102 relations: Abwehr, Adolf Hitler, Anti-fascism, Arson, Arthur Garfield Hays, Article 48 (Weimar Constitution), Barrister, Berlin, Blagoy Popov, Capital punishment, Centre Party (Germany), Chamber of Deputies, Chancellor of Germany, Circumstantial evidence, Coalition government, Communism, Communist International, Communist Party of Germany, Communist Party of the Netherlands, Communist revolution, Council communism, Coup d'état, Czechoslovakia, Decapitation, Democracy, Denis Pritt, Der Spiegel, Diocletian, Election, Enabling Act of 1933, Ernst Röhm, Ernst Torgler, False flag, Franz Halder, Freedom of assembly, Freedom of association, Freedom of speech, Freedom of the press, Galerius, Georgi Dimitrov, German National People's Party, Gestapo, Habeas corpus, Hans Bernd Gisevius, Hans Mommsen, HathiTrust, Hermann Göring, Hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic, Ian Kershaw, John Gunther, ..., Joseph Goebbels, Karl Ernst, Kingdom of Bulgaria, Kroll Opera House, Labour Party (UK), Lactantius, Law, Lew Rockwell, List of political conspiracies, Marinus van der Lubbe, Nazi Germany, Nazi Party, Nicomedia, Night of the Long Knives, Nuremberg trials, Opposition (politics), Oxford University Press, Paul von Hindenburg, People's Court (Germany), Piet Vermeylen, Plurality (voting), President of Germany (1919–1945), Propaganda, Prussia, Pyromania, Queen's Counsel, Reichsgericht, Reichstag (Weimar Republic), Reichstag building, Reichstag Fire Decree, Richard and Clara Winston, Roland Freisler, Saxony, Secrecy of correspondence, Sefton Delmer, Show trial, Simon & Schuster, Social Democratic Party of Germany, Stafford Cripps, Sturmabteilung, The Brown Book of the Reichstag Fire and Hitler Terror, The Guardian, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, The Sunday Telegraph, Vasil Tanev, Vincent de Moro-Giafferi, Vossische Zeitung, Weimar Constitution, Weimar Republic, Willi Münzenberg, William L. Shirer, 20 July plot. Expand index (52 more) » « Shrink index
The Abwehr was the German military intelligence service for the Reichswehr and Wehrmacht from 1920 to 1945.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Anti-fascism is opposition to fascist ideologies, groups and individuals.
Arson is a crime of intentionally, deliberately and maliciously setting fire to buildings, wildland areas, abandoned homes, vehicles or other property with the intent to cause damage or enjoy the act.
Arthur Garfield Hays (December 12, 1881 – December 14, 1954) was an American lawyer and champion of civil liberties issues, best known as a co-founder and general counsel of the American Civil Liberties Union and for participating in notable cases including the Sacco and Vanzetti trial.
Article 48 of the constitution of the Weimar Republic of Germany (1919–1933) allowed the President, under certain circumstances, to take emergency measures without the prior consent of the Reichstag.
A barrister (also known as barrister-at-law or bar-at-law) is a type of lawyer in common law jurisdictions.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
Blagoi Popov (Благой Попов) (1902–1968) was one of the co-defendants along with Georgi Dimitrov and Vasil Tanev in the Leipzig trial.
Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime.
The German Centre Party (Deutsche Zentrumspartei or just Zentrum) is a lay Catholic political party in Germany, primarily influential during the Kaiserreich and the Weimar Republic.
The chamber of deputies is the legislative body such as the lower house of a bicameral legislature, or also a unicameral legislature.
The title Chancellor has designated different offices in the history of Germany.
Circumstantial evidence is evidence that relies on an inference to connect it to a conclusion of fact—like a fingerprint at the scene of a crime.
A coalition government is a cabinet of a parliamentary government in which many or multiple political parties cooperate, reducing the dominance of any one party within that "coalition".
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
The Communist International (Comintern), known also as the Third International (1919–1943), was an international communist organization that advocated world communism.
