136 relations: A Murder on the Appian Way, Acquittal, Adoption in ancient Rome, Aedile, Andrew Lintott, Appian Way, Appius Claudius Pulcher (consul 143 BC), Appius Claudius Pulcher (consul 79 BC), Ariccia, Asconius Pedianus, Augustus, Aurelia Cotta, Bodyguard, Bona Dea, Bovillae, Caecilius Metellus, Caesar (McCullough novel), Caesar's Women, Catiline, Cato the Younger, Catullus, Cicero, Cilicia, Claudia (gens), Clodia Pulchra (wife of Augustus), Clodia Pulchra (wife of Metellus), Cognomen, Colleen McCullough, Consul, Curia, Curia Hostilia, Cursus honorum, Cyprus, Decius Metellus, Dictator (Harris novel), Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, Epistolary novel, Exile, Extortion, First Triumvirate, Fonteia (gens), Fulvia, Gallia Narbonensis, Gens, Gladiator, Grace and favour, Greece, Guild, Imperium (Harris novel), Jacques Lacan, ..., John Maddox Roberts, Julia Minor (sister of Caesar), Julius Caesar, Legatus, Leges Clodiae, Lesbia, Lex Aelia et Fufia, Libertas, Lucius Antonius (brother of Mark Antony), Lucius Cornelius Lentulus Crus, Lucius Licinius Murena, Lucullus, Lustrum (novel), Magistrate, Marcus Aemilius Scaurus (praetor 56 BC), Marcus Licinius Crassus, Marie-Louis-Antoine-Gaston Boissier, Mark Antony, Masters of Rome, Maurus Servius Honoratus, Mithridates VI of Pontus, Mucia Tertia, Nobiles, Omen, Optimates, Palatine, Palatine Hill, Patrician (ancient Rome), Perusine War, Pinaria (gens), Plutarch, Polity, Pompeia (wife of Caesar), Pompey, Pontifex maximus, Populares, Praetor, Privative, Pro Milone, Ptolemaic dynasty, Ptolemy of Cyprus, Ptolemy XII Auletes, Publius Claudius Pulcher (praetor), Quaestor, Quintus Caecilius Metellus Celer, Quintus Caecilius Metellus Nepos Iunior, Quintus Marcius Rex (consul 68 BC), Quintus Servilius Caepio, Quintus Tullius Cicero, Regia, Richard Billows, Roma Sub Rosa, Roman assemblies, Roman calendar, Roman censor, Roman consul, Roman law, Roman naming conventions, Roman Republic, Roman Senate, Rome, Ronald Syme, Saffron (color), Second Catilinarian conspiracy, Second Triumvirate, Senatus consultum ultimum, Servilia (gens), Sicilia (Roman province), SPQR series, Steven Saylor, Syria, T. P. Wiseman, Terentia, The Ides of March (novel), Thessaloniki, Third Mithridatic War, Thomas Stangl, Thornton Wilder, Titus Annius Milo, Tribune, Tribune of the Plebs, Tusculum, Valerius Maximus, Vestal Virgin, Virtus, William Smith (lexicographer). Expand index (86 more) » « Shrink index
A Murder on the Appian Way is a historical novel by American author Steven Saylor, first published by St. Martin's Press in 1996.
In common law jurisdictions, an acquittal certifies that the accused is free from the charge of an offense, as far as the criminal law is concerned.
In ancient Rome, adoption of boys was a fairly common procedure, particularly in the upper senatorial class.
Aedile (aedīlis, from aedes, "temple edifice") was an office of the Roman Republic.
Andrew William Lintott (born 9 December 1936) is a British classical scholar who specialises in the political and administrative history of ancient Rome, Roman law and epigraphy.
The Appian Way (Latin and Italian: Via Appia) is one of the earliest and strategically most important Roman roads of the ancient republic.
Appius Claudius Pulcher (Latin: APP•CLAVDIVS•C•F•APP•N•PVLCHER) was a Roman politician of the 2nd century BC.
Appius Claudius Pulcher (c. 139 BC – 76 BC) was a Roman politician of the 1st century BC.
Ariccia (Latin: Aricia) is a town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Rome, central Italy, 16 miles (25 km) south-east of Rome.
Quintus Asconius Pedianus (c. 9 BC – c. AD 76) was a Roman historian.
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
Aurelia Cotta or Aurelia (May 21, 120 – July 31, 54 BC) was the mother of Roman dictator Gaius Julius Caesar (100 – 44 BC).
