462 relations: Abundance of elements in Earth's crust, Acetic acid, Acid, Acrodermatitis enteropathica, Active site, Addition reaction, Aegean Sea, Albumin, Alchemy, Alcohol, Alcohol dehydrogenase, Alessandro Volta, Alfalfa, Alkali, Alkaline battery, Alloy, Almond, Aluminium, American Elements, Amino acid, Amphetamine, Amphoterism, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Andreas Libavius, Andreas Sigismund Marggraf, Anode, Anosmia, Antimony, Apoptosis, Aspartic acid (data page), Ataxia, Australia, Étienne François Geoffroy, Bad breath, Bar, Barbier reaction, Base metal, Bean, Bending (metalworking), Bern zinc tablet, Beta decay, Binary phase, Binding site, Bioelectricity, Biofouling, Biomarker, Bismuth, Blackcurrant, Block (periodic table), ..., Blood plasma, Borneol, Brain, Bran, Brass, Brazing, Bromobenzene, Bronze, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Cadmium, Cadmium zinc telluride, Calamine (mineral), Calamine brass, Calcination, Calluna, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Carbonate, Carbonic anhydrase, Carbonyl group, Carboxypeptidase, Catalysis, Catalytic cycle, Cathodic protection, Celery, Cell signaling, Central nervous system, Cereal, Chalcogen, Charaka Samhita, Chelation, Chemical element, China, Close-packing of equal spheres, Cobalt, Coenzyme Q – cytochrome c reductase, Cofactor (biochemistry), Condenser (heat transfer), Connecticut, Coordinate covalent bond, Coordination complex, Coordination geometry, Copper, Copper deficiency, Corrosion, Corrosive substance, Country, Covalent bond, Crust (geology), Crystal structure, Cysteine, Dacia, Danbury, Connecticut, Dandruff, Daphnia, Decamethyldizincocene, Decay product, Deep drawing, Dentures, Depleted zinc oxide, Diamagnetism, Diarrhea, Die casting, Dietary Reference Intake, Dietary supplement, Diethylzinc, Dimethylzinc, Disproportionation, DNA, Dopamine transporter, Ductility, Dye, East India Company, Electric arc furnace, Electric battery, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electricity, Electrolysis, Electrolyte, Electron, Electron capture, Electron configuration, Electron shell, Electron transport chain, Electrowinning, Enantiomeric excess, Enantioselective synthesis, Enzyme, Erica, Ericoid mycorrhiza, Ester, Ethanol fermentation, Ethyl iodide, Ethylenediamine, European Food Safety Authority, Excited state, Excitotoxicity, Extractive metallurgy, Ferromagnetism, Fire retardant, Flow battery, Food and Drug Administration, Food fortification, Froth flotation, Fukuyama coupling, Fungicide, Gallium, Galvanic anode, Galvanic cell, Galvanization, Gamma ray, Gangue, Gastroenteritis, Gastrointestinal tract, Gene expression, Georgia (country), Geul, Glutamatergic, Glutamic acid, Gold, Granulocyte, Grignard reaction, Gross domestic product, Ground state, Group 12 element, Hair loss, Half-life, Halide, Haloalkane, Halogen, Heat shock, Hemimorphite, Hemolytic anemia, Histidine, Homeostasis, Hot-dip galvanization, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrogen production, Hydrophobe, Hydroxylation, Hydrozincite, In silico, In vitro, India, Infrared, Integrated circuit, Ion, Ionic radius, Iran, Iraq, Iron, Irritant diaper dermatitis, Isotope, Isotope separation, Isotopic labeling, Israel, Jean-Jacques Dony, Johann Christian Ruberg, John Lane (metallurgist), Journal of the Chemical Society, Judea, Kalmykia, Kelmis, Kelvin, Keratinocyte, Landore, Laser, Lead, Lead poisoning, Lethargy, Lewis acids and bases, Liebigs Annalen, Ligand, Ligand (biochemistry), Lincoln cent, List of countries by zinc production, Lithium battery, Lithium chloride, Luigi Galvani, Luminescence, Luminous paint, Lutana, Tasmania, Macular degeneration, Magnesium, Major depressive disorder, Malabsorption, Malachy Postlethwayt, Manganese, Mass number, Maurya Empire, Melanocyte, Mercury (element), Metal, Metal fume fever, Metallocene, Metalloid, Metallothionein, Metallurgist, Metastability, Mexico, Micronutrient, Microorganism, Mineral (nutrient), Model rocket, Mole (unit), Mustard (condiment), N-Butyllithium, NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (H+-translocating), NASA, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Natural abundance, Negishi coupling, Neuron, Neurotoxicity, Neutron activation, Nickel, Nickel silver, Nitrogen, Noble gas, Nonmetal, Norepinephrine transporter, Nuclear fallout, Nuclear isomer, Nuclear transmutation, Nuclear weapon, Nucleic acid sequence, Nut (fruit), Nyrstar, One-pot synthesis, Ore, Organic compound, Organic synthesis, Organobromine compound, Organozinc compound, Oxalate, Oxford University Press, Oxygen, OZ Minerals, P. M. de Respour, Paracelsus, Parrot, Parts-per notation, Passivation (chemistry), Penny (United States coin), Perineum, Periodic table, Periodic Videos, Persian language, Peru, PH, Phenyllithium, Photon, Phytic acid, Plombières, Pnictogen, Poliomyelitis, Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, Poppy, Precipitation (chemistry), Preservative, Propellant, Prostate, Protein structure, Pumpkin seed, Pyrometallurgy, R-process, Racemic mixture, Radioactive decay, Radionuclide, Rajasthan, Ranking, Rasaratna Samuchaya, Redox, Reducing agent, Reference Daily Intake, Reformatsky reaction, Retort, Reuptake, Reverse transport, Rhine, River Derwent (Tasmania), Roasting (metallurgy), Roll forming, Roman Gaul, Room temperature, Salted bomb, Seawater, Semen, Semiconductor, Sensitivity and specificity, Sepsis, Serotonin transporter, Sesame, Sewage treatment, Sex organ, Sheet metal, Sigma bond, Signal transduction, Silicate, Silver, Simmons–Smith reaction, Skorpion Zinc, Slag, SLC30A3, Smithsonite, Sodium, Soil, Soil contamination, Solder, Spelter, Sphalerite, Spin casting, Spinal cord, Standard electrode potential, Steel, Strabo, Sulfide, Sulfur, Sulfuric acid, Sunburn, Sunflower seed, Supernova, Superplasticity, Sweden, Synaptic plasticity, Synaptic vesicle, Syria, Tarnish, Tellurium, Teratology, The BMJ, Theopompus, Thermochemistry, Tillage, Tin, Tin cry, Tire balance, Titanium, Tonne, Topical medication, Trace element, Transcription factor, Transferrin, Transition metal, Transmetalation, Turkmenistan, Udaipur, Ultraviolet, Umicore, United Arab Emirates, United States, United States Department of Agriculture, United States Department of Energy, United States Geological Survey, United States Mint, University of Chicago Press, Uzbekistan, Vaccinium, Varistor, Viscosity, Volatilisation, Volt, Voltaic pile, Waelz process, Western India, Wet storage stain, Whole grain, William Champion (metallurgist), Windburn, Wurtzite, X-ray, Zamak, Zinc acetate, Zinc alloy electroplating, Zinc aluminium, Zinc antimonide, Zinc arsenide, Zinc bromide, Zinc chlorate, Zinc chloride, Zinc chromate, Zinc cyanide, Zinc deficiency, Zinc dithiophosphate, Zinc finger, Zinc fluoride, Zinc gluconate, Zinc hydride, Zinc hydroxide, Zinc iodide, Zinc molybdate, Zinc nitrate, Zinc nitride, Zinc oxide, Zinc peroxide, Zinc phosphate, Zinc phosphide, Zinc pyrithione, Zinc selenide, Zinc sulfate, Zinc sulfide, Zinc telluride, Zinc transporter protein, Zincate, Zinc–air battery, Zinc–carbon battery, Zinc–cerium battery, Zinc–zinc oxide cycle, Zineb, Zirconium. Expand index (412 more) » « Shrink index
