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The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million. [1]

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's-Hertogenbosch (literally "The Duke's Forest" in English, and historically in French: Bois-le-Duc), colloquially known as Den Bosch (literally "The Forest" in English), is a city and municipality in the Southern Netherlands with a population of 152,968.

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A Most Wanted Man (film)

A Most Wanted Man is a 2014 espionage thriller film based on the novel A Most Wanted Man by John le Carré, directed by Anton Corbijn and written by Andrew Bovell.

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ABC islands (Lesser Antilles)

The ABC islands are the three western-most islands of the Leeward Antilles in the Caribbean Sea that lie north of Falcón State, Venezuela.

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ABN AMRO Bank N.V. is a Dutch bank with headquarters in Amsterdam.

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Abortion in the Netherlands

Abortion in the Netherlands was fully legalized on November 1, 1984, allowing abortions to be done on-demand until the twenty-first week.

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Accordions (from 19th-century German Akkordeon, from Akkord—"musical chord, concord of sounds") are a family of box-shaped musical instruments of the bellows-driven free-reed aerophone type, colloquially referred to as a squeezebox.

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Act of Abjuration

The Act of Abjuration (Plakkaat van Verlatinghe, literally 'placard of abjuration'), is de facto the declaration of independence by many of the provinces of the Netherlands from Spain in 1581, during the Dutch Revolt.

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Advocaat or advocatenborrel is a traditional Dutch alcoholic beverage made from eggs, sugar, and brandy.

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Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.

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Afrikaners are a Southern African ethnic group descended from predominantly Dutch settlers first arriving in the 17th and 18th centuries.

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Nick van de Wall (born 9 September 1987), better known by his stage name Afrojack, is a Dutch DJ, record producer and remixer from Spijkenisse.

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The Afsluitdijk (Ofslútdyk; Dam) is a major causeway in the Netherlands, constructed between 1927 and 1932 and running from Den Oever on Wieringen in North Holland province, to the village of Zurich in Friesland province, over a length of and a width of, at an initial height of above sea level.

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Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.

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Ahrensburg culture

The Ahrensburg culture or Ahrensburgian (c.12,900 to 11,700 BP) was a late Upper Paleolithic nomadic hunter culture (or technocomplex) in north-central Europe during the Younger Dryas, the last spell of cold at the end of the Weichsel glaciation resulting in deforestation and the formation of a tundra with bushy arctic white birch and rowan.

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Akzo Nobel N.V., trading as AkzoNobel, is a Dutch multinational company which creates paints and performance coatings and produces specialty chemicals for both industry and consumers worldwide.

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Ala (Roman allied military unit)

An Ala (Latin for "wing", plural form: alae) was the term used during the mid- Roman Republic (338-88 BC) to denote a military formation composed of conscripts from the socii, Rome's Italian military allies.

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Aldegisel, Aldegisl, Aldgillis, Aldgisl, Aldgils or Eadgils (fl. c. 678) was the ruler of Frisia (as king or duke) in the late seventh century contemporarily with Dagobert II and a very obscure figure.

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AllMusic (previously known as All Music Guide or AMG) is an online music guide.

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Almere is a planned city and municipality in the province of Flevoland, Netherlands, bordering Lelystad and Zeewolde.

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The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.

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American Society of Civil Engineers

The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) is a tax-exempt professional body founded in 1852 to represent members of the civil engineering profession worldwide.

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Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.

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Amsterdam Airport Schiphol

Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, known informally as Schiphol (Luchthaven Schiphol), is the main international airport of the Netherlands.

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Amsterdam Dance Event

The Amsterdam Dance Event (ADE) is a five-day electronic music conference and festival held annually in mid-October.

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Amsterdam metropolitan area

The Amsterdam metropolitan area (Metropoolregio Amsterdam) is the city region around the city of Amsterdam, the capital of the Netherlands.

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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André Hazes

André Gerardus "André" Hazes (30 June 1951 – 23 September 2004) was a Dutch singer in a genre called levenslied ("song about life"), popular music about everyday life sung in the Dutch language.

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André Rieu

André Léon Marie Nicolas Rieu (born 1 October 1949) is a Dutch violinist and conductor best known for creating the waltz-playing Johann Strauss Orchestra.

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The Angles (Angli) were one of the main Germanic peoples who settled in Great Britain in the post-Roman period.

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Anglo-Dutch Wars

The Anglo-Dutch wars (Engels–Nederlandse Oorlogen or Engelse Zeeoorlogen) were a series of conflicts fought, on one side, by the Dutch States (the Dutch Republic, later the Batavian Republic) and, on the other side, first by England and later by the Kingdom of Great Britain/the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

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Anglo-Saxon mission

Anglo-Saxon missionaries were instrumental in the spread of Christianity in the Frankish Empire during the 8th century, continuing the work of Hiberno-Scottish missionaries which had been spreading Celtic Christianity across the Frankish Empire as well as in Scotland and Anglo-Saxon England itself during the 6th century (see Anglo-Saxon Christianity).

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The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.

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Anguilla is a British overseas territory in the Caribbean.

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Animal husbandry

Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat, fibre, milk, eggs, or other products.

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Anne Frank

Annelies Marie Frank (12 June 1929 – February or March 1945)Research by The Anne Frank House in 2015 revealed that Frank may have died in February 1945 rather than in March, as Dutch authorities had long assumed.

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Anno Domini

The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.

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Anouk (singer)

Anouk Teeuwe (born 8 April 1975), professionally known by the mononym Anouk, is a Dutch singer-songwriter and record producer.

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Anton Corbijn

Anton Johannes Gerrit Corbijn van Willenswaard (born 20 May 1955) is a Dutch photographer, music video director and film director.

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Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

Antonie Philips van Leeuwenhoek FRS (24 October 1632 – 26 August 1723) was a Dutch businessman and scientist in the Golden Age of Dutch science and technology.

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Antwerp (Antwerpen, Anvers) is a city in Belgium, and is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders.

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Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Arcadis NV is a global design, engineering and management consulting company based in the Zuidas, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

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Archdiocese of Utrecht (695–1580)

The historic Archdiocese of Utrecht (695–1580) was a Roman Catholic diocese and (from 1559) archdiocese in the Low Countries before and during the Protestant Reformation.

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An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small number of scattered islands.

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Area and population of European countries

This is a list of countries and territories in Europe by population density.

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Arkansas Democrat-Gazette

The Arkansas Democrat-Gazette is the newspaper of record in the U.S. state of Arkansas, printed in Little Rock with a northwest edition published in Lowell.

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Armin van Buuren

Armin van Buuren OON (born 25 December 1976) is a Dutch DJ, record producer and remixer from South Holland.

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Arnhem (or; Arnheim, Frisian: Arnhim, South Guelderish: Èrnem) is a city and municipality situated in the eastern part of the Netherlands.

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Aruba (Papiamento) is an island and a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in the southern Caribbean Sea, located about west of the main part of the Lesser Antilles and north of the coast of Venezuela.

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Ascension of Jesus

The ascension of Jesus (anglicized from the Vulgate Latin Acts 1:9-11 section title: Ascensio Iesu) is the departure of Christ from Earth into the presence of God.

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ASML Holding

ASML is a Dutch company and currently the largest supplier in the world of photolithography systems for the semiconductor industry.

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Asphyx is a Dutch death metal band that was formed in Overijssel, Netherlands in 1987.

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In English folklore the asrai is a type of aquatic fairy that lives in seas and lakes and is similar to the mermaid and nixie.

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Assen is a municipality and a city in the northeastern Netherlands, and is the capital of the province of Drenthe.

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Asset price inflation

Asset price inflation is a economic phenomenon denoting a rise in price of assets, as opposed to ordinary goods and services.

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Associated Press

The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.

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Association football

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.

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Atheneum (school)

Atheneum, named after the ancient school founded by Roman Emperor Hadrian, is the name used for one of the Dutch educational courses aimed at preparation for Scientific education on a university.

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Atlanta is the capital city and most populous municipality of the state of Georgia in the United States.

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Atlantic slave trade

The Atlantic slave trade or transatlantic slave trade involved the transportation by slave traders of enslaved African people, mainly to the Americas.

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Atlantic Time Zone

The Atlantic Time Zone is a geographical region that keeps standard time—called Atlantic Standard Time (AST)—by subtracting four hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), resulting in UTC-4; during part of the year some parts of it observe daylight saving time by instead subtracting only three hours (UTC-3).

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Atlanticism, also known as Transatlanticism, is the belief in or support for a close relationship between the United States, Canada and Europe regarding political, economic and defence issues, with the belief that it would maintain security and prosperity of the participating countries and protect perceived values that unite them.

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Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Autumn, also known as fall in American and Canadian English, is one of the four temperate seasons.

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The Algemene Wet Bijzondere Ziektekosten ("general law on exceptional medical expenses"), often known by the acronym AWBZ, is a Dutch health care law that first came into effect in 1968.

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Ayaan Hirsi Ali

Ayaan Hirsi Ali (born Ayaan Hirsi Magan, 13 November 1969) is a Somali-born Dutch-American activist, feminist, author, scholar and former politician.

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Ayreon is a musical project by Dutch songwriter, singer, multi-instrumentalist musician and record producer Arjen Anthony Lucassen.

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Baltic region

The terms Baltic region, Baltic Rim countries (or simply Baltic Rim), and the Baltic Sea countries refer to slightly different combinations of countries in the general area surrounding the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe.

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Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.

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Barrel organ

A barrel organ (or roller organ) is a mechanical musical instrument consisting of bellows and one or more ranks of pipes housed in a case, usually of wood, and often highly decorated.

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Baruch Spinoza

Baruch Spinoza (born Benedito de Espinosa,; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677, later Benedict de Spinoza) was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi/Portuguese origin.

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Basel (also Basle; Basel; Bâle; Basilea) is a city in northwestern Switzerland on the river Rhine.

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Basic Instinct

Basic Instinct is a 1992 neo-noir erotic thriller film directed by Paul Verhoeven and written by Joe Eszterhas, and starring Michael Douglas and Sharon Stone.

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Batavi (Germanic tribe)

The Batavi were an ancient Germanic tribe that lived around the modern Dutch Rhine delta in the area that the Romans called Batavia, from the second half of the first century BC to the third century AD.

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Batavia (region)

Batavia is an historical and geographical region in the Netherlands, forming large fertile islands in the river delta formed by the waters of the Rhine (Dutch: Rijn) and Meuse (Dutch: Maas) river.

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Batavian Republic

The Batavian Republic (Bataafse Republiek; République Batave) was the successor of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands.

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Battle of Leipzig

The Battle of Leipzig or Battle of the Nations (Битва народов, Bitva narodov; Völkerschlacht bei Leipzig; Bataille des Nations, Slaget vid Leipzig) was fought from 16 to 19 October 1813, at Leipzig, Saxony.

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Battle of the Boarn

The Battle of the Boarn (Slach oan de Boarn Slag aan de Boorne) was an eighth century battle between the Franks and the Frisians near the mouth of the river Boarn in what is now the Dutch province of Friesland.

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Battle of the Netherlands

The Battle of the Netherlands (Slag om Nederland) was a military campaign part of Case Yellow (Fall Gelb), the German invasion of the Low Countries (Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands) and France during World War II.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Beaker culture

The Bell-Beaker culture (sometimes shortened to Beaker culture), is the term for a widely scattered archaeological culture of prehistoric western and Central Europe, starting in the late Neolithic or Chalcolithic and running into the early Bronze Age (in British terminology).

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Bear raid

A bear raid is a type of stock market strategy, where a trader (or group of traders) attempts to force down the price of a stock to cover a short position.

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Beemster cheese

Beemster cheese is a hard, Dutch cow's milk cheese.

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Beer is one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea.

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Beerenburg (West Frisian: Bearenburch) is a Dutch drink, made by adding herbs to jenever, with about 30% alcohol.

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Belgian Revolution

The Belgian Revolution (Belgische Revolution) was the conflict which led to the secession of the southern provinces (mainly the former Southern Netherlands) from the United Kingdom of the Netherlands and the establishment of an independent Kingdom of Belgium.

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Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.

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The Benelux Union (Benelux Unie; Union Benelux) is a politico-economic union of three neighbouring states in western Europe: Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg.

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Benelux Parliament

The Benelux Interparliamentary Consultative Council (known informally as the Benelux Parliament) is one of the institutions of the Benelux economic union.

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Bert Haanstra

Albert 'Bert' Haanstra (31 May 1916 – 23 October 1997) was a Dutch film director of films and documentaries.

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The Betuweroute is a double track freight railway from Rotterdam to Germany.

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Bible Belt (Netherlands)

The Bible Belt (De Bijbelgordel in Dutch) is a strip of land in the Netherlands with the highest concentration of conservative orthodox Calvinist Protestants in the country.

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A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.

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Big Brother (franchise)

Big Brother is a Dutch reality television game show franchise created by John de Mol Jr., broadcast in the Netherlands and subsequently syndicated internationally.

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Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.

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A bitters is traditionally an alcoholic preparation flavored with botanical matter so that the end result is characterized by a bitter, sour, or bittersweet flavor.

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Black Book (film)

Black Book (Zwartboek) is a 2006 thriller film co-written and directed by Paul Verhoeven and starring Carice van Houten, Sebastian Koch, Thom Hoffman, and Halina Reijn.

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A blacksmith is a metalsmith who creates objects from wrought iron or steel by forging the metal, using tools to hammer, bend, and cut (cf. whitesmith).

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Blade (film)

Blade is a 1998 American superhero horror film directed by Stephen Norrington and written by David S. Goyer based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name.

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Blade Runner

Blade Runner is a 1982 American-Hong Kong neo-noir science fiction film directed by Ridley Scott, written by Hampton Fancher and David Peoples, and starring Harrison Ford, Rutger Hauer, Sean Young, and Edward James Olmos.

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BLØF is a Dutch rock band from Vlissingen, Zeeland which has become popular internationally for its music, its frequent collaborations with bands from other parts of the world, willingness to incorporate other genres into their "sound", and focus on bettering the world around them.

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Blue mussel

The blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), also known as the common mussel, is a medium-sized edible marine bivalve mollusc in the family Mytilidae, the mussels.

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Bog iron

Bog iron is a form of impure iron deposit that develops in bogs or swamps by the chemical or biochemical oxidation of iron carried in solution.

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Bonaire (pronounced or; Bonaire,; Papiamento: Boneiru) is an island in the Leeward Antilles in the Caribbean Sea.

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Boreal Kingdom

The Boreal Kingdom or Holarctic Kingdom (Holarctis) is a floristic kingdom identified by botanist Ronald Good (and later by Armen Takhtajan), which includes the temperate to Arctic portions of North America and Eurasia.

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Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.

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Bosnian War

The Bosnian War was an international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1992 and 1995.

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Bossche bol

A Bossche bol (Dutch for 'Bosch ball'), sometimes called chocoladebol ('chocolate ball') in its city of origin, is a pastry from the Dutch city of 's-Hertogenbosch (also called Den Bosch).

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Bow and arrow

The bow and arrow is a ranged weapon system consisting of an elastic launching device (bow) and long-shafted projectiles (arrows).

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Brabantian dialect

Brabantian or Brabantish, also Brabantic (Brabants, Standard Dutch pronunciation:, Brabantian), is a dialect group of the Dutch language.

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Brabantse Stedenrij

Brabantse Stedenrij (Brabantine City Row) is a polycentric city region in the province of North Brabant, Netherlands.

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BrabantStad is a partnership between the municipalities of Breda, Eindhoven, Helmond, 's-Hertogenbosch and Tilburg and the province of North Brabant.

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Breda is a city and municipality in the southern part of the Netherlands, located in the province of North Brabant.

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Bronbeek is a former Royal palace in Arnhem, Netherlands.

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Bruges (Brugge; Bruges; Brügge) is the capital and largest city of the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium, in the northwest of the country.

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Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.

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Buddhism in the Netherlands

Buddhism is a small minority religion in the Netherlands, but it has shown rapid growth in recent years.

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Bulk material handling

Bulk material handling is an engineering field that is centered on the design of equipment used for the handling of dry materials such as ores, coal, cereals, wood chips, sand, gravel and stone in loose bulk form.

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Burgundy (Bourgogne) is a historical territory and a former administrative region of France.

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Business cycle

The business cycle, also known as the economic cycle or trade cycle, is the downward and upward movement of gross domestic product (GDP) around its long-term growth trend.

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Business magnate

A business magnate (formally industrialist) refers to an entrepreneur of great influence, importance, or standing in a particular enterprise or field of business.

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Butterfat or milkfat is the fatty portion of milk.

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Buttermilk refers to a number of dairy drinks.

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Cabinet of the Netherlands

The cabinet of the Netherlands (Nederlandse kabinet) is the main executive body of the Netherlands.

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Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.

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Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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The Cananefates, or Canninefates, Caninefates, or Canenefatae, meaning "leek masters", were a Germanic tribe, who lived in the Rhine delta, in western Batavia (later Betuwe), in the Roman province of Germania Inferior (now in the Dutch province of Zuid-Holland), before and during the Roman conquest.

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Cannabis (drug)

Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names, is a psychoactive drug from the ''Cannabis'' plant intended for medical or recreational use.

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Canto Ostinato

Canto Ostinato ("Obstinate Song" (as ostinato)) is a musical composition written by the Dutch composer Simeon ten Holt.

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Cape Colony

The Cape of Good Hope, also known as the Cape Colony (Kaapkolonie), was a British colony in present-day South Africa, named after the Cape of Good Hope.

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Capital of the Netherlands

According to the Dutch constitution, Amsterdam is the capital of the Netherlands, although the parliament and the Dutch government have been situated in The Hague since 1588, along with the Supreme Court and the Council of State.

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Capital punishment in the Netherlands

Capital punishment in the Netherlands (Dutch: doodstraf in Nederland) was abolished in 1870 in criminal law after the States General recognised it was "cruel and rude".

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Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.

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Capsicum (also known as peppers) is a genus of flowering plants in the nightshade family Solanaceae.

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere

Carbon dioxide is an important trace gas in Earth's atmosphere.

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Caribbean Netherlands

The Caribbean Netherlands (Caribisch Nederland) are the three special municipalities of the Netherlands that are located in the Caribbean Sea.

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Carice van Houten

Carice Anouk van Houten (born 5 September 1976) is a Dutch actress and singer.

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Caro Emerald

Caroline Esmeralda van der Leeuw (born 26 April 1981) is a Dutch pop and jazz singer.

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Carola Schouten

Cornelia Johanna "Carola" Schouten (born 6 October 1977) is a Dutch politician for the Christian Union.

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Carolingian Empire

The Carolingian Empire (800–888) was a large empire in western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages.

