105 relations: Access to Knowledge movement, ARM architecture, Assembly language, Association for Computing Machinery, Australia, AVR32, Bash (Unix shell), Berkeley Software Distribution, Blackfin, C (programming language), Computerworld, Copyleft, Cygnus Solutions, Debian GNU/Hurd, DEC Alpha, Desktop environment, ETRAX CRIS, FR-V (microprocessor), Free software, Free Software Foundation, Free software license, Free software movement, Free Software, Free Society, Free-culture movement, GNewSense, GNOME, GNU Affero General Public License, GNU Binutils, GNU C Library, GNU Compiler Collection, GNU Core Utilities, GNU Debugger, GNU Emacs, GNU Free Documentation License, GNU General Public License, GNU Hurd, GNU Lesser General Public License, GNU Mach, GNU Manifesto, GNU Project, GNU variants, GNU/Linux naming controversy, H8 Family, Hardware restriction, History of free and open-source software, IA-32, IBM System/390, Imagination META, Incompatible Timesharing System, Itanium, ..., James Gosling, Kernel (operating system), Lawrence Lessig, Linux, Linux distribution, Linux kernel, Linux-libre, Lisp (programming language), List of computing mascots, M32R, Mach (kernel), MacOS, MicroBlaze, Microkernel, Microsoft Windows, Midori (web browser), MIPS architecture, MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, MN103, Monolithic kernel, Motorola 68000 series, OpenRISC, Operating system, PA-RISC, Parabola GNU/Linux-libre, PDP-10, Permissive software licence, Porting, PowerPC, Proprietary software, Public domain, Qualcomm Hexagon, Recursive acronym, Red Hat, Richard Stallman, S+core, Solaris (operating system), SPARC, SuperH, Synopsys, Tensilica, TeX, Texas Instruments TMS320, The Gnu, TILE64, Trisquel, Ubuntu (operating system), Unicore, Unix, Unix-like, Usenet newsgroup, Wildebeest, X Window System, X86, Xfce. Expand index (55 more) » « Shrink index
Access to Knowledge movement
The Access to Knowledge (A2K) movement is a loose collection of civil society groups, governments, and individuals converging on the idea that access to knowledge should be linked to fundamental principles of justice, freedom, and economic development.
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ARM, previously Advanced RISC Machine, originally Acorn RISC Machine, is a family of reduced instruction set computing (RISC) architectures for computer processors, configured for various environments.
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An assembly (or assembler) language, often abbreviated asm, is a low-level programming language, in which there is a very strong (but often not one-to-one) correspondence between the assembly program statements and the architecture's machine code instructions.
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Association for Computing Machinery
The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is an international learned society for computing.
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Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
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The AVR32 is a 32-bit RISC microcontroller architecture produced by Atmel.
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Bash (Unix shell)
Bash is a Unix shell and command language written by Brian Fox for the GNU Project as a free software replacement for the Bourne shell.
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Berkeley Software Distribution
Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) was a Unix operating system derivative developed and distributed by the Computer Systems Research Group (CSRG) of the University of California, Berkeley, from 1977 to 1995.
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The Blackfin is a family of 16- or 32-bit microprocessors developed, manufactured and marketed by Analog Devices.
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C (programming language)
C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.
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Computerworld is a publication website and digital magazine for information technology (IT) and business technology professionals.
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Copyleft (a play on the word copyright) is the practice of offering people the right to freely distribute copies and modified versions of a work with the stipulation that the same rights be preserved in derivative works down the line.
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Cygnus Solutions, originally Cygnus Support, was founded in 1989 by John Gilmore, Michael Tiemann and David Henkel-Wallace to provide commercial support for free software.
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Debian GNU/Hurd is the Debian project's distribution of the GNU operating system, using the GNU Hurd microkernel.
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Alpha, originally known as Alpha AXP, is a 64-bit reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) developed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC), designed to replace their 32-bit VAX complex instruction set computer (CISC) ISA.
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In computing, a desktop environment (DE) is an implementation of the desktop metaphor made of a bundle of programs running on top of a computer operating system, which share a common graphical user interface (GUI), sometimes described as a graphical shell.
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The ETRAX CRIS is a series of CPUs designed and manufactured by Axis Communications for use in embedded systems since 1993.
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The Fujitsu FR-V (Fujitsu RISC-VLIW) is one of the very few processors ever able to process both a very long instruction word (VLIW) and vector processor instructions at the same time, increasing throughput with high parallel computing while increasing performance per watt and hardware efficiency.
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Free software or libre software is computer software distributed under terms that allow users to run the software for any purpose as well as to study, change, and distribute it and any adapted versions.
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Free Software Foundation
The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization founded by Richard Stallman on 4 October 1985 to support the free software movement, which promotes the universal freedom to study, distribute, create, and modify computer software, with the organization's preference for software being distributed under copyleft ("share alike") terms, such as with its own GNU General Public License.
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Free software license
A free software license is a notice that grants the recipient of a piece of software extensive rights to modify and redistribute that software.