The abundance of elements in Earth's crust is shown in tabulated form with the estimated crustal abundance for each chemical element shown as either percentage or parts per million (ppm) by mass (10,000 ppm.
Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2).
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
Acrodermatitis enteropathica is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder affecting the uptake of zinc through the inner lining of the bowel, the mucous membrane.
In biology, the active site is the region of an enzyme where substrate molecules bind and undergo a chemical reaction.
An addition reaction, in organic chemistry, is in its simplest terms an organic reaction where two or more molecules combine to form the larger one (the adduct).
The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.
The albumins (formed from Latin: albumen "(egg) white; dried egg white") are a family of globular proteins, the most common of which are the serum albumins.
Alchemy is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa, Brazil and Asia.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) are a group of dehydrogenase enzymes that occur in many organisms and facilitate the interconversion between alcohols and aldehydes or ketones with the reduction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ to NADH).
Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta (18 February 1745 – 5 March 1827) was an Italian physicist, chemist, and a pioneer of electricity and power,Giuliano Pancaldi, "Volta: Science and culture in the age of enlightenment", Princeton University Press, 2003.
Alfalfa, Medicago sativa also called lucerne, is a perennial flowering plant in the pea family Fabaceae cultivated as an important forage crop in many countries around the world.
In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.
The almond (Prunus dulcis, syn. Prunus amygdalus) is a species of tree native to Mediterranean climate regions of the Middle East, from Syria and Turkey to India and Pakistan, although it has been introduced elsewhere.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
American Elements is a global manufacturer and distributor of the elements on the periodic table with a 10,000-page online compendium of information on the properties and uses of the elements.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.
In chemistry, an amphoteric compound is a molecule or ion that can react both as an acid as well as a base.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Andreas Libavius or Andrew Libavius (c. 1555 – 25 July 1616) was a German physician and chemist.
Andreas Sigismund Marggraf (3 March 1709 – 7 August 1782) was a German chemist from Berlin, then capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, and a pioneer of analytical chemistry.
An anode is an electrode through which the conventional current enters into a polarized electrical device.
Anosmia is the inability to perceive odor or a lack of functioning olfaction—the loss of the sense of smell.
Antimony is a chemical element with symbol Sb (from stibium) and atomic number 51.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
Ataxia is a neurological sign consisting of lack of voluntary coordination of muscle movements that includes gait abnormality.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Étienne François Geoffroy (February 13, 1672January 6, 1731) was a French physician and chemist, best known for his 1718 affinity tables.
Bad breath, also known as halitosis, is a symptom in which a noticeably unpleasant odor is present on the breath.
A bar (also known as a saloon or a tavern or sometimes a pub or club, referring to the actual establishment, as in pub bar or savage club etc.) is a retail business establishment that serves alcoholic beverages, such as beer, wine, liquor, cocktails, and other beverages such as mineral water and soft drinks and often sell snack foods such as crisps (potato chips) or peanuts, for consumption on premises.
The Barbier reaction is an organic reaction between an alkyl halide and a carbonyl group as an electrophilic substrate in the presence of magnesium, aluminium, zinc, indium, tin or its salts.
A base metal is a common and inexpensive metal, as opposed to a precious metal such as gold or silver.
A bean is a seed of one of several genera of the flowering plant family Fabaceae, which are used for human or animal food.
Bending is a manufacturing process that produces a V-shape, U-shape, or channel shape along a straight axis in ductile materials, most commonly sheet metal.
The Bern zinc tablet or Gobannus tablet is a metal sheet found in 1984 in Bern, Switzerland.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
In materials chemistry, a binary phase is chemical compound containing two different elements.
In biochemistry, a binding site is a region on a protein or piece of DNA or RNA to which ligands (specific molecules and/or ions) may form a chemical bond.
In biology, developmental bioelectricity refers to the regulation of cell, tissue, and organ-level patterning and behavior as the result of endogenous electrically-mediated signaling.
Biofouling or biological fouling is the accumulation of microorganisms, plants, algae, or animals on wetted surfaces.
A biomarker, or biological marker, generally refers to a measurable indicator of some biological state or condition.
Bismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83.
The blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) is a woody shrub in the family Grossulariaceae grown for its piquant berries.
A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups.
Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.
Borneol is a bicyclic organic compound and a terpene derivative.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Bran, also known as miller's bran, is the hard outer layers of cereal grain.
Brass is a metallic alloy that is made of copper and zinc.
Brazing is a metal-joining process in which two or more metal items are joined together by melting and flowing a filler metal into the joint, the filler metal having a lower melting point than the adjoining metal.
Bromobenzene is an aryl halide, C6H5Br.
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory located in Upton, New York, on Long Island, and was formally established in 1947 at the site of Camp Upton, a former U.S. Army base.
Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48.
Cadmium zinc telluride, (CdZnTe) or CZT, is a compound of cadmium, zinc and tellurium or, more strictly speaking, an alloy of cadmium telluride and zinc telluride.
Calamine is a historic name for an ore of zinc.
Calamine brass is brass produced by a particular alloying technique using the zinc ore calamine directly, rather than first refining it to metallic zinc.
The IUPAC defines calcination as "heating to high temperatures in air or oxygen".
Calluna vulgaris (known as common heather, ling, or simply heather) is the sole species in the genus Calluna in the flowering plant family Ericaceae.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid (H2CO3), characterized by the presence of the carbonate ion, a polyatomic ion with the formula of.
The carbonic anhydrases (or carbonate dehydratases) form a family of enzymes that catalyze the interconversion between carbon dioxide and water and the dissociated ions of carbonic acid (i.e. bicarbonate and protons).
In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom: C.
A carboxypeptidase (EC number 3.4.16 - 3.4.18) is a protease enzyme that hydrolyzes (cleaves) a peptide bond at the carboxy-terminal (C-terminal) end of a protein or peptide.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
In chemistry, a catalytic cycle is a multistep reaction mechanism that involves a catalyst.
Cathodic protection (CP) is a technique used to control the corrosion of a metal surface by making it the cathode of an electrochemical cell.
Celery (Apium graveolens) is a marshland plant in the family Apiaceae that has been cultivated as a vegetable since antiquity.
Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
A cereal is any edible components of the grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis) of cultivated grass, composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran.
The chalcogens are the chemical elements in group 16 of the periodic table.
The Charaka Saṃhitā or Compendium of Charaka (Sanskrit चरक संहिता IAST: caraka-saṃhitā) is a Sanskrit text on Ayurveda (Indian traditional medicine).
Chelation is a type of bonding of ions and molecules to metal ions.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
In geometry, close-packing of equal spheres is a dense arrangement of congruent spheres in an infinite, regular arrangement (or lattice).
Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.
The coenzyme Q: cytochrome c – oxidoreductase, sometimes called the cytochrome bc1 complex, and at other times complex III, is the third complex in the electron transport chain, playing a critical role in biochemical generation of ATP (oxidative phosphorylation).
A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity.
In systems involving heat transfer, a condenser is a device or unit used to condense a substance from its gaseous to its liquid state, by cooling it.
Connecticut is the southernmost state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
A coordinate covalent bond, also known as a dative bond or coordinate bond is a kind of 2-center, 2-electron covalent bond in which the two electrons derive from the same atom.
In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.
The term coordination geometry is used in a number of related fields of chemistry and solid state chemistry/physics.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Copper deficiency is a very rare hematological and neurological disorder.
Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide.
A corrosive substance is one that will destroy and damage other substances with which it comes into contact.
A country is a region that is identified as a distinct national entity in political geography.
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.
Cysteine (symbol Cys or C) is a semi-essential proteinogenic amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH.
In ancient geography, especially in Roman sources, Dacia was the land inhabited by the Dacians.
Danbury is a city in Fairfield County, Connecticut, United States, located approximately northeast of New York City, making it part of the New York metropolitan area.
Dandruff is a skin condition that mainly affects the scalp.
Daphnia, a genus of small planktonic crustaceans, are in length.
Decamethyldizincocene is an organozinc compound with the formula.
In nuclear physics, a decay product (also known as a daughter product, daughter isotope, radio-daughter, or daughter nuclide) is the remaining nuclide left over from radioactive decay.
Deep drawing is a sheet metal forming process in which a sheet metal blank is radially drawn into a forming die by the mechanical action of a punch.
Dentures (also known as false teeth) are prosthetic devices constructed to replace missing teeth; they are supported by the surrounding soft and hard tissues of the oral cavity.
Depleted zinc oxide (DZO) is a zinc oxide depleted in the zinc isotope with the atomic mass 64, and used as a corrosion inhibitor in nuclear pressurized water reactors.
Diamagnetic materials are repelled by a magnetic field; an applied magnetic field creates an induced magnetic field in them in the opposite direction, causing a repulsive force.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
Die casting is a metal casting process that is characterized by forcing molten metal under high pressure into a mold cavity.
The Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) is a system of nutrition recommendations from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academies (United States).
A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid.
Diethylzinc (C2H5)2Zn, or DEZ, is a highly pyrophoric and reactive organozinc compound consisting of a zinc center bound to two ethyl groups.
Dimethylzinc, also known as Zinc methyl, DMZ, or DMZn is a colorless volatile liquid Zn(CH3)2, formed by the action of methyl iodide on zinc at elevated temperature or on zinc sodium alloy.
Disproportionation, sometimes called dismutation, is a redox reaction in which a compound of intermediate oxidation state converts to two different compounds, one of higher and one of lower oxidation states.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
The dopamine transporter (also dopamine active transporter, DAT, SLC6A3) is a membrane-spanning protein that pumps the neurotransmitter dopamine out of the synaptic cleft back into cytosol.
Ductility is a measure of a material's ability to undergo significant plastic deformation before rupture, which may be expressed as percent elongation or percent area reduction from a tensile test.
A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
An electric arc furnace (EAF) is a furnace that heats charged material by means of an electric arc.
An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, smartphones, and electric cars.
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.
Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.
In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
Electron capture (K-electron capture, also K-capture, or L-electron capture, L-capture) is a process in which the proton-rich nucleus of an electrically neutral atom absorbs an inner atomic electron, usually from the K or L electron shell.