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A castle (from castellum) is a type of fortified structure built during the Middle Ages by predominantly the nobility or royalty and by military orders.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Catholic Church in the Netherlands

The Catholic Church in the Netherlands (Rooms-katholiek kerkgenootschap in Nederland), is part of the worldwide Catholic Church under the spiritual leadership of the Pope in Rome. Its primate is the Metropolitan Archbishop of Utrecht, currently Willem Jacobus Eijk since 2008. Currently, Roman Catholicism is the single largest religion of the Netherlands, forming some 11.7% of the Dutch people in 2015, based on indepth interviewing, down from 40% in the 1960s. Although the number of Catholics in the Netherlands has decreased significantly in recent decades, the Catholic Church remains today the largest religious group in the Netherlands. Once known as a Protestant country, Catholicism surpassed Protestantism after the first world war, and in 2012 the Netherlands was only 10% Dutch Protestant (down from 60% in the early 20th century; defections primarily due to rising unaffiliation that started to occur two decennia earlier than in Dutch Roman Catholicism). There are an estimated 3.882 million Catholics registered (2015) by the Catholic Church in the Netherlands, 22.9% of the population), retrieved 9 Jan 2015 down from more than 40% in 1970's. The Catholic Church in the Netherlands has suffered an official membership loss of 650,000 members between 2003 (4,532,000 pers. / 27.9% overall population) and 2015 (3,882,000 pers. / 22.9% overall population), The number of people registered as Catholic in the Netherlands continues to decrease, roughly by half a percent annually. North Brabant and Limburg have been historically the most Roman Catholic parts of the Netherlands, and Roman Catholicism and some of its traditions now form a cultural identity rather than a religious identity for people there. The vast majority of the Roman Catholic population is now largely irreligious in practice (in line with the rest of the Dutch population). Research among self-identified Roman Catholics in the Netherlands in 2007 showed that only 27% could be regarded as theist; 55% as ietsist, deist, or agnostic; and 17% as atheist.God in Nederland' (1996-2006), by Ronald Meester, G. Dekker, In 2015 only 13% of self-identified Dutch Catholics believe in the existence of heaven, 17% in a personal God and fewer than half believe that Jesus was the Son of God or sent by God. Sunday church attendance by Roman Catholics has decreased in recent decades to less than 200,000 or 1.2% of the Dutch population in 2006. More recent numbers for Sunday church attendance have not been published (with the exception of the Diocese of Roermond), although press releases have mentioned a further decline since 2006. In December 2011 a report was published by Wim Deetman, a former Dutch minister of education, detailing widespread child abuse within the Catholic Church in the Netherlands. 1,800 instances of abuse "by clergy or volunteers within Dutch Catholic dioceses" were reported to have occurred since 1945. A planned visit of Pope Francis to the Netherlands was blocked by cardinal Wim Eijk in 2014, allegedly because of the feared lack of interest for the Pope among the Dutch public.

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Cees Nooteboom

Cees Nooteboom (born 31 July 1933) is a Dutch novelist, poet, and journalist.

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The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.

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Central Europe

Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.

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Central European Summer Time

Central European Summer Time (CEST), sometime referred also as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time (UTC+1) during the other part of the year.

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Central European Time

Central European Time (CET), used in most parts of Europe and a few North African countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).

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Central Intelligence Agency

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).

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Chalcolithic Europe

Chalcolithic Europe, the Chalcolithic (also Aeneolithic, Copper Age) period of Prehistoric Europe, lasted roughly from 3500 to 1700 BC.

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A chanson ("song", from Latin cantio, gen. cantionis) is in general any lyric-driven French song, usually polyphonic and secular.

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Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor

Charles V (Carlos; Karl; Carlo; Karel; Carolus; 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and the Spanish Empire (as Charles I of Spain) from 1516, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy from 1506.

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Charter for the Kingdom of the Netherlands

The Charter for the Kingdom of the Netherlands (in Dutch: Statuut voor het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden; in Papiamentu: Statuut pa e Reino di Hulanda) describes the political relationship between the four countries that constitute the Kingdom of the Netherlands: Aruba, Curaçao, and Sint Maarten in the Caribbean and the Netherlands (for the most part) in Europe.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Chocolate is a typically sweet, usually brown food preparation of Theobroma cacao seeds, roasted and ground.

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Christiaan Huygens

Christiaan Huygens (Hugenius; 14 April 1629 – 8 July 1695) was a Dutch physicist, mathematician, astronomer and inventor, who is widely regarded as one of the greatest scientists of all time and a major figure in the scientific revolution.

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Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje

Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje (8 February 1857 – 26 June 1936) was a Dutch scholar of Oriental cultures and languages and Advisor on Native Affairs to the colonial government of the Netherlands East Indies (now Indonesia).

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Christian democracy

Christian democracy is a political ideology that emerged in nineteenth-century Europe under the influence of Catholic social teaching, as well as Neo-Calvinism.

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Christian Democratic Appeal

The Christian Democratic Appeal (Christen-Democratisch Appèl,; CDA) is a Christian-democratic political party in the Netherlands.

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Christian Union (Netherlands)

The Christian Union (ChristenUnie, CU) is a Christian democratic political party in the Netherlands.

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ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Cinema of the United States

The cinema of the United States, often metonymously referred to as Hollywood, has had a profound effect on the film industry in general since the early 20th century.

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Circuit Zandvoort

Circuit Zandvoort (known as Circuit Park Zandvoort until 2017) is a motorsport race track located in the dunes north of Zandvoort, Netherlands, near the North Sea coast line.

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Circumboreal Region

The Circumboreal Region in phytogeography is a floristic region within the Holarctic Kingdom in Eurasia and North America, as delineated by such geobotanists as Josias Braun-Blanquet and Armen Takhtajan.

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City rights in the Low Countries

City rights are a feature of the medieval history of the Low Countries.

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Classical music

Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music.

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Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.

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Climate change

Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).

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Clogs are a type of footwear made in part or completely from wood.

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Clovis I

Clovis (Chlodovechus; reconstructed Frankish: *Hlōdowig; 466 – 27 November 511) was the first king of the Franks to unite all of the Frankish tribes under one ruler, changing the form of leadership from a group of royal chieftains to rule by a single king and ensuring that the kingship was passed down to his heirs.

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Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.

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Coalition government

A coalition government is a cabinet of a parliamentary government in which many or multiple political parties cooperate, reducing the dominance of any one party within that "coalition".

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Coat of arms of the Netherlands

The coat of arms of the Kingdom of the Netherlands was originally adopted in 1815 and later modified in 1907.

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Cold War

The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).

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Collaboration with the Axis Powers

Within nations occupied by the Axis Powers in World War II, some citizens and organizations, prompted by nationalism, ethnic hatred, anti-communism, antisemitism, opportunism, self-defense, or often a combination, knowingly collaborated with the Axis Powers.

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Collectivity of Saint Martin

Saint Martin (Saint-Martin), officially the Collectivity of Saint Martin (Collectivité de Saint-Martin) is an overseas collectivity of France in the West Indies in the Caribbean.

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Cologne (Köln,, Kölle) is the largest city in the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the fourth most populated city in Germany (after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich).

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Colonization (or colonisation) is a process by which a central system of power dominates the surrounding land and its components.

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Columbia Encyclopedia

The Columbia Encyclopedia is a one-volume encyclopedia produced by Columbia University Press and in the last edition, sold by the Gale Group.

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Columbia University Press

Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.

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A company, abbreviated as co., is a legal entity made up of an association of people for carrying on a commercial or industrial enterprise.

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The Royal Concertgebouw (Koninklijk Concertgebouw) is a concert hall in Amsterdam, Netherlands.

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A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign states, united for purposes of common action often in relation to other states.

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Congress of Vienna

The Congress of Vienna (Wiener Kongress) also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814.

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Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.

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Consociationalism is often viewed as synonymous with power-sharing, although it is technically only one form of power-sharing.

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Constituent state

A constituent state is a territorial and constitutional entity forming part of a sovereign state.

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Constitution of the Netherlands

The Constitution for the Kingdom of the Netherlands (Grondwet voor het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden) is one of two fundamental documents governing the Kingdom of the Netherlands as well as the fundamental law of the European territory of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

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Constitutional monarchy

A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.

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Container port

A container port or container terminal is a facility where cargo containers are transshipped between different transport vehicles, for onward transportation.

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A conurbation is a region comprising a number of cities, large towns, and other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban or industrially developed area.

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Coordinated Universal Time

No description.

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Corded Ware culture

The Corded Ware culture (Schnurkeramik; céramique cordée; touwbekercultuur) comprises a broad archaeological horizon of Europe between 2900 BCE – circa 2350 BCE, thus from the late Neolithic, through the Copper Age, and ending in the early Bronze Age.

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Council of Ministers (Netherlands)

The Council of Ministers (Ministerraad) is the executive council of Dutch government, formed by all the ministers including the Deputy Prime Ministers.

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Council of State (Netherlands)

The Council of State (Raad van State) is a constitutionally established advisory body in the Netherlands to the government and States General that officially consists of members of the royal family and Crown-appointed members generally having political, commercial, diplomatic or military experience.

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Count of Holland

The Counts of Holland ruled over the County of Holland in the Low Countries between the 10th and the 16th century.

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A country is a region that is identified as a distinct national entity in political geography.

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County of Drenthe

The County of Drenthe (Dutch: Landschap Drenthe) was the name given to the present Dutch province of Drenthe between 1528 and 1795.

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County of Flanders

The County of Flanders (Graafschap Vlaanderen, Comté de Flandre) was a historic territory in the Low Countries.

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County of Hainaut

The County of Hainaut (Comté de Hainaut, Graafschap Henegouwen; Grafschaft Hennegau), sometimes given the archaic spellings Hainault and Heynowes, was a historical lordship within the medieval Holy Roman Empire, with its capital at Mons (Bergen).

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County of Holland

The County of Holland was a State of the Holy Roman Empire and from 1432 part of the Burgundian Netherlands, from 1482 part of the Habsburg Netherlands and from 1648 onward, Holland was the leading province of the Dutch Republic, of which it remained a part until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.

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County of Zeeland

The County of Zeeland (Graafschap Zeeland) was a county of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries.

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Criminal justice system of the Netherlands

The criminal justice system of the Netherlands is the system of practices and institutions of the Netherlands directed at upholding social control, deterring and mitigating crime, and sanctioning those who violate laws with criminal penalties and rehabilitation efforts.

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Cultivation System

The Cultivation System (cultuurstelsel) was a Dutch government policy in the mid-19th century for its Dutch East Indies colony (now Indonesia).

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Cultural Christian

Cultural Christians are referred to those deists, pantheists, agnostics, atheists, and antitheists who are not Christians but adhere to Christian values and appreciate Christian culture.

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Cultural heritage

Cultural heritage is the legacy of physical artifacts and intangible attributes of a group or society that are inherited from past generations, maintained in the present and preserved for the benefit of future generations.

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Curaçao (Curaçao,; Kòrsou) is a Lesser Antilles island in the southern Caribbean Sea and the Dutch Caribbean region, about north of the Venezuelan coast.

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Curaçao and Dependencies

The Colony of Curaçao and Dependencies (Kolonie Curaçao en onderhorigheden; Kolonia di Kòrsou i dependensianan) was a Dutch colony from 1815 until 1828 and from 1845 until 1936.

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Cycling in the Netherlands

Cycling is a common mode of transport in the Netherlands, with 36% of the people listing the bicycle as their most frequent mode of transport on a typical day as opposed to the car by 45% and public transport by 11%.

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Cycling infrastructure

Cycling infrastructure refers to all infrastructure which may be used by cyclists.

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Dam Square

Dam Square or Dam is a town square in Amsterdam, the capital of the Netherlands.

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Dash Berlin

Dash Berlin is a Dutch electronic music group from The Hague started in 2007 by Jeffrey Sutorius, Eelke Kalberg and Sebastiaan Molijn.

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De Biesbosch

De Biesbosch ('forest of sedges' or 'rushwoods') National Park, is one of the largest national parks of the Netherlands and one of the last extensive areas of freshwater tidal wetlands in Northwestern Europe.

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De Bilt

De Bilt is a municipality and a town in the Netherlands, in the province of Utrecht.

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De Lift

De Lift (also known as The Lift) is a 1983 Dutch science-fiction horror film directed and written by Dick Maas.

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De Volkskrant

de Volkskrant (The People's Paper) is a Dutch daily morning newspaper.

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Deal or No Deal

Deal or No Deal is the name of several closely related television game shows, the first of which (launching the format) was the Dutch Miljoenenjacht (Hunt for Millions) produced by Dutch producer Endemol.

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Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.

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Decolonization (American English) or decolonisation (British English) is the undoing of colonialism: where a nation establishes and maintains its domination over one or more other territories.

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In linguistics, deixis refers to words and phrases, such as “me” or “here”, that cannot be fully understood without additional contextual information -- in this case, the identity of the speaker (“me”) and the speaker's location (“here”).

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, in old Western documents Latinised as Deshima, Decima, Desjima, Dezima, Disma, or Disima, was a Dutch trading post notable for being the single place of direct trade and exchange between Japan and the outside world during the Edo period. It was a small fan-shaped artificial island formed by digging a canal through a small peninsula in the bay of Nagasaki in 1634 by local merchants. Dejima was built to constrain foreign traders. Originally built to house Portuguese traders, it was used by the Dutch as a trading post from 1641 until 1853. Covering an area of or, it was later integrated into the city through the process of land reclamation. In 1922, the "Dejima Dutch Trading Post" was designated a Japanese national historic site.

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Delain is a Dutch symphonic metal band formed in 2002 by former Within Temptation keyboardist Martijn Westerholt, and Charlotte Wessels.

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Delft is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands.

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Delftware or Delft pottery, also known as Delft Blue (Delfts blauw), is blue and white pottery made in and around Delft in the Netherlands and the tin-glazed pottery made in the Netherlands from the 16th century.

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Delta Works

The Delta Works (Deltawerken) is a series of construction projects in the southwest of the Netherlands to protect a large area of land around the Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt delta from the sea.

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Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.

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Democracy Index

The Democracy Index is an index compiled by the UK-based company the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) that intends to measure the state of democracy in 167 countries, of which 166 are sovereign states and 165 are UN member states.

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Democrats 66

Democrats 66 (Democraten 66, D66,; officially Politieke Partij Democraten 66) is a social-liberal political party in the Netherlands.

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Demography of the Netherlands

This article is about the demographic features of the population of the Netherlands, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the population, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

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Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.

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Deputy Prime Minister of the Netherlands

The Vice Minister-President of the Netherlands (Viceminister-president van Nederland), commonly referred to in English as the Deputy Prime Minister, is the official deputy of the head of government of the Netherlands.

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Derek de Lint

Dick Hein "Derek" de Lint (born 17 July 1950) is a Dutch film and television actor best known for playing the role of Derek Rayne in Poltergeist: The Legacy.

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Dick Maas

Dick Herman Willem Maas (born 15 April 1951) is a Dutch film director, screenwriter, film producer and film composer.

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Direct election

Direct election is a system of choosing political officeholders in which the voters directly cast ballots for the person, persons, or political party that they desire to see elected.

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Disarmament is the act of reducing, limiting, or abolishing weapons.

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Dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles

The Netherlands Antilles was an autonomous Caribbean country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

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DJ Mag

DJ Magazine (also known as DJ Mag) is a British monthly magazine dedicated to electronic dance music and DJs.

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A doctorate (from Latin docere, "to teach") or doctor's degree (from Latin doctor, "teacher") or doctoral degree (from the ancient formalism licentia docendi) is an academic degree awarded by universities that is, in most countries, a research degree that qualifies the holder to teach at the university level in the degree's field, or to work in a specific profession.

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Doe Maar

Doe Maar is a Dutch ska band with punk and reggae influences.

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Dokkum is a Dutch fortified town in the municipality of Dongeradeel in the province of Friesland.

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A dolmen is a type of single-chamber megalithic tomb, usually consisting of two or more vertical megaliths supporting a large flat horizontal capstone or "table".

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Don Diablo

Don Pepijn Schipper (born 27 February 1980), better known by his stage name Don Diablo, is a Dutch DJ, record producer, musician, singer and songwriter of electronic dance music from Coevorden, in the Netherlands.

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Dorestad was an early medieval emporium, located in the southeast of the province of Utrecht in the Netherlands, close to the modern-day town of Wijk bij Duurstede.

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Drèents dialects

Drèents (also Dreins, Dreints, Drents, Drints; Drents) is a collective term for the dialects spoken in Drenthe, a province of the Netherlands.

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Drenthe is a province of the Netherlands located in the northeastern part of the country.

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Drug policy of the Netherlands

While recreational use, possession and trade of non-medicinal drugs described by the Opium Law are all technically illegal under Dutch law, official policy since the late 20th century has been to openly tolerate all recreational use while tolerating the other two under certain circumstances.

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DSM (company)

Koninklijke DSM N.V. (Royal DSM, commonly known as DSM), is a Dutch multinational active in the fields of health, nutrition and materials.

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Duchy of Brabant

The Duchy of Brabant was a State of the Holy Roman Empire established in 1183.

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Duchy of Burgundy

The Duchy of Burgundy (Ducatus Burgundiae; Duché de Bourgogne) emerged in the 9th century as one of the successors of the ancient Kingdom of the Burgundians, which after its conquest in 532 had formed a constituent part of the Frankish Empire.

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Duchy of Limburg

The Duchy of Limburg or Limbourg was a state of the Holy Roman Empire.

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Duchy of Lorraine

The Duchy of Lorraine (Lorraine; Lothringen), originally Upper Lorraine, was a duchy now included in the larger present-day region of Lorraine in northeastern France.

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Duke of Burgundy

Duke of Burgundy (duc de Bourgogne) was a title borne by the rulers of the Duchy of Burgundy, a small portion of traditional lands of Burgundians west of river Saône which in 843 was allotted to Charles the Bald's kingdom of West Franks.

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In physical geography, a dune is a hill of loose sand built by aeolian processes (wind) or the flow of water.

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Dunkirk (2017 film)

Dunkirk is a 2017 war film written, directed, and produced by Christopher Nolan that depicts the Dunkirk evacuation of World War II.

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Dutch Americans

Dutch Americans are Americans of Dutch descent whose ancestors came from the Netherlands in the recent or distant past.

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Dutch art

Dutch art describes the history of visual arts in the Netherlands, after the United Provinces separated from Flanders.

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Dutch Caribbean

The Dutch Caribbean (historically known as the Dutch West Indies) is the territories, colonies, and countries, both former and current, of the Dutch Empire and the Kingdom of the Netherlands that are located in the Lesser Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.

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Dutch colonisation of the Guianas

Dutch colonisation of the Guianas the coastal region between the Orinoco and Amazon rivers in South America began in the early 16th century.

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Dutch diaspora

The Dutch diaspora consists of Dutch people and their descendants living outside the Netherlands.

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Dutch disease

In economics, the Dutch disease is the apparent causal relationship between the increase in the economic development of a specific sector (for example natural resources) and a decline in other sectors (like the manufacturing sector or agriculture).

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Dutch East India Company

The United East India Company, sometimes known as the United East Indies Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; or Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie in modern spelling; abbreviated to VOC), better known to the English-speaking world as the Dutch East India Company or sometimes as the Dutch East Indies Company, was a multinational corporation that was founded in 1602 from a government-backed consolidation of several rival Dutch trading companies.

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Dutch East Indies

The Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East-Indies; Nederlands(ch)-Indië; Hindia Belanda) was a Dutch colony consisting of what is now Indonesia.

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Dutch Empire

The Dutch Empire (Het Nederlandse Koloniale Rijk) comprised the overseas colonies, enclaves, and outposts controlled and administered by Dutch chartered companies, mainly the Dutch West India and the Dutch East India Company, and subsequently by the Dutch Republic (1581–1795), and the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands since 1815.

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Dutch Formosa

The island of Taiwan, before World War II and until 1970s also commonly known as Formosa, was partly under colonial Dutch rule from 1624 to 1662.

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Dutch general election, 1994

General elections were held in the Netherlands on 3 May 1994.

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Dutch general election, 2002

General elections were held in the Netherlands on 15 May 2002.

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Dutch general election, 2003

General elections were held in the Netherlands on 22 January 2003.

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Dutch general election, 2006

General elections were held in the Netherlands on 22 November 2006 following the fall of the Second Balkenende cabinet.

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Dutch general election, 2010

General elections were held in the Netherlands on Wednesday, 9 June 2010.

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Dutch general election, 2012

Early general elections were held in the Netherlands on 12 September 2012 after Prime Minister Mark Rutte handed in his government's resignation to Queen Beatrix on 23 April.