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Free software movement
The free software movement (FSM) or free / open source software movement (FOSSM) or free / libre open source software (FLOSS) is a social movement with the goal of obtaining and guaranteeing certain freedoms for software users, namely the freedom to run the software, to study and change the software, and to redistribute copies with or without changes.
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Free Software, Free Society
Free Software, Free Society: Selected Essays of Richard M. Stallman is a book that collects the writing of Richard M. Stallman.
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The free-culture movement is a social movement that promotes the freedom to distribute and modify creative works in the form of free content or open content by using the Internet and other forms of media.
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GNOME is a desktop environment composed of free and open-source software that runs on Linux and most BSD derivatives.
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GNU Affero General Public License
The GNU Affero General Public License is a free, copyleft license published by the Free Software Foundation in November 2007, and based on the GNU General Public License, version 3 and the Affero General Public License.
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The GNU Binary Utilities, or binutils, are a set of programming tools for creating and managing binary programs, object files, libraries, profile data, and assembly source code.
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GNU C Library
The GNU C Library, commonly known as glibc, is the GNU Project's implementation of the C standard library.
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GNU Compiler Collection
The GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) is a compiler system produced by the GNU Project supporting various programming languages.
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GNU Core Utilities
The GNU Core Utilities or coreutils is a package of GNU software containing reimplementations for many of the basic tools, such as cat, ls, and rm, which are used on Unix-like operating systems.
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The GNU Debugger (GDB) is a portable debugger that runs on many Unix-like systems and works for many programming languages, including Ada, C, C++, Objective-C, Free Pascal, Fortran, Go, Java and partially others.
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GNU Emacs is the most popular and most ported Emacs text editor.
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GNU Free Documentation License
The GNU Free Documentation License (GNU FDL or simply GFDL) is a copyleft license for free documentation, designed by the Free Software Foundation (FSF) for the GNU Project.
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GNU General Public License
The GNU General Public License (GNU GPL or GPL) is a widely used free software license, which guarantees end users the freedom to run, study, share and modify the software.
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GNU Hurd is the multiserver microkernel written as part of GNU.
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GNU Lesser General Public License
The GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) is a free software license published by the Free Software Foundation (FSF).
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GNU Mach is an implementation of the Mach microkernel.
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The GNU Manifesto was written by Richard Stallman and published in March 1985 in Dr. Dobb's Journal of Software Tools as an explanation and definition of the goals of the GNU Project, and to call for participation and support developing GNU, a free software computer operating system.
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The GNU Project is a free-software, mass-collaboration project, first announced on September 27, 1983 by Richard Stallman at MIT.
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GNU variants (also called GNU distributions or distros for short) are operating systems based upon the GNU operating system (the Hurd kernel, the GNU C library, system libraries and application software like GNU coreutils, bash, GNOME, the Guix package manager etc.). According to the GNU project and others, these also include most operating systems using the Linux kernel and a few others using BSD-based kernels.
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GNU/Linux naming controversy
The GNU/Linux naming controversy is a dispute between members of the free software community and open-source software community over whether to refer to computer operating systems that use a combination of GNU software and the Linux kernel as "GNU/Linux" or "Linux".
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H8 is the name of a large family of 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit microcontrollers made by Renesas Technology, originating in the early 1990s within Hitachi Semiconductor and still evolving as of 2006.
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A hardware restriction (sometimes called hardware DRM) is content protection enforced by electronic components.
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History of free and open-source software
In the 1950s and 1960s, computer operating software and compilers were delivered as a part of hardware purchases without separate fees.
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IA-32 (short for "Intel Architecture, 32-bit", sometimes also called i386) is the 32-bit version of the x86 instruction set architecture, first implemented in the Intel 80386 microprocessors in 1985.
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The IBM System/390 was the third major generation of the System/360 line of computers.
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The META is a 32-bit multithreaded microprocessor developed by Metagence Technologies Division from Imagination Technologies.
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Incompatible Timesharing System
Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) is a time-sharing operating system developed principally by the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, with help from Project MAC.
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Itanium is a family of 64-bit Intel microprocessors that implement the Intel Itanium architecture (formerly called IA-64).
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James Arthur Gosling, OC (born May 19, 1955) is a Canadian computer scientist, best known as the founder and lead designer behind the Java programming language.
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Kernel (operating system)
The kernel is a computer program that is the core of a computer's operating system, with complete control over everything in the system.
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Lester Lawrence "Larry" Lessig III (born June 3, 1961) is an American academic, attorney, and political activist.
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Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel.
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A Linux distribution (often abbreviated as distro) is an operating system made from a software collection, which is based upon the Linux kernel and, often, a package management system.
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The Linux kernel is an open-source monolithic Unix-like computer operating system kernel.
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Linux-libre is an operating system kernel and a GNU package.
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Lisp (programming language)
Lisp (historically, LISP) is a family of computer programming languages with a long history and a distinctive, fully parenthesized prefix notation.
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List of computing mascots
This is a list of computing mascots.
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The M32R is a 32-bit RISC instruction set architecture (ISA) developed by Mitsubishi Electric for embedded microprocessors and microcontrollers.