A bodyguard (or close protection officer) is a type of security guard or government law enforcement officer or soldier who protects a person or people — usually high-ranking public officials or officers, wealthy people, and celebrities — from danger: generally theft, assault, kidnapping, assassination, harassment, loss of confidential information, threats, or other criminal offences.
Bona Dea ('Good Goddess') was a divinity in ancient Roman religion.
Bovillae was an ancient town in Lazio, central Italy, currently part of Frattocchie frazione in the municipality of Marino.
The Caecilii Metelli, one of the most important and wealthy families in the Roman Republic, came of noble (although plebeian, not patrician) stock.
Caesar: Let the Dice Fly is the fifth historical novel in Colleen McCullough's Masters of Rome series.
Caesar's Women is the fourth historical novel in Colleen McCullough's Masters of Rome series, published in 1996.
Lucius Sergius Catilina, known in English as Catiline (108–62 BC), was a Roman Senator of the 1st century BC best known for the second Catilinarian conspiracy, an attempt to overthrow the Roman Republic and, in particular, the power of the aristocratic Senate.
Marcus Porcius Cato Uticensis (95 BC – April 46 BC), commonly known as Cato the Younger (Cato Minor) to distinguish him from his great-grandfather (Cato the Elder), was a statesman in the late Roman Republic, and a follower of the Stoic philosophy.
Gaius Valerius Catullus (c. 84 – c. 54 BC) was a Latin poet of the late Roman Republic who wrote chiefly in the neoteric style of poetry, which is about personal life rather than classical heroes.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.
In antiquity, Cilicia(Armenian: Կիլիկիա) was the south coastal region of Asia Minor and existed as a political entity from Hittite times into the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia during the late Byzantine Empire.
The gens Claudia, sometimes written Clodia, was one of the most prominent patrician houses at Rome.
Clodia Pulchra,also known as Claudia (born 57 BC/56 BC) was the daughter of Fulvia by her first husband Publius Clodius Pulcher.
Clodia (born Claudia, c. 95 or 94 BC), nicknamed Quadrantaria, and occasionally referred to in scholarship as Clodia Metelli ("Clodia the wife of Metellus"), was one of three known daughters of the ancient Roman patrician Appius Claudius Pulcher and either Caecilia Metella Balearica, or her cousin, Caecilia Metella daughter of Lucius Caecilius Metellus Diadematus.
A cognomen (Latin plural cognomina; from con- "together with" and (g)nomen "name") was the third name of a citizen of ancient Rome, under Roman naming conventions.
Colleen Margaretta McCullough (married name Robinson, previously Ion-Robinson;. Retrieved 2 February 2015 1 June 193729 January 2015) was an Australian author known for her novels, her most well-known being The Thorn Birds and The Ladies of Missalonghi, the latter of which was involved in a plagiarism controversy.
Consul (abbrev. cos.; Latin plural consules) was the title of one of the chief magistrates of the Roman Republic, and subsequently a somewhat significant title under the Roman Empire.
Curia (Latin plural curiae) in ancient Rome referred to one of the original groupings of the citizenry, eventually numbering 30, and later every Roman citizen was presumed to belong to one.
The Curia Hostilia was one of the original senate houses or "curia" of the Roman Republic.
The cursus honorum (Latin: "course of offices") was the sequential order of public offices held by aspiring politicians in both the Roman Republic and the early Roman Empire.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
Decius Caecilius Metellus the Younger is a fictional character created by author John Maddox Roberts, the protagonist of Roberts's ''SPQR'' series of historical mystery novels.
Dictator is a historical novel by British author Robert Harris, published in 2015, which concludes his trilogy about the life of the Roman lawyer, politician and orator Cicero (106–43 BC).
The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology (1849, originally published 1844 under a slightly different title) is an encyclopedia/biographical dictionary.
An epistolary novel is a novel written as a series of documents.
To be in exile means to be away from one's home (i.e. city, state, or country), while either being explicitly refused permission to return or being threatened with imprisonment or death upon return.
Extortion (also called shakedown, outwrestling and exaction) is a criminal offense of obtaining money, property, or services from an individual or institution, through coercion.
The First Triumvirate is a term historians use for an informal political alliance of three prominent men between 59 and 53 BC, during the late Roman Republic: Gaius Julius Caesar, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great), and Marcus Licinius Crassus.
