76 relations: Active pixel sensor, Aluminium, Analogue electronics, AND gate, Application-specific integrated circuit, Association for Computing Machinery, Beyond CMOS, Carver Mead, Circuit diagram, Clock signal, CMOS amplifiers, Coulomb blockade, Data conversion, De Morgan's laws, Dynamic logic (digital electronics), Electric (software), Electric energy consumption, Electrical resistance and conductance, Engineering & Technology, Extrinsic semiconductor, Fairchild Semiconductor, Field-effect transistor, Frank Wanlass, Front end of line, Gate equivalent, HCMOS, High-κ dielectric, Image sensor, Institution of Engineering and Technology, Integrated circuit, Integrated circuit layout, Kelvin, Latch-up, Leakage (electronics), Logic family, Logic gate, Logical effort, Low-power electronics, Lynn Conway, Magic (software), Metal gate, Microcontroller, Microprocessor, Mixed-signal integrated circuit, MOSFET, Multi-threshold CMOS, NAND gate, Native transistor, NMOS logic, Noise (electronics), ..., Operational amplifier, OR gate, Performance per watt, Phenom II, PMOS logic, Polycrystalline silicon, Quantum tunnelling, Radio frequency, Relay, Semiconductor, Sheffer stroke, Short circuit, Silicon, Silicon dioxide, Static random-access memory, Subthreshold conduction, Threshold voltage, Transceiver, Transistor, Transistor–transistor logic, Transmission gate, Very-large-scale integration, Voltage, Waste heat, 45 nanometer, 90 nanometer. Expand index (26 more) » « Shrink index
An active-pixel sensor (APS) is an image sensor where each picture element ("pixel") has a photodetector and an active amplifier.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Analogue electronics (also spelled analog electronics) are electronic systems with a continuously variable signal, in contrast to digital electronics where signals usually take only two levels.
The AND gate is a basic digital logic gate that implements logical conjunction - it behaves according to the truth table to the right.
An Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC), is an integrated circuit (IC) customized for a particular use, rather than intended for general-purpose use.
The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is an international learned society for computing.
Beyond CMOS refers to the possible future digital logic technologies beyond the CMOS scaling limits which limits device density and speeds due to heating effects.
Carver Andress Mead (born 1 May 1934) is an American scientist and engineer.
A circuit diagram (electrical diagram, elementary diagram, electronic schematic) is a graphical representation of an electrical circuit.
In electronics and especially synchronous digital circuits, a clock signal is a particular type of signal that oscillates between a high and a low state and is used like a metronome to coordinate actions of digital circuits.
CMOS amplifiers are ubiquitous analog circuits which are used in computers, audio systems, smart phones, cameras, telecommunication systems, biomedical circuits and many other systems, and their performance has great impact on the overall specifications of the systems.
A Coulomb blockade will also be observed when making the device very small (like a quantum dot).
Data conversion is the conversion of computer data from one format to another.
In propositional logic and boolean algebra, De Morgan's laws are a pair of transformation rules that are both valid rules of inference.
In integrated circuit design, dynamic logic (or sometimes clocked logic) is a design methodology in combinatory logic circuits, particularly those implemented in MOS technology.
The Electric VLSI Design System is an EDA tool written in the early 1980s by Steven M. Rubin.
Electric energy consumption is the form of energy consumption that uses electric energy.
The electrical resistance of an electrical conductor is a measure of the difficulty to pass an electric current through that conductor.
Engineering & Technology (E&T) is a science, engineering and technology magazine published by IET Services, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET), a registered charity in the United Kingdom.
An extrinsic semiconductor is one that has been doped, that is, into which a doping agent has been introduced, giving it different electrical properties than the intrinsic (pure) semiconductor.
Fairchild Semiconductor International, Inc. was an American semiconductor company based in San Jose, California.
The field-effect transistor (FET) is a transistor that uses an electric field to control the electrical behaviour of the device.
The front-end-of-line (FEOL) is the first portion of IC fabrication where the individual devices (transistors, capacitors, resistors, etc.) are patterned in the semiconductor.
A gate equivalent (GE) stands for a unit of measure which allows specifying manufacturing-technology-independent complexity of digital electronic circuits.
HCMOS, high-speed CMOS, is the set of specifications for electrical ratings and characteristics, forming the 74HC00 family, a part of the 7400 series of integrated circuits.
The term high-κ dielectric refers to a material with a high dielectric constant κ (as compared to silicon dioxide).
An image sensor or imaging sensor is a sensor that detects and conveys the information that constitutes an image.
The Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET) is a multidisciplinary professional engineering institution.
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.
Integrated circuit layout, also known IC layout, IC mask layout, or mask design, is the representation of an integrated circuit in terms of planar geometric shapes which correspond to the patterns of metal, oxide, or semiconductor layers that make up the components of the integrated circuit.
The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.
A latch-up is a type of short circuit which can occur in an integrated circuit (IC).
In electronics, leakage may refer to a gradual loss of energy from a charged capacitor.
In computer engineering, a logic family may refer to one of two related concepts.
In electronics, a logic gate is an idealized or physical device implementing a Boolean function; that is, it performs a logical operation on one or more binary inputs and produces a single binary output.
The method of logical effort, a term coined by Ivan Sutherland and Bob Sproull in 1991, is a straightforward technique used to estimate delay in a CMOS circuit.
Low-power electronics are electronics, such as notebook processors, that have been designed to use less electric power.
Lynn Ann Conway (born January 2, 1938) is an American computer scientist, electrical engineer, inventor, and transgender activist.
Magic is a Very-large-scale integration (VLSI) layout tool originally written by John Ousterhout and his graduate students at UC Berkeley during the 1980s.