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Mach is a kernel developed at Carnegie Mellon University to support operating system research, primarily distributed and parallel computing.
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macOS (previously and later) is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001.
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The MicroBlaze is a soft microprocessor core designed for Xilinx Field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA).
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In computer science, a microkernel (also known as μ-kernel) is the near-minimum amount of software that can provide the mechanisms needed to implement an operating system (OS).
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Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.
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Midori (web browser)
is a free and open-source light-weight.
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MIPS (an acronym for Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipeline Stages) is a reduced instruction set computer (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA)Price, Charles (September 1995).
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MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory
MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) is a research institute at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology formed by the 2003 merger of the Laboratory for Computer Science and the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory.
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The MN103 is a 32-bit microprocessor series developed by Matsushita Electric Industrial, now Panasonic Corporation.
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A monolithic kernel is an operating system architecture where the entire operating system is working in kernel space and is alone in supervisor mode.
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Motorola 68000 series
The Motorola 68000 series (also termed 680x0, m68000, m68k, or 68k) is a family of 32-bit CISC microprocessors.
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OpenRISC is a project to develop a series of open source instruction set architectures based on established reduced instruction set computing (RISC) principles.
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An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
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PA-RISC is an instruction set architecture (ISA) developed by Hewlett-Packard.
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Parabola GNU/Linux-libre is an operating system for the i686, x86-64 and ARMv7 architectures.
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The PDP-10 is a mainframe computer family manufactured by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) from 1966 into the 1980s.
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Permissive software licence
A permissive software license, sometimes also called BSD-like or BSD-style license, is a free software software license with minimal requirements about how the software can be redistributed.
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In software engineering, porting is the process of adapting software for the purpose of achieving some form of execution in a computing environment that is different from the one that a given program (meant for such execution) was originally designed for (e.g. different CPU, operating system, or third party library).
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PowerPC (with the backronym Performance Optimization With Enhanced RISC – Performance Computing, sometimes abbreviated as PPC) is a reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM.
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Proprietary software is non-free computer software for which the software's publisher or another person retains intellectual property rights—usually copyright of the source code, but sometimes patent rights.
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The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply.
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Hexagon (QDSP6) is the brand for a family of 32-bit multi-threaded microarchitectures implementing the same instruction set for a digital signal processor (DSP) developed by Qualcomm.
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A recursive acronym is an acronym that refers to itself.
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Red Hat, Inc. is an American multinational software company providing open-source software products to the enterprise community.
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Richard Matthew Stallman (born March 16, 1953), often known by his initials, rms—is an American free software movement activist and programmer.
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S+core is a hybrid 32/16-bit instruction set architecture designed by Sunplus Technology.
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Solaris (operating system)
Solaris is a Unix operating system originally developed by Sun Microsystems.
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SPARC, for Scalable Processor Architecture, is a reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) originally developed by Sun Microsystems.
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SuperH (or SH) is a 32-bit reduced instruction set computing (RISC) instruction set architecture (ISA) developed by Hitachi and currently produced by Renesas.
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Synopsys, Inc., an American company, is the leading company by sales in the Electronic Design Automation industry.
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Tensilica was a company based in Silicon Valley in the semiconductor intellectual property core business.
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TeX (see below), stylized within the system as TeX, is a typesetting system (or "formatting system") designed and mostly written by Donald Knuth and released in 1978.
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Texas Instruments TMS320
Texas Instruments TMS320 is a blanket name for a series of digital signal processors (DSPs) from Texas Instruments.
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"The Gnu" (sometimes known as "A Gnu", "I'm a Gnu" or "The Gnu Song") is a humorous song about a talking gnu by Flanders and Swann.
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TILE64 is a multicore processor manufactured by Tilera.
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Trisquel (officially Trisquel GNU/Linux) is a computer operating system, a Linux distribution, derived from another distribution, Ubuntu.
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Ubuntu (operating system)
Ubuntu (stylized as ubuntu) is a free and open source operating system and Linux distribution based on Debian.
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Unicore is the name of a computer instruction set architecture designed by Microprocessor Research and Development Center (MPRC) of Peking University in the PRC.
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Unix (trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.
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A Unix-like (sometimes referred to as UN*X or *nix) operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification.
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A Usenet newsgroup is a repository usually within the Usenet system, for messages posted from many users in different locations using Internet.
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The wildebeests, also called gnus, are a genus of antelopes, scientific name Connochaetes.
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X Window System
The X Window System (X11, or shortened to simply X) is a windowing system for bitmap displays, common on UNIX-like computer operating systems.
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x86 is a family of backward-compatible instruction set architectures based on the Intel 8086 CPU and its Intel 8088 variant.
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Xfce (pronounced as four individual letters) is a free and open-source desktop environment for Unix and Unix-like operating systems, such as Linux, Solaris, and BSD.
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Etienne Suvasa, GNU OS, GNU Operating System, GNU System, GNU head, GNU operating system, GNU system, GNU's Not Unix, GNU/DOS, The GNU operating system, The GNU system.