ActionScript is an object-oriented programming language originally developed by Macromedia Inc. (later acquired by Adobe Systems).
ALGOL (short for "Algorithmic Language") is a family of imperative computer programming languages, originally developed in the mid-1950s, which greatly influenced many other languages and was the standard method for algorithm description used by the ACM in textbooks and academic sources for more than thirty years.
Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) was a Unix operating system derivative developed and distributed by the Computer Systems Research Group (CSRG) of the University of California, Berkeley, from 1977 to 1995.
Bjarne Stroustrup (born 30 December 1950) is a Danish computer scientist, who is most notable for the creation and development of the widely used C++ programming language.
In computer programming, a block or code block is a lexical structure of source code which is grouped together.
A bracket is a tall punctuation mark typically used in matched pairs within text, to set apart or interject other text.
Brian Wilson Kernighan (born January 1, 1942) is a Canadian computer scientist who worked at Bell Labs alongside Unix creators Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie and contributed to the development of Unix.
C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.
C++ ("see plus plus") is a general-purpose programming language.
Charles Petzold (born February 2, 1953, New Brunswick, New Jersey) is an American programmer and technical author on Microsoft Windows applications.
Code Complete is a software development book, written by Steve McConnell and published in 1993 by Microsoft Press, encouraging developers to continue past code-and-fix programming and the big design up front & waterfall models.
Code folding is a feature of some text editors, source code editors, and IDEs that allows the user to selectively hide and display – "fold" – sections of a currently-edited file as a part of routine edit operations.
Code refactoring is the process of restructuring existing computer code—changing the factoring—without changing its external behavior.
Computer programming is the process of building and designing an executable computer program for accomplishing a specific computing task.
In computer science, control flow (or flow of control) is the order in which individual statements, instructions or function calls of an imperative program are executed or evaluated.
In computing, cross-platform software (also multi-platform software or platform-independent software) is computer software that is implemented on multiple computing platforms.
In computer user interfaces, a cursor is an indicator used to show the current position for user interaction on a computer monitor or other display device that will respond to input from a text input or pointing device.
Cyclomatic complexity is a software metric, used to indicate the complexity of a program.
In computer programming, a declaration is a language construct that specifies properties of an identifier: it declares what a word (identifier) "means".
Dennis MacAlistair Ritchie (September 9, 1941 – October 12, 2011) was an American computer scientist.
Digital Research, Inc. (also known as DR or DRI) was a company created by Gary Kildall to market and develop his CP/M operating system and related 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit systems like MP/M, Concurrent DOS, Multiuser DOS, DOS Plus, DR DOS and GEM.
is a line editor for the Unix operating system.
Emacs is a family of text editors that are characterized by their extensibility.
Eric Paul Allman (born September 2, 1955) is an American computer programmer who developed sendmail and its precursor delivermail in the late 1970s and early 1980s at UC Berkeley.
In computer science, a for-loop (or simply for loop) is a control flow statement for specifying iteration, which allows code to be executed repeatedly.
A 4th-generation programming language (4GL) or (procedural language) is any computer programming language that belongs to a class of languages envisioned as an advancement upon third-generation programming languages (3GL).
In computer programming, a free-form language is a programming language in which the positioning of characters on the page in program text is insignificant.
GNU is an operating system and an extensive collection of computer software.
The GNU coding standards are a set of rules and guidelines for writing programs that work consistently within the GNU system.
GNU Emacs is the most popular and most ported Emacs text editor.
The GNU Project is a free-software, mass-collaboration project, first announced on September 27, 1983 by Richard Stallman at MIT.
Haskell is a standardized, general-purpose compiled purely functional programming language, with non-strict semantics and strong static typing.
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the standard markup language for creating web pages and web applications.
indent is a Unix utility that reformats C and C++ code in a user-defined indentation style and coding style.
In the written form of many languages, an indentation is an empty space at the beginning of a line to signal the start of a new paragraph.
James Werner Zawinski (born November 3, 1968), commonly known as jwz, is an American computer programmer with contributions to the free software projects Mozilla and XEmacs, and early versions of the Netscape Navigator web browser.
The Jargon File is a glossary and usage dictionary of slang used by computer programmers.
Java is a general-purpose computer-programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.
The Java Class Library (JCL) is a set of dynamically loadable libraries that Java applications can call at run time.
Kernel normal form, or KNF, is the coding style used in the development of code for the BSD operating systems.
