such as the Highland and Lowland Clearances, Scottish participation in the British Empire, and latterly industrial decline and unemployment, have resulted in Scottish people being found throughout the world. Scottish emigrants took with them their Scottish languages and culture. Large populations of Scottish people settled the new-world lands of North and South America, Australia and New Zealand. Canada has the highest level of Scottish descendants per capita in the world and the second-largest population of Scottish descendants, after the United States. Scotland has seen migration and settlement of many peoples at different periods in its history. The Gaels, the Picts and the Britons have their respective origin myths, like most medieval European peoples. Germanic peoples, such as the Anglo-Saxons, arrived beginning in the 7th century, while the Norse settled parts of Scotland from the 8th century onwards. In the High Middle Ages, from the reign of David I of Scotland, there was some emigration from France, England and the Low Countries to Scotland. Some famous Scottish family names, including those bearing the names which became Bruce, Balliol, Murray and Stewart came to Scotland at this time. Today Scotland is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living there are British citizens.

New!!: Economics and Scottish people · See more »

Service (economics)

In economics, a service is a transaction in which no physical goods are transferred from the seller to the buyer.

New!!: Economics and Service (economics) · See more »

Slavery

Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.

New!!: Economics and Slavery · See more »

Slope

In mathematics, the slope or gradient of a line is a number that describes both the direction and the steepness of the line.

New!!: Economics and Slope · See more »

Social relation

In social science, a social relation or social interaction is any relationship between two or more individuals.

New!!: Economics and Social relation · See more »

Social science

Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.

New!!: Economics and Social science · See more »

Social Security (United States)

In the United States, Social Security is the commonly used term for the federal Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program and is administered by the Social Security Administration.

New!!: Economics and Social Security (United States) · See more »

Socialism

Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.

New!!: Economics and Socialism · See more »

Society

A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.

New!!: Economics and Society · See more »

Socioeconomics

Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes.

New!!: Economics and Socioeconomics · See more »

Sociology

Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.

New!!: Economics and Sociology · See more »

State (polity)

A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.

New!!: Economics and State (polity) · See more »

State government

A state government is the government of a country subdivision in a federal form of government, which shares political power with the federal or national government.

New!!: Economics and State government · See more »

Statistical significance

In statistical hypothesis testing, a result has statistical significance when it is very unlikely to have occurred given the null hypothesis.

New!!: Economics and Statistical significance · See more »

Statistics

Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.

New!!: Economics and Statistics · See more »

Stimulus (economics)

In economics, stimulus refers to attempts to use monetary or fiscal policy (or stabilization policy in general) to stimulate the economy.

New!!: Economics and Stimulus (economics) · See more »

Stock and flow

Economics, business, accounting, and related fields often distinguish between quantities that are stocks and those that are flows.

New!!: Economics and Stock and flow · See more »

Stockholm school (economics)

The Stockholm School (Stockholmsskolan), is a school of economic thought.

New!!: Economics and Stockholm school (economics) · See more »

Structural change

In economics, structural change is a shift or change in the basic ways a market or economy functions or operates.

New!!: Economics and Structural change · See more »

Structural unemployment

Structural unemployment is a form of unemployment caused by a mismatch between the skills that workers in the economy can offer, and the skills demanded of workers by employers (also known as the skills gap).

New!!: Economics and Structural unemployment · See more »

Structuralist economics

Structuralist economics is an approach to economics that emphasizes the importance of taking into account structural features (typically) when undertaking economic analysis.

New!!: Economics and Structuralist economics · See more »

Substitution effect

In economics and particularly in consumer choice theory, the substitution effect is one component of the effect of a change in the price of a good upon the amount of that good demanded by a consumer, the other being the income effect.

New!!: Economics and Substitution effect · See more »

Supply and demand

In microeconomics, supply and demand is an economic model of price determination in a market.

New!!: Economics and Supply and demand · See more »

Supply-side economics

Supply-side economics is a macroeconomic theory arguing that economic growth can be most effectively created by lowering taxes and decreasing regulation.

New!!: Economics and Supply-side economics · See more »

Surplus value

Surplus value is a central concept in Karl Marx's critique of political economy.

New!!: Economics and Surplus value · See more »

Sustainability

Sustainability is the process of change, in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations.

New!!: Economics and Sustainability · See more »

Tariff

A tariff is a tax on imports or exports between sovereign states.

New!!: Economics and Tariff · See more »

Tax cut

A tax cut is a reduction in the rate of tax charged by a government.

New!!: Economics and Tax cut · See more »

Tax incidence

In economics, tax incidence or tax burden is the analysis of the effect of a particular tax on the distribution of economic welfare.

New!!: Economics and Tax incidence · See more »

Taylor & Francis

Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.

New!!: Economics and Taylor & Francis · See more »

Technical progress (economics)

Technical progress (or technological progress) is an economic measure of innovation.

New!!: Economics and Technical progress (economics) · See more »

Technology

Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is first robustly defined by Jacob Bigelow in 1829 as: "...principles, processes, and nomenclatures of the more conspicuous arts, particularly those which involve applications of science, and which may be considered useful, by promoting the benefit of society, together with the emolument of those who pursue them".

