167 relations: Aeneas, Aestheticism, Africa (Roman province), Amnesty, Ancile, Anita Berber, Annia Faustina, Anselm Kiefer, Antonin Artaud, Antoninianus, Aquilia Severa, Arabic, Archaeology, Astarte, Augustan History, Auguste Leroux, Augustus (title), Baetylus, Barthold Georg Niebuhr, Battle of Antioch (218), Bias, Bithynia, Caesar (title), Capitoline Museums, Cappadocia, Caracalla, Caria, Cassius Dio, Castra Praetoria, Celibacy, Chalcedon, Chariot, Chronography of 354, Commodus, Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, Crisis of the Third Century, Cubicularius, Curia Julia, Cybele, Damnatio memoriae, Déodat de Séverac, Decadence, Decadent movement, Denarius, Diadumenian, Diccionario de la lengua española, Eccentricity (behavior), Edward Gibbon, Effeminacy, El (deity), ..., Elagabalium, Elagabalus, Elagabalus (deity), Eliogabalo, Equites, Eunuch, Exoticism, Francesco Cavalli, Gaius Vettius Gratus Sabinianus, Gannys, Gellius Maximus, George Jean Nathan, Gordian III, H. L. Mencken, Hans Werner Henze, Heliogabalus imperator, Helios, Herodian, High priest, Homs, Imperial cult of ancient Rome, Italy, J. B. Bury, James George Frazer, Jean Lombard, John Zorn, Jona Lendering, Julia Avita Mamaea, Julia Cornelia Paula, Julia Domna, Julia Maesa, Julia Soaemias, Julius Avitus, Juno (mythology), Jupiter (mythology), Jurist, Kyle Onstott, Lawrence Alma-Tadema, Legio II Parthica, Legio III Gallica, Legio IV Scythica, List of Roman consuls, List of Roman deities, Louis Couperus, Macrinus, Marcus Aurelius, Marcus Julius Gessius Marcianus, Marilyn Manson, Marius Maximus, Maurice Béjart, Millennium, Minerva, Netherlands, Nicomedia, Numismatics, Oclatinia (gens), Palatine Hill, Palladium (classical antiquity), Pannonia, Parthia, Patrician (ancient Rome), Plucking (hair removal), Praetorian Guard, Praetorian prefect, Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, Premature burial, Prostitution, Publius Valerius Comazon, Quadriga, Quintus Tineius Sacerdos, Raphana, Rebellion, Roman consul, Roman currency, Roman emperor, Roman Empire, Roman mythology, Roman Republic, Roman Senate, Roman Syria, Rome, Salii, Sardanapalus, Sebastian Droste, Seleucus (Roman usurper), Semitic languages, Septimius Severus, Severan dynasty, Severus Alexander, Sextus Varius Marcellus, Sexual orientation, Simeon Solomon, Six Litanies for Heliogabalus, Sky Gilbert, Smyrna, Sol (mythology), Sol Invictus, Solar deity, Solstice, Stefan George, Taboo, The Golden Bough, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, The Pale Emperor, The Roses of Heliogabalus, Theodosius I, Transgender, Transsexual, Ulpian, Urania, Verus (senator), Vesta (mythology), Vestal Virgin, Victoria (mythology), Woerden, Zealots, Zeugma, Commagene. Expand index (117 more) » « Shrink index
In Greco-Roman mythology, Aeneas (Greek: Αἰνείας, Aineías, possibly derived from Greek αἰνή meaning "praised") was a Trojan hero, the son of the prince Anchises and the goddess Aphrodite (Venus).
Aestheticism (also the Aesthetic Movement) is an intellectual and art movement supporting the emphasis of aesthetic values more than social-political themes for literature, fine art, music and other arts.
Africa Proconsularis was a Roman province on the north African coast that was established in 146 BC following the defeat of Carthage in the Third Punic War.
Amnesty (from the Greek ἀμνηστία amnestia, "forgetfulness, passing over") is defined as: "A pardon extended by the government to a group or class of people, usually for a political offense; the act of a sovereign power officially forgiving certain classes of people who are subject to trial but have not yet been convicted." It includes more than pardon, inasmuch as it obliterates all legal remembrance of the offense.