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Dutch general election, 2017

General elections were held in the Netherlands on Wednesday 15 March 2017 to elect all 150 members of the House of Representatives.

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Dutch Golden Age

The Dutch Golden Age (Gouden Eeuw) was a period in the history of the Netherlands, roughly spanning the 17th century, in which Dutch trade, science, military, and art were among the most acclaimed in the world.

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Dutch Golden Age painting

Dutch Golden Age painting is the painting of the Dutch Golden Age, a period in Dutch history roughly spanning the 17th century, during and after the later part of the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) for Dutch independence.

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Dutch government-in-exile

The Dutch government in exile (Nederlandse regering in ballingschap), also known as the London Cabinet (Londens cabinet) was the government in exile of the Netherlands, headed by Queen Wilhelmina, that evacuated to London after the German invasion of the country during World War II on 10 May 1940.

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Dutch Grand Prix

The Dutch Grand Prix (Grote Prijs van Nederland) was a Formula One automobile race held at Circuit Zandvoort, North Holland, Netherlands, from 1948 to 1985.

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Dutch guilder

The Dutch guilder (gulden) or fl. was the currency of the Netherlands from the 17th century until 2002, when it was replaced by the euro.

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Dutch hip hop

Dutch hip hop or Nederhop is hip hop music created by musicians in the Netherlands and Flanders.

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Dutch Indies literature

Dutch Indies literature or Dutch East Indies literature (Dutch: Indische letteren or Nederlands Indische literatuur, Indonesia: Sastra Hindia Belanda.) is a section of Dutch literature encompassing Dutch language literature inspired by colonial and post-colonial Insulinde from the Dutch Golden Age to the present day.

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Dutch language

The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.

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Dutch Low Saxon

Dutch Low Saxon (Nederlands Nedersaksisch; Dutch Low Saxon: Nederlaands Leegsaksies) are the Low Saxon dialects that are spoken in the northeastern Netherlands and are written there with local, unstandardised orthographies based on Standard Dutch orthography.

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Dutch people

The Dutch (Dutch), occasionally referred to as Netherlanders—a term that is cognate to the Dutch word for Dutch people, "Nederlanders"—are a Germanic ethnic group native to the Netherlands.

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Dutch Reformed Church

The Dutch Reformed Church (in or NHK) was the largest Christian denomination in the Netherlands from the onset of the Protestant Reformation until 1930.

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Dutch Republic

The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from the Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.

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Dutch resistance

The Dutch resistance to the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands during World War II can be mainly characterized by its prominent non-violence, peaking at over 300,000 people in hiding in the autumn of 1944, tended to by some 60,000 to 200,000 illegal landlords and caretakers and tolerated knowingly by some one million people, including a few incidental individuals among German occupiers and military.

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Dutch Revolt

The Dutch Revolt (1568–1648)This article adopts 1568 as the starting date of the war, as this was the year of the first battles between armies.

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Dutch States Party

The Dutch States Party (without the qualifier "Dutch" if the meaning is clear from the context) is the name used in Anglophone historiography for the faction in the politics of the Dutch Republic referred to in (older) Dutch historiography as the Staatsgezinde partij.

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Dutch West India Company

Dutch West India Company (Geoctroyeerde Westindische Compagnie, or GWIC; Chartered West India Company) was a chartered company (known as the "WIC") of Dutch merchants as well as foreign investors.

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Dutch-language literature

Dutch-language literature comprises all writings of literary merit written through the ages in the Dutch language, a language which currently has around 23 million native speakers.

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Earthenware is glazed or unglazed nonvitreous pottery that has normally been fired below 1200°C.

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East Francia

East Francia (Latin: Francia orientalis) or the Kingdom of the East Franks (regnum Francorum orientalium) was a precursor of the Holy Roman Empire.

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Eastern Europe

Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.

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Eastern Front (World War II)

The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.

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Eastern Scheldt

The Eastern Scheldt (Oosterschelde) is a former estuary in the province of Zeeland, Netherlands, between Schouwen-Duiveland and Tholen on the north and Noord-Beveland and Zuid-Beveland on the south.

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The Eburones (Greek: Ἐβούρωνες, Strabo), were a Gallic-Germanic tribe who lived in the northeast of Gaul, in what is now the southern Netherlands, eastern Belgium, and the German Rhineland, in the period immediately before this region was conquered by Rome.

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Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.

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An ecoregion (ecological region) is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than an ecozone.

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Edam cheese

Edam (Edammer) is a semi-hard cheese that originated in the Netherlands, and is named after the town of Edam in the province of North Holland.

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Education in the Netherlands

Education in the Netherlands is characterized by division: education is oriented toward the needs and background of the pupil. Education is divided over schools for different age groups, some of which are divided in streams for different educational levels. Schools are furthermore divided in public, special (religious), and general-special (neutral) schools, although there are also a few private schools. The Dutch grading scale runs from 1 (very poor) to 10 (outstanding). The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), coordinated by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), ranks the education in the Netherlands as the 9th best in the world as of 2008, being significantly higher than the OECD average.

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Efficient energy use

Efficient energy use, sometimes simply called energy efficiency, is the goal to reduce the amount of energy required to provide products and services.

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Egalitarianism – or equalitarianism – is a school of thought that prioritizes equality for all people.

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Eighty Years' War

The Eighty Years' War (Tachtigjarige Oorlog; Guerra de los Ochenta Años) or Dutch War of Independence (1568–1648) was a revolt of the Seventeen Provinces of what are today the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg against the political and religious hegemony of Philip II of Spain, the sovereign of the Habsburg Netherlands.

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Eindhoven is a municipality and city in the south of the Netherlands, originally at the confluence of the Dommel and Gender streams.

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Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.

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Electronic dance music

Electronic dance music (also known as EDM, dance music, club music, or simply dance) is a broad range of percussive electronic music genres made largely for nightclubs, raves, and festivals.

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Elizabeth I of England

Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603.

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Elp culture

The Elp culture (c. 1800—800 BCE) is a Bronze Age archaeological culture of the Netherlands having earthenware pottery of low quality known as "Kümmerkeramik" (also "Grobkeramik") as a marker.

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Employers' organization

Just like trade unions being represented by workers for promoting their economic and social interests,in the same manner employer's join employers organisation.An employers' organization or employers' association is a collective organization of manufacturers, retailers, or other employers of wage labor.

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Enclave and exclave

An enclave is a territory, or a part of a territory, that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state.

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Encyclopædia Britannica Online

Encyclopædia Britannica Online is the website of Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. and its Encyclopædia Britannica, with more than 120,000 articles that are updated regularly.

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Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. is a Scottish-founded, now American company best known for publishing the Encyclopædia Britannica, the world's oldest continuously published encyclopedia.

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Endemol is a Dutch-based media company that produced and distributed multiplatform entertainment content.

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England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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English Channel

The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.

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English in the Netherlands

English language in the Netherlands refers to the use of the English language in the Netherlands.

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Enschede, also known as Eanske in the local dialect of Twents, is a municipality and a city in the eastern Netherlands in the province of Overijssel and in the Twente region.

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Environmental issue

Environmental issues are harmful effects of human activity on the biophysical environment.

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Environmental science

Environmental science is an interdisciplinary academic field that integrates physical, biological and information sciences (including ecology, biology, physics, chemistry, plant science, zoology, mineralogy, oceanology, limnology, soil science, geology and physical geography (geodesy), and atmospheric science) to the study of the environment, and the solution of environmental problems.

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Epica (band)

Epica is a Dutch symphonic metal band, founded by guitarist and vocalist Mark Jansen after his departure from After Forever.

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Episcopal principality of Utrecht

The Bishopric of Utrecht (1024–1528) was a civil principality of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries, in present Netherlands, which was ruled by the bishops of Utrecht as princes of the Holy Roman Empire.

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Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (28 October 1466Gleason, John B. "The Birth Dates of John Colet and Erasmus of Rotterdam: Fresh Documentary Evidence," Renaissance Quarterly, The University of Chicago Press on behalf of the Renaissance Society of America, Vol. 32, No. 1 (Spring, 1979), pp. 73–76; – 12 July 1536), known as Erasmus or Erasmus of Rotterdam,Erasmus was his baptismal name, given after St. Erasmus of Formiae.

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Ertebølle culture

The Ertebølle culture (ca 5300 BC – 3950 BC) is the name of a hunter-gatherer and fisher, pottery-making culture dating to the end of the Mesolithic period.

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An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.

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Ethnic groups in Europe

The Indigenous peoples of Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe.

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Etiquette in Europe

Etiquette in Europe is not uniform.

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The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.

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Euro banknotes

Banknotes of the euro, the currency of the Eurozone, have been in circulation since the first series was issued in 2002.

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Euro coins

There are eight euro coin denominations, ranging from one cent to two euros (the euro is divided into a hundred cents).

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Euro health consumer index

Euro Health Consumer Index (EHCI) is a comparison of European health care systems based on waiting times, results, and generosity.

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Eurodance (sometimes known as Euro-NRG or Euro) is a genre of electronic dance music that originated in the late 1980s in Europe.

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Eurojust is an agency of the European Union (EU) dealing with judicial co-operation in criminal matters among agencies of the member states.

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Euronext NV is a European stock exchange seated in Amsterdam, Brussels, London, Lisbon, Dublin and Paris.

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Euronext Amsterdam

Euronext Amsterdam is a stock exchange based in Amsterdam.

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Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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European Atomic Energy Community

The European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC or Euratom) is an international organisation established by the Euratom Treaty on 25 March 1957 with the original purpose of creating a specialist market for nuclear power in Europe; developing nuclear energy and distributing it to its member states while selling the surplus to non-member states.

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European Baseball Championship

The European Baseball Championship is the main championship tournament between national baseball teams in Europe, governed by the Confederation of European Baseball (CEB).

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European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages

The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe.

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European Coal and Steel Community

The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was an organisation of 6 European countries set up after World War II to regulate their industrial production under a centralised authority.

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European Commission

The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.

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European Cyclists' Federation

European Cyclists' Federation (ECF) is an umbrella federation for national cycling organizations (organizations that promote bike for urban mobility) throughout Europe.

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European Economic Community

The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.

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European eel

The European eel (Anguilla anguilla) is a species of eel, a snake-like, catadromous fish.

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European integration

European integration is the process of industrial, political, legal, economic, social and cultural integration of states wholly or partially in Europe.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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The European Union Agency for Law Enforcement Cooperation, better known under the name Europol, formerly the European Police Office and Europol Drugs Unit, is the law enforcement agency of the European Union (EU) formed in 1998 to handle criminal intelligence and combat serious international organised crime and terrorism through cooperation between competent authorities of EU member states.

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Eurostat is a Directorate-General of the European Commission located in Luxembourg.

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No description.

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Euthanasia (from εὐθανασία; "good death": εὖ, eu; "well" or "good" – θάνατος, thanatos; "death") is the practice of intentionally ending a life to relieve pain and suffering.

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Euthanasia in the Netherlands

Euthanasia in the Netherlands is regulated by the "Termination of Life on Request and Assisted Suicide (Review Procedures) Act" from 2002.

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Evangelical Lutheran Church in the Kingdom of the Netherlands

The Evangelical Lutheran Church in the Kingdom of the Netherlands (Evangelisch-Lutherse Kerk in het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden) was a denomination in the Netherlands which under that name existed from 1818 to 2004.

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Executive (government)

The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.

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An expatriate (often shortened to expat) is a person temporarily or permanently residing in a country other than their native country.

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Extermination camp

Nazi Germany built extermination camps (also called death camps or killing centers) during the Holocaust in World War II, to systematically kill millions of Jews, Slavs, Communists, and others whom the Nazis considered "Untermenschen" ("subhumans").

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Facility management

Facility management (or facilities management or FM) is a professional management discipline focused upon the efficient and effective delivery of support services for the organizations that it serves.

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Famke Janssen

Famke Beumer Janssen (born) is a Dutch actress, director, screenwriter and former fashion model.

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Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian ultranationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.

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Fast food

Fast food is a mass-produced food that is typically prepared and served quicker than traditional foods.

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Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.

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Fiat money

Fiat money is a currency without intrinsic value that has been established as money, often by government regulation.

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A fief (feudum) was the central element of feudalism and consisted of heritable property or rights granted by an overlord to a vassal who held it in fealty (or "in fee") in return for a form of feudal allegiance and service, usually given by the personal ceremonies of homage and fealty.

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Field hockey

Field hockey is a team game of the hockey family.

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First Balkenende cabinet

The First Balkenende cabinet was the cabinet of the Netherlands from 22 July 2002 until 27 May 2003.

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First Canadian Army

The First Canadian Army (1reArmée canadienne) was a field army and the senior formation of the Canadian Army that served on the Western Front from July 1944 until May 1945 during the Second World War.

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Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish.

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Flanders (Vlaanderen, Flandre, Flandern) is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium, although there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language, politics and history.

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Flemish Region

The Flemish Region (Vlaams Gewest,; Région flamande) is one of the three official regions of the Kingdom of Belgium—alongside the Walloon Region and the Brussels-Capital Region.

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Flevoland is the twelfth and last province of the Netherlands, established on 1 January 1986, when the southern and eastern Flevopolders were merged into one provincial entity.

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Focus (band)

Focus are a Dutch rock band formed in Amsterdam in 1969 by keyboardist, vocalist, and flautist Thijs van Leer.

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Foederatus (in English; pl. foederati) was any one of several outlying nations to which ancient Rome provided benefits in exchange for military assistance.

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Fons Rademakers

Alphonse Marie "Fons" Rademakers (5 September 1920 – 22 February 2007) was a Dutch actor, film director, film producer and screenwriter.

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Foreign born

Foreign-born (also non-native) people are those born outside of their country of residence.

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Foreign policy

A country's foreign policy, also called foreign relations or foreign affairs policy, consists of self-interest strategies chosen by the state to safeguard its national interests and to achieve goals within its international relations milieu.

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Foreign relations of the Netherlands

The foreign policy of the Netherlands is based on four basic commitments: to the Atlantic cooperation, to European integration, to international development and to international law.

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Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, using, conserving, and repairing forests, woodlands, and associated resources to meet desired goals, needs, and values for human and environment benefits.

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Formula One

Formula One (also Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of single-seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) and owned by the Formula One Group.

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Four Days' Battle

The Four Days' Battle was a naval battle of the Second Anglo–Dutch War.

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Fourth Balkenende cabinet

The Fourth Balkenende cabinet was the cabinet of the Netherlands from 22 February 2007 until 14 October 2010.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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France 24

France 24 (pronounced "France vingt-quatre") is a state-owned 24-hour international news and current affairs television network based in Paris.

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France in the Middle Ages

The Kingdom of France in the Middle Ages (roughly, from the 9th century to the middle of the 15th century) was marked by the fragmentation of the Carolingian Empire and West Francia (843–987); the expansion of royal control by the House of Capet (987–1328), including their struggles with the virtually independent principalities (duchies and counties, such as the Norman and Angevin regions) that had developed following the Viking invasions and through the piecemeal dismantling of the Carolingian Empire and the creation and extension of administrative/state control (notably under Philip II Augustus and Louis IX) in the 13th century; and the rise of the House of Valois (1328–1589), including the protracted dynastic crisis of the Hundred Years' War with the Kingdom of England (1337–1453) compounded by the catastrophic Black Death epidemic (1348), which laid the seeds for a more centralized and expanded state in the early modern period and the creation of a sense of French identity.

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Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks (Regnum Francorum), or Frankish Empire was the largest post-Roman Barbarian kingdom in Western Europe.

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Franconian languages

Franconian (Frankisch; Frankies; Fränkisch; Francique) includes a number of West Germanic languages and dialects possibly derived from the languages and dialects originally spoken by the Franks from their ethnogenesis in the 3rd century AD.

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Frankish language

Frankish (reconstructed Frankish: *italic), Old Franconian or Old Frankish was the West Germanic language spoken by the Franks between the 4th and 8th century.

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The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.

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Frans Bauer

Frans Bauer (born 30 December 1973 in Roosendaal) is a Dutch singer of "levenslied" (Dutch Schlager).

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Free market

In economics, a free market is an idealized system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.

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French First Republic

In the history of France, the First Republic (French: Première République), officially the French Republic (République française), was founded on 22 September 1792 during the French Revolution.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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French Revolution

The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.

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Friesian Clove

Nagelkaas, also known as Frisian Clove Cheese, is an unprotected name variant of kanterkaas, a Dutch cheese developed in the Frisian Islands of the Netherlands.

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Friesland (official, Fryslân), also historically known as Frisia, is a province of the Netherlands located in the northern part of the country.

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Frisia (Fryslân, Dutch and Friesland) is a coastal region along the southeastern corner of the North Sea in what today is mostly a large part of the Netherlands, including modern Friesland, and smaller parts of northern Germany.

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Frisian freedom

Friese freedom or freedom of the Frisians (West Frisian Fryske frijheid) was the absence of feudalism and serfdom in Frisia, the area that was originally inhabited by the Frisians.

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Frisian Kingdom

The Frisian Kingdom (West Frisian Fryske Keninkryk), also known as Magna Frisia, is a modern name for the Frisian realm in the period when it was at its largest (650-734).

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Frisian languages

The Frisian languages are a closely related group of Germanic languages, spoken by about 500,000 Frisian people, who live on the southern fringes of the North Sea in the Netherlands and Germany.

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Frisian–Frankish wars

The Frisian–Frankish wars were a series of conflicts between the Frankish Empire and the Frisian kingdom in the 7th and 8th centuries.

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The Frisians are a Germanic ethnic group indigenous to the coastal parts of the Netherlands and northwestern Germany.

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The Frisii were an ancient Germanic tribe living in the low-lying region between the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta and the River Ems, and the presumed or possible ancestors of the modern-day ethnic Frisians.

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Funnelbeaker culture

The Funnel(-neck-)beaker culture, in short TRB or TBK (German: Trichter(-rand-)becherkultur, Dutch: Trechterbekercultuur; c. 4300 BC–c. 2800 BC) was an archaeological culture in north-central Europe.

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Gabber is a style of electronic music and a subgenre of hardcore techno.

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Gallia Belgica

Gallia Belgica ("Belgic Gaul") was a province of the Roman empire located in the north-eastern part of Roman Gaul, in what is today primarily Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands.

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Gallic Wars

The Gallic Wars were a series of military campaigns waged by the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar against several Gallic tribes.

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Game (hunting)

Game or quarry is any animal hunted for sport or for food.

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Game of Thrones

Game of Thrones is an American fantasy drama television series created by David Benioff and D. B. Weiss.

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Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.

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Geert Wilders

Geert Wilders (born 6 September 1963) is a Dutch politician who is the founder and the current leader of the Party for Freedom (Partij voor de Vrijheid – PVV).

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Gelderland (also Guelders in English) is a province of the Netherlands, located in the central eastern part of the country.

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General practitioner

In the medical profession, a general practitioner (GP) is a medical doctor who treats acute and chronic illnesses and provides preventive care and health education to patients.

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Generality Lands

The Generality Lands, Lands of the Generality or Common Lands (Generaliteitslanden) were about one fifth of the territories of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, that were directly governed by the States-General.

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George Baker Selection

George Baker Selection was a rock band from Hoorn, the Netherlands.

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Gerard Reve

Gerard Kornelis van het Reve (14 December 1923 – 8 April 2006) was a Dutch writer.

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German bombing of Rotterdam

The German bombing of Rotterdam, also known as the Rotterdam Blitz, was the aerial bombardment of Rotterdam by the Luftwaffe on 14 May 1940, during the German invasion of the Netherlands in World War II.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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Germania Inferior

Germania Inferior ("Lower Germany") was a Roman province located on the west bank of the Rhine.

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Germania Superior

Germania Superior ("Upper Germania") was an imperial province of the Roman Empire.