In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule (or other physical structure) in atomic or molecular orbitals.
In chemistry and atomic physics, an electron shell, or a principal energy level, may be thought of as an orbit followed by electrons around an atom's nucleus.
An electron transport chain (ETC) is a series of complexes that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via redox (both reduction and oxidation occurring simultaneously) reactions, and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons (H+ ions) across a membrane.
Electrowinning, also called electroextraction, is the electrodeposition of metals from their ores that have been put in solution via a process commonly referred to as leaching.
Enantiomeric excess (ee) is a measurement of purity used for chiral substances.
Enantioselective synthesis, also called asymmetric synthesis, is a form of chemical synthesis.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Erica is a genus of roughly 860 species of flowering plants in the family Ericaceae.
The ericoid mycorrhiza is a mutualistic symbiosis formed between members of the plant family Ericaceae and several lineages of fungi.
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
Ethanol fermentation, also called alcoholic fermentation, is a biological process which converts sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose into cellular energy, producing ethanol and carbon dioxide as by-products.
Ethyl iodide (also iodoethane) is a colorless, flammable chemical compound.
Ethylenediamine (abbreviated as en when a ligand) is the organic compound with the formula C2H4(NH2)2.
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is the agency of the European Union (EU) that provides independent scientific advice and communicates on existing and emerging risks associated with the food chain.
In quantum mechanics, an excited state of a system (such as an atom, molecule or nucleus) is any quantum state of the system that has a higher energy than the ground state (that is, more energy than the absolute minimum).
Excitotoxicity is the pathological process by which nerve cells are damaged or killed by excessive stimulation by neurotransmitters such as glutamate and similar substances.
Extractive metallurgy is a branch of metallurgical engineering wherein process and methods of extraction of metals from their natural mineral deposits are studied.
Ferromagnetism is the basic mechanism by which certain materials (such as iron) form permanent magnets, or are attracted to magnets.
A fire retardant is a substance that is used to slow or stop the spread of fire or reduce its intensity.
A flow battery, or redox flow battery (after reduction–oxidation), is a type of electrochemical cell where chemical energy is provided by two chemical components dissolved in liquids contained within the system and separated by a membrane.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
Food fortification or enrichment is the process of adding micronutrients (essential trace elements and vitamins) to food.
Froth flotation is a process for selectively separating hydrophobic materials from hydrophilic.
The Fukuyama coupling is a coupling reaction taking place between a thioester and an organozinc halide in the presence of a palladium catalyst.
Fungicides are biocidal chemical compounds or biological organisms used to kill parasitic fungi or their spores.
Gallium is a chemical element with symbol Ga and atomic number 31.
A galvanic anode is the main component of a galvanic cathodic protection (CP) system used to protect buried or submerged metal structures from corrosion.
A galvanic cell, or voltaic cell, named after Luigi Galvani, or Alessandro Volta respectively, is an electrochemical cell that derives electrical energy from spontaneous redox reactions taking place within the cell.
Galvanization or galvanizing is the process of applying a protective zinc coating to steel or iron, to prevent rusting.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
In mining, gangue is the commercially worthless material that surrounds, or is closely mixed with, a wanted mineral in an ore deposit.
Gastroenteritis, also known as infectious diarrhea, is inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract -- the stomach and small intestine.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The Geul (Dutch; in Göhl, in la Gueule) is a river in Belgium and in the Netherlands, where it is a right-bank tributary to the river Meuse.
Glutamatergic means "related to glutamate".
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
Granulocytes are a category of white blood cells characterized by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm.
The Grignard reaction (pronounced) is an organometallic chemical reaction in which alkyl, vinyl, or aryl-magnesium halides (Grignard reagents) add to a carbonyl group in an aldehyde or ketone.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
The ground state of a quantum mechanical system is its lowest-energy state; the energy of the ground state is known as the zero-point energy of the system.
Group 12, by modern IUPAC numbering, is a group of chemical elements in the periodic table.
Hair loss, also known as alopecia or baldness, refers to a loss of hair from part of the head or body.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
A halide is a binary phase, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative (or more electropositive) than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, astatide, or theoretically tennesside compound.
The haloalkanes (also known as halogenoalkanes or alkyl halides) are a group of chemical compounds derived from alkanes containing one or more halogens.
The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).
In biochemistry, heat shock is the effect of subjecting a cell to a temperature that is greater than the optimal temperature range of function of the cell.
Hemimorphite, is Zn4(Si2O7)(OH)2·H2O, a component of calamine.
Hemolytic anemia or haemolytic anaemia is a form of anemia due to hemolysis, the abnormal breakdown of red blood cells (RBCs), either in the blood vessels (intravascular hemolysis) or elsewhere in the human body (extravascular, but usually in the spleen).
Histidine (symbol His or H) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
Hot-dip galvanization is a form of galvanization.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
Hydrogen production is the family of industrial methods for generating hydrogen.
In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.
Hydroxylation is a chemical process that introduces a hydroxyl group (-OH) into an organic compound.
Hydrozincite, also known as zinc bloom or marionite, is a white carbonate mineral consisting of Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6.
In silico (literally cod Latin for "in silicon", alluding to the mass use of silicon for semiconductor computer chips) is an expression used to mean "performed on computer or via computer simulation." The phrase was coined in 1989 as an allusion to the Latin phrases in vivo, in vitro, and in situ, which are commonly used in biology (see also systems biology) and refer to experiments done in living organisms, outside living organisms, and where they are found in nature, respectively.
In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Ionic radius, rion, is the radius of an atom's ion in ionic crystals structure.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Irritant diaper dermatitis is a generic term applied to skin rashes in the diaper area that are caused by various skin disorders and/or irritants.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Isotope separation is the process of concentrating specific isotopes of a chemical element by removing other isotopes.
Isotopic labeling (or isotopic labelling) is a technique used to track the passage of an isotope (an atom with a detectable variation) through a reaction, metabolic pathway, or cell.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Jean-Jacques Daniel Dony (24 February 1759 – 1819) was an inventor and industrialist, who was born in Liège, Belgium.
Johann Christian Ruberg (baptized 4 September 1746 – 5 September 1807) was a German inventor and a pioneer in metallurgy.