A metal gate, in the context of a lateral Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor MOS stack, is just that—the gate material is made from a metal.
A microcontroller (MCU for microcontroller unit, or UC for μ-controller) is a small computer on a single integrated circuit.
A microprocessor is a computer processor that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit on a single integrated circuit (IC), or at most a few integrated circuits.
A mixed-signal integrated circuit is any integrated circuit that has both analog circuits and digital circuits on a single semiconductor die.
MOSFET showing gate (G), body (B), source (S) and drain (D) terminals. The gate is separated from the body by an insulating layer (white). surface-mount packages. Operating as switches, each of these components can sustain a blocking voltage of 120nbspvolts in the ''off'' state, and can conduct a continuous current of 30 amperes in the ''on'' state, dissipating up to about 100 watts and controlling a load of over 2000 watts. A matchstick is pictured for scale. A cross-section through an nMOSFET when the gate voltage ''V''GS is below the threshold for making a conductive channel; there is little or no conduction between the terminals drain and source; the switch is off. When the gate is more positive, it attracts electrons, inducing an ''n''-type conductive channel in the substrate below the oxide, which allows electrons to flow between the ''n''-doped terminals; the switch is on. Simulation result for formation of inversion channel (electron density) and attainment of threshold voltage (IV) in a nanowire MOSFET. Note that the threshold voltage for this device lies around 0.45 V The metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET) is a type of field-effect transistor (FET), most commonly fabricated by the controlled oxidation of silicon.
Multi-threshold CMOS (MTCMOS) is a variation of CMOS chip technology which has transistors with multiple threshold voltages (Vth) in order to optimize delay or power.
In digital electronics, a NAND gate (NOT-AND) is a logic gate which produces an output which is false only if all its inputs are true; thus its output is complement to that of an AND gate.
In electronics, a native transistor (or sometimes natural transistor) is a variety of the MOS field-effect transistor that is intermediate between enhancement and depletion modes.
N-type metal-oxide-semiconductor logic uses n-type field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) to implement logic gates and other digital circuits.
In electronics, noise is an unwanted disturbance in an electrical signal.
An operational amplifier (often op-amp or opamp) is a DC-coupled high-gain electronic voltage amplifier with a differential input and, usually, a single-ended output.
The OR gate is a digital logic gate that implements logical disjunctionit behaves according to the truth table to the right.
In computing, performance per watt is a measure of the energy efficiency of a particular computer architecture or computer hardware.
Phenom II is a family of AMD's multi-core 45 nm processors using the AMD K10 microarchitecture, succeeding the original Phenom.
P-type metal-oxide-semiconductor logic uses p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) to implement logic gates and other digital circuits.
Polycrystalline silicon, also called polysilicon or poly-Si, is a high purity, polycrystalline form of silicon, used as a raw material by the solar photovoltaic and electronics industry.
Quantum tunnelling or tunneling (see spelling differences) is the quantum mechanical phenomenon where a particle tunnels through a barrier that it classically cannot surmount.
Radio frequency (RF) refers to oscillatory change in voltage or current in a circuit, waveguide or transmission line in the range extending from around twenty thousand times per second to around three hundred billion times per second, roughly between the upper limit of audio and the lower limit of infrared.
A relay is an electrically operated switch.
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.
In Boolean functions and propositional calculus, the Sheffer stroke, named after Henry M. Sheffer, written ↑, also written | (not to be confused with "||", which is often used to represent disjunction), or Dpq (in Bocheński notation), denotes a logical operation that is equivalent to the negation of the conjunction operation, expressed in ordinary language as "not both".
A short circuit (sometimes abbreviated to short or s/c) is an electrical circuit that allows a current to travel along an unintended path with no or a very low electrical impedance.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
Static random-access memory (static RAM or SRAM) is a type of semiconductor memory that uses bistable latching circuitry (flip-flop) to store each bit.
Subthreshold conduction or subthreshold leakage or subthreshold drain current is the current between the source and drain of a MOSFET when the transistor is in subthreshold region, or weak-inversion region, that is, for gate-to-source voltages below the threshold voltage.
The threshold voltage, commonly abbreviated as Vth, of a field-effect transistor (FET) is the minimum gate-to-source voltage VGS (th) that is needed to create a conducting path between the source and drain terminals.
A transceiver is a device comprising both a transmitter and a receiver that are combined and share common circuitry or a single housing.
A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.
Transistor–transistor logic (TTL) is a logic family built from bipolar junction transistors.
A transmission gate (TG) is similar to a relay that can conduct in both directions or block by a control signal with almost any voltage potential.
Very-large-scale integration (VLSI) is the process of creating an integrated circuit (IC) by combining hundreds of thousands of transistors or devices into a single chip.
Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally denoted or, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws) is the difference in electric potential between two points.
Waste heat is heat that is produced by a machine, or other process that uses energy, as a byproduct of doing work.
Per the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, the 45 nanometer (45 nm) technology node should refer to the average half-pitch of a memory cell manufactured at around the 2007–2008 time frame.
The 90 nanometer (90 nm) process refers to the level of CMOS process technology that was reached in the 2004–2005 timeframe, by most leading semiconductor companies, like Intel, AMD, Infineon, Texas Instruments, IBM, and TSMC.
C-MOS, CMOS based, CMOS logic, CMOS transistor, COS/MOS, Cmos, Complementary MOS, Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor, Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor, Complementary Metal–Oxide–Semiconductor, Complementary Symmetry Metal-Oxide Semiconductor, Complementary metal oxide semiconductor, Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor, Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor, Complementary metal–oxide semiconductor, Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor, Complementary symmetry metal oxide semiconductor, Complementary-symmetry, Complementary-symmetry circuit, Complimentary Metal Oxide Semiconductor, RF CMOS or CMOS RF.