A "Hello, World!" program is a computer program that outputs or displays "Hello, World!" to a user.
Accessibility refers to the design of products, devices, services, or environments for people who experience disabilities.
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.
Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services.
In computer programming, an application programming interface (API) is a set of subroutine definitions, protocols, and tools for building software.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Arena browser (also known as the Arena WWW Browser) is an early (now discontinued) testbed Web browser and Web authoring tool for Unix.
A name–value pair, key–value pair, field–value pair or attribute–value pair is a fundamental data representation in computing systems and applications.
The blink element is a non-standard HTML element that indicates to a user agent (generally a web browser) that the page author intends the content of the element to blink (that is, alternate between being visible and invisible).
A breadcrumb or breadcrumb trail is a graphical control element frequently used as a navigational aid in user interfaces and on web pages.
A browser engine is a core software component of every major web browser.
Browser security is the application of Internet security to web browsers in order to protect networked data and computer systems from breaches of privacy or malware.
A browser war is competition for dominance in the usage share of web browsers.
Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a style sheet language used for describing the presentation of a document written in a markup language like HTML.
The European Organization for Nuclear Research (Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (derived from the name Conseil européen pour la recherche nucléaire), is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world.
Character encoding is used to represent a repertoire of characters by some kind of encoding system.
HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) has been in use since 1991, but HTML 4.0 (December 1997) was the first standardized version where international characters were given reasonably complete treatment.
HTML parsers are software for automated Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) parsing.
A comparison shopping website, sometimes called a price comparison website, Price Analysis tool, comparison shopping agent, shopbot or comparison shopping engine, is a vertical search engine that shoppers use to filter and compare products based on price, features, reviews and other criteria.
The Compatible Time-Sharing System (CTSS), was one of the first time-sharing operating systems; it was developed at the MIT Computation Center.
A computer file is a computer resource for recording data discretely in a computer storage device.
A content management system (CMS)Managing Enterprise Content: A Unified Content Strategy.
Dan Connolly (born 1967) is an American computer scientist who was closely involved with the creation of the world-wide web as a member of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).
In computer science and computer programming, a data type or simply type is a classification of data which tells the compiler or interpreter how the programmer intends to use the data.
Dave Raggett is a computer specialist who has played a major role in implementing the World Wide Web since 1992.
In several fields, deprecation is the discouragement of use of some terminology, feature, design, or practice, typically because it has been superseded or is no longer considered efficient or safe, without completely removing it or prohibiting its use.
A document file format is a text or binary file format for storing documents on a storage media, especially for use by computers.
A document type declaration, or DOCTYPE, is an instruction that associates a particular SGML or XML document (for example, a webpage) with a document type definition (DTD) (for example, the formal definition of a particular version of HTML1.0 - HTML 4.0).
A document type definition (DTD) is a set of markup declarations that define a document type for an SGML-family markup language (SGML, XML, HTML).
DOS is a family of disk operating systems.
A server-side dynamic web page is a web page whose construction is controlled by an application server processing server-side scripts.
Electronic mail (email or e-mail) is a method of exchanging messages ("mail") between people using electronic devices.
Email spam, also known as junk email, is a type of electronic spam where unsolicited messages are sent by email.
ENQUIRE was a software project written in 1980 by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN, which was the predecessor to the World Wide Web.
A fat link (also known as a "one-to-many" link, an "extended link") or a "multi-tailed link" is a hyperlink which leads to multiple endpoints; the link is a multivalued function.
File Allocation Table (FAT) is a computer file system architecture and a family of industry-standard file systems utilizing it.
A filename extension is an identifier specified as a suffix to the name of a computer file.
Mozilla Firefox (or simply Firefox) is a free and open-source web browser developed by Mozilla Foundation and its subsidiary, Mozilla Corporation.
In the context of a web browser, a frame is a part of a web page or browser window which displays content independent of its container, with the ability to load content independently.
Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware.
Google Chrome is a freeware web browser developed by Google LLC.
The graphical user interface (GUI), is a type of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, instead of text-based user interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation.
An HTML element is an individual component of an HTML document or web page, once this has been parsed into the Document Object Model.
HTML5 is a markup language used for structuring and presenting content on the World Wide Web.
An HTTP cookie (also called web cookie, Internet cookie, browser cookie, or simply cookie) is a small piece of data sent from a website and stored on the user's computer by the user's web browser while the user is browsing.
In computing, a hyperlink, or simply a link, is a reference to data that the reader can directly follow either by clicking, tapping, or hovering.