In ancient Rome, the ancilia (Latin, singular ancile) were twelve sacred shields kept in the Temple of Mars.
Anita Berber (10 June 1899 – 10 November 1928) was a German dancer, actress, and writer who was the subject of an Otto Dix painting.
Annia Aurelia Faustina (201 AD – c. 222 AD) was an Anatolian Roman noblewoman.
Anselm Kiefer (born 8 March 1945) is a German painter and sculptor.
Antoine Marie Joseph Artaud, better known as Antonin Artaud (4 September 1896 – 4 March 1948), was a French dramatist, poet, essayist, actor, and theatre director, widely recognized as one of the major figures of twentieth-century theatre and the European avant-garde.
The antoninianus, or radiate, was a coin used during the Roman Empire thought to have been valued at 2 denarii.
Iulia Aquilia Severa was the second and fourth wife of Emperor Elagabalus.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
Astarte (Ἀστάρτη, Astártē) is the Hellenized form of the Middle Eastern goddess Astoreth (Northwest Semitic), a form of Ishtar (East Semitic), worshipped from the Bronze Age through classical antiquity.
The Augustan History (Latin: Historia Augusta) is a late Roman collection of biographies, written in Latin, of the Roman Emperors, their junior colleagues, designated heirs and usurpers of the period 117 to 284.
Jules Marie Auguste Leroux (14 April 1871 - 26 March 1954) was a French painter and illustrator.
Augustus (plural augusti;;, Latin for "majestic", "the increaser" or "venerable"), was an ancient Roman title given as both name and title to Gaius Octavius (often referred to simply as Augustus), Rome's first Emperor.
Baetylus (also Baetyl, Bethel, or Betyl, from Semitic bet el "house of god") is a word denoting sacred stones that were supposedly endowed with life.
Barthold Georg Niebuhr (27 August 1776 – 2 January 1831) was a Danish-German statesman, banker, and historian who became Germany's leading historian of Ancient Rome and a founding father of modern scholarly historiography.
The Battle of Antioch (8 June 218) was fought between the Roman armies of the Emperor Macrinus and his rival Elagabalus, whose troops were commanded by General Gannys, probably a short distance from Antioch.
Bias is disproportionate weight in favour of or against one thing, person, or group compared with another, usually in a way considered to be unfair.
Bithynia (Koine Greek: Βιθυνία, Bithynía) was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine Sea.
Caesar (English Caesars; Latin Caesares) is a title of imperial character.
The Capitoline Museums (Italian: Musei Capitolini) are a single museum containing a group of art and archaeological museums in Piazza del Campidoglio, on top of the Capitoline Hill in Rome, Italy.
Cappadocia (also Capadocia; Καππαδοκία, Kappadokía, from Katpatuka, Kapadokya) is a historical region in Central Anatolia, largely in the Nevşehir, Kayseri, Kırşehir, Aksaray, and Niğde Provinces in Turkey.
Caracalla (Latin: Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus Augustus; 4 April 188 – 8 April 217), formally known as Antoninus, was Roman emperor from 198 to 217 AD.
Caria (from Greek: Καρία, Karia, Karya) was a region of western Anatolia extending along the coast from mid-Ionia (Mycale) south to Lycia and east to Phrygia.
Cassius Dio or Dio Cassius (c. 155 – c. 235) was a Roman statesman and historian of Greek origin.
Castra Praetoria were the ancient barracks (castra) of the Praetorian Guard of Imperial Rome.
Celibacy (from Latin, cælibatus") is the state of voluntarily being unmarried, sexually abstinent, or both, usually for religious reasons.
Chalcedon (or;, sometimes transliterated as Chalkedon) was an ancient maritime town of Bithynia, in Asia Minor.
A chariot is a type of carriage driven by a charioteer using primarily horses to provide rapid motive power.
The Chronography of 354, also known as the Calendar of 354, was a 4th-century illuminated manuscript, which was produced in 354 AD for a wealthy Roman Christian named Valentinus by the calligrapher and illuminator Furius Dionysius Filocalus.