The Communist Party of Germany (Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands, KPD) was a major political party in Germany between 1918 and 1933, and a minor party in West Germany in the postwar period until it was banned in 1956.
The Communist Party of the Netherlands (Communistische Partij Nederland,, CPN) was a Dutch communist party.
A communist revolution is a proletarian revolution often, but not necessarily inspired by the ideas of Marxism that aims to replace capitalism with communism, typically with socialism as an intermediate stage.
Council communism (also councilism) is a current of socialist thought that emerged in the 1920s.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
Decapitation is the complete separation of the head from the body.
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
Denis Nowell Pritt, QC (22 September 1887 – 23 May 1972) was a British barrister and Labour Party politician.
Der Spiegel (lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.
Diocletian (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus), born Diocles (22 December 244–3 December 311), was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305.
An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office.
The Enabling Act (German: Ermächtigungsgesetz) was a 1933 Weimar Constitution amendment that gave the German Cabinet—in effect, Chancellor Adolf Hitler—the power to enact laws without the involvement of the Reichstag.
Ernst Julius Günther Röhm (28 November 1887 – 1 July 1934) was a German military officer and an early member of the Nazi Party.
Ernst Torgler (25 April 1893 – 19 January 1963) was the last chairman of the Communist Party of Germany (KPD) faction in the German Reichstag before he worked for the Nazis.
A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.
Franz Halder (30 June 1884 – 2 April 1972) was a German general and the chief of the Oberkommando des Heeres staff (OKH, Army High Command) from 1938 until September 1942, when he was dismissed after frequent disagreements with Adolf Hitler.
Freedom of assembly, sometimes used interchangeably with the freedom of association, is the individual right or ability of people to come together and collectively express, promote, pursue, and defend their collective or shared ideas.
Freedom of association encompasses both an individual's right to join or leave groups voluntarily, the right of the group to take collective action to pursue the interests of its members, and the right of an association to accept or decline membership based on certain criteria.
Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.
Freedom of the press or freedom of the media is the principle that communication and expression through various media, including printed and electronic media, especially published materials, should be considered a right to be exercised freely.
Galerius (Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximianus Augustus; c. 250 – April or May 311) was Roman Emperor from 305 to 311.
Georgi Dimitrov Mikhaylov (Гео̀рги Димитро̀в Миха̀йлов), also known as Georgi Mikhaylovich Dimitrov (Гео́ргий Миха́йлович Дими́тров; 18 June 1882 – 2 July 1949), was a Bulgarian communist politician.
The German National People's Party (DNVP) was a national conservative party in Germany during the time of the Weimar Republic.
The Gestapo, abbreviation of Geheime Staatspolizei (Secret State Police), was the official secret police of Nazi Germany and German-occupied Europe.
Habeas corpus (Medieval Latin meaning literally "that you have the body") is a recourse in law through which a person can report an unlawful detention or imprisonment to a court and request that the court order the custodian of the person, usually a prison official, to bring the prisoner to court, to determine whether the detention is lawful.
Hans Bernd Gisevius (14 July 1904 – 23 February 1974) was a German diplomat and intelligence officer during the Second World War.
Hans Mommsen (5 November 1930 – 5 November 2015) was a German historian, known for his studies in German social history, and for his functionalist interpretation of the Third Reich, especially for arguing that Hitler was a weak dictator.
HathiTrust is a large-scale collaborative repository of digital content from research libraries including content digitized via the Google Books project and Internet Archive digitization initiatives, as well as content digitized locally by libraries.
Hermann Wilhelm Göring (or Goering;; 12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946) was a German political and military leader as well as one of the most powerful figures in the Nazi Party (NSDAP) that ruled Germany from 1933 to 1945.
During a period between 1918 and January 1924, the German mark suffered hyperinflation.
Sir Ian Kershaw, FBA (born 29 April 1943) is an English historian and author whose work has chiefly focused on the social history of 20th-century Germany.