Linus Benedict Torvalds (born December 28, 1969) is a Finnish-American software engineer who is the creator, and historically, the principal developer of the Linux kernel, which became the kernel for operating systems such as the Linux operating systems, Android, and Chrome OS.
The Linux kernel is an open-source monolithic Unix-like computer operating system kernel.
Lisp (historically, LISP) is a family of computer programming languages with a long history and a distinctive, fully parenthesized prefix notation.
This is a list of notable programming languages, grouped by type.
The Macintosh (pronounced as; branded as Mac since 1998) is a family of personal computers designed, manufactured, and sold by Apple Inc. since January 1984.
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.
occam is a programming language which is concurrent and builds on the communicating sequential processes (CSP) process algebra, Inmos document 72 occ 45 03 and shares many of its features.
A computer programming language is said to adhere to the off-side rule if blocks in that language are expressed by their indentation.
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
Phillip James (Bill) Plauger (born January 13, 1944, Petersburg, West Virginia) is an author, entrepreneur and computer programmer.
Pascal is an imperative and procedural programming language, which Niklaus Wirth designed in 1968–69 and published in 1970, as a small, efficient language intended to encourage good programming practices using structured programming and data structuring. It is named in honor of the French mathematician, philosopher and physicist Blaise Pascal. Pascal was developed on the pattern of the ALGOL 60 language. Wirth had already developed several improvements to this language as part of the ALGOL X proposals, but these were not accepted and Pascal was developed separately and released in 1970. A derivative known as Object Pascal designed for object-oriented programming was developed in 1985; this was used by Apple Computer and Borland in the late 1980s and later developed into Delphi on the Microsoft Windows platform. Extensions to the Pascal concepts led to the Pascal-like languages Modula-2 and Oberon.
Peter Norton (born November 14, 1943) is an American programmer, software publisher, author, and philanthropist.
Pico is a programming language developed at the Software Languages Lab at Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
In software engineering, porting is the process of adapting software for the purpose of achieving some form of execution in a computing environment that is different from the one that a given program (meant for such execution) was originally designed for (e.g. different CPU, operating system, or third party library).
Procedural programming is a programming paradigm, derived from structured programming, based upon the concept of the procedure call.
A programming language is a formal language that specifies a set of instructions that can be used to produce various kinds of output.
Programming style is a set of rules or guidelines used when writing the source code for a computer program.
Python is an interpreted high-level programming language for general-purpose programming.
Richard Matthew Stallman (born March 16, 1953), often known by his initials, rms—is an American free software movement activist and programmer.
Ruby is a dynamic, interpreted, reflective, object-oriented, general-purpose programming language.
Secondary notation is the set of visual cues used to improve the readability of a formal notation.
A shell script is a computer program designed to be run by the Unix shell, a command-line interpreter.
Steven C. McConnell is an author of software engineering textbooks such as Code Complete, Rapid Development, and Software Estimation.
Sun Microsystems, Inc. was an American company that sold computers, computer components, software, and information technology services and created the Java programming language, the Solaris operating system, ZFS, the Network File System (NFS), and SPARC.
Syntax highlighting is a feature of text editors that are used for programming, scripting, or markup languages, such as HTML.
The tab key (abbreviation of tabulator key or tabular key) on a keyboard is used to advance the cursor to the next tab stop.
A tab stop on a typewriter is a location where the carriage movement is halted by an adjustable end stop.
The C Programming Language (sometimes termed K&R, after its authors' initials) is a computer programming book written by Brian Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie, the latter of whom originally designed and implemented the language, as well as co-designed the Unix operating system with which development of the language was closely intertwined.
The C++ Programming Language is a computer programming book first published in October 1985.
The Elements of Programming Style, by Brian W. Kernighan and P. J. Plauger, is a study of programming style, advocating the notion that computer programs should be written not only to satisfy the compiler or personal programming "style", but also for "readability" by humans, specifically software maintenance engineers, programmers and technical writers.
Transact-SQL (T-SQL) is Microsoft's and Sybase's proprietary extension to the SQL (Structured Query Language) used to interact with relational databases.
Unix (trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.
A Unix-like (sometimes referred to as UN*X or *nix) operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification.
A modern computer operating system usually segregates virtual memory into kernel space and user space.
vi is a screen-oriented text editor originally created for the Unix operating system.
In computer programming, white space is any character or series of characters that represent horizontal or vertical space in typography.
WordPress is a free and open-source content management system (CMS) based on PHP and MySQL.
XPL is a programming language based on PL/I, a portable one-pass compiler written in its own language, and a parser generator tool for easily implementing similar compilers for other languages.
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