Commodus (31 August 161– 31 December 192AD), born Lucius Aurelius Commodus and died Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus, was Roman emperor with his father Marcus Aurelius from177 to his father's death in 180, and solely until 192.
The Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum (CIL) is a comprehensive collection of ancient Latin inscriptions.
The Crisis of the Third Century, also known as Military Anarchy or the Imperial Crisis (AD 235–284), was a period in which the Roman Empire nearly collapsed under the combined pressures of invasion, civil war, plague, and economic depression.
Cubicularius, Hellenized as koubikoularios (κουβικουλάριος), was a title used for the eunuch chamberlains of the imperial palace in the later Roman Empire and in the Byzantine Empire.
The Curia Julia (Curia Iulia, Curia Iulia) is the third named Curia, or Senate House, in the ancient city of Rome.
Cybele (Phrygian: Matar Kubileya/Kubeleya "Kubileya/Kubeleya Mother", perhaps "Mountain Mother"; Lydian Kuvava; Κυβέλη Kybele, Κυβήβη Kybebe, Κύβελις Kybelis) is an Anatolian mother goddess; she may have a possible precursor in the earliest neolithic at Çatalhöyük, where statues of plump women, sometimes sitting, have been found in excavations.
Damnatio memoriae is a modern Latin phrase literally meaning "condemnation of memory", meaning that a person must not be remembered.
Déodat de Séverac (20 July 1872 – 24 March 1921) was a French composer.
The word decadence, which at first meant simply "decline" in an abstract sense, is now most often used to refer to a perceived decay in standards, morals, dignity, religious faith, or skill at governing among the members of the elite of a very large social structure, such as an empire or nation state.
The Decadent Movement was a late 19th-century artistic and literary movement, centered in Western Europe, that followed an aesthetic ideology of excess and artificiality.
The denarius (dēnāriī) was the standard Roman silver coin from its introduction in the Second Punic War c. 211 BC to the reign of Gordian III (AD 238-244), when it was gradually replaced by the Antoninianus.
Diadumenian (Marcus Opellius Antoninus Diadumenianus Augustus) (September 14/19, 208 – 218), was briefly Roman Emperor, in 218.
The Diccionario de la lengua española (English: Dictionary of the Spanish language), also known as the Diccionario de la Real Academia Española (DRAE) (English: Dictionary of the Royal Spanish Academy), is a dictionary of the Spanish language.
Eccentricity (also called quirkiness) is unusual or odd behavior on the part of an individual.
Edward Gibbon FRS (8 May 173716 January 1794) was an English historian, writer and Member of Parliament.
Effeminacy is the manifestation of traits in a boy or man that are more often associated with feminine nature, behavior, mannerism, style, or gender roles rather than with masculine nature, behavior, mannerisms, style or roles.
(or ’Il, written aleph-lamed, e.g. 𐎛𐎍; 𐤀𐤋; אל; ܐܠ; إل or rtl; cognate to ilu) is a Northwest Semitic word meaning "god" or "deity", or referring (as a proper name) to any one of multiple major Ancient Near East deities.
The Elagabalium was a temple built by the Roman emperor Elagabalus, located on the north-east corner of the Palatine Hill.
Elagabalus, also known as Heliogabalus (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus; 203 – 11 March 222), was Roman emperor from 218 to 222.
Elagabalus, Aelagabalus, or Heliogabalus is a Syro-Roman sun god.
Eliogabalo (Heliogabalus) is an opera by the Italian composer Francesco Cavalli based on the life of the Roman emperor Heliogabalus.
The equites (eques nom. singular; sometimes referred to as "knights" in modern times) constituted the second of the property-based classes of ancient Rome, ranking below the senatorial class.
The term eunuch (εὐνοῦχος) generally refers to a man who has been castrated, typically early enough in his life for this change to have major hormonal consequences.
Exoticism (from 'exotic') is a trend in European art and design, influenced by some ethnic groups or civilizations from the late 19th-century.
Francesco Cavalli (born Pietro Francesco Caletti-Bruni 14 February 1602 – 14 January 1676) was an Italian composer of the early Baroque period.