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Germanic languages

The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.

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Germanic peoples

The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.

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Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.

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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Gerolf of Holland

Gerolf or Gerulf (c. 850 – 895/896) was the second count of this name who is attested in the area of Friesland (which also included Holland at the time).

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Get Ready for This

"Get Ready for This" is a song recorded by Dutch group 2 Unlimited.

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Gin is liquor which derives its predominant flavour from juniper berries (Juniperus communis).

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Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a flowering plant whose rhizome, ginger root or simply ginger, is widely used as a spice or a folk medicine.

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Gini coefficient

In economics, the Gini coefficient (sometimes expressed as a Gini ratio or a normalized Gini index) is a measure of statistical dispersion intended to represent the income or wealth distribution of a nation's residents, and is the most commonly used measurement of inequality.

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Global Competitiveness Report

The Global Competitiveness Report (GCR) is a yearly report published by the World Economic Forum.

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Global cuisine

A global cuisine is a cuisine that is practiced around the world.

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Global Enabling Trade Report

The Global Enabling Trade Report was first published in 2008 by the World Economic Forum.

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Global Innovation Index

The Global Innovation Index (GII) is an annual ranking of countries by their capacity for, and success in, innovation.

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Global warming

Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.

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God Dethroned

God Dethroned is a Dutch black death metal band from Beilen, originally formed in 1991.

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God zij met ons

God zij met ons (God be with us) is a proverb phrase written on Dutch coins.

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Godfrid, Duke of Frisia

Godfrid, Godafrid, Gudfrid, or Gottfrid (Guðfrið; murdered June 885) was a Danish Viking leader of the late ninth century.

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Godfried Bomans

Godfried Jan Arnold Bomans (2 March 1913 – 22 December 1971) was a popular Dutch author and television personality and a prominent Dutch Catholic.

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Golden Earring

Golden Earring is a Dutch rock band, founded in 1961 in The Hague as the Golden Earrings (the definite article was dropped in 1967, while the "s" was dropped in 1969).

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Gouda cheese

Gouda (Goudse kaas "cheese from Gouda"), is a mild, yellow cheese made from cow's milk.

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A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.

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Grand Ducal Family of Luxembourg

The Grand Ducal Family of Luxembourg constitutes the House of Luxembourg-Nassau, headed by the sovereign Grand Duke, and in which the throne of the grand duchy is hereditary.

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GroenLinks (GreenLeft, GrienLinks, GL) is a green political party in the Netherlands.

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Groningen (Gronings: Grunnen) is the main municipality as well as the capital city of the eponymous province in the Netherlands.

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Groningen (province)

Groningen (Gronings: Grunn; Grinslân) is the northeasternmost province of the Netherlands.

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Groningen gas field

The Groningen gas field is a giant natural gas field located near Slochteren in Groningen province in the northeastern part of the Netherlands.

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Grote rivieren

The Grote rivieren, literally translated Great (or Large) rivers, is a landform in the Netherlands.

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Ground beef

Ground beef, beef mince, minced beef, or minced meat (not to be confused with the mixture of chopped dried fruit, distilled spirits and spices referred to as "mincemeat") is a ground meat made of beef that has been finely chopped with a large knife or a meat grinder.

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Group of Ten (economics)

The Group of Ten (G-10 or G10) refers to the group of countries that agreed to participate in the General Arrangements to Borrow (GAB), an agreement to provide the International Monetary Fund (IMF) with additional funds to increase its lending ability.

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Guelders or Gueldres (Gelre, Geldern) is a historical county, later duchy of the Holy Roman Empire, located in the Low Countries.

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Guyana (pronounced or), officially the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, is a sovereign state on the northern mainland of South America.

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Gymnasium (school)

A gymnasium is a type of school with a strong emphasis on academic learning, and providing advanced secondary education in some parts of Europe comparable to British grammar schools, sixth form colleges and US preparatory high schools.

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Haarlem (predecessor of Harlem in the English language) is a city and municipality in the Netherlands.

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Habitat conservation

Habitat conservation is a management practice that seeks to conserve, protect and restore habitat areas for wild plants and animals, especially conservation reliant species, and prevent their extinction, fragmentation or reduction in range.

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Habsburg Netherlands

Habsburg Netherlands is the collective name of Holy Roman Empire fiefs in the Low Countries held by the House of Habsburg and later by the Spanish Empire, also known as the Spanish Netherlands.

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Hail of Bullets

Hail of Bullets was a Dutch old school death metal supergroup from Rotterdam.

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Hallstatt culture

The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Western and Central European culture of Early Iron Age Europe from the 8th to 6th centuries BC, developing out of the Urnfield culture of the 12th century BC (Late Bronze Age) and followed in much of its area by the La Tène culture.

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Hamburg culture

The Hamburg culture or Hamburgian (15,500-13,100 BP) was a Late Upper Paleolithic culture of reindeer hunters in northwestern Europe during the last part of the Weichsel Glaciation beginning during the Bölling interstadial.

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Hanseatic League

The Hanseatic League (Middle Low German: Hanse, Düdesche Hanse, Hansa; Standard German: Deutsche Hanse; Latin: Hansa Teutonica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.

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Hardstyle is an electronic dance genre mixing influences from techno and hardcore.

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Robbert van de Corput (born 7 January 1988), better known by his stage name Hardwell, is a Dutch electro house DJ, record producer from Breda, the Netherlands.

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Harry Mulisch

Harry Kurt Victor Mulisch (29 July 1927 – 30 October 2010) was a Dutch writer.

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Haute cuisine

Haute cuisine (French: literally "high cooking") or grande cuisine refers to the cuisine of "high-level" establishments, gourmet restaurants and luxury hotels.

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Head of government

A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.

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Head of state

A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.

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Health Consumer Powerhouse

Health Consumer Powerhouse is a Swedish health policy think tank which specialises in comparing healthcare systems throughout Europe.

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Health insurance

Health insurance is insurance that covers the whole or a part of the risk of a person incurring medical expenses, spreading the risk over a large number of persons.

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Health system

A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.

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Healthcare in the Netherlands

Healthcare in the Netherlands can be divided in several ways: firstly in three different echelons; secondly in somatic versus mental healthcare; and thirdly in "cure" (short term) versus "care" (long term).

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A heath is a shrubland habitat found mainly on free-draining infertile, acidic soils and is characterised by open, low-growing woody vegetation.

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Heidevolk is a folk metal band from the Netherlands.

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Heineken International

Heineken N.V. (at times self-styled as HEINEKEN) is a Dutch brewing company, founded in 1864 by Gerard Adriaan Heineken in Amsterdam.

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Hella Haasse

Hélène "Hella" Serafia Haasse (2 February 1918 – 29 September 2011) was a Dutch writer, often referred to as "the Grand Old Lady" of Dutch literature, and whose novel Oeroeg (1948) was a staple for generations of Dutch schoolchildren.

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Helmond (called Héllemond in the local dialect) is a municipality and a city in the Metropoolregio Eindhoven of the province of North Brabant in the southern Netherlands.

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Hendrik Lorentz

Hendrik Antoon Lorentz (18 July 1853 – 4 February 1928) was a Dutch physicist who shared the 1902 Nobel Prize in Physics with Pieter Zeeman for the discovery and theoretical explanation of the Zeeman effect.

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Hilversum culture

The Hilversum culture is a prehistoric material culture found in middle Bronze Age in the region of the southern Netherlands and northern Belgium.

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Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.

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Hinduism in the Netherlands

Hinduism is a minority religion in the Netherlands, with around 215,000 adherents out of a population of 17,000,000.

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Hinduism in the West

The reception of Hinduism in the western world begins in the 19th century, at first at an academic level of religious studies and antiquarian interest in Sanskrit.

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Hinterland is a German word meaning "the land behind" (a city, a port, or similar).

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Hip hop music

Hip hop music, also called hip-hopMerriam-Webster Dictionary entry on hip-hop, retrieved from: A subculture especially of inner-city black youths who are typically devotees of rap music; the stylized rhythmic music that commonly accompanies rap; also rap together with this music.

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History of the Jews in the Netherlands

Most history of the Jews in the Netherlands was generated between the end of the 16th century and World War II.

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Hoger algemeen voortgezet onderwijs

Hoger algemeen voortgezet onderwijs (HAVO, meaning "higher general continued education" in Dutch) is a stream in the secondary educational system of the Netherlands and Suriname.

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Holland is a region and former province on the western coast of the Netherlands.

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Hollandic dialect

Hollandic or Hollandish is, together with Brabantian, the most frequently used dialect of the Dutch language.

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Hollandic Water Line

The Hollandic Water Line (Hollandsche Waterlinie, modern spelling: Hollandse Waterlinie) was a series of water-based defences conceived by Maurice of Nassau in the early 17th century, and realised by his half brother Frederick Henry.

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Holy Roman Empire

The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.

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Hook and Cod wars

The Hook and Cod wars (Hoekse en Kabeljauwse twisten) comprise a series of wars and battles in the County of Holland between 1350 and 1490.

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House music

House music is a genre of electronic dance music created by club DJs and music producers in Chicago in the early 1980s.

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House of Habsburg

The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.

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House of Representatives (Netherlands)

The House of Representatives (pronounced; commonly referred to as the, literally Second Chamber) is the lower house of the bicameral parliament of the Netherlands, the States General, the other one being the Senate.

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House of Valois-Burgundy

The House of Valois-Burgundy (Maison de Valois-Bourgogne), or the Younger House of Burgundy, was a noble French family deriving from the royal House of Valois.

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Hoyte van Hoytema

Hoyte van Hoytema (born 4 October 1971) is a Dutch-Swedish cinematographer who studied at the National Film School in Łódź.

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The HSL-Zuid (Hogesnelheidslijn Zuid, High-speed Line South), is a 125 kilometres-long (78 miles) Dutch high-speed railway line running between the Amsterdam metropolitan area and the Belgian border, with a branch to Breda, North Brabant.

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Hugo de Jonge

Hugo Mattheüs de Jonge (born 26 September 1977) is a Dutch politician serving as first Deputy Prime Minister of the Netherlands and Minister of Health, Welfare and Sport since 26 October 2017 in the Third Rutte cabinet.

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Huis Ten Bosch (theme park)

is a theme park in Sasebo, Nagasaki, Japan, which recreates the Netherlands by displaying life-sized copies of old Dutch buildings.

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Human migration

Human migration is the movement by people from one place to another with the intentions of settling, permanently or temporarily in a new location.

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Human sexuality

Human sexuality is the way people experience and express themselves sexually.

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A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.

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Hutspot (Dutch), hochepot (French), or hotchpotch (English), is a dish of boiled and mashed potatoes, carrots, and onions with a long history in traditional Dutch cuisine.

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I Corps (United Kingdom)

I Corps ("First Corps") was an army corps in existence as an active formation in the British Army for most of the 80 years from its creation in the First World War until the end of the Cold War, longer than any other corps.

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Ietsism (ietsisme – "somethingism") is an unspecified belief in an undetermined transcendent reality.

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The river IJssel (Iessel(t)), sometimes called Gelderse IJssel ("Gueldern IJssel") to avoid confusion with the Hollandse IJssel, is the branch of the Rhine in the Dutch provinces of Gelderland and Overijssel.

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The IJsselmeer (West Frisian language: Iselmar), is a closed off inland bay in the central Netherlands bordering the provinces of Flevoland, North Holland and Friesland.

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Ilse DeLange

Ilse Annoeska de Lange (born 13 May 1977) is a Dutch country and pop singer, better known as Ilse DeLange (English spelling).

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Immigration policy

An immigration policy is any policy of a state that deals with the transit of people across its borders into the country, but especially those that intend to work and stay in the country.

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Index of Economic Freedom

The Index of Economic Freedom is an annual index and ranking created by The Heritage Foundation and The Wall Street Journal in 1995 to measure the degree of economic freedom in the world's nations.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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An individual is that which exists as a distinct entity.

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Individual ministerial responsibility

Individual ministerial responsibility is a constitutional convention in governments using the Westminster System that a cabinet minister bears the ultimate responsibility for the actions of their ministry or department.

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Indo people

The Indo people or Indos are Eurasian people, descendants of various indigenous peoples of Indonesia and Dutch settlers. Indos are associated with colonial culture of the former Dutch East Indies, a Dutch colony in Southeast Asia and a predecessor to modern Indonesia after its proclamation of independence shortly after World War II. It was used to describe people acknowledged to be of mixed Dutch and Indonesian descent, or it was a term used in the Dutch East Indies to apply to Europeans who had partial Asian ancestry. "Indos–people of Dutch descent who stayed in the new republic Indonesia after it gained independence, or who emigrated to Indonesia after 1949–are called Dutch-Indonesians. Although the majority of the Indos are found in the lowest strata of European society, they do not represent a solid social or economic group." The European ancestry of these people was predominantly Dutch, but also included Portuguese, British, French, Belgian, German, and others. Other terms used were Indos, Dutch Indonesians, Eurasians, Indo-Europeans, Indo-Dutch, and Dutch-Indos.

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Indo-Surinamese are nationals of Suriname with ancestry from the Indian subcontinent.

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Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.

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Indonesian National Revolution

The Indonesian National Revolution, or Indonesian War of Independence (Perang Kemerdekaan Indonesia; Indonesische Onafhankelijkheidsoorlog), was an armed conflict and diplomatic struggle between the Republic of Indonesia and the Dutch Empire and an internal social revolution during postwar and postcolonial Indonesia.

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Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

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ING Group

The ING Group (ING Groep) is a Dutch multinational banking and financial services corporation headquartered in Amsterdam.

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The Ingaevones, or North Sea Germanic peoples, were a West Germanic cultural group living along the North Sea coast in the areas of Jutland, Holstein, Frisia and the Danish islands, where they had by the 1st century BCE become further differentiated to a foreigner's eye into the Frisii, Saxons, Jutes and Angles.

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Intensive farming

Intensive farming involves various types of agriculture with higher levels of input and output per cubic unit of agricultural land area.

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International airport

An international airport is an airport that offers customs and immigration facilities for passengers travelling between countries.

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International Court of Justice

The International Court of Justice (abbreviated ICJ; commonly referred to as the World Court) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN).

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International Criminal Court

The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt) is an intergovernmental organization and international tribunal that sits in The Hague in the Netherlands.

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International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia

The International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991, more commonly referred to as the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), was a body of the United Nations established to prosecute serious crimes committed during the Yugoslav Wars, and to try their perpetrators.

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International development

International development or global development is a wide concept concerning level of development on an international scale.

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International Futures

International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.

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International Institute for Management Development

International Institute for Management Development (IMD) is a business education school located in Lausanne, Switzerland.

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International Labour Organization

The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a United Nations agency dealing with labour problems, particularly international labour standards, social protection, and work opportunities for all.

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International law

International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.

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International Monetary Fund

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.

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International relations

International relations (IR) or international affairs (IA) — commonly also referred to as international studies (IS) or global studies (GS) — is the study of interconnectedness of politics, economics and law on a global level.

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International Society for Krishna Consciousness

The International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), known colloquially as the Hare Krishna movement or Hare Krishnas, is a Gaudiya Vaishnava Hindu religious organisation.

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International trade

International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories.

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Interstellar (film)

Interstellar is a 2014 epic science fiction film directed, co-written, and co-produced by Christopher Nolan.

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Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.

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Iron Age Europe

In Europe, the Iron Age may be defined as including the last stages of the prehistoric period and the first of the proto-historic periods.

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Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.

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Isaac Le Maire

Isaac Le Maire (c. 1558 in Tournai – September 20, 1624 in Egmond aan den Hoef) was a Walloon-born Dutch entrepreneur, investor, and a sizeable shareholder of the Dutch East India Company (VOC).

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IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Islam in the Netherlands

Islam is the second largest religion in the Netherlands, practiced by 4% of the population according to 2010-11 estimates.

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Islamic extremism

Islamic extremism has been defined by the British government as any form of Islam that opposes "democracy, the rule of law, individual liberty and mutual respect and tolerance of different faiths and beliefs." Related terms include "Islamist extremism" and Islamism.

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ISO 4217

ISO 4217 is a standard first published by International Organization for Standardization in 1978, which delineates currency designators, country codes (alpha and numeric), and references to minor units in three tables.

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The Istvaeones (also spelled Istævones) were a Germanic group of tribes living near the banks of the Rhine during the Roman empire which reportedly shared a common culture and origin.

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Izegrim is a Dutch female-fronted thrash metal band, with death metal influences, from Zutphen, the Netherlands.

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Jacob van Ruisdael

Jacob Isaackszoon van Ruisdael (1629 – 10 March 1682) was a Dutch painter, draughtsman, and etcher.

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James Hutton

James Hutton (3 June 1726 – 26 March 1797) was a Scottish geologist, physician, chemical manufacturer, naturalist, and experimental agriculturalist.

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Jan de Bont

Jan de Bont (born 22 October 1943) is a former Dutch cinematographer, director and film producer.

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Jan Peter Balkenende

Jan Pieter "Jan Peter" Balkenende Jr. (born 7 May 1956) is a retired Dutch politician of the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA) who served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 22 July 2002 until 14 October 2010.

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Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck

Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck (April or May, 1562 – 16 October 1621) was a Dutch composer, organist, and pedagogue whose work straddled the end of the Renaissance and beginning of the Baroque eras.

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Jan Smit (singer)

Jan Smit (born 31 December 1985) is a Dutch singer, television host, actor and football director.

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Jan Steen

Jan Havickszoon Steen (c. 1626 – buried 3 February 1679) was a Dutch genre painter of the 17th century (also known as the Dutch Golden Age).

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Jan Wolkers

Jan Hendrik Wolkers (Oegstgeest, 26 October 1925 – Texel, 19 October 2007) was a Dutch author, sculptor and painter.

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Janine Jansen

Janine Jansen; born 7 January 1978 in Soest in the Netherlands) is a violinist and violist.

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Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies

The Japanese Empire occupied the Dutch East Indies, now Indonesia, during World War II from March 1942 until after the end of the War in September 1945.

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Java War

The Java War or Diponegoro War was fought in central Java from 1825 to 1830, between the colonial Dutch Empire and native Javanese rebels.

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Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in blues and ragtime.

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Jenever, also known as genièvre, genever, peket, or in the English-speaking world as Dutch gin or Hollands (archaic: Holland gin or Geneva gin), is the juniper-flavored national and traditional liquor of the Netherlands and Belgium, from which gin evolved.

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Jeroen Krabbé

Jeroen Aart Krabbé (born 5 December 1944) is a Dutch actor and film director who has appeared in more than 60 films since 1963 including Jumpin' Jack Flash (1986), The Living Daylights (1987), ''The Fugitive'' (1993) and Transporter 3 (2008).

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Johan Rudolph Thorbecke

Johan Rudolph Thorbecke (14 January 1798 – 4 June 1872) was a Dutch statesman of a liberal bent, one of the most important Dutch politicians of the 19th century.

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Johann Strauss Orchestra

The Johann Strauss Orchestra was founded by André Rieu in 1987.

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Johannes Vermeer

Johannes Vermeer (October 1632 – December 1675) was a Dutch painter who specialized in domestic interior scenes of middle-class life.

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John de Mol Jr.

Johannes Hendrikus Hubert "John" de Mol Jr. (born 24 April 1955) is a Dutch media tycoon and television producer.

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John Quincy Adams

John Quincy Adams (July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848) was an American statesman who served as a diplomat, minister and ambassador to foreign nations, and treaty negotiator, United States Senator, U.S. Representative (Congressman) from Massachusetts, and the sixth President of the United States from 1825 to 1829.

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John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute

John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute, (25 May 1713 – 10 March 1792) was a Scottish nobleman who served as Prime Minister of Great Britain (1762–1763) under George III.