Dr John Lane (c. October 1678 – 1741) was an 18th-century doctor and metallurgist, who is said to have experimented with making metallic zinc, probably without result.
The Journal of the Chemical Society was a scientific journal established by the Chemical Society in 1849 as the Quarterly Journal of the Chemical Society.
Judea or Judæa (from יהודה, Standard Yəhuda, Tiberian Yəhûḏāh, Ἰουδαία,; Iūdaea, يهودا, Yahudia) is the ancient Hebrew and Israelite biblical, the exonymic Roman/English, and the modern-day name of the mountainous southern part of Canaan-Israel.
The Republic of Kalmykia (p; Хальмг Таңһч, Xaľmg Tañhç) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic).
Kelmis (La Calamine) is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Liège.
The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.
A keratinocyte is the predominant cell type in the epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin, constituting 90% of the cells found there.
Landore (Glandŵr) is a district and community in Swansea, Wales.
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Lead poisoning is a type of metal poisoning caused by lead in the body.
Lethargy is a state of tiredness, weariness, fatigue, or lack of energy.
A Lewis acid is a chemical species that contains an empty orbital which is capable of accepting an electron pair from a Lewis base to form a Lewis adduct.
Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie (often cited as just Liebigs Annalen) was one of the oldest and historically most important journals in the field of organic chemistry worldwide.
In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
The Lincoln cent (or sometimes called Lincoln penny) is a one-cent coin that has been struck by the United States Mint since 1909.
This is a list of countries by zinc production in 2009 based on United States Geological Survey numbers.
Lithium batteries are primary batteries that have lithium as an anode.
Lithium chloride is a chemical compound with the formula LiCl.
Luigi Aloisio Galvani (Aloysius Galvanus; 9 September 1737 – 4 December 1798) was an Italian physician, physicist, biologist and philosopher, who discovered animal electricity.
Luminescence is emission of light by a substance not resulting from heat; it is thus a form of cold-body radiation.
Luminous paint or luminescent paint is paint that exhibits luminescence.
Lutana is a suburb of Hobart, Tasmania, Australia.
Macular degeneration, also known as age-related macular degeneration (AMD or ARMD), is a medical condition which may result in blurred or no vision in the center of the visual field.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
Malabsorption is a state arising from abnormality in absorption of food nutrients across the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.
Malachy Postlethwayt (1707? – 1767) was a British commercial expert famous for his publication of the commercial dictionary titled The Universal Dictionary of Trade and Commerce in 1757.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
The mass number (symbol A, from the German word Atomgewichte (atomic weight), also called atomic mass number or nucleon number, is the total number of protons and neutrons (together known as nucleons) in an atomic nucleus. It determines the atomic mass of atoms. Because protons and neutrons both are baryons, the mass number A is identical with the baryon number B as of the nucleus as of the whole atom or ion. The mass number is different for each different isotope of a chemical element. This is not the same as the atomic number (Z) which denotes the number of protons in a nucleus, and thus uniquely identifies an element. Hence, the difference between the mass number and the atomic number gives the number of neutrons (N) in a given nucleus:. The mass number is written either after the element name or as a superscript to the left of an element's symbol. For example, the most common isotope of carbon is carbon-12, or, which has 6 protons and 6 neutrons. The full isotope symbol would also have the atomic number (Z) as a subscript to the left of the element symbol directly below the mass number:. This is technically redundant, as each element is defined by its atomic number, so it is often omitted.
The Maurya Empire was a geographically-extensive Iron Age historical power founded by Chandragupta Maurya which dominated ancient India between 322 BCE and 180 BCE.
Melanocytes are melanin-producing neural crest-derived cells located in the bottom layer (the stratum basale) of the skin's epidermis, the middle layer of the eye (the uvea), the inner ear, vaginal epithelium, meninges, bones, and heart.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
Metal fume fever, also known as brass founders' ague, brass shakes, zinc shakes, galvie flu, metal dust fever, Welding Shivers, or Monday morning fever, is an illness primarily caused by exposure to chemicals such as zinc oxide (ZnO), aluminum oxide (Al2O3), or magnesium oxide (MgO) which are produced as byproducts in the fumes that result when certain metals are heated.
A metallocene is a compound typically consisting of two cyclopentadienyl anions (abbreviated Cp) bound to a metal center (M) in the oxidation state II, with the resulting general formula (C5H5)2M.
A metalloid is any chemical element which has properties in between those of metals and nonmetals, or that has a mixture of them.
Metallothionein (MT) is a family of cysteine-rich, low molecular weight (MW ranging from 500 to 14000 Da) proteins.
Definition: Metallurgist also known as metallurgical engineers or material science engineers is a material scientist or technician who specializes in metals.
In physics, metastability is a stable state of a dynamical system other than the system's state of least energy.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Micronutrients are essential elements required by organisms in small quantities throughout life to orchestrate a range of physiological functions to maintain health.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
In the context of nutrition, a mineral is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life.
A model rocket is a small rocket designed to reach low altitudes (e.g., for model) and be recovered by a variety of means.
The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance.
Mustard is a condiment made from the seeds of a mustard plant (white/ yellow mustard, Sinapis alba; brown/ Indian mustard, Brassica juncea; or black mustard, Brassica nigra).
n-Butyllithium (abbreviated n-BuLi) is an organolithium reagent.
NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (also referred to as Type I NADH dehydrogenase and mitochondrial Complex I especially in humans) is an enzyme of the respiratory chains of myriad organisms from bacteria to humans.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (also known as "NASEM" or "the National Academies") is the collective scientific national academy of the United States.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.
In physics, natural abundance (NA) refers to the abundance of isotopes of a chemical element as naturally found on a planet.
The Negishi coupling is a widely employed transition metal catalyzed cross-coupling reaction.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neurotoxicity is a form of toxicity in which a biological, chemical, or physical agent produces an adverse effect on the structure or function of the central and/or peripheral nervous system.
Neutron activation is the process in which neutron radiation induces radioactivity in materials, and occurs when atomic nuclei capture free neutrons, becoming heavier and entering excited states.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Nickel silver, Maillechort, German silver, Argentan, new silver, nickel brass, albata, alpacca, or electrum is a copper alloy with nickel and often zinc.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
The noble gases (historically also the inert gases) make up a group of chemical elements with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity.