Gaius Vettius Gratus Sabinianus (c. 180 – c. 225) was a Roman senator who was appointed consul in AD 221.
Gannys was a Roman general who commanded the troops of Elagabalus against Emperor Macrinus in the Battle of Antioch.
Gellius Maximus was a Roman usurper, who, in 219 AD, revolted against Emperor Elagabalus.
George Jean Nathan (February 14, 1882 – April 8, 1958) was an American drama critic and magazine editor.
Gordian III (Marcus Antonius Gordianus Pius Augustus; 20 January 225 AD – 11 February 244 AD) was Roman Emperor from 238 AD to 244 AD.
Henry Louis Mencken (September 12, 1880 – January 29, 1956) was an American journalist, satirist, cultural critic and scholar of American English.
Hans Werner Henze (1 July 1926 – 27 October 2012) was a German composer.
Heliogabalus imperator, allegoria per musica (Emperor Heliogabalus, allegory in music) is an orchestral work by the German composer Hans Werner Henze.
Helios (Ἥλιος Hēlios; Latinized as Helius; Ἠέλιος in Homeric Greek) is the god and personification of the Sun in Greek mythology.
Herodian or Herodianus (Ἡρωδιανός) of Syria, sometimes referred to as "Herodian of Antioch" (c. 170 – c. 240), was a minor Roman civil servant who wrote a colourful history in Greek titled History of the Empire from the Death of Marcus (τῆς μετὰ Μάρκον βασιλείας ἱστορία) in eight books covering the years 180 to 238.
The term "high priest" or "high priestess" usually refers either to an individual who holds the office of ruler-priest, or to one who is the head of a religious caste.
Homs (حمص / ALA-LC: Ḥimṣ), previously known as Emesa or Emisa (Greek: Ἔμεσα Emesa), is a city in western Syria and the capital of the Homs Governorate.
The Imperial cult of ancient Rome identified emperors and some members of their families with the divinely sanctioned authority (auctoritas) of the Roman State.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
John Bagnell Bury, (16 October 1861 – 1 June 1927) was an Irish historian, classical scholar, Medieval Roman historian and philologist.
Sir James George Frazer (1 January 1854 – 7 May 1941) was a Scottish social anthropologist influential in the early stages of the modern studies of mythology and comparative religion.
Jean Lombard (26 September 1854 – 17 July 1891) was a French novelist of the late nineteenth century.
John Zorn (born September 2, 1953) is an American composer, arranger, record producer, saxophonist, and multi-instrumentalist with hundreds of album credits as performer, composer, and producer across a variety of genres, including jazz, rock, hardcore, classical, surf, metal, soundtrack, ambient, and improvised music.
Jona Lendering (born 29 October 1964 in Beneden-Leeuwen, Gelderland) is a Dutch historian and the author of books on antiquity, Dutch history and modern management.
Julia Avita Mamaea (14 or 29 August after 180–235) was a Syrian noble woman and a Roman regent of the Severan dynasty.
Julia Cornelia Paula or Julia Paula was a distinguished Roman noblewoman who became Empress of Rome as the first wife of the Roman emperor Elagabalus.
Julia Domna (AD 160–217) was a Roman empress of Syrian origins, the second wife of Septimius Severus (reigned 193–211), and a powerful figure in the regime of his successor, the emperor Caracalla.
Julia Maesa (7 May before 160 AD - AD) was a 3rd century Augusta of the Roman Empire and a powerful, prominent and influential figure in the empire's politics during the rule of the Severan dynasty.
Julia Soaemias Bassiana (180 – March 11, 222) was a Syrian noblewoman and the mother of Roman emperor Elagabalus who ruled over the Roman Empire from 218 to 222.
Julius Avitus also known by his full name Gaius Julius Avitus AlexianusHazel, Who's who in the Roman World, p. 34 (died 217) was a Syrian nobleman who had an impressive Roman military and political career.
Juno (Latin: IVNO, Iūnō) is an ancient Roman goddess, the protector and special counselor of the state.
Jupiter (from Iūpiter or Iuppiter, *djous “day, sky” + *patēr “father," thus "heavenly father"), also known as Jove gen.