New!!: Economics and Technology · See more »

The American Economic Review

The American Economic Review is a peer-reviewed academic journal of economics.

New!!: Economics and The American Economic Review · See more »

The dismal science

"The dismal science" is a derogatory alternative name for economics coined by the Victorian historian Thomas Carlyle in the 19th century.

New!!: Economics and The dismal science · See more »

The Economist

The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.

New!!: Economics and The Economist · See more »

The Economists' Voice

The Economists' Voice is a publishing forum for professional economists that seeks to fill the gap between op-ed pages of newspapers and scholarly journal articles.

New!!: Economics and The Economists' Voice · See more »

The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money

The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money of 1936 is the last and most important book by the English economist John Maynard Keynes.

New!!: Economics and The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money · See more »

The Journal of Law and Economics

The Journal of Law and Economics is an academic journal published by the University of Chicago Press.

New!!: Economics and The Journal of Law and Economics · See more »

The Market for Lemons

"The Market for Lemons: Quality Uncertainty and the Market Mechanism" is a well-known 1970 paper by economist George Akerlof which examines how the quality of goods traded in a market can degrade in the presence of information asymmetry between buyers and sellers, leaving only "lemons" behind.

New!!: Economics and The Market for Lemons · See more »

The Nature of the Firm

“The Nature of the Firm” (1937), is an article by Ronald Coase.

New!!: Economics and The Nature of the Firm · See more »

The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics

The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics (2008), 2nd ed., is an eight-volume reference work on economics, edited by Steven N. Durlauf and Lawrence E. Blume and published by Palgrave Macmillan.

New!!: Economics and The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics · See more »

The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

New!!: Economics and The New York Times · See more »

The New York Times Magazine

The New York Times Magazine is a Sunday magazine supplement included with the Sunday edition of The New York Times.

New!!: Economics and The New York Times Magazine · See more »

The Philosophy of Money

The Philosophy of Money (1900) is a book on economic sociology by the German sociologist and social philosopher, Georg Simmel.

New!!: Economics and The Philosophy of Money · See more »

The Problem of Social Cost

"The Problem of Social Cost" (1960) by Ronald Coase, then a faculty member at the University of Virginia, is an article dealing with the economic problem of externalities.

New!!: Economics and The Problem of Social Cost · See more »

The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism

The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (Die protestantische Ethik und der Geist des Kapitalismus) is a book written by Max Weber, a German sociologist, economist, and politician.

New!!: Economics and The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism · See more »

The Reverend

The Reverend is an honorific style most often placed before the names of Christian clergy and ministers.

New!!: Economics and The Reverend · See more »

The Theory of Wages

The Theory of Wages is a book by the British economist John R. Hicks published in 1932 (2nd ed., 1963).

New!!: Economics and The Theory of Wages · See more »

The Ultimate Resource

The Ultimate Resource is a 1981 book written by Julian Lincoln Simon challenging the notion that humanity was running out of natural resources.

New!!: Economics and The Ultimate Resource · See more »

The Wealth of Nations

An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, generally referred to by its shortened title The Wealth of Nations, is the magnum opus of the Scottish economist and moral philosopher Adam Smith.

New!!: Economics and The Wealth of Nations · See more »

Theorem

In mathematics, a theorem is a statement that has been proven on the basis of previously established statements, such as other theorems, and generally accepted statements, such as axioms.

New!!: Economics and Theorem · See more »

Theory of forms

The theory of Forms or theory of Ideas is Plato's argument that non-physical (but substantial) forms (or ideas) represent the most accurate reality.

New!!: Economics and Theory of forms · See more »

Theory of Games and Economic Behavior

Theory of Games and Economic Behavior, published in 1944 by Princeton University Press, is a book by mathematician John von Neumann and economist Oskar Morgenstern which is considered the groundbreaking text that created the interdisciplinary research field of game theory.

New!!: Economics and Theory of Games and Economic Behavior · See more »

Theory of the firm

The theory of the firm consists of a number of economic theories that explain and predict the nature of the firm, company, or corporation, including its existence, behaviour, structure, and relationship to the market.

New!!: Economics and Theory of the firm · See more »

Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.

New!!: Economics and Thermodynamics · See more »

Thermoeconomics

Thermoeconomics, also referred to as biophysical economics, is a school of heterodox economics that applies the laws of statistical mechanics to economic theory.

New!!: Economics and Thermoeconomics · See more »

Thomas Aquinas

Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church.

New!!: Economics and Thomas Aquinas · See more »

Thomas Carlyle

Thomas Carlyle (4 December 17955 February 1881) was a Scottish philosopher, satirical writer, essayist, translator, historian, mathematician, and teacher.

New!!: Economics and Thomas Carlyle · See more »

Thomas Robert Malthus

Thomas Robert Malthus (13 February 1766 – 23 December 1834) was an English cleric and scholar, influential in the fields of political economy and demography.

New!!: Economics and Thomas Robert Malthus · See more »

Trade

Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money.