The gens Fonteia was a plebeian family at Rome.
Fulvia (c. 83 BC – 40 BC) was an aristocratic Roman woman who lived during the Late Roman Republic.
Gallia Narbonensis (Latin for "Gaul of Narbonne", from its chief settlement) was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France.
In ancient Rome, a gens, plural gentes, was a family consisting of all those individuals who shared the same nomen and claimed descent from a common ancestor.
A gladiator (gladiator, "swordsman", from gladius, "sword") was an armed combatant who entertained audiences in the Roman Republic and Roman Empire in violent confrontations with other gladiators, wild animals, and condemned criminals.
A grace-and-favour home is a residential property owned by a monarch by virtue of his or her position as head of state and leased, often rent-free, to persons as part of an employment package or in gratitude for past services rendered.
A guild is an association of artisans or merchants who oversee the practice of their craft/trade in a particular area.
Imperium is a 2006 novel by English author Robert Harris.
Jacques Marie Émile Lacan (13 April 1901 – 9 September 1981) was a French psychoanalyst and psychiatrist who has been called "the most controversial psycho-analyst since Freud".
John Maddox Roberts (born June 25, 1947 in Ohio) is an American author of science fiction and fantasy novels, including historical fiction, such as the ''SPQR'' series and Hannibal's Children.
Julia, also known as Julia Minor and Julia the Younger, (101–51 BC) was the second of two daughters of Gaius Julius Caesar and Aurelia Cotta.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
A legatus (anglicized as legate) was a high ranking Roman military officer in the Roman Army, equivalent to a modern high ranking general officer.
Leges Clodiae ("Clodian Laws") were a series of laws (plebiscites) passed by the Plebeian Council of the Roman Republic under the tribune Publius Clodius Pulcher in 58 BC.
Lesbia was the literary pseudonym used by the Roman poet Gaius Valerius Catullus (82–52 BC) to refer to his lover.
The Lex Aelia et Fufia (the Aelian and Fufian Law) was established around the year 150 BC in the Roman Republic.
Libertas (Latin for Liberty) is the Roman goddess and embodiment of liberty.
Lucius Antonius (1st century BC) was the younger brother and supporter of Mark Antony, a Roman politician.
Lucius Cornelius Lentulus Crus (bef. 97 BC - 48 BC) was Consul of the Roman Republic in 49 BC, an opponent of Caesar and supporter of Pompeius in the Civil War during 49 – 48 BC.
Lucius Licinius Murena was the name of a father and son who lived in the late Roman Republic.
Lucius Licinius Lucullus (118 – 57/56 BC) was an optimate politician of the late Roman Republic, closely connected with Lucius Cornelius Sulla.
Lustrum (US: Conspirata; 2009) is a historical novel by British author Robert Harris.
The term magistrate is used in a variety of systems of governments and laws to refer to a civilian officer who administers the law.
Marcus Aemilius Scaurus was a Roman politician of the 1st century BC and son of Marcus Aemilius Scaurus and Caecilia Metella Dalmatica.
Marcus Licinius Crassus (c. 115 – 6 May 53 BC) was a Roman general and politician who played a key role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
Marie-Louis-Antoine-Gaston Boissier (15 August 1823 – 20 November 1908), French classical scholar, and secretary of the Académie française, was born at Nîmes.
Marcus Antonius (Latin:; 14 January 1 August 30 BC), commonly known in English as Mark Antony or Marc Antony, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from an oligarchy into the autocratic Roman Empire.
Masters of Rome is a series of historical novels by Australian author Colleen McCullough, set in ancient Rome during the last days of the old Roman Republic; it primarily chronicles the lives and careers of Gaius Marius, Lucius Cornelius Sulla, Pompeius Magnus, Gaius Julius Caesar, and the early career of Caesar Augustus.
Maurus Servius Honoratus was a late fourth-century and early fifth-century grammarian, with the contemporary reputation of being the most learned man of his generation in Italy; he was the author of a set of commentaries on the works of Virgil.
Mithridates VI or Mithradates VI (Μιθραδάτης, Μιθριδάτης), from Old Persian Miθradāta, "gift of Mithra"; 135–63 BC, also known as Mithradates the Great (Megas) and Eupator Dionysius, was king of Pontus and Armenia Minor in northern Anatolia (now Turkey) from about 120–63 BC.
