83 relations: Alessandro Volta, Alkaline battery, Ampere, Automotive battery, Caesium standard, Capacitor, Centimetre–gram–second system of units, Charles Tilston Bright, Clark cell, CMOS, Cobalt, Comparison of commercial battery types, Conventional electrical unit, Coulomb, Daniell cell, Electric battery, Electric current, Electric field, Electric potential, Electric power transmission, Electric vehicle, Electrical conductor, Electrical junction, Electrochemical cell, Electromotive force, Electronvolt, Elementary charge, Energy, Flux, General Conference on Weights and Measures, Hagen–Poiseuille equation, Hydraulic analogy, Inductor, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, International Electrotechnical Commission, Josephson effect, Josephson voltage standard, Josiah Latimer Clark, Joule, Joule heating, Kilogram, Lightning, List of railway electrification systems, Lithium iron phosphate battery, Lithium polymer battery, Luigi Galvani, Magnetic flux quantum, Mains electricity, Mains electricity by country, Metre, ..., Metric prefix, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Neuron, Newton (unit), Nickel–cadmium battery, Nickel–metal hydride battery, Nine-volt battery, Ohm, Ohm's law, Orders of magnitude (voltage), Planck constant, Potential, Power (physics), Pressure, Rapid transit, Resistor, Resting potential, Second, SI base unit, SI derived unit, SI electromagnetism units, Silver, Third rail, Transistor–transistor logic, USB, Voltage, Voltaic pile, Voltmeter, Watt, Weston cell, Zinc, Zinc–carbon battery, 25 kV AC railway electrification. Expand index (33 more) » « Shrink index
Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta (18 February 1745 – 5 March 1827) was an Italian physicist, chemist, and a pioneer of electricity and power,Giuliano Pancaldi, "Volta: Science and culture in the age of enlightenment", Princeton University Press, 2003.
The ampere (symbol: A), often shortened to "amp",SI supports only the use of symbols and deprecates the use of abbreviations for units.
An automotive battery is a rechargeable battery that supplies electrical current to a motor vehicle.
The caesium standard is a primary frequency standard in which electronic transitions between the two hyperfine ground states of caesium-133 atoms are used to control the output frequency.
A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores potential energy in an electric field.
The centimetre–gram–second system of units (abbreviated CGS or cgs) is a variant of the metric system based on the centimetre as the unit of length, the gram as the unit of mass, and the second as the unit of time.
Sir Charles Tilston Bright (8 June 1832 – 3 May 1888) was a British electrical engineer who oversaw the laying of the first transatlantic telegraph cable in 1858, for which work he was knighted.
The Clark cell, invented by English engineer Josiah Latimer Clark in 1873, is a wet-chemical cell (colloquially: battery) that produces a highly stable voltage.
Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor, abbreviated as CMOS, is a technology for constructing integrated circuits.
Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.
A conventional electrical unit (or conventional unit where there is no risk of ambiguity) is a unit of measurement in the field of electricity which is based on the so-called "conventional values" of the Josephson constant and the von Klitzing constant agreed by the International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM) in 1988.
The coulomb (symbol: C) is the International System of Units (SI) unit of electric charge.
The Daniell cell is a type of electrochemical cell invented in 1836 by John Frederic Daniell, a British chemist and meteorologist, and consisted of a copper pot filled with a copper (II) sulfate solution, in which was immersed an unglazed earthenware container filled with sulfuric acid and a zinc electrode.
An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, smartphones, and electric cars.
An electric current is a flow of electric charge.
An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.
An electric potential (also called the electric field potential, potential drop or the electrostatic potential) is the amount of work needed to move a unit positive charge from a reference point to a specific point inside the field without producing any acceleration.
Electric power transmission is the bulk movement of electrical energy from a generating site, such as a power plant, to an electrical substation.
An electric vehicle, also called an EV, uses one or more electric motors or traction motors for propulsion.
In physics and electrical engineering, a conductor is an object or type of material that allows the flow of an electrical current in one or more directions.
An electrical junction may be either a thermoelectricity junction, a metal–semiconductor junction or a p–n junction (p-type semiconductor–n-type semiconductor junction).
An electrochemical cell (EC) is a device capable of either generating electrical energy from chemical reactions or using electrical energy to cause chemical reactions.
Electromotive force, abbreviated emf (denoted \mathcal and measured in volts), is the electrical intensity or "pressure" developed by a source of electrical energy such as a battery or generator.
In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV, also written electron-volt and electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately joules (symbol J).
The elementary charge, usually denoted as or sometimes, is the electric charge carried by a single proton, or equivalently, the magnitude of the electric charge carried by a single electron, which has charge.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
Flux describes the quantity which passes through a surface or substance.
The General Conference on Weights and Measures (Conférence générale des poids et mesures – CGPM) is the supreme authority of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (Bureau international des poids et mesures – BIPM), the inter-governmental organization established in 1875 under the terms of the Metre Convention (Convention du Mètre) through which Member States act together on matters related to measurement science and measurement standards.
In nonideal fluid dynamics, the Hagen–Poiseuille equation, also known as the Hagen–Poiseuille law, Poiseuille law or Poiseuille equation, is a physical law that gives the pressure drop in an incompressible and Newtonian fluid in laminar flow flowing through a long cylindrical pipe of constant cross section.
The electronic–hydraulic analogy (derisively referred to as the drain-pipe theory by Oliver Lodge) is the most widely used analogy for "electron fluid" in a metal conductor.
An inductor, also called a coil, choke or reactor, is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores energy in a magnetic field when electric current flows through it.
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association with its corporate office in New York City and its operations center in Piscataway, New Jersey.