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Joop van den Ende

Johannes "Joop" Adrianus van den Ende (born 23 February 1942) is a Dutch theatrical producer, co-founder of international television production company Endemol and founder/owner of Stage Entertainment, Europe’s largest live entertainment company.

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Joost van den Vondel

Joost van den Vondel (17 November 1587 – 5 February 1679) was a Dutch poet, writer and playwright.

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Joris Ivens

Georg Henri Anton "Joris" Ivens (18 November 1898 – 28 June 1989) was a Dutch documentary filmmaker.

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Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.

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Julian (emperor)

Julian (Flavius Claudius Iulianus Augustus; Φλάβιος Κλαύδιος Ἰουλιανὸς Αὔγουστος; 331/332 – 26 June 363), also known as Julian the Apostate, was Roman Emperor from 361 to 363, as well as a notable philosopher and author in Greek.

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Julius Caesar

Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.

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Junipers are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae.

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The Jutes, Iuti, or Iutæ were a Germanic people.

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K-1 began in 1993 and is a kickboxing platform and martial arts brand well-known worldwide mainly for its heavyweight division fights.

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K-1 World Grand Prix

K-1 World Grand Prix, also known as the K-1 World GP, is an elimination kickboxing tournament that has been held annually since 1993 by the K-1 organization.

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Kajsa Ollongren

Jonkvrouw Karin Hildur "Kajsa" Ollongren (born 28 May 1967) is a Dutch-Swedish politician of the Democrats 66 (D66) party serving as Minister of the Interior and Kingdom Relations and second Deputy Prime Minister of the Netherlands in the Third Rutte cabinet since 26 October 2017.

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Kerkrade (Kerkrade dialect: Kirchroa) is a town and a municipality in the southeast of Limburg, the southernmost province of the Netherlands.

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Kerkrade dialect

Kerkrade dialect (natively Kirchröadsj Plat or Kirchröadsj, literally 'Kerkradish', Standard Dutch: Kerkraads, Standard German: Kerkrader Platt) is a Ripuarian dialect spoken in Kerkrade (Netherlands) and Herzogenrath (Germany).

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Kickboxing is a group of stand-up combat sports based on kicking and punching, historically developed from karate mixed with boxing.

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King's Commissioner

The King’s Commissioner (Commissaris van de Koning, abbreviated to CvdK) is the head of a province in the Netherlands.

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Kingdom of Holland

The Kingdom of Holland (Koninkrijk Holland, Royaume de Hollande) was set up by Napoléon Bonaparte as a puppet kingdom for his third brother, Louis Bonaparte, in order to better control the Netherlands.

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Kingdom of Italy (Holy Roman Empire)

The Kingdom of Italy (Latin: Regnum Italiae or Regnum Italicum, Italian: Regno d'Italia) was one of the constituent kingdoms of the Holy Roman Empire, along with the kingdoms of Germany, Bohemia, and Burgundy.

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Kingdom of the Netherlands

The Kingdom of the Netherlands (Koninkrijk der Nederlanden), commonly known as the Netherlands, is a sovereign state and constitutional monarchy with the large majority of its territory in Western Europe and with several small island territories in the Caribbean Sea, in the West Indies islands (Leeward Islands and Lesser Antilles).

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KLM Royal Dutch Airlines, legally Koninklijke Luchtvaart Maatschappij N.V., is the flag carrier airline of the Netherlands.

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Knowledge economy

The knowledge economy is the use of knowledge (savoir, savoir-faire, savoir-être) to generate tangible and intangible values.

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Korean War

The Korean War (in South Korean, "Korean War"; in North Korean, "Fatherland: Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States).

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Korps Commandotroepen

The Korps Commandotroepen (KCT) are the special forces of the Royal Netherlands Army.

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Kosovo War

No description.

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Kralendijk is the capital city and main port of the island of Bonaire in the Caribbean Netherlands.

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Kriek lambic

Kriek lambic is a style of Belgian beer, made by fermenting lambic with sour Morello cherries.

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La Tène culture

The La Tène culture was a European Iron Age culture named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel in Switzerland, where thousands of objects had been deposited in the lake, as was discovered after the water level dropped in 1857.

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Labour Party (Netherlands)

The Labour Party (Partij van de Arbeid,, abbreviated as PvdA, or P van de A) is a social-democratic political party in the Netherlands.

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Laeti, the plural form of laetus, was a term used in the late Roman Empire to denote communities of barbari ("barbarians") i.e. foreigners, or people from outside the Empire, permitted to settle on, and granted land in, imperial territory on condition that they provide recruits for the Roman military.

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A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, that is surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake.

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Land reclamation

Land reclamation, usually known as reclamation, and also known as land fill (not to be confused with a landfill), is the process of creating new land from ocean, riverbeds, or lake beds.

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Larger urban zone

The larger urban zone (LUZ), or Functional Urban Area (FUA), is a measure of the population and expanse of metropolitan areas in Europe and OECD countries.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Latinisation of names

Latinisation or Latinization is the practice of rendering a non-Latin name (or word) in a Latin style.

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In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.

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Lavinia Meijer

Lavinia Meijer is a female harpist born in 1983 in South Korea and adopted into a Dutch family.

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Leadership is both a research area and a practical skill encompassing the ability of an individual or organization to "lead" or guide other individuals, teams, or entire organizations.

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Leerdammer is a Dutch semihard cheese made from cow's milk.

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Leeuwarden (longname), Stadsfries: Liwwadden) is a city and municipality in Friesland in the Netherlands. It is the provincial capital and seat of the States of Friesland. The municipality has a population of 122,293. The region has been continuously inhabited since the 10th century. It came to be known as Leeuwarden in the early 9th century AD and was granted city privileges in 1435. It is the main economic hub of Friesland, situated in a green and water-rich environment. Leeuwarden is a former royal residence and has a historic city center, many historically relevant buildings, and a large shopping center with squares and restaurants. Leeuwarden was awarded the title European Capital of Culture for 2018. The Elfstedentocht (Eleven Cities Tour), an ice skating tour passing the eleven cities of Friesland, started and finished in Leeuwarden. The following towns and villages within the municipality have populations in excess of 1,000 people: Leeuwarden, Stiens, Grou, Goutum, Wergea, Jirnsum, Reduzum, and Wirdum. The municipality is governed by the mayor Ferd Crone and a coalition of the Labour Party, Christian Democratic Appeal, and GreenLeft.

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Leeward Antilles

The Leeward Antilles (Dutch: Benedenwindse Eilanden) are a chain of islands in the Caribbean – specifically, the southerly islands of the Lesser Antilles (and, in turn, the Antilles and the West Indies) along the southeastern fringe of the Caribbean Sea, just north of the Venezuelan coast of the South American mainland.

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Leeward Islands

The Leeward Islands are a group of islands situated where the northeastern Caribbean Sea meets the western Atlantic Ocean.

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A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.

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Leiden (in English and archaic Dutch also Leyden) is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands.

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Leiden University

Leiden University (abbreviated as LEI; Universiteit Leiden), founded in the city of Leiden, is the oldest university in the Netherlands.

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Lelystad is a municipality and a city in the centre of the Netherlands, and it is the capital of the province of Flevoland.

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Lesser Antilles

The Lesser Antilles are a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea.

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Levenslied (Dutch, literally "life song" or "song about life") is a sentimental Dutch-language subgenre of popular music.

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Leyden cheese

Leyden, from Leidse kaas, is a semi-hard, cumin and caraway seed flavoured cheese made in the Netherlands from cow's milk.

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LGBT rights in the Netherlands

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) rights in the Netherlands have been some of the most progressive in the world.

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Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality.

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Liberalism in the Netherlands

Liberalism in the Netherlands started as an anti-monarchical effort spearheaded by the Dutch statesman Thorbecke, who almost single-handedly wrote the 1848 Constitution of the Netherlands that turned the country into a constitutional monarchy.

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Liberation Day (Netherlands)

In the Netherlands, Liberation Day (Bevrijdingsdag) is celebrated each year on May the 5th to mark the end of the occupation by Nazi Germany during World War II.

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Life expectancy

Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.

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Limburg (Netherlands)

Limburg (Dutch and Limburgish: (Nederlands-)Limburg; Limbourg) is the southernmost of the 12 provinces of the Netherlands.

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LimburgishLimburgish is pronounced, whereas Limburgan, Limburgian and Limburgic are, and.

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Limes Germanicus

The Limes Germanicus (Latin for Germanic frontier) was a line of frontier (limes) fortifications that bounded the ancient Roman provinces of Germania Inferior, Germania Superior and Raetia, dividing the Roman Empire and the unsubdued Germanic tribes from the years 83 to about 260 AD.

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Linear Pottery culture

The Linear Pottery culture is a major archaeological horizon of the European Neolithic, flourishing 5500–4500 BC.

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List of countries and dependencies by area

This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.

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List of countries and dependencies by population

This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population.

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List of countries and dependencies by population density

This is a list of countries and dependent territories ranked by population density, measured by the number of human inhabitants per square kilometer.

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List of countries by economic freedom

This article includes a partial List of countries by economic freedom that shows the top 50 highest ranking countries from two reports on economic freedom.

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List of countries by GDP (nominal)

Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year.

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List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita

The world sorted by their gross domestic product per capita at nominal values.

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List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita

Three lists of countries below calculate gross domestic product (at purchasing power parity) per capita, i.e., the purchasing power parity (PPP) value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given year, divided by the average (or mid-year) population for the same year.

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List of countries by inequality-adjusted HDI

This is a list of countries by inequality-adjusted human development index (IHDI), as published by the UNDP in its 2016 Human Development Report.

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List of countries by rail transport network size

This list of countries by rail transport network size based on International Union of Railways data ranks countries by length of rail lines worked at end of year updated with other reliable sources.

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List of heavy metal festivals

This is an incomplete list of heavy metal festivals.

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List of metropolitan areas in Europe

This is a list of metropolitan areas in Europe, with their population according to three different sources.

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List of municipalities of the Netherlands

As of January 2018, there are 380 municipalities (Dutch: gemeenten) and 3 public bodies (openbare lichamen), also referred to as special municipalities (bijzondere gemeenten), in the Netherlands.

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List of political parties in the Netherlands

This article lists political parties in the Netherlands, which has a multi-party system with numerous political parties, in which any one party has little chance of gaining power alone, and parties often work with each other to form coalition governments.

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List of the busiest airports in Europe

This is a list of the 100 busiest airports in Europe, ranked by total passengers per year, including both terminal and transit passengers.

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Lists of countries by GDP per capita

There are two articles listing countries according to their per capita GDP.

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Loneliness is a complex and usually unpleasant emotional response to isolation.

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Lordship of Frisia

The Lordship of Frisia or Lordship of Friesland (Hearlikheid Fryslân, Heerlijkheid Friesland) was a feudal dominion in the Netherlands.

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Lordship of Groningen

The Lordship of Groningen (Heerlijkheid Groningen) was a lordship under the rule of the House of Habsburg between 1536 and 1594, which is the present-day province of Groningen.

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Lordship of Overijssel

The Lordship of Overijssel or Overissel (Latin: Transisalania) is a former division of the Netherlands named for its position along the river Issel.

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Lordship of Utrecht

The Lordship of Utrecht was formed in 1528 when Charles V of Habsburg conquered the Bishopric of Utrecht, during the Guelders Wars.

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Lothair I

Lothair I or Lothar I (Dutch and Medieval Latin: Lotharius, German: Lothar, French: Lothaire, Italian: Lotario) (795 – 29 September 855) was the Holy Roman Emperor (817–855, co-ruling with his father until 840), and the governor of Bavaria (815–817), Italy (818–855) and Middle Francia (840–855).

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Lothair II

Lothair II (835 –) was the king of Lotharingia from 855 until his death.

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Lotharingia (Latin: Lotharii regnum) was a medieval successor kingdom of the Carolingian Empire, comprising the present-day Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany), Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany), Saarland (Germany), and Lorraine (France).

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Louis Andriessen

Louis Andriessen (born 6 June 1939) is a Dutch composer and pianist based in Amsterdam.

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Louis Bonaparte

Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (born Luigi Buonaparte; 2 September 1778 – 25 July 1846) was a younger brother of Napoleon I, Emperor of the French.

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Louis Couperus

Louis Marie-Anne Couperus (10 June 1863 – 16 July 1923) was a Dutch novelist and poet.

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Love encompasses a variety of different emotional and mental states, typically strongly and positively experienced, ranging from the most sublime virtue or good habit, the deepest interpersonal affection and to the simplest pleasure.

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Low Countries

The Low Countries or, in the geographic sense of the term, the Netherlands (de Lage Landen or de Nederlanden, les Pays Bas) is a coastal region in northwestern Europe, consisting especially of the Netherlands and Belgium, and the low-lying delta of the Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, and Ems rivers where much of the land is at or below sea level.

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Lower house

A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house.

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Lower Lorraine

The Duchy of Lower Lorraine, or Lower Lotharingia (also referred to as Lothier or Lottier in titles), was a stem duchy established in 959, of the medieval Kingdom of Germany, which encompassed almost all of the modern Netherlands (including Friesland), central and eastern Belgium, Luxemburg, the northern part of the German Rhineland province and the eastern parts of France's Nord-Pas de Calais region.

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Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.

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Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.

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M. C. Escher

Maurits Cornelis Escher (17 June 1898 – 27 March 1972) was a Dutch graphic artist who made mathematically-inspired woodcuts, lithographs, and mezzotints.

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Maastricht (Limburgish: Mestreech; French: Maestricht; Spanish: Mastrique) is a city and a municipality in the southeast of the Netherlands.

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The Maeslantkering is a storm surge barrier on the Nieuwe Waterweg, Netherlands controlled by a supercomputer.

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Maglemosian culture

Maglemosian (c. 9000 – c. 6000 BC) is the name given to a culture of the early Mesolithic period in Northern Europe.

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Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body.

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Manhattan is the most densely populated borough of New York City, its economic and administrative center, and its historical birthplace.

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Maritime boundary

A maritime boundary is a conceptual division of the Earth's water surface areas using physiographic or geopolitical criteria.

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Mark Rutte

Mark Rutte (born 14 February 1967) is a Dutch politician serving as the 50th and current Prime Minister of the Netherlands since 2010 and Leader of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (Volkspartij voor Vrijheid en Democratie – VVD) since 2006.

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Marken (Marken's dialect: Mereke) is a village with a population of 1,810 located in the municipality of Waterland in the province of North Holland, Netherlands.

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Martin Garrix

Martijn Gerard Garritsen (born 14 May 1996), known professionally as Martin Garrix (stylized as Mar+in Garri×), is a Dutch DJ, record producer and musician from Amstelveen.

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Mass media

The mass media is a diversified collection of media technologies that reach a large audience via mass communication.

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Maurice, Prince of Orange

Maurice of Orange (Dutch: Maurits van Oranje) (14 November 1567 – 23 April 1625) was stadtholder of all the provinces of the Dutch Republic except for Friesland from 1585 at earliest until his death in 1625.

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Max Havelaar

Max Havelaar: Or the Coffee Auctions of the Dutch Trading Company (Max Havelaar, of de koffi-veilingen der Nederlandsche Handel-Maatschappy) is an 1860 novel by Multatuli (the pen name of Eduard Douwes Dekker), which played a key role in shaping and modifying Dutch colonial policy in the Dutch East Indies in the nineteenth and early twentieth century.

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Max Verstappen

Max Emilian Verstappen (born 30 September 1997) is a Belgian-Dutch racing driver who competes under the Dutch flag in Formula One with Red Bull Racing.

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Mayonnaise (also), informally mayo, is a thick cold sauce or dressing usually used in sandwiches and composed salads.

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A megalopolis (sometimes called a megapolis; also megaregion, or supercity) is typically defined as a chain of roughly adjacent metropolitan areas, which may be somewhat separated or may merge into a continuous urban region.

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Member of parliament

A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament.

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The Menapii were a Belgic tribe of northern Gaul in pre-Roman and Roman times.

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In Old World archaeology, Mesolithic (Greek: μέσος, mesos "middle"; λίθος, lithos "stone") is the period between the Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic.

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Metres above sea level

Metres above mean sea level (MAMSL) or simply metres above sea level (MASL or m a.s.l.) is a standard metric measurement in metres of the elevation or altitude of a location in reference to a historic mean sea level.

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Metropolitan area

A metropolitan area, sometimes referred to as a metro area or commuter belt, is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing.

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Metworst or droge worst (dry sausage) is a type of traditional Dutch sausage.

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The Meuse (la Meuse; Walloon: Moûze) or Maas (Maas; Maos or Maas) is a major European river, rising in France and flowing through Belgium and the Netherlands before draining into the North Sea.

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Meuse-Rhenish (German: Rheinmaasländisch, Dutch: Maas-Rijnlands, and French: francique rhéno-mosan) is a modern term that refers to the literature written in the Middle Ages in the greater Meuse-Rhine area.

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Michiel Huisman

Michiel Huisman (born 18 July 1981) is a Dutch actor, musician, and singer-songwriter, who has acted in both Dutch and English language TV series and films.

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A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.

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A microscope (from the μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye.

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Middelburg is a city and municipality in the south-western Netherlands serving as the capital of the province of Zeeland.

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Middle Francia

Middle Francia (Francia media) was a short-lived Frankish kingdom which was created in 843 by the Treaty of Verdun after an intermittent civil war between the grandsons of Charlemagne resulted in division of the united empire.

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Migrant worker

A "migrant worker" is a person who either migrates within their home country or outside it to pursue work such as seasonal work.

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Migration Period

The Migration Period was a period during the decline of the Roman Empire around the 4th to 6th centuries AD in which there were widespread migrations of peoples within or into Europe, mostly into Roman territory, notably the Germanic tribes and the Huns.

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Minister without portfolio

A minister without portfolio is either a government minister with no specific responsibilities or a minister who does not head a particular ministry.

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Ministry of Justice and Security

The Ministry of Justice and Security (Ministerie van Justitie en Veiligheid; JenV) is the Dutch Ministry responsible for justice, imprisonment and public security.

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Minority government

A minority government, or minority cabinet or minority parliament, is a cabinet formed in a parliamentary system when a political party or coalition of parties does not have a majority of overall seats in the parliament.

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A misnomer is a name or term that suggests an idea that is known to be wrong.

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Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

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Mohammed Bouyeri

Mohammed Bouyeri (محمد بويري; born 8 March 1978) is a Moroccan-Dutch Islamic terrorist and convicted murderer serving a life sentence without parole in Vught for the assassination of Dutch film director Theo van Gogh.

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Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco (Principauté de Monaco), is a sovereign city-state, country and microstate on the French Riviera in Western Europe.

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A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy.

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Monarchy of the Netherlands

The monarchy of the Netherlands is constitutional and as such, the role and position of the monarch are defined and limited by the Constitution of the Netherlands.

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A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone (hermits).

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The terms Moroccan-Dutch or Dutch-Moroccans refer to immigrants from Morocco to the Netherlands and their descendants.

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Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.

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Motion of no confidence

A motion of no confidence (alternatively vote of no confidence, no-confidence motion, or (unsuccessful) confidence motion) is a statement or vote which states that a person(s) in a position of responsibility (government, managerial, etc.) is no longer deemed fit to hold that position, perhaps because they are inadequate in some respect, are failing to carry out obligations, or are making decisions that other members feel are detrimental.

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Mount Scenery

Mount Scenery is a potentially active volcano in the Caribbean Netherlands.

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Mudflats or mud flats, also known as tidal flats, are coastal wetlands that form when mud is deposited by tides or rivers.

