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Forensic identification

Index Forensic identification

Forensic identification is the application of forensic science, or "forensics", and technology to identify specific objects from the trace evidence they leave, often at a crime scene or the scene of an accident. [1]

68 relations: Adolphe Quetelet, Alphonse Bertillon, Amplified fragment length polymorphism, Anatomical terms of location, Association of Firearm and Tool Mark Examiners, Automatic number-plate recognition, Biometrics, Body identification, Canadian Identification Society, Closed-circuit television, Computer forensics, Crime scene, Data lineage, Data remanence, Dermis, Digital footprint, Digital watermarking, DNA marking, DNA profiling, Document, Ear print analysis, Entomological evidence collection, Equine drug testing, Evidence, Facial recognition system, Film distributor, Fingerprint, Firearm, Forensic anthropology, Forensic dentistry, Forensic engineering, Forensic firearm examination, Forensic profiling, Forensic science, Gait analysis, Genetic marker, Identification (biology), Ink, International Association for Identification, Internet, IP address, MAC address, Manufacturing, Mass surveillance, Microsatellite, Mitochondrial DNA, Morphology (biology), Mutation, Nuclear DNA, Observer-expectancy effect, ..., Paper, Photo identification, Photocopier, Phylogenetics, Poaching, Printer (computing), Privacy, Questioned document examination, Social network, Social network analysis, Steganography, STR analysis, Surveillance, Toner, Trace evidence, Transceiver, Voice analysis, Watermark. Expand index (18 more) »

Adolphe Quetelet

Lambert Adolphe Jacques Quetelet FRSFor FRSE (22 February 1796 – 17 February 1874) was a Belgian astronomer, mathematician, statistician and sociologist.

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Alphonse Bertillon

Alphonse Bertillon (24 April 1853 – 13 February 1914) was a French police officer and biometrics researcher who applied the anthropological technique of anthropometry to law enforcement creating an identification system based on physical measurements.

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Amplified fragment length polymorphism

AFLP-PCR or just AFLP is a PCR-based tool used in genetics research, DNA fingerprinting, and in the practice of genetic engineering.

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Anatomical terms of location

Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans.

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Association of Firearm and Tool Mark Examiners

The Association of Firearm and Tool Mark Examiners (AFTE) is an international non-profit organization dedicated to the advancement of firearm and tool mark identification, which is one of the forensic sciences.

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Automatic number-plate recognition

Automatic number-plate recognition (ANPR; see also other names below) is a technology that uses optical character recognition on images to read vehicle registration plates to create vehicle location data.

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Biometrics

Biometrics is the technical term for body measurements and calculations.

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Body identification

Body identification is a subfield of forensic science wherein investigators need to identify a body.

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Canadian Identification Society

The Canadian Identification Society (CIS) is a bilingual (English- French) professional non-for-profit fellowship of police officers and civilian members who share interests and employment in crime scene investigation.

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Closed-circuit television

Closed-circuit television (CCTV), also known as video surveillance, is the use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place, on a limited set of monitors.

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Computer forensics

Computer forensics (also known as computer forensic science) is a branch of digital forensic science pertaining to evidence found in computers and digital storage media.

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Crime scene

A crime scene is any location that may be associated with a committed crime.

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Data lineage

Data lineage includes the data's origins, what happens to it and where it moves over time.

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Data remanence

Data remanence is the residual representation of digital data that remains even after attempts have been made to remove or erase the data.

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Dermis

The dermis or corium is a layer of skin between the epidermis (with which it makes up the cutis) and subcutaneous tissues, that primarily consists of dense irregular connective tissue and cushions the body from stress and strain.

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Digital footprint

Digital footprint or digital shadow refers to one's unique set of traceable digital activities, actions, contributions and communications that are manifested on the Internet or on digital devices.

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Digital watermarking

A digital watermark is a kind of marker covertly embedded in a noise-tolerant signal such as an audio, video or image data.

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DNA marking

DNA marking is a type of forensic identification.

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DNA profiling

DNA profiling (also called DNA fingerprinting, DNA testing, or DNA typing) is the process of determining an individual's DNA characteristics, which are as unique as fingerprints.

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Document

A document is a written, drawn, presented, or memorialized representation of thought.

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Ear print analysis

Ear print analysis is used as a means of forensic identification intended as an identification tool similar to fingerprinting.

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Entomological evidence collection

Entomological evidence collection is the process of collecting evidence based on insect clues used in criminal investigations.

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Equine drug testing

Equine drug testing is a form of drug testing applied to performance horses in regulated competition.

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Evidence

Evidence, broadly construed, is anything presented in support of an assertion.

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Facial recognition system

A facial recognition system is a technology capable of identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame from a video source.

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Film distributor

A film distributor is responsible for the marketing of a film.

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Fingerprint

A fingerprint in its narrow sense is an impression left by the friction ridges of a human finger.

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Firearm

A firearm is a portable gun (a barreled ranged weapon) that inflicts damage on targets by launching one or more projectiles driven by rapidly expanding high-pressure gas produced by exothermic combustion (deflagration) of propellant within an ammunition cartridge.