Hypertext is text displayed on a computer display or other electronic devices with references (hyperlinks) to other text that the reader can immediately access, or where text can be revealed progressively at multiple levels of detail (also called StretchText).
The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, and hypermedia information systems.
The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC; in French: Commission électrotechnique internationale) is an international standards organization that prepares and publishes International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies – collectively known as "electrotechnology".
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
In computing, internationalization and localization are means of adapting computer software to different languages, regional differences and technical requirements of a target locale.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) develops and promotes voluntary Internet standards, in particular the standards that comprise the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP).
ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 34, Document description and processing languages is a subcommittee of the ISO/IEC JTC1 joint technical committee, which is a collaborative effort of both the International Organization for Standardization and the International Electrotechnical Commission, which develops and facilitates standards within the field of document description and processing languages.
Jakob Nielsen (born 5 October 1957) is a Danish web usability consultant.
The following is a list of document markup languages.
The following is a list of web browsers that are notable.
In SGML, HTML and XML documents, the logical constructs known as character data and attribute values consist of sequences of characters, in which each character can manifest directly (representing itself), or can be represented by a series of characters called a character reference, of which there are two types: a numeric character reference and a character entity reference.
In computer text processing, a markup language is a system for annotating a document in a way that is syntactically distinguishable from the text.
The marquee tag is a non-standard HTML element which causes text to scroll up, down, left or right automatically.
A mashup (computer industry jargon), in web development, is a web page or web application that uses content from more than one source to create a single new service displayed in a single graphical interface.
Mathematical Markup Language (MathML) is a mathematical markup language, an application of XML for describing mathematical notations and capturing both its structure and content.
A media type (formerly known as MIME type) is a two-part identifier for file formats and format contents transmitted on the Internet.
Metadata is "data that provides information about other data".
Microdata is a WHATWG HTML specification used to nest metadata within existing content on web pages.
A microformat (sometimes abbreviated μF) is a World Wide Web-based approach to semantic markup which uses HTML/XHTML tags supported for other purposes to convey additional metadata and other attributes in web pages and other contexts that support (X)HTML, such as RSS.
Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
Microsoft Edge (codename "Spartan") is a web browser developed by Microsoft and included in Windows 10, Windows 10 Mobile and Xbox One, replacing Internet Explorer as the default web browser on all device classes.
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.
NCSA Mosaic, or simply Mosaic, is the web browser that popularized the World Wide Web and the Internet.
The Mozilla Foundation (stylized as moz://a) is a non-profit organization that exists to support and collectively lead the open source Mozilla project.
Netscape is a brand name associated with the development of the Netscape web browser.
Newline (frequently called line ending, end of line (EOL), line feed, or line break) is a control character or sequence of control characters in a character encoding specification, e.g. ASCII or EBCDIC.
In computing, a news aggregator, also termed a feed aggregator, feed reader, news reader, RSS reader or simply aggregator, is client software or a web application which aggregates syndicated web content such as online newspapers, blogs, podcasts, and video blogs (vlogs) in one location for easy viewing.
A numeric character reference (NCR) is a common markup construct used in SGML and SGML-derived markup languages such as HTML and XML.
Opera is a web browser for Windows, macOS, and Linux operating systems developed by Opera Software AS.
Opera Software AS is a Norwegian software company, primarily known for its desktop Opera web browser, and mobile web browser Opera Mini.
A paragraph (from the Ancient Greek παράγραφος paragraphos, "to write beside" or "written beside") is a self-contained unit of a discourse in writing dealing with a particular point or idea.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Phishing is the fraudulent attempt to obtain sensitive information such as usernames, passwords, and credit card details (and money), often for malicious reasons, by disguising as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication.
In computing, plain text is the data (e.g. file contents) that represent only characters of readable material but not its graphical representation nor other objects (images, etc.). It may also include a limited number of characters that control simple arrangement of text, such as line breaks or tabulation characters.
In computing, a polyglot markup is a document or script written in a valid form of multiple markup languages, which performs the same output, independent of the markup's parser, layout engine, or interpreter.
In computing, quirks mode refers to a technique used by some web browsers for the sake of maintaining backward compatibility with web pages designed for Internet Explorer 5 and earlier, instead of strictly complying with W3C and IETF standards in standards mode.
In information and communications technology, a Request for Comments (RFC) is a type of publication from the technology community.
Robert Cailliau (born 26 January 1947) is a Belgian informatics engineer and computer scientist who created the first web browser for the Mac.
Safari is a web browser developed by Apple based on the WebKit engine.