Mucia Tertia was a Roman matrona who lived in the 1st century BC.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
During the Roman Republic, nobilis ("noble," plural nobiles) was a descriptive term of social rank, usually indicating that a member of the family had achieved the consulship.
An omen (also called portent or presage) is a phenomenon that is believed to foretell the future, often signifying the advent of change.
The Optimates (optimates, "best ones", singular; also known as boni, "good men") were the traditionalist Senatorial majority of the late Roman Republic.
A palatine or palatinus (in Latin; plural palatini; cf. derivative spellings below) is a high-level official attached to imperial or royal courts in Europe since Roman times.
The Palatine Hill (Collis Palatium or Mons Palatinus; Palatino) is the centremost of the Seven Hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city.
The patricians (from patricius) were originally a group of ruling class families in ancient Rome.
The Perusine War (also Perusian or Perusinian War, or the War of Perusia) was a civil war of the Roman Republic, which lasted from 41 to 40 BC.
The gens Pinaria was one of the most ancient patrician families at Rome.
Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.
A polity is any kind of political entity.
Pompeia (fl. 1st century BC) was the second wife of Julius Caesar.
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (29 September 106 BC – 28 September 48 BC), usually known in English as Pompey or Pompey the Great, was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic.
The Pontifex Maximus or pontifex maximus (Latin, "greatest priest") was the chief high priest of the College of Pontiffs (Collegium Pontificum) in ancient Rome.
The Populares (populares, "favouring the people", singular popularis) were a grouping in the late Roman Republic which favoured the cause of the plebeians (the commoners).
Praetor (also spelled prætor) was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army (in the field or, less often, before the army had been mustered); or, an elected magistratus (magistrate), assigned various duties (which varied at different periods in Rome's history).
A privative, named from Latin privare, "to deprive", is a particle that negates or inverts the value of the stem of the word.
The Pro Tito Annio Milone ad iudicem oratio (Pro Milone) is a speech made by Marcus Tullius Cicero on behalf of his friend Titus Annius Milo.
The Ptolemaic dynasty (Πτολεμαῖοι, Ptolemaioi), sometimes also known as the Lagids or Lagidae (Λαγίδαι, Lagidai, after Lagus, Ptolemy I's father), was a Macedonian Greek royal family, which ruled the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt during the Hellenistic period.
Ptolemy of Cyprus was the king of Cyprus c. 80-58 BC.
Ptolemy Neos Dionysos Theos Philopator Theos Philadelphos (Πτολεμαῖος Νέος Διόνυσος Θεός Φιλοπάτωρ Θεός Φιλάδελφος, Ptolemaios Néos Diónysos Theós Philopátōr Theós Philádelphos "Ptolemy New Dionysus, God Beloved of his Father, God Beloved of his Brother"; 117–51 BC) was a pharaoh of the ethnically Macedonian Greek Ptolemaic dynasty of Ancient Egypt.
Publius Claudius Pulcher (c. 62-59 BC – aft. 31 BC) was a son and homonymous of Publius Clodius Pulcher.
A quaestor (investigator) was a public official in Ancient Rome.
Quintus Caecilius Metellus Celer (before 103 BC or c. 100 BC – 59 BC) was a consul in 60 BC and son of Quintus Caecilius Metellus Nepos, or, according to some, the son of Tribune Quintus Caecilius Metellus Celer while the latter is the son of Quintus Caecilius Metellus Nepos.
Quintus Caecilius Metellus Nepos Iunior (c. 100 BC – 55 BC) was a son of Quintus Caecilius Metellus Nepos.
Quintus Marcius Rex was a consul of the Roman Republic.
Quintus Servilius Caepio the Elder was a Roman statesman and general, consul in 106 BC, and proconsul of Cisalpine Gaul in 105 BC.
Quintus Tullius Cicero (102 BC – 43 BC) was a Roman statesman and military leader, the younger brother of Marcus Tullius Cicero.
The Regia was a two-part structure in Ancient Rome lying along the Sacra Via at the edge of the Roman Forum that originally served as the residence or one of the main headquarters of kings of Rome and later as the office of the Pontifex Maximus, the high priest of Roman state religion.
Richard Billows is a professor of history at Columbia University.
Roma Sub Rosa is the title of the series of historical mystery novels by Steven Saylor set in ancient Rome and populated by noteworthy denizens thereof.
The Roman Assemblies were institutions in ancient Rome.
The Roman calendar was the calendar used by the Roman kingdom and republic.