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Eduard Douwes Dekker (2 March 1820 – 19 February 1887), better known by his pen name Multatuli (from Latin multa tulī, "I have suffered much"), was a Dutch writer famous for his satirical novel Max Havelaar (1860), which denounced the abuses of colonialism in the Dutch East Indies (today's Indonesia).

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Multiculturalism is a term with a range of meanings in the contexts of sociology, political philosophy, and in colloquial use.

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Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time.

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Mustard (condiment)

Mustard is a condiment made from the seeds of a mustard plant (white/ yellow mustard, Sinapis alba; brown/ Indian mustard, Brassica juncea; or black mustard, Brassica nigra).

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Naarden is a city and former municipality in the Gooi region in the province of North Holland, Netherlands.

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() is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture on the island of Kyushu in Japan.

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Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.

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Nasi goreng

Nasi goreng, literally meaning "fried rice" in Indonesian, can refer simply to fried pre-cooked rice, a meal including stir fried rice in a small amount of cooking oil or margarine, typically spiced with kecap manis (sweet soy sauce), shallot, garlic, ground shrimp paste, tamarind and chilli and accompanied by other ingredients, particularly egg, chicken and prawns.

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National Film School in Łódź

The Leon Schiller National Higher School of Film, Television and Theatre in Łódź (Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła Filmowa, Telewizyjna i Teatralna im. Leona Schillera w Łodzi) is the leading Polish academy for future actors, directors, photographers, camera operators and TV staff.

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National Hockey League

The National Hockey League (NHL; Ligue nationale de hockey—LNH) is a professional ice hockey league in North America, currently comprising 31 teams: 24 in the United States and 7 in Canada.

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National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands

The National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands (Nationaal-Socialistische Beweging in Nederland,, NSB) was a Dutch fascist and later national socialist political party.

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The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.

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Natural gas field

Natural gas originates by the same geological thermal cracking process that converts kerogen to petroleum.

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Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

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Neanderthals (also; also Neanderthal Man, taxonomically Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo, who lived in Eurasia during at least 430,000 to 38,000 years ago.

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Nederlandse Omroep Stichting

The Nederlandse Omroep Stichting (abbr. NOS), English: Dutch Broadcast Foundation, is one of the broadcasting organizations making up the Netherlands Public Broadcasting system.

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Nederpop is a Dutch term invented by the mid-1970s to describe the Dutch pop music scene of the 1960s and 1970s that was gaining worldwide attention, exemplified by bands such as Shocking Blue, Golden Earring and Focus.

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The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.

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Netherlands Antillean guilder

The Netherlands Antillean guilder (gulden) is the currency of Curaçao and Sint Maarten, which until 2010 formed the Netherlands Antilles along with Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius.

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Netherlands Antilles

The Netherlands Antilles (Nederlandse Antillen,; Papiamentu: Antia Hulandes) was a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

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Netherlands Film Academy

The Netherlands Film Academy (Nederlandse Filmacademie) (NFA) was founded in 1958.

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Netherlands men's national volleyball team

The Netherlands men's national volleyball team represents the Netherlands in FIVB tournaments.

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Netherlands national baseball team

The Netherlands national baseball team is the national baseball team of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, representing the country in international men's baseball.

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Netherlands national football team

The Netherlands national football team (Het Nederlands Elftal) represents the Netherlands in international football.

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Netherlands women's national field hockey team

The Netherlands' national women's field hockey team is currently number one on the FIH world rankings and they are the reigning world champions.

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Netherlands women's national volleyball team

The Netherlands women's national volleyball team is the national volleyball team of the Netherlands.

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Neutral country

A neutral country is a state, which is either neutral towards belligerents in a specific war, or holds itself as permanently neutral in all future conflicts (including avoiding entering into military alliances such as NATO).

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New Amsterdam

New Amsterdam (Nieuw Amsterdam, or) was a 17th-century Dutch settlement established at the southern tip of Manhattan Island that served as the seat of the colonial government in New Netherland.

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New Imperialism

In historical contexts, New Imperialism characterizes a period of colonial expansion by European powers, the United States, and Japan during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

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New Netherland

New Netherland (Dutch: Nieuw Nederland; Latin: Nova Belgica or Novum Belgium) was a 17th-century colony of the Dutch Republic that was located on the east coast of North America.

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Nick & Simon

Nick & Simon are a Dutch singer-songwriter duo composed of Simon Keizer and Nick Schilder.

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Nicky Romero

Nick Rotteveel (born 6 January 1989), professionally known as Nicky Romero, is a Dutch DJ, record producer, musician and remixer from Amerongen.

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Nijmegen (Nijmeegs: Nimwegen), historically anglicized as Nimeguen, is a municipality and a city in the Dutch province of Gelderland.

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The acronym NLD can refer to.

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The Dutch Olympic Committee*Dutch Sports Federation, (Nederlands Olympisch Comité*Nederlandse Sport Federatie) generally abbreviated NOC*NSF, is the overall coordinating Dutch sports organization that also functions as the Dutch National Olympic Committee and National Paralympic Committee.

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A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.

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The Nordwestblock ("Northwest Block") is a hypothetical Northwestern European cultural region that several scholars propose as a prehistoric culture in the present-day Netherlands, Belgium, northern France, and northwest Germany in an area approximately bounded by the rivers Somme, Oise, Meuse, and Elbe, and possibly extending to the eastern part of what is now England, during the Bronze and Iron Ages from the 3rd to 1st millennia BCE up to the onset of historical sources in the 1st century BCE.

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North Brabant

North Brabant (Noord-Brabant), also unofficially called Brabant, is a province in the south of the Netherlands.

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North Holland

North Holland (Noord-Holland, West Frisian Dutch: Noard-Holland) is a province of the Netherlands located in the northwestern part of the country.

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North Sea

The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.

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North Sea flood of 1953

The 1953 North Sea flood was a major flood caused by a heavy storm that occurred on the night of Saturday, 31 January 1953 and morning of Sunday, 1 February 1953.

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North Sea Germanic

North Sea Germanic, also known as Ingvaeonic, is a postulated grouping of the northern West Germanic languages, consisting of Old Frisian, Old English and Old Saxon and their descendants.

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Oceanic climate

An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.

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The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.

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Old Dutch

In linguistics, Old Dutch or Old Low Franconian is the set of Franconian dialects (i.e. dialects that evolved from Frankish) spoken in the Low Countries during the Early Middle Ages, from around the 5th to the 12th century.

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An oliebol (plural oliebollen) (also olykoek) is a traditional Dutch and Belgian food.

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Orangism (Dutch Republic)

In the history of the Dutch Republic, Orangism or prinsgezindheid ("pro-prince stance") was a political force opposing the ''Staatsgezinde'' (pro-Republic) party.

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Oranjestad, Sint Eustatius

Oranjestad (Dutch: Prins van Oranje) and related articles for more. Town) is a small town of approximately 1,000 inhabitants; it is the capital of the island of Sint Eustatius in the Caribbean Netherlands.

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Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons

The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) is an intergovernmental organisation and the implementing body for the Chemical Weapons Convention, which entered into force on 29 April 1997.

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Oudewater is a municipality and a town in the Netherlands.

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Outline of the Netherlands

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the Netherlands.

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Overijssel (Dutch Low Saxon: Oaveriessel) is a province of the Netherlands in the central-eastern part of the country.

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Oxfam is a confederation of 20 independent charitable organizations focusing on the alleviation of global poverty, founded in 1942 and led by Oxfam International.

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Oyster is the common name for a number of different families of salt-water bivalve molluscs that live in marine or brackish habitats.

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Pacification of 1917

The Pacification of 1917 is an event in Dutch politics.

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Papiamento or Papiamentu is a Portuguese-based creole language spoken in the Dutch West Indies.

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In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government.

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Parliamentary system

A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.

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Pars pro toto

Pars pro toto, Latin for "a part (taken) for the whole", is a figure of speech where the name of a portion of an object, place, or concept represents its entirety.

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Party for Freedom

The Party for Freedom (Partij voor de Vrijheid, PVV) is a Dutch nationalist and right-wing populist political party in the Netherlands.

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Party system

A party system is a concept in comparative political science concerning the system of government by political parties in a democratic country.

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Party-list proportional representation

Party-list proportional representation systems are a family of voting systems emphasizing proportional representation (PR) in elections in which multiple candidates are elected (e.g., elections to parliament) through allocations to an electoral list.

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Pasar malam

Pasar malam (Nacht Markt or Avondmarkt) is an Indonesian and Malay word that literally means "night market" (the word comes from bazaar in Persian).

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Pastoralism is the branch of agriculture concerned with the raising of livestock.

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The Patriottentijd (English: Patriot Period) was a period of political instability in the Dutch Republic between approximately 1780 and 1787.

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Paul Verhoeven

Paul Verhoeven (born 18 July 1938) is a Dutch director, screenwriter and film producer.

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Peace of Münster

The Peace of Münster was a treaty between the Lords States General of the United Netherlands and the Spanish Crown, the terms of which were agreed on 30 January 1648.

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Peat, also called turf, is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation or organic matter that is unique to natural areas called peatlands, bogs, mires, moors, or muskegs.

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Pendulum clock

A pendulum clock is a clock that uses a pendulum, a swinging weight, as its timekeeping element.

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The Christian feast day of Pentecost is seven weeks after Easter Sunday: that is to say, the fiftieth day after Easter inclusive of Easter Sunday.

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People's Party for Freedom and Democracy

The People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (Volkspartij voor Vrijheid en Democratie, VVD) is a conservative-liberal political party in the Netherlands.

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Permanent Court of Arbitration

The Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) is an intergovernmental organization located at The Hague in the Netherlands.

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Personal union

A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct.

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Pesse canoe

The Pesse canoe is believed to be the world's oldest known boat, and certainly the oldest canoe.

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Petrochemicals (also known as petroleum distillates) are chemical products derived from petroleum.

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Philip Glass

Philip Glass (born January 31, 1937) is an American composer.

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Philip II of Spain

Philip II (Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598), called "the Prudent" (el Prudente), was King of Spain (1556–98), King of Portugal (1581–98, as Philip I, Filipe I), King of Naples and Sicily (both from 1554), and jure uxoris King of England and Ireland (during his marriage to Queen Mary I from 1554–58).

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Philip IV of Spain

Philip IV of Spain (Felipe IV; 8 April 1605 – 17 September 1665) was King of Spain (as Philip IV in Castille and Philip III in Aragon) and Portugal as Philip III (Filipe III).

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Philip the Good

Philip the Good (Philippe le Bon, Filips de Goede; 31 July 1396 – 15 June 1467) was Duke of Burgundy as Philip III from 1419 until his death.

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Koninklijke Philips N.V. (Philips, stylized as PHILIPS) is a Dutch multinational technology company headquartered in Amsterdam currently focused in the area of healthcare.

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Phytogeography (from Greek φυτό, phyto.

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Piet Hein Donner

Jan Pieter Hendrik "Piet Hein" Donner (born 20 October 1948) is a Dutch politician of the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA).

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Piet Mondrian

Pieter Cornelis "Piet" Mondriaan, after 1906 Mondrian (later; 7 March 1872 – 1 February 1944), was a Dutch painter and theoretician who is regarded as one of the greatest artists of the 20th century.

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Pieter Cornelisz van Soest

Pieter Cornelisz van Soest (born c. 1600-1620, flourished c. 1640–67) was a Dutch marine artist, especially prolific in battle-pieces.

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Pieter Corneliszoon Hooft

Pieter Corneliszoon Hooft (16 March 1581 in Amsterdam – 21 May 1647 in The Hague) - Knight in the Order of Saint Michael - was a Dutch historian, poet and playwright from the period known as the Dutch Golden Age.

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Pillarisation (verzuiling) is the politico-denominational segregation of a society.

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Pim Fortuyn

Wilhelmus Simon Petrus Fortuijn, known as Pim Fortuyn (19 February 1948 – 6 May 2002), was a Dutch politician, civil servant, sociologist, author and professor who formed his own party, Pim Fortuyn List (Lijst Pim Fortuyn or LPF) in 2002.

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Pim Fortuyn List

The Pim Fortuyn List (Lijst Pim Fortuyn, LPF) was a right-wing populist political party in the Netherlands.

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Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.

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A polder is a low-lying tract of land enclosed by dikes that form an artificial hydrological entity, meaning it has no connection with outside water other than through manually operated devices.

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Political faction

A political faction is a group of individuals within a larger entity, such as a political party, a trade union or other group, or simply a political climate, united by a particular common political purpose that differs in some respect to the rest of the entity.

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Pop music

Pop music is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form in the United States and United Kingdom during the mid-1950s.

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Population density

Population density (in agriculture: standing stock and standing crop) is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume; it is a quantity of type number density.

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Population growth

In biology or human geography, population growth is the increase in the number of individuals in a population.

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Port of Rotterdam

The Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, located in the city of Rotterdam, Netherlands.

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Present Danger

Present Danger is a Big Finish original anthology edited by Eddie Robson.

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Press Freedom Index

The Press Freedom Index is an annual ranking of countries compiled and published by Reporters Without Borders based upon the organisation's own assessment of the countries' press freedom records in the previous year.

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Prime Minister of the Netherlands

The Prime Minister of the Netherlands (Minister-president van Nederland) is the head of the executive branch of the Government of the Netherlands in his quality of chair of the Council of Ministers.

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Primus inter pares

Primus inter pares (Πρῶτος μεταξὺ ἴσων) is a Latin phrase meaning first among equals.

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Progressivism is the support for or advocacy of improvement of society by reform.

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Contemporary business and science treat as a project any undertaking, carried out individually or collaboratively and possibly involving research or design, that is carefully planned (usually by a project team) to achieve a particular aim.

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Prostitution in the Netherlands

Prostitution in the Netherlands is legal and regulated.

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Protestant Church in the Netherlands

The Protestant Church in the Netherlands (Protestantse Kerk in Nederland, abbreviated PKN) is the largest Protestant denomination in the Netherlands, being both Reformed (Calvinist) and Lutheran.

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Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.

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Provinces of the Netherlands

There are currently twelve provinces of the Netherlands, representing the administrative layer between the national government and the local municipalities, with responsibility for matters of subnational or regional importance.

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Public body (Netherlands)

In the Netherlands, the term public body (a literal translation from the Dutch term openbaar lichaam) is the general denomination for administrative divisions within the Dutch state, such as the central government, a province, a municipality or a water board.

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Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico (Spanish for "Rich Port"), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, "Free Associated State of Puerto Rico") and briefly called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea.

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Purple (government)

Purple is a common term in politics for governments or other political entities consisting of parties that have red and blue as their political colours.

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Queen consort

A queen consort is the wife of a reigning king (or an empress consort in the case of an emperor).

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Rabobank (full name: Coöperatieve Rabobank U.A.) is a Dutch multinational banking and financial services company headquartered in Utrecht, Netherlands.

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Radboud University Nijmegen

Radboud University Nijmegen (abbreviated as RU, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, formerly Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen) is a public university with a strong focus on research located in Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

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Radicalism (historical)

The term "Radical" (from the Latin radix meaning root) during the late 18th-century and early 19th-century identified proponents of democratic reform, in what subsequently became the parliamentary Radical Movement.

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In Dutch history, the year 1672 was known as the rampjaar, the "disaster year." That year, following the outbreak of the Franco-Dutch War and the Third Anglo-Dutch War, the Dutch Republic was simultaneously attacked by England, France, and the prince-bishops Bernhard von Galen, bishop of Münster, and Maximilian Henry of Bavaria, archbishop of Cologne.

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The Randstad is a megalopolis in the central-western Netherlands consisting primarily of the four largest Dutch cities (Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht) and their surrounding areas.

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Randstad Holding

Randstad NV, commonly known as Randstad and stylized as randstad, is a Dutch multinational human resource consulting firm headquartered in Diemen, Netherlands.

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Redbad, King of the Frisians

Redbad (alt. Radbod, Raedbed) (died 719) was the king (or duke) of Frisia from c. 680 until his death.

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The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.

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Reformed Churches in the Netherlands

The Reformed Churches in the Netherlands (Gereformeerde Kerken in Nederland, abbreviated Gereformeerde kerk) was the second largest Protestant church in the Netherlands and one of the two major Reformed denominations along with the Dutch Reformed Church since 1892 until being merged into the Protestant Church in the Netherlands in 2004.

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Reformed Political Party

The Reformed Political Party (Staatkundig Gereformeerde Partij, SGP) is an orthodox CalvinistThese sources describe the SGP as a Calvinist political party.

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A refugee, generally speaking, is a displaced person who has been forced to cross national boundaries and who cannot return home safely (for more detail see legal definition).

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Regiment van Heutsz

The Regiment van Heutsz is a line infantry regiment of the Royal Netherlands Army.

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The reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), also known as the caribou in North America, is a species of deer with circumpolar distribution, native to Arctic, sub-Arctic, tundra, boreal and mountainous regions of northern Europe, Siberia and North America.

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Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (15 July 1606 – 4 October 1669) was a Dutch draughtsman, painter, and printmaker.

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René Descartes

René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.

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Reporters Without Borders

Reporters Without Borders (RWB), or Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF), is an international non-profit, non-governmental organization that promotes and defends freedom of information and freedom of the press.

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Reputation or image of a social entity (a person, a social group, or an organization) is an opinion about that entity, typically as a result of social evaluation on a set of criteria.

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ReVamp was a Dutch progressive metal band formed by singer-songwriter Floor Jansen after her previous band After Forever disbanded in 2009.

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Revolt of the Batavi

The Revolt of the Batavi took place in the Roman province of Germania Inferior between AD 69 and 70.

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--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.

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Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta

The Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta or Helinium is a river delta in the Netherlands formed by the confluence of the Rhine, the Meuse and the Scheldt rivers.

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The Indonesian rijsttafel, a Dutch word that literally translates to "rice table", is an elaborate meal adapted by the Dutch following the hidang presentation of nasi Padang from the Padang region of West Sumatra.

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Ripuarian language

Ripuarian (also Ripuarian Franconian or Ripuarisch Platt) is a German dialect group, part of the West Central German language group.

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Risk equalization

Risk equalization is a way of equalizing the risk profiles of insurance members to avoid loading premiums on the insured to some predetermined extent.

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Risk pool

A risk pool is one of the forms of risk management mostly practiced by insurance companies.

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Rita Verdonk

Maria Cornelia Frederika "Rita" Verdonk (born 18 October 1955) is a retired Dutch politician.

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River delta

A river delta is a landform that forms from deposition of sediment carried by a river as the flow leaves its mouth and enters slower-moving or stagnant water.

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Roads in the Netherlands

With 139,000 km of public roads, the Netherlands has one of the most dense road networks in the world – much denser than Germany and France, but still not as dense as Belgium.

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Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester

Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester (24 June 1532 – 4 September 1588) was an English nobleman and the favourite and close friend of Elizabeth I's, from her first year on the throne until his death.

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RoboCop is a 1987 American cyberpunk action film directed by Paul Verhoeven and written by Edward Neumeier and Michael Miner.

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Rock music

Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, and developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and later, particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Roman province

In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin: provincia, pl. provinciae) was the basic and, until the Tetrarchy (from 293 AD), the largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside Italy.

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Romance languages

The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.

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Romani language

Romani (also Romany; romani čhib) is any of several languages of the Romani people belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Rookworst (smoked sausage) is a type of Dutch sausage in which ground meat is mixed with spices and salt and stuffed into a casing (originally made of intestine, but these days usually made of bovine collagen).

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Room for the River (Netherlands)

In the Netherlands, Room for the River; Ruimte voor de Rivier, is a government design plan intended to address flood protection, master landscaping and the improvement of environmental conditions in the areas surrounding the Netherlands' rivers.