Apart from hydrogen, nonmetals are located in the p-block. Helium, as an s-block element, would normally be placed next to hydrogen and above beryllium. However, since it is a noble gas, it is instead placed above neon (in the p-block). In chemistry, a nonmetal (or non-metal) is a chemical element that mostly lacks metallic attributes.
The norepinephrine transporter (NET), also known as solute carrier family 6 member 2 (SLC6A2), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC6A2 gene.
Nuclear fallout, or simply fallout, is the residual radioactive material propelled into the upper atmosphere following a nuclear blast, so called because it "falls out" of the sky after the explosion and the shock wave have passed.
A nuclear isomer is a metastable state of an atomic nucleus caused by the excitation of one or more of its nucleons (protons or neutrons).
Nuclear transmutation is the conversion of one chemical element or an isotope into another chemical element.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.
A nut is a fruit composed of an inedible hard shell and a seed, which is generally edible.
Nyrstar N.V. is a global multi-metals business, with a market leading position in zinc and lead and growing positions in other base and precious metals, such as copper, gold and silver.
In chemistry a one-pot synthesis is a strategy to improve the efficiency of a chemical reaction whereby a reactant is subjected to successive chemical reactions in just one reactor.
An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Organic synthesis is a special branch of chemical synthesis and is concerned with the intentional construction of organic compounds.
Organobromine compounds, also called organobromides, are organic compounds that contain carbon bonded to bromine.
Organozinc compounds in organic chemistry contain carbon to zinc chemical bonds.
Oxalate (IUPAC: ethanedioate) is the dianion with the formula, also written.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
OZ Minerals is a modern mining company based in Adelaide, Australia.
Paracelsus (1493/4 – 24 September 1541), born Theophrastus von Hohenheim (full name Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim), was a Swiss physician, alchemist, and astrologer of the German Renaissance.
Parrots, also known as psittacines, are birds of the roughly 393 species in 92 genera that make up the order Psittaciformes, found in most tropical and subtropical regions.
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
Passivation, in physical chemistry and engineering, refers to a material becoming "passive," that is, less affected or corroded by the environment of future use.
The United States one-cent coin, often called a penny, is a unit of currency equaling one-hundredth of a United States dollar.
The perineum is the space between the anus and scrotum in the male and between the anus and the vulva in the female.
The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends.
The Periodic Table of Videos (usually shortened to Periodic Videos) is a series of videos about chemical elements and the periodic table.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Phenyllithium or lithobenzene is an organometallic agent with the empirical formula C6H5Li.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
Phytic acid (known as inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6), inositol polyphosphate, or phytate when in salt form), discovered in 1903, a saturated cyclic acid, is the principal storage form of phosphorus in many plant tissues, especially bran and seeds.
Plombières (Bleyberg or Bleiberg, Blieberg) is a Walloon municipality located in the Belgian province of Liège.
A pnictogen is one of the chemical elements in group 15 of the periodic table.
Poliomyelitis, often called polio or infantile paralysis, is an infectious disease caused by the poliovirus.
Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is a family of proteins involved in a number of cellular processes such as DNA repair, genomic stability, and programmed cell death.
A poppy is a flowering plant in the subfamily Papaveroideae of the family Papaveraceae.
Precipitation is the creation of a solid from a solution.
A preservative is a substance or a chemical that is added to products such as food, beverages, pharmaceutical drugs, paints, biological samples, cosmetics, wood, and many other products to prevent decomposition by microbial growth or by undesirable chemical changes.
A propellant or propellent is a chemical substance used in the production of energy or pressurized gas that is subsequently used to create movement of a fluid or to generate propulsion of a vehicle, projectile, or other object.
The prostate (from Ancient Greek προστάτης, prostates, literally "one who stands before", "protector", "guardian") is a compound tubuloalveolar exocrine gland of the male reproductive system in most mammals.
Protein structure is the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in an amino acid-chain molecule.
A pumpkin seed, also known as a pepita (from the Mexican pepita de calabaza, "little seed of squash"), is the edible seed of a pumpkin or certain other cultivars of squash.
Pyrometallurgy is a branch of extractive metallurgy.
The rapid neutron-capture process, or so-called r-process, is a set of nuclear reactions that in nuclear astrophysics is responsible for the creation (nucleosynthesis) of approximately half the abundances of the atomic nuclei heavier than iron, usually synthesizing the entire abundance of the two most neutron-rich stable isotopes of each heavy element.
In chemistry, a racemic mixture, or racemate, is one that has equal amounts of left- and right-handed enantiomers of a chiral molecule.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
Rajasthan (literally, "Land of Kings") is India's largest state by area (or 10.4% of India's total area).
A ranking is a relationship between a set of items such that, for any two items, the first is either 'ranked higher than', 'ranked lower than' or 'ranked equal to' the second.
Rasaratna Samuccaya (रसरत्नसमुच्चय Sanskrit in Devanāgarī script) or (Sanskrit in IAST transliteration), variously transliterated as Rasaratna Samuchchaya, Rasaratna Samucchaya, etc., is an alchemical work written in India, in the Sanskrit language, and datable to the thirteenth, fourteenth, or the sixteenth century.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
A reducing agent (also called a reductant or reducer) is an element (such as calcium) or compound that loses (or "donates") an electron to another chemical species in a redox chemical reaction.
The Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily intake level of a nutrient that is considered to be sufficient to meet the requirements of 97–98% of healthy individuals in every demographic in the United States.
The Reformatsky reaction (sometimes spelled Reformatskii reaction) is an organic reaction which condenses aldehydes or ketones, with α-halo esters, using a metallic zinc to form β-hydroxy-esters: The organozinc reagent, also called a 'Reformatsky enolate', is prepared by treating an alpha-halo ester with zinc dust.
In a chemistry laboratory, a retort is a glassware device used for distillation or dry distillation of substances.
Reuptake is the reabsorption of a neurotransmitter by a neurotransmitter transporter located along the plasma membrane of an axon terminal (i.e., the pre-synaptic neuron at a synapse) or glial cell after it has performed its function of transmitting a neural impulse.