A scripting or script language is a programming language that supports scripts: programs written for a special run-time environment that automate the execution of tasks that could alternatively be executed one-by-one by a human operator.
Semantic HTML is the use of HTML markup to reinforce the semantics, or meaning, of the information in webpages and web applications rather than merely to define its presentation or look.
The Semantic Web is an extension of the World Wide Web through standards by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).
Semantics (from σημαντικός sēmantikós, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning, in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics.
Separation of content and presentation (or separation of content and style) is the separation of concerns design principle as applied to the authoring and presentation of content.
SGMLguid, also known as "CERN SGML", "Waterloo based SGML", and "Waterloo SGML", was an early SGML specification developed and used at CERN between 1986 and 1990.
Source tracking pertains to the ability of some hypertext systems to rigorously track the exact source of every document or partial document included in the system; that is, they remember who entered the information, when it was entered, when it was updated and by whom, and so on.
In HTML, span and div elements are used to define parts of a document so that they are identifiable when a unique classification is necessary.
The Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML; ISO 8879:1986) is a standard for defining generalized markup languages for documents.
A structured document is an electronic document where some method of embedded coding, such as mark-up, is used to give the whole, and parts, of the document various structural meanings according to a schema.
In Web development, "tag soup" is a pejorative term that refers to syntactically or structurally incorrect HTML written for a web page.
A testbed (also spelled test bed) is a platform for conducting rigorous, transparent, and replicable testing of scientific theories, computational tools, and new technologies.
Sir Timothy John Berners-Lee (born 8 June 1955), also known as TimBL, is an English engineer and computer scientist, best known as the inventor of the World Wide Web.
The tooltip or infotip or a hint is a common graphical user interface element.
Typesetting is the composition of text by means of arranging physical typesDictionary.com Unabridged.
RUNOFF was the first computer text formatting program to see significant use.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
A Uniform Resource Locator (URL), colloquially termed a web address, is a reference to a web resource that specifies its location on a computer network and a mechanism for retrieving it.
In computing, a user agent is software (a software agent) that is acting on behalf of a user.
UTF-8 is a variable width character encoding capable of encoding all 1,112,064 valid code points in Unicode using one to four 8-bit bytes.
The Markup Validation Service is a validator by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) that allows Internet users to check HTML and XHTML documents for well-formed markup.
Web 2.0 refers to World Wide Web websites that emphasize user-generated content, usability (ease of use, even by non-experts), and interoperability (this means that a website can work well with other products, systems, and devices) for end users.
In computing, a web application or web app is a client–server computer program which the client (including the user interface and client-side logic) runs in a web browser.
A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a software application for accessing information on the World Wide Web.
The Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) are part of a series of web accessibility guidelines published by the Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), the main international standards organization for the Internet.
A Web crawler, sometimes called a spider, is an Internet bot that systematically browses the World Wide Web, typically for the purpose of Web indexing (web spidering).
A web developer is a programmer who specializes in, or is specifically engaged in, the development of World Wide Web applications, or applications that are run over HTTP from a web server to a web browser.
A web page (also written as webpage) is a document that is suitable for the World Wide Web and web browsers.
A web search engine is a software system that is designed to search for information on the World Wide Web.
Web server refers to server software, or hardware dedicated to running said software, that can serve contents to the World Wide Web.
The Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group (WHATWG) is a community of people interested in evolving HTML and related technologies.
A wiki is a website on which users collaboratively modify content and structure directly from the web browser.
The registry is a hierarchical database that stores low-level settings for the Microsoft Windows operating system and for applications that opt to use the registry.
A word processor is a computer program or device that provides for input, editing, formatting and output of text, often plus other features.
The World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or the Web) is an information space where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators (URLs), interlinked by hypertext links, and accessible via the Internet.
The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is the main international standards organization for the World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or W3).
WYSIWYG is an acronym for "what you see is what you get".
WYSIWYM (an acronym for "what you see is what you mean") is a paradigm for editing a structured document.
XForms is an XML format used for collecting inputs from web forms.
Extensible Hypertext Markup Language (XHTML) is part of the family of XML markup languages.
In computing, Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable.
In computing, the term Extensible Stylesheet Language (XSL) is used to refer to a family of languages used to transform and render XML documents.
.exe is a common filename extension denoting an executable file (the main execution point of a computer program) for DOS, OpenVMS, Microsoft Windows, Symbian or OS/2.
An 8.3 filename (also called a short filename or SFN) is a filename convention used by old versions of DOS and versions of Microsoft Windows prior to Windows 95 and Windows NT 3.5.
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