The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC; in French: Commission électrotechnique internationale) is an international standards organization that prepares and publishes International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies – collectively known as "electrotechnology".
The Josephson effect is the phenomenon of supercurrent—i.e. a current that flows indefinitely long without any voltage applied—across a device known as a Josephson junction (JJ), which consists of two superconductors coupled by a weak link.
A Josephson voltage standard is a complex system that uses a superconductive integrated circuit chip operating at 4 K to generate stable voltages that depend only on an applied frequency and fundamental constants.
Josiah Latimer Clark FRAS (10 March 1822 – 30 October 1898), was an English electrical engineer, born in Great Marlow, Buckinghamshire.
The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.
Joule heating, also known as Ohmic heating and resistive heating, is the process by which the passage of an electric current through a conductor produces heat.
The kilogram or kilogramme (symbol: kg) is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI), and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK, also known as "Le Grand K" or "Big K"), a cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy stored by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Saint-Cloud, France.
Lightning is a sudden electrostatic discharge that occurs typically during a thunderstorm.
This is a list of the power supply systems that are, or have been, used for tramway and railway electrification systems.
The lithium iron phosphate battery, also called LFP battery (with "LFP" standing for "lithium ferrophosphate"), is a type of rechargeable battery, specifically a lithium-ion battery, which uses 4 as a cathode material, and a graphitic carbon electrode with a metallic current collector grid as the anode.
A lithium polymer battery, or more correctly lithium-ion polymer battery (abbreviated as LiPo, LIP, Li-poly, lithium-poly and others), is a rechargeable battery of lithium-ion technology using a polymer electrolyte instead of a liquid electrolyte.
Luigi Aloisio Galvani (Aloysius Galvanus; 9 September 1737 – 4 December 1798) was an Italian physician, physicist, biologist and philosopher, who discovered animal electricity.
The magnetic flux, represented by the symbol, threading some contour or loop is defined as the magnetic field multiplied by the loop area, i.e..
Mains electricity (as it is known in the UK; US terms include grid power, wall power, and domestic power) is the general-purpose alternating-current (AC) electric power supply.
Mains electricity by country includes a list of countries and territories, with the plugs, voltages and frequencies they commonly use for providing electrical power to appliances, equipment, and lighting typically found in homes and offices.
The metre (British spelling and BIPM spelling) or meter (American spelling) (from the French unit mètre, from the Greek noun μέτρον, "measure") is the base unit of length in some metric systems, including the International System of Units (SI).
A metric prefix is a unit prefix that precedes a basic unit of measure to indicate a multiple or fraction of the unit.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is one of the oldest physical science laboratories in the United States.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
The newton (symbol: N) is the International System of Units (SI) derived unit of force.
The nickel–cadmium battery (NiCd battery or NiCad battery) is a type of rechargeable battery using nickel oxide hydroxide and metallic cadmium as electrodes.
A nickel metal hydride battery, abbreviated NiMH or Ni–MH, is a type of rechargeable battery.
The nine-volt battery, or 9-volt battery, is a common size of battery that was introduced for the early transistor radios.
The ohm (symbol: Ω) is the SI derived unit of electrical resistance, named after German physicist Georg Simon Ohm.
Ohm's law states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the voltage across the two points.
To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following list describes various voltage levels.
The Planck constant (denoted, also called Planck's constant) is a physical constant that is the quantum of action, central in quantum mechanics.
Potential generally refers to a currently unrealized ability.
In physics, power is the rate of doing work, the amount of energy transferred per unit time.
Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
Rapid transit or mass rapid transit, also known as heavy rail, metro, MRT, subway, tube, U-Bahn or underground, is a type of high-capacity public transport generally found in urban areas.
A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element.
The relatively static membrane potential of quiescent cells is called the resting membrane potential (or resting voltage), as opposed to the specific dynamic electrochemical phenomena called action potential and graded membrane potential.
The second is the SI base unit of time, commonly understood and historically defined as 1/86,400 of a day – this factor derived from the division of the day first into 24 hours, then to 60 minutes and finally to 60 seconds each.
The International System of Units (SI) defines seven units of measure as a basic set from which all other SI units can be derived.
SI derived units are units of measurement derived from the seven base units specified by the International System of Units (SI).
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
A third rail is a method of providing electric power to a railway locomotive or train, through a semi-continuous rigid conductor placed alongside or between the rails of a railway track.
Transistor–transistor logic (TTL) is a logic family built from bipolar junction transistors.
USB (abbreviation of Universal Serial Bus), is an industry standard that was developed to define cables, connectors and protocols for connection, communication, and power supply between personal computers and their peripheral devices.
Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally denoted or, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws) is the difference in electric potential between two points.
The voltaic pile was the first electrical battery that could continuously provide an electric current to a circuit.
A voltmeter is an instrument used for measuring electrical potential difference between two points in an electric circuit.
The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.
The Weston cell is a wet-chemical cell that produces a highly stable voltage suitable as a laboratory standard for calibration of voltmeters.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
A zinc–carbon battery is a dry cell primary battery that delivers about 1.5 volts of direct current from the electrochemical reaction between zinc and manganese dioxide.
25 kV alternating current electrification is commonly used in railway electrification systems worldwide, especially for high-speed rail.
3.3v, Attovolt, Cell voltage, Exavolt, Femtovolt, Gigavolt, International volt, Kilovolt, Kilovolts, Microvolt, Millivolt, Nanovolt, Petavolt, Picovolt, Teravolt, Volt (unit), Volt unit, Volts, Yoctovolt, Yottavolt, Zeptovolt, Zettavolt, ΜV, ㎴, ㎵, ㎶, ㎷, ㎸, ㎹.