John Gunther (August 30, 1901 – May 29, 1970) was an American journalist and author.
Paul Joseph Goebbels (29 October 1897 – 1 May 1945) was a German Nazi politician and Reich Minister of Propaganda of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945.
Karl Ernst (1 September 1904, Berlin – 30 June 1934, Berlin) was an SA- Gruppenführer who, in early 1933, was the SA leader in Berlin.
The Kingdom of Bulgaria (Царство България, Tsarstvo Bǎlgariya), also referred to as the Tsardom of Bulgaria and the Third Bulgarian Tsardom, was a constitutional monarchy in Eastern and Southeastern Europe, which was established on 5 October (O.S. 22 September) 1908 when the Bulgarian state was raised from a principality to a kingdom.
The Kroll Opera House (Krolloper, Kroll-Oper) was an opera building in Berlin, Germany, located in the central Tiergarten district on the western edge of the Königsplatz square (today Platz der Republik), facing the Reichstag building.
The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.
Lucius Caecilius Firmianus Lactantius (c. 250 – c. 325) was an early Christian author who became an advisor to the first Christian Roman emperor, Constantine I, guiding his religious policy as it developed, and a tutor to his son Crispus.
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.
Llewellyn Harrison Rockwell Jr. (born July 1, 1944) is an American author, editor, and political consultant.
In a political sense, conspiracy refers to a group of people united in the goal of usurping, altering or overthrowing an established political power.
Marinus (Rinus) van der Lubbe (13 January 1909 – 10 January 1934) was a Dutch council communist tried, convicted and executed for setting fire to the German Reichstag building on 27 February 1933, an event known as the Reichstag fire.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The National Socialist German Workers' Party (abbreviated NSDAP), commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party, was a far-right political party in Germany that was active between 1920 and 1945 and supported the ideology of Nazism.
Nicomedia (Νικομήδεια, Nikomedeia; modern İzmit) was an ancient Greek city in what is now Turkey.
The Night of the Long Knives (German), also called Operation Hummingbird (German: Unternehmen Kolibri) or, in Germany, the Röhm Putsch, was a purge that took place in Nazi Germany from June 30 to July 2, 1934, when the National Socialist German Workers Party, or Nazis, carried out a series of political extrajudicial executions intended to consolidate Adolf Hitler's absolute hold on power in Germany.
The Nuremberg trials (Die Nürnberger Prozesse) were a series of military tribunals held by the Allied forces under international law and the laws of war after World War II.
The political party that has the majority is called ruling party and all other parties or their members are called the Opposition.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known generally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a Generalfeldmarschall and statesman who commanded the German military during the second half of World War I before later being elected President of the Weimar republic in 1925.
The People's Court (Volksgerichtshof) was a Sondergericht ("special court") of Nazi Germany, set up outside the operations of the constitutional frame of law.
Piet Vermeylen (8 April 1904 in Uccle – 30 December 1991 in Brussels, also called Pierre Vermeylen by some Belgian French sources), was a Belgian lawyer, and Belgian Socialist politician and minister.
A plurality vote (in North America) or relative majority (in the United Kingdom) describes the circumstance when a candidate or proposition polls more votes than any other, but does not receive a majority.
The Reichspräsident was the German head of state under the Weimar constitution, which was officially in force from 1919 to 1945.
Propaganda is information that is not objective and is used primarily to influence an audience and further an agenda, often by presenting facts selectively to encourage a particular synthesis or perception, or using loaded language to produce an emotional rather than a rational response to the information that is presented.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
Pyromania is an impulse control disorder in which individuals repeatedly fail to resist impulses to deliberately start fires, in order to relieve tension or for instant gratification.
A Queen's Counsel (postnominal QC), or King's Counsel (postnominal KC) during the reign of a king, is an eminent lawyer (usually a barrister or advocate) who is appointed by the Monarch to be one of "Her Majesty's Counsel learned in the law." The term is also recognised as an honorific.
The Reichsgericht (Imperial Court of Justice) was the supreme criminal and civil court in the German Reich from 1879 to 1945.