A jurist (from medieval Latin) is someone who researches and studies jurisprudence (theory of law).
Kyle Onstott (January 12, 1887 in Du Quoin, Illinois – June 3, 1966) was an American novelist, known for his best-selling novel Mandingo (1957), which deals with slavery on an Alabama plantation with the fictional name of Falconhurst in the 1830s.
Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema, (born Lourens Alma Tadema; 8 January 1836 – 25 June 1912) was a Dutch painter of special British denizenship.
Legio secunda Parthica ("Parthian-conquering Second Legion") was a legion of the Imperial Roman army founded in AD 197 by the emperor Septimius Severus (r. 193-211), for his campaign against the Parthian Empire, hence the cognomen Parthica.
Legio tertia Gallica ("Gallic Third Legion") was a legion of the Imperial Roman army founded around 49 BC by Gaius Julius Caesar for his civil war against The Republicans led by Pompey.
Legio quarta Scythica ("Scythian Fourth Legion") was a legion of the Imperial Roman army founded c. 42 BC by the general Mark Antony, for his campaign against the Parthian Empire, hence its other cognomen, Parthica.
This is a list of consuls known to have held office, from the beginning of the Roman Republic to the latest use of the title in Imperial times, together with those magistrates of the Republic who were appointed in place of consuls, or who superseded consular authority for a limited period.
The Roman deities most familiar today are those the Romans identified with Greek counterparts (see interpretatio graeca), integrating Greek myths, iconography, and sometimes religious practices into Roman culture, including Latin literature, Roman art, and religious life as it was experienced throughout the Empire.
Louis Marie-Anne Couperus (10 June 1863 – 16 July 1923) was a Dutch novelist and poet.
Macrinus (Marcus Opellius Severus Macrinus Augustus; – June 218) was Roman Emperor from April 217 to 8 June 218.
Marcus Aurelius (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180 AD) was Roman emperor from, ruling jointly with his adoptive brother, Lucius Verus, until Verus' death in 169, and jointly with his son, Commodus, from 177.
Marcus Julius Gessius Marcianus also known as Gessius MarcianusBirley, Septimius Severus: The African Emperor, p. 222 (flourished second half of the 2nd century & first half of the 3rd century, died 218) was a Syrian Roman Aristocrat.
Brian Hugh Warner (born January 5, 1969), known by his stage name, Marilyn Manson, is an American singer, songwriter, musician, composer, actor, painter, author, and former music journalist.
Lucius Marius Maximus Perpetuus Aurelianus (more commonly known as Marius Maximus) (c. AD 160 – c. AD 230) was a Roman biographer, writing in Latin, who in the early decades of the 3rd century AD wrote a series of biographies of twelve Emperors, imitating and continuing Suetonius.
Maurice Béjart (1 January 1927 – 22 November 2007) was a French-born dancer, choreographer and opera director who ran the Béjart Ballet Lausanne in Switzerland.
A millennium (plural millennia or, rarely, millenniums) is a period equal to 1000 years, also called kiloyears.
Minerva (Etruscan: Menrva) was the Roman goddess of wisdom and strategic warfare, although it is noted that the Romans did not stress her relation to battle and warfare as the Greeks would come to, and the sponsor of arts, trade, and strategy.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
Nicomedia (Νικομήδεια, Nikomedeia; modern İzmit) was an ancient Greek city in what is now Turkey.
Numismatics is the study or collection of currency, including coins, tokens, paper money, and related objects.
The gens Oclatinia was a minor Roman family of imperial times.
The Palatine Hill (Collis Palatium or Mons Palatinus; Palatino) is the centremost of the Seven Hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city.
In Greek and Roman mythology, the palladium or palladion was a cult image of great antiquity on which the safety of Troy and later Rome was said to depend, the wooden statue (xoanon) of Pallas Athena that Odysseus and Diomedes stole from the citadel of Troy and which was later taken to the future site of Rome by Aeneas.
Pannonia was a province of the Roman Empire bounded north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia.
Parthia (𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺 Parθava; 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅 Parθaw; 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥 Pahlaw) is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran.
The patricians (from patricius) were originally a group of ruling class families in ancient Rome.