New!!: Economics and Trade · See more »

Trade union

A trade union or trades union, also called a labour union (Canada) or labor union (US), is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve many common goals; such as protecting the integrity of its trade, improving safety standards, and attaining better wages, benefits (such as vacation, health care, and retirement), and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by the creation of a monopoly of the workers.

New!!: Economics and Trade union · See more »

Transaction cost

In economics and related disciplines, a transaction cost is a cost in making any economic trade when participating in a market.

New!!: Economics and Transaction cost · See more »

Transfer payment

In economics, a transfer payment (or government transfer or simply transfer) is a redistribution of income and wealth (payment) made without goods or services being received in return.

New!!: Economics and Transfer payment · See more »

Treasury

A treasury is either.

New!!: Economics and Treasury · See more »

Trust law

A trust is a three-party fiduciary relationship in which the first party, the trustor or settlor, transfers ("settles") a property (often but not necessarily a sum of money) upon the second party (the trustee) for the benefit of the third party, the beneficiary.

New!!: Economics and Trust law · See more »

Ultimatum game

The ultimatum game is a game that has become a popular instrument of economic experiments.

New!!: Economics and Ultimatum game · See more »

Uncertainty

Uncertainty has been called "an unintelligible expression without a straightforward description".

New!!: Economics and Uncertainty · See more »

Unemployment

Unemployment is the situation of actively looking for employment but not being currently employed.

New!!: Economics and Unemployment · See more »

Unit of account

A unit of account in economics is a nominal monetary unit of measure or currency used to represent the real value (or cost) of any economic item; i.e. goods, services, assets, liabilities, income, expenses.

New!!: Economics and Unit of account · See more »

United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

New!!: Economics and United States · See more »

United States federal budget

The United States federal budget comprises the spending and revenues of the U.S. federal government.

New!!: Economics and United States federal budget · See more »

University

A university (universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines.

New!!: Economics and University · See more »

University of Cambridge

The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.

New!!: Economics and University of Cambridge · See more »

Unpaid work

Unpaid labor is defined as labor that does not receive any direct remuneration.

New!!: Economics and Unpaid work · See more »

Utility

Within economics the concept of utility is used to model worth or value, but its usage has evolved significantly over time.

New!!: Economics and Utility · See more »

Value (ethics)

In ethics, value denotes the degree of importance of some thing or action, with the aim of determining what actions are best to do or what way is best to live (normative ethics), or to describe the significance of different actions.

New!!: Economics and Value (ethics) · See more »

Value and Capital

Value and Capital is a book by the British economist John Richard Hicks, published in 1939.

New!!: Economics and Value and Capital · See more »

Victorian era

In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901.

New!!: Economics and Victorian era · See more »

Wealth

Wealth is the abundance of valuable resources or valuable material possessions.

New!!: Economics and Wealth · See more »

Web directory

A web directory or link directory is an online list or catalog of websites.

New!!: Economics and Web directory · See more »

Welfare

Welfare is a government support for the citizens and residents of society.

New!!: Economics and Welfare · See more »

West Coast of the United States

The West Coast or Pacific Coast is the coastline along which the contiguous Western United States meets the North Pacific Ocean.

New!!: Economics and West Coast of the United States · See more »

Women's work

Women's work or woman's work is a term used to indicate work that is believed to be exclusively the domain of women and associates particular tasks with the female gender.

New!!: Economics and Women's work · See more »

Workforce

The workforce or labour force (labor force in American English; see spelling differences) is the labour pool in employment.

New!!: Economics and Workforce · See more »

Workforce productivity

Workforce productivity is the amount of goods and services that a worker produces in a given amount of time.

New!!: Economics and Workforce productivity · See more »

World Bank Group

The World Bank Group (WBG) (Groupe de la Banque mondiale) is a family of five international organizations that make leveraged loans to developing countries.

New!!: Economics and World Bank Group · See more »

World energy consumption

World energy consumption is the total energy used by the entire human civilization.

New!!: Economics and World energy consumption · See more »

World population

In demographics, the world population is the total number of humans currently living, and was estimated to have reached 7.6 billion people as of May 2018.

New!!: Economics and World population · See more »

World-systems theory

World-systems theory (also known as world-systems analysis or the world-systems perspective)Immanuel Wallerstein, (2004), "World-systems Analysis." In World System History, ed.

New!!: Economics and World-systems theory · See more »

Redirects here:

Binary Economics, Criticism of economics, Ecomonic, Ecomonics, Econ., Economic Policy Advisory Board, Economic Science, Economic Sciences, Economic activities, Economic activity, Economic doctrine, Economic environment, Economic imperialism (economics), Economic inefficiencies, Economic pattern, Economic science, Economic sciences, Economic theories, Economic theory, EconomicS, Economically, Economically efficient, Economics empiricism, Economics subdisciplines, Economics theory, Economiks, Econs, Econs., Fundamentals of economics, History of modern economics, IG(X-M), IGX-M, LIABILITIES, Liabilities (accounting), Modern Economics, Modern economics, Oeconomics, Oecononomics, Response probability, School of Economics and Business Administration, Theoretical economics, Total liabilities, Œconomics.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economics

OutgoingIncoming
Hey! We are on Facebook now! »