The Reichstag (English: Diet of the Realm) was the Lower house of the Weimar Republic's Legislature from 1919, with the creation of the Weimar constitution, to 1933, with the Reichstag fire.
The Reichstag (Reichstagsgebäude; officially: Deutscher Bundestag - Plenarbereich Reichstagsgebäude) is a historic edifice in Berlin, Germany, constructed to house the Imperial Diet (German: Reichstag) of the German Empire.
The Reichstag Fire Decree (Reichstagsbrandverordnung) is the common name of the Decree of the Reich President for the Protection of People and State (Verordnung des Reichspräsidenten zum Schutz von Volk und Staat) issued by German President Paul von Hindenburg on the advice of Chancellor Adolf Hitler on 28 February 1933 in immediate response to the Reichstag fire.
Richard Winston (1917 – December 22, 1979) and Clara Brussel Winston (1921 – November 7, 1983), were prominent American translators of German works into English.
Roland Freisler (30 October 1893 – 3 February 1945) was a jurist and judge of Nazi Germany.
The Free State of Saxony (Freistaat Sachsen; Swobodny stat Sakska) is a landlocked federal state of Germany, bordering the federal states of Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, and Bavaria, as well as the countries of Poland (Lower Silesian and Lubusz Voivodeships) and the Czech Republic (Karlovy Vary, Liberec, and Ústí nad Labem Regions).
The secrecy of correspondence (Briefgeheimnis, secret de la correspondance) or literally translated as secrecy of letters, is a fundamental legal principle enshrined in the constitutions of several European countries.
Denis Sefton Delmer (24 May 1904 – 4 September 1979) was a British journalist of Australian heritage and propagandist for the British government.
A show trial is a public trial in which the judicial authorities have already determined the guilt of the defendant.
Simon & Schuster, Inc., a subsidiary of CBS Corporation, is an American publishing company founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard Simon and Max Schuster.
The Social Democratic Party of Germany (Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, SPD) is a social-democratic political party in Germany.
Sir Richard Stafford Cripps, (24 April 1889 – 21 April 1952) was a British Labour politician of the first half of the twentieth century.
The Sturmabteilung (SA), literally Storm Detachment, functioned as the original paramilitary wing of the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The Brown Book of the Reichstag Fire and Hitler Terror is a book published in Paris, France in August 1933 and written by Otto Katz (also known as Andre Simone).
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany is a book by William L. Shirer chronicling the rise and fall of Nazi Germany from the birth of Adolf Hitler in 1889 to the end of World War II in 1945.
The Sunday Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper, founded in February 1961, and is published by the Telegraph Media Group, a division of Press Holdings.
Vasil Tanev (Васил Танев) (1879–1941) was a Bulgarian Communist, one of the three Bulgarian Comintern operatives arrested and tried for complicity in the Reichstag fire in 1933.
Vincent de Moro-Giafferi (6 June 1878 in Paris – 15 February 1956) was a French criminal attorney.
The Vossische Zeitung (more precisely: "(Königlich Privilegierte) Berlinische Zeitung von Staats- und Gelehrten Sachen") was the well-known liberal German newspaper that was published in Berlin (1721–1934).
The Constitution of the German Reich (Die Verfassung des Deutschen Reichs), usually known as the Weimar Constitution (Weimarer Verfassung) was the constitution that governed Germany during the Weimar Republic era (1919–1933).
The Weimar Republic (Weimarer Republik) is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state during the years 1919 to 1933.
Wilhelm "Willi" Münzenberg (14 August 1889, Erfurt, Germany – June 1940, Saint-Marcellin, France) was a communist political activist.
William Lawrence Shirer (February 23, 1904 – December 28, 1993) was an American journalist and war correspondent.
On 20 July 1944, Claus von Stauffenberg and other conspirators attempted to assassinate Adolf Hitler, Führer of Nazi Germany, inside his Wolf's Lair field headquarters near Rastenburg, East Prussia.