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Rorik of Dorestad

Rorik (Roricus, Rorichus; Old Norse HrœrekR, c. 810 – c. 880) was a Danish Viking, who ruled over parts of Friesland between 841 and 873, conquering Dorestad and Utrecht in 850.

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Rotterdam is a city in the Netherlands, in South Holland within the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt river delta at the North Sea.

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Routledge is a British multinational publisher.

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Rowwen Hèze

Rowwen Hèze is a band from the small village of America in the province of Limburg, the Netherlands.

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Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra

The Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra (Koninklijk Concertgebouworkest) is a symphony orchestra in the Netherlands, based at the Amsterdam Royal Concertgebouw (concert hall).

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Royal Dutch Shell

Royal Dutch Shell plc, commonly known as Shell, is a British–Dutch multinational oil and gas company headquartered in the Netherlands and incorporated in the United Kingdom.

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Royal Marechaussee

The Koninklijke Marechaussee, the Royal Netherlands Marechaussee, abbreviated to KMar (English is Royal Marshals, but commonly seen as Royal Military Constabulary), is one of the four Services of the armed forces of the Netherlands.

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Royal Netherlands Air Force

The Royal Netherlands Air Force (RNLAF; Koninklijke Luchtmacht (KLu), "Royal Air Force"), is the military aviation branch of the Netherlands Armed Forces.

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Royal Netherlands Army

The Royal Netherlands Army (Koninklijke Landmacht (KL), "Royal Army") is the land forces element of the military of the Netherlands.

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Royal Netherlands East Indies Army

The Royal Netherlands East Indies Army (Koninklijk Nederlands Indisch Leger; KNIL) was the military force maintained by the Netherlands in its colony of the Netherlands East Indies (also known as the Dutch East Indies), in areas that are now part of Indonesia.

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Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies

The Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies (lit, abbreviated: KITLV) at Leiden was founded in 1851.

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Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute

The Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (Dutch: Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut or KNMI) is the Dutch national weather forecasting service, which has its headquarters in De Bilt, in the province of Utrecht, Netherlands.

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Royal Netherlands Navy

The Royal Netherlands Navy (Koninklijke Marine, “Royal Navy”) is the navy of the Netherlands.

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Russian language

Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.

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Rutger Hauer

No description.

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Rye bread

Rye bread is a type of bread made with various proportions of flour from rye grain.

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Saba is a Caribbean island which is the smallest special municipality (officially “public body”) of the Netherlands.

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Saddam Hussein

Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي; 28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was President of Iraq from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003.

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Saint Barthélemy

Saint Barthélemy, officially the Territorial collectivity of Saint-Barthélemy (Collectivité territoriale de Saint-Barthélemy), called Ouanalao by the indigenous people, is an overseas collectivity of France in the West Indies.

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Saint Boniface

Saint Boniface (Bonifatius; 675 – 5 June 754 AD), born Winfrid (also spelled Winifred, Wynfrith, Winfrith or Wynfryth) in the kingdom of Wessex in Anglo-Saxon England, was a leading figure in the Anglo-Saxon mission to the Germanic parts of the Frankish Empire during the 8th century.

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Saint Kitts and Nevis

Saint Kitts and Nevis, also known as the Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis, is an island country in the West Indies.

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Salian Franks

The Salian Franks, also called the Salians (Latin: Salii; Greek: Σάλιοι Salioi), were a northwestern subgroup of the earliest Franks who first appear in the historical records in the third century.

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Salic law

The Salic law (or; Lex salica), or the was the ancient Salian Frankish civil law code compiled around AD 500 by the first Frankish King, Clovis.

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Same-sex marriage in the Netherlands

In the Netherlands, same-sex marriage (Dutch: Huwelijk tussen personen van gelijk geslacht or commonly homohuwelijk) has been legal since 1 April 2001.

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San Marino

San Marino, officially the Republic of San Marino (Repubblica di San Marino), also known as the Most Serene Republic of San Marino (Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino), is an enclaved microstate surrounded by Italy, situated on the Italian Peninsula on the northeastern side of the Apennine Mountains.

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Satay, or sate in Indonesian spelling, is a dish of seasoned, skewered and grilled meat, served with a sauce.

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Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter.

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Sauerkraut is finely cut cabbage that has been fermented by various lactic acid bacteria.

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The Saxons (Saxones, Sachsen, Seaxe, Sahson, Sassen, Saksen) were a Germanic people whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country (Old Saxony, Saxonia) near the North Sea coast of what is now Germany.

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The Scheldt (l'Escaut, Escô, Schelde) is a long river in northern France, western Belgium and the southwestern part of the Netherlands.

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Schengen Area

The Schengen Area is an area comprising 26 European states that have officially abolished passport and all other types of border control at their mutual borders.

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Schiphol Group

Royal Schiphol Group is a Dutch company with its head office on the grounds of Amsterdam Airport Schiphol in Haarlemmermeer, Netherlands.

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Schlager music

Schlager music ("hit(s)") is a style of popular music which is generally a catchy instrumental accompaniment to vocal pieces of pop music with easy to understand, happy-go-lucky and often sentimental lyrics.

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Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.

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Scots pine

Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is a species of pine that is native to Eurasia, ranging from Western Europe to Eastern Siberia, south to the Caucasus Mountains and Anatolia, and north to well inside the Arctic Circle in Scandinavia.

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Scuba diving

Scuba diving is a mode of underwater diving where the diver uses a self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (scuba) which is completely independent of surface supply, to breathe underwater.

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As part of UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon’s initiatives to promote sustainable development, UNSDN was launched in 2012 to mobilize global scientific and technological knowledge on the challenges and set indicators for sustainable development goal, including the design and implementation of the post-2015 global sustainable development agenda.

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Sea level

Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured.

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Seafood is any form of sea life regarded as food by humans.

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Second Anglo-Dutch War

The Second Anglo-Dutch War (4 March 1665 – 31 July 1667), or the Second Dutch War (Tweede Engelse Oorlog "Second English War") was a conflict fought between England and the Dutch Republic for control over the seas and trade routes, where England tried to end the Dutch domination of world trade during a period of intense European commercial rivalry.

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Second Balkenende cabinet

The Second Balkenende cabinet was the cabinet of the Netherlands from 27 May 2003 until 7 July 2006.

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Second Rutte cabinet

The Second Rutte cabinet, also called the Rutte–Asscher cabinet was the cabinet of the Netherlands from 5 November 2012 until 26 October 2017.

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Seine–Oise–Marne culture

Megalithic grave The Seine–Oise–Marne or SOM culture is the name given by archaeologists to the final culture of the Neolithic and first culture of the Chalcolithic in northern France and southern Belgium.

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Senate (Netherlands)

The Senate (or simply, literally "First Chamber", or sometimes) is the upper house of the States General, the legislature of the Netherlands.

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Seventeen Provinces

The Seventeen Provinces were the Imperial states of the Habsburg Netherlands in the 16th century.

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Shenyang, formerly known by its Manchu name Mukden or Fengtian, is the provincial capital and the largest city of Liaoning Province, People's Republic of China, as well as the largest city in Northeast China by urban population.

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Shocking Blue

Shocking Blue was a Dutch rock band formed in The Hague in 1967.

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The term shrimp is used to refer to some decapod crustaceans, although the exact animals covered can vary.

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Simeon ten Holt

Simeon ten Holt (24 January 1923 – 25 November 2012) was a Dutch contemporary classical composer.

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Simon Vestdijk

Simon Vestdijk (17 October 1898 – 23 March 1971) was a Dutch writer.

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Sint Eustatius

Sint Eustatius, also known affectionately to the locals as Statia,Tuchman, Barbara W. The First Salute: A View of the American Revolution New York: Ballantine Books, 1988.

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Sint Maarten

Sint Maarten is an island country in the Caribbean.

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Slechtvalk (the Dutch word for peregrine falcon) is a Christian Viking metal band from the Netherlands, formed in 1999.

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Slochteren is a village and former municipality with a population of 15,546 in the province of Groningen in the northeast of the Netherlands.

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Snap election

A snap election is an election called earlier than expected.

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Social democracy

Social democracy is a political, social and economic ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and capitalist economy.

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Social-Economic Council

The Sociaal-Economische Raad (English: Social and Economic Council; SER) is a major economic advisory council to the cabinet of the Netherlands.

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Socialist Party (Netherlands)

The Socialist Party (Socialistische Partij,; abbreviated SP) is a left-wing, democratic socialist political party in the Netherlands.

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Soldier of Orange

Soldier of Orange (Soldaat van Oranje) is a 1977 Dutch film directed and co-written by Paul Verhoeven and produced by Rob Houwer, starring Rutger Hauer and Jeroen Krabbé.

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Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.

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Soused herring

Soused herring is raw herring soaked in a mild preserving liquid.

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South Africa

South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.

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South Guelderish

South Guelderish (Dutch: Zuid-Gelders, German: Südgeldersch, Kleverländisch) refers to the easternmost group of Dutch dialects spoken along the lower Rhine (Dutch Nederrijn and German Niederrhein).

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South Holland

South Holland (Zuid-Holland) is a province of the Netherlands with a population of just over 3.6 million as of 2015 and a population density of about, making it the country's most populous province and one of the world's most densely populated areas.

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South Korea

South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.

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Southeast Asia

Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.

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Southern Netherlands

The Southern Netherlands, also called the Catholic Netherlands, was the part of the Low Countries largely controlled by Spain (1556–1714), later Austria (1714–1794), and occupied then annexed by France (1794–1815).

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Sovereign Principality of the United Netherlands

The Sovereign Principality of the United Netherlands (Souvereine Vorstendom der Verëenigde Nederlanden) was a short-lived sovereign principality and the precursor of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, in which it was reunited with the Southern Netherlands in 1815.

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Spanish Empire

The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.

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Spanish language

Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.

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Special Tribunal for Lebanon

The Special Tribunal for Lebanon (STL), also referred to as the Lebanon Tribunal or the Hariri Tribunal, is a tribunal of international character applying Lebanese criminal law to carry out the investigation and prosecution of those responsible for the 14 February 2005 assassination of Rafic Hariri, the former Lebanese prime minister, and the deaths of 21 others, as well as those responsible for connected attacks.

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Spectre (2015 film)

Spectre is a 2015 spy film, the twenty-fourth in the ''James Bond'' film series produced by Eon Productions for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and Columbia Pictures.

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Speed (1994 film)

Speed is a 1994 American action thriller film directed by Jan de Bont in his feature film directorial debut.

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Speed skating

Speed skating is a competitive form of ice skating in which the competitors race each other in travelling a certain distance on skates.

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Spetters is a Dutch film released in 1980 and directed by Paul Verhoeven.

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Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්‍රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.

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SSS islands

The SSS islands is an acronym which refers to three island territories in the Lesser Antilles that are under Dutch sovereignty.

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St. Elizabeth's flood (1421)

The St.

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St. Lucia's flood


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Staatsbosbeheer, founded in 1899, is a Dutch government organization for Forestry and the management of nature reserves.

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In the Low Countries, stadtholder (stadhouder) was an office of steward, designated a medieval official and then a national leader.

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Stamppot (English: Mash pot) is a traditional Dutch dish made from a combination of potatoes mashed with one or several vegetables or sometimes fruits.

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State religion

A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.

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States General of the Netherlands

The States General of the Netherlands (Staten-Generaal) is the bicameral legislature of the Netherlands consisting of the Senate (Eerste Kamer) and the House of Representatives (Tweede Kamer).

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The States-Provincial (in Dutch: Provinciale Staten, abbreviated PS – commonly known as simply the Staten) is the provincial parliament and legislative assembly in each of the provinces of the Netherlands.

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Statistics Netherlands

Statistics Netherlands, founded in 1899, is a Dutch governmental institution that gathers statistical information about the Netherlands.

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Street food

Street food is ready-to-eat food or drink sold by a hawker, or vendor, in a street or other public place, such as at a market or fair.

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A stroopwafel (literally "syrup waffle") is a waffle made from two thin layers of baked dough with a caramel syrup filling in the middle.

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Sub-replacement fertility

Sub-replacement fertility is a total fertility rate (TFR) that (if sustained) leads to each new generation being less populous than the older, previous one in a given area.

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Submission (2004 film)

Submission is a 2004 English-language Dutch short drama film produced and directed by Theo van Gogh, and written by Ayaan Hirsi Ali (a former member of the Dutch House of Representatives for the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy); it was shown on the Dutch public broadcasting network (VPRO) on 29 August 2004.

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A subsidy is a form of financial aid or support extended to an economic sector (or institution, business, or individual) generally with the aim of promoting economic and social policy.

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Succade is the candied peel of any of the citrus species, especially from the citron or Citrus medica which is distinct with its extra thick peel; in addition, the taste of the inner rind of the citron is less bitter than those of the other citrus.

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Summer Olympic Games

The Summer Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques d'été) or the Games of the Olympiad, first held in 1896, is an international multi-sport event that is hosted by a different city every four years.

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Supreme Court of the Netherlands

The Supreme Court of the Netherlands (Hoge Raad der Nederlanden or simply Hoge Raad), officially the High Council of the Netherlands, is the final court of appeal in civil, criminal and tax cases in the Netherlands, including Curaçao, Sint Maarten and Aruba.

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Surinam (Dutch colony)

Surinam was a Dutch plantation colony in the Guianas, neighboured by the equally Dutch colony of Berbice to the west, and the French colony of Cayenne to the east.

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Suriname (also spelled Surinam), officially known as the Republic of Suriname (Republiek Suriname), is a sovereign state on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America.

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Surinamese people

Surinamese people are people identified with Suriname, its citizens and their descendants abroad.

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Surinamese people in the Netherlands

Surinamese people in the Netherlands are people in the Netherlands who come from a Surinamese background.

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Sustainability is the process of change, in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations.

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Sustainable business

Sustainable business, or a green business, is an enterprise that has minimal negative impact on the global or local environment, community, society, or economy—a business that strives to meet the triple bottom line.

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Sustainable energy

Sustainable energy is energy that is consumed at insignificant rates compared to its supply and with manageable collateral effects, especially environmental effects.

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A swamp is a wetland that is forested.

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Swifterbant culture

The Swifterbant culture was a Subneolithic archaeological culture in the Netherlands, dated between 5300 BC and 3400 BC.

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Symphonic metal

Symphonic metal is a subgenre of heavy metal music which combines the heavy drums and guitars of metal with different elements of orchestral classical music, such as symphonic instruments, choirs and sometimes a full orchestra.

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Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.

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Techno is a form of electronic dance music that emerged in Detroit, Michigan, in the United States during the mid-to-late 1980s.

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Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is first robustly defined by Jacob Bigelow in 1829 as: "...principles, processes, and nomenclatures of the more conspicuous arts, particularly those which involve applications of science, and which may be considered useful, by promoting the benefit of society, together with the emolument of those who pursue them".

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Tee Set

Tee Set was a pop rock band formed in 1966 in Delft, Netherlands.

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Telephone numbers in Curaçao and the Caribbean Netherlands

Country Code: +599International Call Prefix: 00 The country code +599 was assigned to the Netherlands Antilles (dissolved in 2010), and is now in use by Curaçao and the Caribbean Netherlands (Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba).

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Telephone numbers in the Netherlands

Telephone numbers in the Netherlands are administered by the Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation of the Netherlands and may be grouped into three general categories: geographical numbers, non-geographical numbers, and numbers for public services.

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Textures (band)

Textures were a Dutch progressive metal band, formed in 2001.

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The Assault (film)

The Assault (De aanslag) is a 1986 film adaptation of the novel of the same name by Harry Mulisch.

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The Bottom

The Bottom (formerly Botte) is the capital and largest town of the island of Saba, the Caribbean Netherlands, and is the first stop on the way from Saba's Port in Fort Bay towards the rest of the island.

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The Diary of a Young Girl

The Diary of a Young Girl, also known as The Diary of Anne Frank, is a book of the writings from the Dutch language diary kept by Anne Frank while she was in hiding for two years with her family during the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands.

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The Economist

The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.

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The Fourth Man (1983 film)

The Fourth Man (De vierde man) is a 1983 Dutch suspense film directed by Paul Verhoeven, based on the novel De vierde man by Gerard Reve.

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The Gathering (band)

The Gathering is a Dutch rock band, founded in 1989 by brothers Hans and René Rutten and vocalist Bart Smits in Oss, North Brabant.

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The Hague

The Hague (Den Haag,, short for 's-Gravenhage) is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland.

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The Living Daylights

The Living Daylights is a 1987 British spy film, the fifteenth entry in the ''James Bond'' film series produced by Eon Productions, and the first to star Timothy Dalton as the fictional MI6 agent James Bond.

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The Voice (franchise)

The Voice is an international reality television singing competition franchise.

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The Washington Post

The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.

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Theo van de Sande

Theodorus Amandus Maria van de Sande (born 10 May 1947 in Tilburg, Netherlands) is a Dutch cinematographer.

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Theo van Gogh (film director)

Theodoor "Theo" van Gogh (23 July 1957 – 2 November 2004) was a Dutch film director, film producer, television director, television producer, television presenter, screenwriter, actor, critic and author.

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Theodiscus is a Medieval Latin term literally meaning "popular" or "of the people".

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Third Balkenende cabinet

The Third Balkenende cabinet was the cabinet of the Netherlands from 7 July 2006 until 22 February 2007.

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Third Rutte cabinet

The Third Rutte cabinet is the cabinet of the Netherlands since 26 October 2017.

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Three Men and a Baby

Three Men and a Baby is a 1987 American comedy film directed by Leonard Nimoy, and stars Tom Selleck, Steve Guttenberg, Ted Danson and Nancy Travis.

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Tijs Michiel Verwest OON (born 17 January 1969), better known by his stage name Tiësto, is a Dutch DJ and record producer from Breda.

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Tien (TV channel)

Tien (meaning Ten in Dutch), previously known as Talpa, was the name of a commercial television channel in the Netherlands.

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Tilburg is a city in the Netherlands, in the southern province of North Brabant.

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Titan (moon)

Titan is the largest moon of Saturn.

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Toleration is the acceptance of an action, object, or person which one dislikes or disagrees with, where one is in a position to disallow it but chooses not to.

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TomTom NV is a Dutch company that produces traffic, navigation and mapping products.

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Ton Koopman

Antonius Gerhardus Michael (Ton) Koopman (born 2 October 1944) is a Dutch conductor, organist and harpsichordist.

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Toponymy is the study of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use, and typology.

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Total fertility rate

The total fertility rate (TFR), sometimes also called the fertility rate, absolute/potential natality, period total fertility rate (PTFR), or total period fertility rate (TPFR) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if.

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Total Recall (1990 film)

Total Recall is a 1990 American science-fiction action film directed by Paul Verhoeven, starring Arnold Schwarzenegger, Rachel Ticotin, Sharon Stone, Ronny Cox, and Michael Ironside.

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The Toxandri (or Texuandri, Taxandri, Toxandrians etc.) were a people living at the time of the Roman empire.

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Trading post

A trading post, trading station, or trading house was a place or establishment where the trading of goods took place; the term is generally used, in modern parlance, in reference to such establishments in historic Northern America, although the practice long predates that continent's colonization by Europeans.

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Trance denotes any state of awareness or consciousness other than normal waking consciousness.

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Transport in the Netherlands

The Netherlands is both a very densely populated and a highly developed country, in which transport is a key factor of the economy.

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Transshipment or transhipment is the shipment of goods or containers to an intermediate destination, then to yet another destination.

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Trappist beer

Trappist beer is a beer brewed by Trappist breweries.

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Treaty of Brussels

The Treaty of Brussels, also referred to as the Brussels Pact, was the founding treaty of the Western Union (WU) between 1948 and 1954, at which it point it was amended as the Modified Brussels Treaty (MTB) and served as the founding treaty of the Western European Union (WEU) until its termination in 2010.