The censor was a magistrate in ancient Rome who was responsible for maintaining the census, supervising public morality, and overseeing certain aspects of the government's finances.
A consul held the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic (509 to 27 BC), and ancient Romans considered the consulship the highest level of the cursus honorum (an ascending sequence of public offices to which politicians aspired).
Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables (c. 449 BC), to the Corpus Juris Civilis (AD 529) ordered by Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I. Roman law forms the basic framework for civil law, the most widely used legal system today, and the terms are sometimes used synonymously.
Over the course of some fourteen centuries, the Romans and other peoples of Italy employed a system of nomenclature that differed from that used by other cultures of Europe and the Mediterranean, consisting of a combination of personal and family names.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
The Roman Senate (Senatus Romanus; Senato Romano) was a political institution in ancient Rome.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Sir Ronald Syme, (11 March 1903 – 4 September 1989) was a New Zealand-born historian and classicist.
Saffron,also known as Saffron Orange,is a color that is a tone of golden orange resembling the color of the tip of the saffron crocus thread, from which the spice saffron is derived.
The second Catilinarian conspiracy, also known simply as the Catiline conspiracy, was a plot, devised by the Roman senator Lucius Sergius Catilina (or Catiline), with the help of a group of fellow aristocrats and disaffected veterans of Lucius Cornelius Sulla, to overthrow the consulship of Marcus Tullius Cicero and Gaius Antonius Hybrida.
The Second Triumvirate is the name historians have given to the official political alliance of Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (Caesar Augustus), Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony), and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, formed on 27 November 43 BC with the enactment of the Lex Titia, the adoption of which some view as marking the end of the Roman Republic, whilst others argue the Battle of Actium or Octavian becoming Caesar Augustus in 27 BC.
Senatus consultum ultimum ("final decree of the Senate" or Final Act, often abbreviated SCU), more properly senatus consultum de re publica defendenda ("decree of the Senate about defending the Republic") is the modern term (based on Caesar's wording at Bell. Civ. 1.5) given to a decree of the Roman Senate during the late Roman Republic passed in times of emergency.
The gens Servilia was a patrician family at Rome.
Sicilia was the first province acquired by the Roman Republic.
The SPQR series is a collection of historical mystery stories by John Maddox Roberts, published between 1990 and 2010, and set in the time of the Roman Republic.
Steven Saylor (born March 23, 1956) is an American author of historical novels.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Timothy Peter Wiseman (born 3 February 1940), who usually publishes as T. P.
Terentia (98 BC – 6 AD) was the wife of the renowned orator Marcus Tullius Cicero.
The Ides of March is an epistolary novel by Thornton Wilder that was published in 1948.
Thessaloniki (Θεσσαλονίκη, Thessaloníki), also familiarly known as Thessalonica, Salonica, or Salonika is the second-largest city in Greece, with over 1 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area, and the capital of Greek Macedonia, the administrative region of Central Macedonia and the Decentralized Administration of Macedonia and Thrace.
The Third Mithridatic War (73–63 BC) was the last and longest of three Mithridatic Wars and was fought between Mithridates VI of Pontus, who was joined by his allies, and the Roman Republic.
Thomas Stangl (21 December 1854 in Aufhausen – 4 August 1921 in Würzburg) was a German classical scholar and text critic.
Thornton Niven Wilder (April 17, 1897 – December 7, 1975) was an American playwright and novelist.
Titus Annius Milo Papianus was a Roman political agitator.
Tribune was the title of various elected officials in ancient Rome.
Tribunus plebis, rendered in English as tribune of the plebs, tribune of the people, or plebeian tribune, was the first office of the Roman state that was open to the plebeians, and throughout the history of the Republic, the most important check on the power of the Roman Senate and magistrates.
Tusculum is a ruined Roman city in the Alban Hills, in the Latium region of Italy.
Valerius Maximus was a Latin writer and author of a collection of historical anecdotes: Factorum ac dictorum memorabilium libri IX ("nine books of memorable deeds and sayings", also known as De factis dictisque memorabilibus or Facta et dicta memorabilia) Factorum ac dictorum memorabilium libri IX.
In ancient Rome, the Vestals or Vestal Virgins (Latin: Vestālēs, singular Vestālis) were priestesses of Vesta, goddess of the hearth.
Virtus was a specific virtue in Ancient Rome.
Sir William Smith (20 May 1813 – 7 October 1893) was an English lexicographer.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.