Reverse transport, or transporter reversal, is a phenomenon in which the substrates of a membrane transport protein are moved in the opposite direction to that of their typical movement by the transporter.
--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.
The Derwent River is a river located in Tasmania, Australia.
Roasting is a process of heating of sulfide ore to a high temperature in presence of air.
Roll forming, also spelled rollforming, is a type of rolling involving the continuous bending of a long strip of sheet metal (typically coiled steel) into a desired cross-section.
Roman Gaul refers to Gaul under provincial rule in the Roman Empire from the 1st century BC to the 5th century AD.
Colloquially, room temperature is the range of air temperatures that most people prefer for indoor settings, which feel comfortable when wearing typical indoor clothing.
A salted bomb is a nuclear weapon designed to function as a radiological weapon, producing enhanced quantities of radioactive fallout, rendering a large area uninhabitable.
Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean.
Semen, also known as seminal fluid, is an organic fluid that may contain spermatozoa.
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.
Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures of the performance of a binary classification test, also known in statistics as a classification function.
Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to infection causes injury to its own tissues and organs.
The serotonin transporter (SERT or 5-HTT) also known as the sodium-dependent serotonin transporter and solute carrier family 6 member 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC6A4 gene.
Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is a flowering plant in the genus Sesamum, also called benne.
Sewage treatment is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater, primarily from household sewage.
A sex organ (or reproductive organ) is any part of an animal's body that is involved in sexual reproduction.
Sheet metal is metal formed by an industrial process into thin, flat pieces.
In chemistry, sigma bonds (σ bonds) are the strongest type of covalent chemical bond.
Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.
In chemistry, a silicate is any member of a family of anions consisting of silicon and oxygen, usually with the general formula, where 0 ≤ x Silicate anions are often large polymeric molecules with an extense variety of structures, including chains and rings (as in polymeric metasilicate), double chains (as in, and sheets (as in. In geology and astronomy, the term silicate is used to mean silicate minerals, ionic solids with silicate anions; as well as rock types that consist predominantly of such minerals. In that context, the term also includes the non-ionic compound silicon dioxide (silica, quartz), which would correspond to x.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
The Simmons–Smith reaction is an organic cheletropic reaction involving an organozinc carbenoid that reacts with an alkene (or alkyne) to form a cyclopropane.
Skorpion Zinc is the 8th largest Zinc mine in the world, producing Special High Grade (SHG) Zinc.
Slag is the glass-like by-product left over after a desired metal has been separated (i.e., smelted) from its raw ore.
Zinc transporter 3 also known as solute carrier family 30 member 3 is a protein in humans that is encoded by the SLC30A3 gene.
Smithsonite, or zinc spar, is zinc carbonate (ZnCO3), a mineral ore of zinc.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
Soil contamination or soil pollution as part of land degradation is caused by the presence of xenobiotic (human-made) chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil environment.
Solder (or in North America) is a fusible metal alloy used to create a permanent bond between metal workpieces.
Spelter, while sometimes used merely as a synonym for zinc, is often used to identify a zinc alloy.
Sphalerite ((Zn, Fe)S) is a mineral that is the chief ore of zinc.
Spin casting, also known as centrifugal rubber mold casting (CRMC), is a method of utilizing centrifugal force to produce castings from a rubber mold.
The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.
In electrochemistry, the standard electrode potential is the measure of the individual potential of a reversible electrode at standard state, i.e., with solutes at an effective concentration of 1 mol dm−3 and gases at a pressure of 1 atm.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
Sulfide (systematically named sulfanediide, and sulfide(2−)) (British English sulphide) is an inorganic anion of sulfur with the chemical formula S2− or a compound containing one or more S2− ions.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
Sunburn is a form of radiation burn that affects living tissue, such as skin, that results from an overexposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, commonly from the sun.
The sunflower seed is the fruit of the sunflower (Helianthus annuus).
A supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is a transient astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a star's life, either a massive star or a white dwarf, whose destruction is marked by one final, titanic explosion.
In materials science, superplasticity is a state in which solid crystalline material is deformed well beyond its usual breaking point, usually over about 200% during tensile deformation.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
In neuroscience, synaptic plasticity is the ability of synapses to strengthen or weaken over time, in response to increases or decreases in their activity.
In a neuron, synaptic vesicles (or neurotransmitter vesicles) store various neurotransmitters that are released at the synapse.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Tarnish is a thin layer of corrosion that forms over copper, brass, silver, aluminum, magnesium, neodymium and other similar metals as their outermost layer undergoes a chemical reaction.
Tellurium is a chemical element with symbol Te and atomic number 52.
Teratology is the study of abnormalities of physiological development.
The BMJ is a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal.
Theopompus (Θεόπομπος; c. 380 BC – c. 315 BC) was a Greek historian and rhetorician.
Thermochemistry is the study of the heat energy associated with chemical reactions and/or physical transformations.
Tillage is the agricultural preparation of soil by mechanical agitation of various types, such as digging, stirring, and overturning.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
A tin cry is the characteristic sound heard when a bar of tin is bent.
Tire balance, also referred to as tire unbalance or imbalance, describes the distribution of mass within an automobile tire or the entire wheel (including the rim) to which it is attached.
Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
A topical medication is a medication that is applied to a particular place on or in the body.
A trace element is a chemical element whose concentration (or other measure of amount) is very low (a "trace amount").
In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.
Transferrins are iron-binding blood plasma glycoproteins that control the level of free iron (Fe) in biological fluids.
In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.
Transmetalation (alt. spelling: transmetallation) is a type of organometallic reaction that involves the transfer of ligands from one metal to another.
Turkmenistan (or; Türkmenistan), (formerly known as Turkmenia) is a sovereign state in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.
Udaipur /ʊdəjpur/, also known as the "City of Lakes" is a major city, municipal corporation and the administrative headquarters of the Udaipur district in the Indian state of Rajasthan.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food.
The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
The United States Mint is the agency that produces circulating coinage for the United States to conduct its trade and commerce, as well as controlling the movement of bullion.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.