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A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem (or parent) river or a lake.

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The Tropenmuseum (Museum of the Tropics) is an ethnographic museum located in Amsterdam, Netherlands, founded in 1864.

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Tropical cyclone

A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain.

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The tropics are a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator.

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Tulips (Tulipa) form a genus of spring-blooming perennial herbaceous bulbiferous geophytes (having bulbs as storage organs).

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Tulip mania

Tulip mania (Dutch: tulpenmanie) was a period in the Dutch Golden Age during which contract prices for some bulbs of the recently introduced and fashionable tulip reached extraordinarily high levels and then dramatically collapsed in February 1637.

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A tumulus (plural tumuli) is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves.

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Tumulus culture

The Tumulus culture (Hügelgräberkultur) dominated Central Europe during the Middle Bronze Age (c. 1600 to 1200 BC).

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Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Turkish Delight (1973 film)

Turkish Delight (Turks fruit) is a 1973 Dutch film directed by Paul Verhoeven and filmed by Jan de Bont.

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Turkish language

Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).

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Turks in the Netherlands

Turks in the Netherlands (occasionally Dutch Turks or Turkish-Dutch) (Turkse Nederlander; Hollanda Türkleri) are the ethnic Turks living in the Netherlands.

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Tweants dialect

Tweants (Dutch: Twents) is a Dutch Low Saxon group of dialects, descending from Old Saxon.

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Twente (Twenthe, Twente, Tweants dialect: Tweante) is a non-administrative region in the eastern Netherlands.

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An undersecretary is an executive government official in many countries, frequently a career public servant, who typically acts as a senior administrator or second-in-command to a politically appointed Cabinet Minister or other government official.

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The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.

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The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) is a United Nations (UN) program headquartered in New York City that provides humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries.

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Unilever () is a British-Dutch transnational consumer goods company co-headquartered in London, United Kingdom and Rotterdam, Netherlands.

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Union of Utrecht

The Union of Utrecht (Unie van Utrecht) was a treaty signed on 23 January 1579 in Utrecht, the Netherlands, unifying the northern provinces of the Netherlands, until then under the control of Habsburg Spain.

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Unitary state

A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.

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United and uniting churches

A united church, also called a uniting church, is a church formed from the merger or other form of union of two or more different Protestant denominations.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United Kingdom of the Netherlands

The United Kingdom of the Netherlands (Verenigd Koninkrijk der Nederlanden; Royaume-Uni des Pays-Bas) is the unofficial name given to the Kingdom of the Netherlands as it existed between 1815 and 1839.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United Nations Charter

The Charter of the United Nations (also known as the UN Charter) of 1945 is the foundational treaty of the United Nations, an intergovernmental organization.

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United Nations Detention Unit

The United Nations Detention Unit (UNDU) is a UN-administered jail.

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United Nations Security Council resolution

A United Nations Security Council resolution is a UN resolution adopted by the fifteen members of the Security Council; the UN body charged with "primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security".

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Army

The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.

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United States Census Bureau

The United States Census Bureau (USCB; officially the Bureau of the Census, as defined in Title) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy.

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United States Department of State

The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.

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United States dollar

The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.

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United States Virgin Islands

The United States Virgin Islands (USVI; also called the American Virgin Islands), officially the Virgin Islands of the United States, is a group of islands in the Caribbean that is an insular area of the United States located east of Puerto Rico.

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Unity makes strength

"Unity makes strength" (Съединението прави силата; Iendracht makket macht; Eendracht maakt macht,; L'union fait la force) is a motto that has been used by various nations and entities throughout history.

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Universal Newsreel

Universal Newsreel (sometimes known as Universal-International Newsreel or just U-I Newsreel) was a series of 7- to 10-minute newsreels that were released twice a week between 1929 and 1967 by Universal Studios.

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Upper house

An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature (or one of three chambers of a tricameral legislature), the other chamber being the lower house.

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Upper Paleolithic

The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic, Late Stone Age) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age.

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Urnfield culture

The Urnfield culture (c. 1300 BC – 750 BC) was a late Bronze Age culture of central Europe, often divided into several local cultures within a broader Urnfield tradition.

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Urozgan Province

Urōzgān (اروزګان، روزګان; اروزگان), also spelled as Uruzgan, Oruzgan, Orozgan, or Rozgan, is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan.

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Utopia (2014 U.S. TV series)

Utopia is a reality series that premiered on Fox on September 7, 2014.

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Utrecht is a city and municipality in the Netherlands, capital and most populous city of the province of Utrecht.

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Utrecht (province)

Utrecht is a province of the Netherlands.

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Vaals is a town in the extreme southeastern part of the Dutch province of Limburg, which in its turn finds itself in the southeastern part of the Netherlands.

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Vaals dialect

Vaals dialect (natively Völser Platt, Standard Dutch: Vaals dialect) is a Ripuarian dialect spoken in Vaals.

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Vatican City

Vatican City (Città del Vaticano; Civitas Vaticana), officially the Vatican City State or the State of Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano; Status Civitatis Vaticanae), is an independent state located within the city of Rome.

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The Veluwe is a forest-rich ridge of hills (1100 km2) in the province of Gelderland in the Netherlands.

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Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).

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Vereniging Natuurmonumenten

Vereniging tot Behoud van Natuurmonumenten in Nederland (Society for preservation of nature monuments in the Netherlands) is a Dutch organisation founded in 1905 by Jac. P. Thijsse, that buys, protects and manages nature reserves in the Netherlands.

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Victory in Europe Day

Victory in Europe Day, generally known as V-E Day, VE Day or simply V Day, celebrated on May 8, 1945 to mark the formal acceptance by the Allies of World War II of Nazi Germany's unconditional surrender of its armed forces.

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Vincent van Gogh

Vincent Willem van Gogh (30 March 185329 July 1890) was a Dutch Post-Impressionist painter who is among the most famous and influential figures in the history of Western art.

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Virgin Islands

The Virgin Islands are the western island group of the Leeward Islands, which are the northern part of the Lesser Antilles, and form the border between the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.

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Vlaai, also known as Limburgse vlaai,Koene, A. (2006).

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Vlaardingen culture

Vlaardingen Culture was an archaeological culture on the border of the middle and late Neolithic era in what is now the coastal region in the west of the Netherlands.

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Vocational university

A vocational university, sometimes called professional university, applied technological university, college of higher vocational studies or university of applied sciences, is an institution of higher education and sometimes research, which provides both tertiary and sometimes quaternary education and grants academic degrees at all levels (bachelor, master, and sometimes doctorate) in a variety of subjects.

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Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net.

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Volleyball at the 1992 Summer Olympics

Volleyball at the 1992 Summer Olympics was represented by two events: men's team and women's team.

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Volleyball at the 1996 Summer Olympics

Volleyball at the 1996 Summer Olympics featured Beach volleyball for the first time as an official Olympic sport.

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Voorbereidend middelbaar beroepsonderwijs

(VMBO, meaning "preparatory middle-level vocational education" in Dutch) is a school track in the Netherlands.

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Voorbereidend wetenschappelijk onderwijs

Voorbereidend wetenschappelijk onderwijs (VWO, meaning "preuniversity secondary education" in Dutch) is the highest variant in the secondary educational system of the Netherlands, attended by approximately a fifth of all Dutch high school students.

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Voorburg is a Dutch town and former municipality in the west part of the province of South Holland, the Netherlands.

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Vorstengraf (Oss)

The Vorstengraf (grave of the king) in Oss is one of the largest burial mounds in the Netherlands and Belgium.

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Vox Media

Vox Media is an American digital media company founded on July 14, 2005 as SportsBlogs Inc.

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VU University Amsterdam

The Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (abbreviated as VU, VU University Amsterdam, "Free University Amsterdam") is a university in Amsterdam, Netherlands, founded in 1880.

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Vulgar Latin

Vulgar Latin or Sermo Vulgaris ("common speech") was a nonstandard form of Latin (as opposed to Classical Latin, the standard and literary version of the language) spoken in the Mediterranean region during and after the classical period of the Roman Empire.

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W&W is a Dutch DJ and record producer duo composed of Willem van Hanegem and Wardt van der Harst.

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Waal (river)

The Waal (Dutch) is the main distributary branch of the river Rhine flowing approximately through the Netherlands.

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Wadden Sea

The Wadden Sea (Waddenzee, Wattenmeer, Wattensee or Waddenzee, Vadehavet, longname, di Heef) is an intertidal zone in the southeastern part of the North Sea.

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Waltz (music)

A waltz (German: Walzer; French: Valse, Italian: Valzer, Spanish: Vals, Polish: Walc), probably deriving from German Ländler, is dance music in triple meter, often written in 4 time.

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War in Afghanistan (2001–present)

The War in Afghanistan (or the U.S. War in Afghanistan; code named Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan (2001–2014) and Operation Freedom's Sentinel (2015–present)) followed the United States invasion of Afghanistan of October 7, 2001.

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Water board (Netherlands)

Dutch water boards (waterschappen or hoogheemraadschappen) are regional government bodies charged with managing water barriers, waterways, water levels, water quality and sewage treatment in their respective regions.

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Wayne's World

"Wayne's World" was originally a recurring sketch from the NBC television series Saturday Night Live.

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Weichselian glaciation

"Weichselian glaciation" is the local name of the last glacial period and its associated glaciation in Northern Europe.

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Welfare state

The welfare state is a concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the social and economic well-being of its citizens.

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The Weser is a river in Northwestern Germany.

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Weser-Rhine Germanic

Weser-Rhine Germanic (German Weser-Rhein-Germanisch) is a term introduced by the German linguist Friedrich Maurer for the group of prehistoric West Germanic dialects ancestral to Low Franconian and Rhine Franconian, and ultimately to Dutch and the West Central German dialects.

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West Flanders

West Flanders (West-Vlaanderen; West Flemish: West Vloandern; French: (Province de) Flandre-Occidentale; German: Westflandern) is the most western province of the Flemish Region, in Belgium.

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West Francia

In medieval historiography, West Francia (Latin: Francia occidentalis) or the Kingdom of the West Franks (regnum Francorum occidentalium) was the western part of Charlemagne's Empire, inhabited and ruled by the Germanic Franks that forms the earliest stage of the Kingdom of France, lasting from about 840 until 987.

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West Frisian language

West Frisian, or simply Frisian (Frysk; Fries) is a West Germanic language spoken mostly in the province of Friesland (Fryslân) in the north of the Netherlands, mostly by those of Frisian ancestry.

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Western Europe

Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.

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A wetland is a land area that is saturated with water, either permanently or seasonally, such that it takes on the characteristics of a distinct ecosystem.

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Whitefish (fisheries term)

Whitefish or white fish is a fisheries term for several species of demersal fish with fins, particularly Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), Caspian kutum (Rutilus kutum), whiting (Merluccius bilinearis), and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), but also hake (Urophycis), pollock (Pollachius), or others.

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Wilhelmina of the Netherlands

Wilhelmina (Wilhelmina Helena Pauline Maria; 31 August 1880 – 28 November 1962) was Queen of the Netherlands from 1890 until her abdication in 1948.

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"Wilhelmus van Nassouwe", usually known just as the "Wilhelmus" (Het Wilhelmus;; English translation: "The William"), is the national anthem of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

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Willem de Kooning

Willem de Kooning (April 24, 1904 – March 19, 1997) was a Dutch abstract expressionist artist.

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Willem Frederik Hermans

Willem Frederik Hermans (1 September 1921 – 27 April 1995) was a Dutch author of poetry, novels, short stories, plays, as well as booklength studies, essays, and literary criticism.

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Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands

Willem-Alexander (born Willem-Alexander Claus George Ferdinand, 27 April 1967) is the King of the Netherlands, having ascended the throne following his mother's abdication in 2013.

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William I of the Netherlands

William I (Willem Frederik, Prince of Orange-Nassau; 24 August 1772 – 12 December 1843) was a Prince of Orange and the first King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg.

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William III of the Netherlands

William III (Dutch: Willem Alexander Paul Frederik Lodewijk; English: William Alexander Paul Frederick Louis; 19 February 1817 – 23 November 1890) was King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg from 1849 until his death in 1890.

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William the Silent

William I, Prince of Orange (24 April 1533 – 10 July 1584), also widely known as William the Silent or William the Taciturn (translated from Willem de Zwijger), or more commonly known as William of Orange (Willem van Oranje), was the main leader of the Dutch revolt against the Spanish Habsburgs that set off the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) and resulted in the formal independence of the United Provinces in 1581.

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William V, Prince of Orange

William V, Prince of Orange (Willem Batavus; 8 March 1748 – 9 April 1806) was the last Stadtholder of the Dutch Republic.

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Willibrord (658 – 7 November AD 739) was a Northumbrian missionary saint, known as the "Apostle to the Frisians" in the modern Netherlands.

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A windmill is a mill that converts the energy of wind into rotational energy by means of vanes called sails or blades.

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Windward Islands

The Windward Islands are the southern, generally larger islands of the Lesser Antilles, within the West Indies.

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Winter Olympic Games

The Winter Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques d'hiver) is a major international sporting event held once every four years for sports practised on snow and ice.

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Within Temptation

Within Temptation is a Dutch symphonic metal band founded in April 1996 by vocalist Sharon den Adel and guitarist Robert Westerholt.

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Women's Hockey World Cup

The Women's Hockey World Cup is the field hockey World Cup competition for women, whose format for qualification and final tournament is similar to the men's.

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Women's rights

Women's rights are the rights and entitlements claimed for women and girls worldwide, and formed the basis for the women's rights movement in the nineteenth century and feminist movement during the 20th century.

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Women's suffrage

Women's suffrage (colloquial: female suffrage, woman suffrage or women's right to vote) --> is the right of women to vote in elections; a person who advocates the extension of suffrage, particularly to women, is called a suffragist.

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Woodland, is a low-density forest forming open habitats with plenty of sunlight and limited shade.

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Work–life balance

Work–life balance is the term used to describe the balance that an individual needs between time allocated for work and other aspects of life.

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The workforce or labour force (labor force in American English; see spelling differences) is the labour pool in employment.

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World Economic Forum

The World Economic Forum (WEF) is a Swiss nonprofit foundation, based in Cologny, Geneva, Switzerland.

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World Happiness Report

The World Happiness Report is an annual publication of the United Nations Sustainable Development Solutions Network which contains rankings of national happiness and analysis of the data from various perspectives.

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World Heritage site

A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.

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World Trade Organization

The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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World Wide Fund for Nature

The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization founded in 1961, working in the field of the wilderness preservation, and the reduction of human impact on the environment.

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X-Men (film series)

X-Men is an American superhero film series based on the fictional superhero team of the same name, who originally appeared in a series of comic books created by Stan Lee and Jack Kirby and published by Marvel Comics.

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Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.

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The Zaan is a small river in the province of North Holland in the northwestern Netherlands and the name of a district through which it runs.

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Zaandam is a city in the province of North Holland, Netherlands.

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Zeeland (Zeelandic: Zeêland, historical English exonym Zealand) is the westernmost and least populous province of the Netherlands.

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Zeeuwse bolus

A Zeeuwse bolus or Zeeuwse bolussen is a sweet pastry of Jewish origin from the Dutch province of Zeeland.

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The Zuiderzee (old spelling Zuyderzee) was a shallow bay of the North Sea in the northwest of the Netherlands, extending about 100 km (60 miles) inland and at most 50 km (30 miles) wide, with an overall depth of about 4 to 5 metres (13–16 feet) and a coastline of about 300 km (200 miles).

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Zuiderzee Works

The Zuiderzee Works (Zuiderzeewerken) is a man-made system of dams and dikes, land reclamation and water drainage work, in total the largest hydraulic engineering project undertaken by the Netherlands during the twentieth century.

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Zutphen is a city and municipality located in the province of Gelderland, Netherlands.

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Zwolle is a city and municipality in the northeastern Netherlands serving as Overijssel's capital.

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.bq is designated—but not in use—as the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (the Caribbean Netherlands) following the assignment on December 15, 2010, by the ISO 3166 Maintenance Agency of BQ as the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 to the area.

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.eu is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the European Union (EU).

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.nl is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the Netherlands.

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1834 Dutch Reformed Church split

The 1834 Dutch Reformed Church split, or the Secession of 1834 (Afscheiding van 1834), known simply as Afscheiding ("separation, secession, split"), refers to a split that occurred within the Dutch Reformed Church in 1834.

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1886 Dutch Reformed Church split

The 1886 Dutch Reformed Church split, also known as Doleantie (from Latin dolere, 'to feel sorrow') was the name of a prominent schism in the Dutch Reformed Church (Nederlands Hervormde Kerk) which took place in 1886 and was led by the renowned minister Abraham Kuyper.

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1995 Women's European Volleyball Championship

The 1995 Women's European Volleyball Championship was the 19th edition of the event, organised by Europe's governing volleyball body, the Confédération Européenne de Volleyball.

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1st Armoured Division (Poland)

The Polish 1st Armoured Division (Polish 1 Dywizja Pancerna) was an armoured division of the Polish Armed Forces in the West during World War II.

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2 Unlimited

2 Unlimited is a dance act founded by Belgian producers Jean-Paul DeCoster and Phil Wilde in 1991 in Amsterdam, Netherlands.

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2006–07 Dutch cabinet formation

Following the 2006 Dutch general election, held on November 22, a process of cabinet formation started, involving negotiations about which coalition partners to form a common programme of policy and to divide the posts in cabinet.

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2007 FIVB Volleyball World Grand Prix

The FIVB World Grand Prix 2007 was the fifteenth edition of the annual women's volleyball tournament, which is the female equivalent of the Men's Volleyball World League.

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2010 Dutch cabinet formation

Following the Dutch general election of 2010, held on June 9, a process of cabinet formation started, which typically involves 3 phases.

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2014 Winter Olympics

The 2014 Winter Olympics, officially called the XXII Olympic Winter Games (Les XXIIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver) (r) and commonly known as Sochi 2014, was an international winter multi-sport event that was held from 7 to 23 February 2014 in Sochi, Krasnodar Krai, Russia, with opening rounds in certain events held on the eve of the opening ceremony, 6 February 2014.

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2016 Spanish Grand Prix

The 2016 Spanish Grand Prix (formally known as the Formula 1 Gran Premio de España Pirelli 2016) was a Formula One motor race held on 15 May 2016 at the Circuit de Barcelona-Catalunya in Montmeló, Spain.

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23rd SS Volunteer Panzer Grenadier Division Nederland

The 23rd SS Volunteer Panzer Grenadier Division Nederland (23. was a German Waffen-SS division comprising volunteers from the Netherlands. It saw action on the Eastern Front during World War II from November 1941. In February 1945, the 4th SS Brigade Nederland was merged into the SS Division Nordland, but after protests from the Dutch Nazi party, the National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands, it was formed into its own SS Panzergrenadier Division, although its strength never reached more than a brigade.

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2nd Infantry Division (United States)

The 2nd Infantry Division ("Indianhead"; "2ID," "2nd ID", or "Second D") is a formation of the United States Army.

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3rd meridian east

The meridian 3° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

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50th parallel north

The 50th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 50 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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54th parallel north

The 54th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 54 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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8th meridian east

The meridian 8° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

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Redirects here:

Climate of the Netherlands, European Netherlands, Holland (country), ISO 3166-1:NL, Mainland Netherlands, Metropolitan Netherlands, NETHERLANDS, Neatherlands, Nederlandia, Nehterlands, Netherland, Netherlands (European territory), Netherlands, The, Pays-Bas, The Netheralands, The Netherlands, The netherland, The netherlands.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Netherlands

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