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Forensic anthropology

Forensic anthropology is the application of the anatomical science of anthropology and its various subfields, including forensic archaeology and forensic taphonomy, in a legal setting.

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Forensic dentistry

Forensic dentistry or forensic odontology is the application of dental knowledge to those criminal and civil laws that are enforced by police agencies in a criminal justice system.

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Forensic engineering

Forensic engineering has been defined as "the investigation of failures - ranging from serviceability to catastrophic - which may lead to legal activity, including both civil and criminal". It therefore includes the investigation of materials, products, structures or components that fail or do not operate or function as intended, causing personal injury, damage to property or economic loss.

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Forensic firearm examination

Forensic firearm examination is the forensic process of examining the characteristics of firearms as well as any cartridges or bullets left behind at a crime scene.

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Forensic profiling

Forensic profiling is the study of trace evidence in order to develop information which can be used by police authorities.

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Forensic science

Forensic science is the application of science to criminal and civil laws, mainly—on the criminal side—during criminal investigation, as governed by the legal standards of admissible evidence and criminal procedure.

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Gait analysis

Gait analysis is the systematic study of animal locomotion, more specifically the study of human motion, using the eye and the brain of observers, augmented by instrumentation for measuring body movements, body mechanics, and the activity of the muscles.

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Genetic marker

A genetic marker is a gene or DNA sequence with a known location on a chromosome that can be used to identify individuals or species.

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Identification (biology)

Identification in biology is the process of assigning a pre-existing taxon name to an individual organism.

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Ink

Ink is a liquid or paste that contains pigments or dyes and is used to color a surface to produce an image, text, or design.

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International Association for Identification

The International Association for Identification (IAI) is the largest forensic organization in the world.

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Internet

The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.

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IP address

An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label assigned to each device connected to a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication.

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MAC address

A media access control address (MAC address) of a device is a unique identifier assigned to a network interface controller (NIC) for communications at the data link layer of a network segment.

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Manufacturing

Manufacturing is the production of merchandise for use or sale using labour and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation.

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Mass surveillance

Mass surveillance is the intricate surveillance of an entire or a substantial fraction of a population in order to monitor that group of citizens.

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Microsatellite

A microsatellite is a tract of repetitive DNA in which certain DNA motifs (ranging in length from 1–6 or more base pairs) are repeated, typically 5–50 times.

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Mitochondrial DNA

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

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Morphology (biology)

Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.

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Mutation

In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.

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Nuclear DNA

Nuclear DNA, or nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid (nDNA), is the DNA contained within the nucleus of a eukaryotic organism.

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Observer-expectancy effect

The observer-expectancy effect (also called the experimenter-expectancy effect, expectancy bias, observer effect, or experimenter effect) is a form of reactivity in which a researcher's cognitive bias causes them to subconsciously influence the participants of an experiment.

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Paper

Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together moist fibres of cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets.

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Photo identification

Photo identification or photo ID is an identity document that includes a photograph of the holder, usually only his or her face.

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Photocopier

A photocopier (also known as a copier or copy machine) is a machine that makes paper copies of documents and other visual images quickly and cheaply.

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Phylogenetics

In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.

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Poaching

Poaching has been defined as the illegal hunting or capturing of wild animals, usually associated with land use rights.

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Printer (computing)

In computing, a printer is a peripheral device which makes a persistent human-readable representation of graphics or text on paper.

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Privacy

Privacy is the ability of an individual or group to seclude themselves, or information about themselves, and thereby express themselves selectively.

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Questioned document examination

In forensic science, questioned document examination (QDE) is the examination of documents potentially disputed in a court of law.

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Social network

A social network is a social structure made up of a set of social actors (such as individuals or organizations), sets of dyadic ties, and other social interactions between actors.

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Social network analysis

Social network analysis (SNA) is the process of investigating social structures through the use of networks and graph theory.

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Steganography

Steganography is the practice of concealing a file, message, image, or video within another file, message, image, or video.

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STR analysis

A Short Tandem Repeat (STR) analysis is one of the most useful methods in molecular biology which is used to compare specific loci on DNA from two or more samples.

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Surveillance

Surveillance is the monitoring of behavior, activities, or other changing information for the purpose of influencing, managing, directing, or protecting people.

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Toner

Toner is a powder mixture used in laser printers and photocopiers to form the printed text and images on the paper, in general through a toner cartridge.

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Trace evidence

Trace evidence is created when objects make contact.

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Transceiver

A transceiver is a device comprising both a transmitter and a receiver that are combined and share common circuitry or a single housing.

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Voice analysis

Voice analysis is the study of speech sounds for purposes other than linguistic content, such as in speech recognition.

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Watermark

A watermark is an identifying image or pattern in paper that appears as various shades of lightness/darkness when viewed by transmitted light (or when viewed by reflected light, atop a dark background), caused by thickness or density variations in the paper.

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Forensic Evidence, Forensic evidence, Forensic testing.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forensic_identification

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