Vaccinium is a common and widespread genus of shrubs or dwarf shrubs in the heath family.
A varistor is an electronic component with an electrical resistance that varies with the applied voltage.
The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
Volatilization is the process whereby a dissolved sample is vaporised.
The volt (symbol: V) is the derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference (voltage), and electromotive force.
The voltaic pile was the first electrical battery that could continuously provide an electric current to a circuit.
The Waelz process is a method of recovering zinc and other relatively low boiling point metals from metallurgical waste (typically EAF flue dust) and other recycled materials using a rotary kiln (waelz kiln).
Western India is a loosely defined region of India consisting of its western part.
Wet storage stain, more commonly known as white rust or white corrosion, is a type of zinc corrosion.
A whole grain is a grain of any cereal and pseudocereal that contains the endosperm, germ, and bran, in contrast to refined grains, which retain only the endosperm.
William Champion (1709–1789) is credited with patenting a process in Great Britain to distill zinc metal from calamine using charcoal in a smelter.
Windburn is a condition whereby a sunburn obtained in cool or cloudy conditions is incorrectly attributed to the effects of the wind rather than the sun mostly in North America.
Wurtzite is a zinc iron sulfide mineral ((Zn,Fe)S) a less frequently encountered mineral form of sphalerite.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
Zamak (formerly trademarked as ZAMAK and also known as Zamac) is a family of alloys with a base metal of zinc and alloying elements of aluminium, magnesium, and copper.
Zinc acetate is a salt with the formula Zn(O2CCH3)2, which commonly occurs as the dihydrate Zn(O2CCH3)2(H2O)2.
Zinc alloy electroplating is an electrogalvanization process for corrosion protection of metal surfaces and increasing their wear resistance.
Zinc-aluminium (ZA) alloys are alloys whose main constituents are zinc and aluminium.
Zinc antimonide (ZnSb), (Zn3Sb2), (Zn4Sb3) is an inorganic chemical compound.
Zinc arsenide (Zn3As2) is a binary compound of zinc with arsenic which forms gray tetragonal crystals.
Zinc bromide (ZnBr2) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula ZnBr2.
Zinc chlorate (Zn(ClO3)2) as an inorganic chemical compound used as an oxidizing agent in explosives.
Zinc chloride is the name of chemical compounds with the formula ZnCl2 and its hydrates.
Zinc chromate, ZnCrO4, is a chemical compound containing the chromate anion, appearing as odorless yellow powder or yellow-green crystals, but, when used for coatings, pigments are often added.
Zinc cyanide is the inorganic compound with the formula Zn(CN)2.
Zinc deficiency is defined either as insufficient zinc to meet the needs of the body, or as a serum zinc level below the normal range.
Zinc dialkyldithiophosphates (often referred to as ZDDP) are a family of coordination compounds developed in the 1940s that feature zinc bound to the anion of a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid (e.g. ammonium diethyl dithiophosphate).
A zinc finger is a small protein structural motif that is characterized by the coordination of one or more zinc ions (Zn2+) in order to stabilize the fold.
Zinc fluoride (ZnF2) is an inorganic chemical compound.
Zinc gluconate is the zinc salt of gluconic acid.
Zinc hydride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula ZnH2.
Zinc hydroxide Zn(OH)2 is an inorganic chemical compound.
Zinc iodide is a chemical compound of zinc and iodine, ZnI2.
Zinc molybdate (ZnMoO4) is an inorganic chemical compound.
Zinc nitrate is an inorganic chemical compound with the formula Zn(NO3)2.
Zinc nitride (Zn3N2) is an inorganic compound of zinc and nitrogen, usually obtained as (blue)grey crystals.
Zinc oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula ZnO.
Zinc peroxide (ZnO2) appears as a bright yellow powder at room temperature.
Zinc phosphate (Zn3(PO4)2) is an inorganic chemical compound used as a corrosion resistant coating on metal surfaces either as part of an electroplating process or applied as a primer pigment (see also red lead).
Zinc phosphide (Zn3P2) is an inorganic chemical compound.
Zinc pyrithione (or pyrithione zinc) is a coordination complex of zinc.
Zinc selenide (ZnSe) is a light-yellow, solid compound comprising zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se).
Zinc sulfate is an inorganic compound and dietary supplement. As a supplement it is used to treat zinc deficiency and to prevent the condition in those at high risk. Side effects of excess supplementation may include abdominal pain, vomiting, headache, and tiredness. It has the formula ZnSO4 as well as any of three hydrates. It was historically known as "white vitriol". All of the various forms are colourless solids. The heptahydrate form is commonly encountered.
Zinc sulfide (or zinc sulphide) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula of ZnS.
Zinc telluride is a binary chemical compound with the formula ZnTe.
Zinc transporter proteins (Zrt), or simply zinc transporters, are membrane transport proteins of the solute carrier family which control the membrane transport of zinc and regulate its intracellular and cytoplasmic concentrations.
In chemistry the term zincate may refer to.
Zinc–air batteries (non-rechargeable; IEC codes: A, P), and zinc–air fuel cells (mechanically rechargeable) are metal-air batteries powered by oxidizing zinc with oxygen from the air.
A zinc–carbon battery is a dry cell primary battery that delivers about 1.5 volts of direct current from the electrochemical reaction between zinc and manganese dioxide.
Zinc–cerium batteries are a type of redox flow battery first developed by Plurion Inc.
The zinc–zinc oxide cycle or Zn–ZnO cycle is a two step thermochemical cycle based on zinc and zinc oxide for hydrogen production with a typical efficiency around 40%.
Zineb is the chemical compound with the formula n. Structurally, it is classified as a coordination polymer.
Zirconium is a chemical element with symbol Zr and atomic number 40.
Element 30, Environmental impact of zinc mining, Mossy zinc, Powdered zinc, SHG zinc, Special high grade zinc, Super high grade zinc, White bronze, Zinc (element), Zinc Processing, Zinc alloy, Zinc alloys, Zinc concentrate, Zinc ions, Zinc metabolism, Zinc metallurgy, Zinc pills, Zinc poisoning, Zinc supplements, Zinc tablets, Zinc tiles, Zn (element), Zn2+.