Plucking or tweezing can mean the process of removing human hair, animal hair or a bird's feathers by mechanically pulling the item from the owner's body.
The Praetorian Guard (Latin: cohortes praetorianae) was an elite unit of the Imperial Roman army whose members served as personal bodyguards to the Roman emperors.
The praetorian prefect (praefectus praetorio, ἔπαρχος/ὕπαρχος τῶν πραιτωρίων) was a high office in the Roman Empire.
The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (later known as the Pre-Raphaelites) was a group of English painters, poets, and critics, founded in 1848 by William Holman Hunt, John Everett Millais and Dante Gabriel Rossetti.
Premature burial, also known as live burial, burial alive, or vivisepulture, means to be buried while still alive.
Prostitution is the business or practice of engaging in sexual activity in exchange for payment.
Publius Valerius Eutychianus Comazon (died after 222) was a Roman general and ally of emperor Elagabalus.
A quadriga (Latin quadri-, four, and iugum, yoke) is a car or chariot drawn by four horses abreast (the Roman Empire's equivalent of Ancient Greek tethrippon).
Quintus Tineius Sacerdos (c. 160 – aft. 219) was a Roman senator.
Raphana, in present-day north of Jordan, was a city of the Decapolis.
Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order.
A consul held the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic (509 to 27 BC), and ancient Romans considered the consulship the highest level of the cursus honorum (an ascending sequence of public offices to which politicians aspired).
Roman currency for most of Roman history consisted of gold, silver, bronze, orichalcum and copper coinage.
The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC).
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Roman mythology is the body of traditional stories pertaining to ancient Rome's legendary origins and religious system, as represented in the literature and visual arts of the Romans.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
The Roman Senate (Senatus Romanus; Senato Romano) was a political institution in ancient Rome.
Syria was an early Roman province, annexed to the Roman Republic in 64 BC by Pompey in the Third Mithridatic War, following the defeat of Armenian King Tigranes the Great.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
In ancient Roman religion, the Salii were the "leaping priests" (from the verb saliō "leap, jump") of Mars supposed to have been introduced by King Numa Pompilius.
Sardanapalus (sometimes spelled Sardanapallus) was, according to the Greek writer Ctesias, the last king of Assyria, although in actuality Ashur-uballit II (612-605 BC) holds that distinction.
Sebastian Droste (1892-1927) was a poet, actor and dancer connected with the gay and underworld subcultures of Berlin in the 1920s.
Seleucus (c. 221) was a Roman usurper.
The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.
Septimius Severus (Lucius Septimius Severus Augustus; 11 April 145 – 4 February 211), also known as Severus, was Roman emperor from 193 to 211.
The Severan dynasty was a Roman imperial dynasty, which ruled the Roman Empire between 193 and 235.
Severus Alexander (Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander Augustus; c.207 - 19 March 235) was Roman Emperor from 222 to 235 and the last emperor of the Severan dynasty.
Sextus Varius Marcellus (c.165 – c.215) was a Roman aristocrat and politician from the province of Syria.
Sexual orientation is an enduring pattern of romantic or sexual attraction (or a combination of these) to persons of the opposite sex or gender, the same sex or gender, or to both sexes or more than one gender.
Simeon Solomon (9 October 1840 – 14 August 1905) was an English painter associated with the Pre-Raphaelites who was noted for his depictions of Jewish life and same-sex desire.
Six Litanies for Heliogabalus is an album by John Zorn.
Schuyler Lee (Sky) Gilbert Jr. (born December 20, 1952) is a Canadian writer, actor, academic and drag performer.
Smyrna (Ancient Greek: Σμύρνη, Smýrni or Σμύρνα, Smýrna) was a Greek city dating back to antiquity located at a central and strategic point on the Aegean coast of Anatolia.
Sol was the solar deity in ancient Roman religion.
Sol Invictus ("Unconquered Sun") is the official sun god of the later Roman Empire and a patron of soldiers.
A solar deity (also sun god or sun goddess) is a sky deity who represents the Sun, or an aspect of it, usually by its perceived power and strength.
A solstice is an event occurring when the Sun appears to reach its most northerly or southerly excursion relative to the celestial equator on the celestial sphere.
Stefan Anton George (12 July 18684 December 1933) was a German symbolist poet and a translator of Dante Alighieri, William Shakespeare, and Charles Baudelaire.
In any given society, a taboo is an implicit prohibition or strong discouragement against something (usually against an utterance or behavior) based on a cultural feeling that it is either too repulsive or dangerous, or, perhaps, too sacred for ordinary people.
The Golden Bough: A Study in Comparative Religion (retitled The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion in its second edition) is a wide-ranging, comparative study of mythology and religion, written by the Scottish anthropologist Sir James George Frazer.
The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire is a six-volume work by the English historian Edward Gibbon.
The Pale Emperor is the ninth studio album by American rock band Marilyn Manson.
The Roses of Heliogabalus is an 1888 painting by the Anglo-Dutch artist Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema depicting the young Roman emperor Elagabalus hosting a banquet.
Theodosius I (Flavius Theodosius Augustus; Θεοδόσιος Αʹ; 11 January 347 – 17 January 395), also known as Theodosius the Great, was Roman Emperor from AD 379 to AD 395, as the last emperor to rule over both the eastern and the western halves of the Roman Empire. On accepting his elevation, he campaigned against Goths and other barbarians who had invaded the empire. His resources were not equal to destroy them, and by the treaty which followed his modified victory at the end of the Gothic War, they were established as Foederati, autonomous allies of the Empire, south of the Danube, in Illyricum, within the empire's borders. He was obliged to fight two destructive civil wars, successively defeating the usurpers Magnus Maximus and Eugenius, not without material cost to the power of the empire. He also issued decrees that effectively made Nicene Christianity the official state church of the Roman Empire."Edict of Thessalonica": See Codex Theodosianus XVI.1.2 He neither prevented nor punished the destruction of prominent Hellenistic temples of classical antiquity, including the Temple of Apollo in Delphi and the Serapeum in Alexandria. He dissolved the order of the Vestal Virgins in Rome. In 393, he banned the pagan rituals of the Olympics in Ancient Greece. After his death, Theodosius' young sons Arcadius and Honorius inherited the east and west halves respectively, and the Roman Empire was never again re-united, though Eastern Roman emperors after Zeno would claim the united title after Julius Nepos' death in 480 AD.
Transgender people have a gender identity or gender expression that differs from their assigned sex.
Transsexual people experience a gender identity that is inconsistent with, or not culturally associated with, their assigned sex, and desire to permanently transition to the gender with which they identify, usually seeking medical assistance (including hormone replacement therapy and other sex reassignment therapies) to help them align their body with their identified sex or gender.
Ulpian (Gnaeus Domitius Annius Ulpianus; c. 170223) was a prominent Roman jurist of Tyrian ancestry.
Urania (Οὐρανία, Ourania; meaning "heavenly" or "of heaven") was, in Greek mythology, the muse of astronomy.
Verus (died 219) was a Roman usurper.
Vesta is the virgin goddess of the hearth, home, and family in Roman religion.
In ancient Rome, the Vestals or Vestal Virgins (Latin: Vestālēs, singular Vestālis) were priestesses of Vesta, goddess of the hearth.
Victoria, in ancient Roman religion, was the personified goddess of victory.
Woerden is a city and a municipality in the central Netherlands.
The Zealots were a political movement in 1st-century Second Temple Judaism, which sought to incite the people of Judea Province to rebel against the Roman Empire and expel it from the Holy Land by force of arms, most notably during the First Jewish–Roman War (66–70).
Zeugma (Ζεῦγμα) is an ancient city of Commagene; located in modern Gaziantep Province, Turkey.
Antoninus Heliogabalus, Aurelius Zoticus, Elagabal, Elagabulus, Elagobalus, Elah-Gabalus, Elegabalus, Emperor Heliogabalus, Heliogabal, Heliogabale, Heliogabalus the Horrible, Heliogabolus, Hierocles (Charioteer), Hierocles (charioteer), Héliogabale, Varius Avitus Bassianus Marcus Aurelius Antoninus.