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's-Hertogenbosch (literally "The Duke's Forest" in English, and historically in French: Bois-le-Duc) is a city and municipality in the southern Netherlands.
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A Most Wanted Man is a 2014 British espionage thriller film based on the novel of the same name by John le Carré, directed by Anton Corbijn and written by Andrew Bovell.
Aachen, also known as Bad Aachen (Ripuarian: Óche, Limburgish: Aoke, French: Aix-la-Chapelle, Dutch: Aken, Latin: Aquisgranum) is a German spa and border town located between the Eifel, South Limburg (Netherlands) and High Fens (Belgium) regions in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia.
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The ABC islands are the three western-most islands of the Leeward Antilles in the Caribbean Sea that lie north of Falcón State, Venezuela.
ABN AMRO Bank N.V. is a Dutch state-owned bank with headquarters in Amsterdam.
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Abortion in the Netherlands was fully legalized on November 1, 1984, allowing abortions to be done on-demand until the twenty-first week.
Accordions (from 19th-century German Akkordeon, from Akkord - "musical chord, concord of sounds") are a family of box-shaped musical instruments of the bellows-driven free-reed aerophone type, colloquially referred to as a squeezebox.
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The Act of Abjuration or Plakkaat van Verlatinghe, signed on 26 July 1581 in The Hague and confirming the decision made by the States General of the Netherlands in Antwerp on 22 July 1581, formally declared all magistrates in the provinces which united in the Union of Utrecht absolved of their oath of allegiance to their overlord, Philip II of Spain.
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Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Afġānistān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
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Afrikaners are a Southern African ethnic group descended from predominantly Dutch settlers first arriving in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
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Nick Leonardus van de Wall (born 9 September 1987), commonly known by his stage name Afrojack, is a Dutch music producer and DJ.
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The Afsluitdijk (Frisian: Ofslútdyk; Dike) is a major causeway in the Netherlands, constructed between 1927 and 1932 and running from Den Oever on Wieringen in North Holland province, to the village of Zurich in Friesland province, over a length of and a width of, at an initial height of above sea-level.
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Agriculture is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi, and other life forms for food, fiber, biofuel, medicinal and other products used to sustain and enhance human life.
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Akzo Nobel N.V., trading as AkzoNobel, is a Dutch multinational, active in the fields of decorative paints, performance coatings and specialty chemicals.
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An Ala (Latin for "wing", plural form: alae) was the term used during the mid- Roman Republic (338-88 BC) to denote a military formation composed of conscripts from the socii, Rome's Italian military allies.
Aldegisel, Aldegisl, Aldgillis, Aldgisl, Aldgils or Eadgils (fl. c. 678) was the ruler of Frisia (as king or duke) in the late seventh century contemporarily with Dagobert II and a very obscure figure.
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AllMusic (previously known as All Music Guide or AMG) is an online music guide service website.
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Almere is a planned city and municipality in the province of Flevoland, the Netherlands, bordering Lelystad and Zeewolde.
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The Alps (Alpi; Alpes; Alpen; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe, stretching approximately across eight Alpine countries: Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Liechtenstein, Monaco, Slovenia, and Switzerland.
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The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) is a tax-exempt professional body founded in 1852 to represent members of the civil engineering profession worldwide.
Amsterdam is the capital city and most populous city of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
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Amsterdam Airport Schiphol (Luchthaven Schiphol) is the main international airport of the Netherlands, located southwest of Amsterdam, in the municipality of Haarlemmermeer, province of North Holland.
The Amsterdam Dance Event (ADE) is a five-day electronic music conference and festival held annually in mid-October.
The Amsterdam Stock Exchange is the former name for the stock exchange based in Amsterdam.
André Gerardus Hazes (30 June 1951 – 23 September 2004) was a Dutch singer in a genre called levenslied ("song about life"), popular music about everyday life sung in the Dutch language.
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André Léon Marie Nicolas Rieu (born 1 October 1949) is a Dutch violinist and conductor best known for creating the waltz-playing Johann Strauss Orchestra.
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The Angles (Anglii) were one of the main Germanic peoples who settled in Britain in the post-Roman period.
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Anglo-Saxon missionaries were instrumental in the spread of Christianity in the Frankish Empire during the 8th century, continuing the work of Hiberno-Scottish missionaries which had been spreading Celtic Christianity across the Frankish Empire as well as in Scotland and Anglo-Saxon England itself during the 6th century (see Anglo-Saxon Christianity).
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The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.
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Animal husbandry is the management and care of farm animals by humans for profit, in which genetic qualities and behavior, considered to be advantageous to humans, are further developed.
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Annelies Marie "Anne" Frank (12 June 1929 – February 1945Research by The Anne Frank House in 2015 revealed that Frank may have died in February 1945 rather than in March, as Dutch authorities had long assumed.. AnneFrank.org, 31 March 2015) was a German-born diarist and writer.
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The terms anno Domini (AD or A.D.) and before Christ (BC or B.C.) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.
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Anouk Teeuwe (born 8 April 1975), professionally known by the mononym Anouk, is a Dutch singer-songwriter and record producer.
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Anton Johannes Gerrit Corbijn van Willenswaard (born 20 May 1955) is a Dutch photographer, music video director, and film director.
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Antonie Philips van Leeuwenhoek (October 24, 1632 – August 26, 1723) was a Dutch tradesman and scientist.
Antwerp (Antwerpen, Anvers) is a city in Belgium which is the capital of Antwerp province.
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Arabic (العَرَبِية, or عربي,عربى) is the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century and its modern descendants excluding Maltese.
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The historic Archdiocese of Utrecht (695–1580) was a Roman Catholic diocese and (from 1559) archdiocese in the Low Countries before and during the Protestant Reformation.
An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands.
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Armin van Buuren (born 25 December 1976) is a Dutch trance music producer, DJ and radio personality.
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Arnhem (or, or, South Guelderish: Èrnem), is a city and municipality, situated in the eastern part of the Netherlands.
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An arrowhead is a tip, usually sharpened, added to an arrow to make it more deadly or to fulfill some special purpose.
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Aruba is an island country in the southern Caribbean Sea, located about west of the Lesser Antilles and north of the coast of Venezuela.
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The Ascension of Jesus (anglicized from the Vulgate Latin Acts 1:9-11 section title: Ascensio Iesu) is the Christian teaching found in the New Testament that the resurrected Jesus was taken up to Heaven in his resurrected body, in the presence of eleven of his apostles, occurring 40 days after the resurrection.
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ASML is a Dutch company and currently the largest supplier in the world of photolithography systems for the semiconductor industry.
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Assen is a municipality and a city in the northeastern Netherlands, and is the capital of the province of Drenthe.
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Asset price inflation is an economic phenomenon denoting a rise in price of assets, as opposed to ordinary goods and services.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
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The Atheneum, named after the ancient school founded by Roman Emperor Hadrian, is the formal name of the main educational track of Dutch Voorbereidend wetenschappelijk onderwijs.
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The Atlantic Bronze Age is a cultural complex of the Bronze Age period of approximately 1300–700 BC that includes different cultures in Portugal, Andalusia, Galicia, Armorica and the British Isles.
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The Atlantic slave trade or transatlantic slave trade took place across the Atlantic Ocean from the 16th through to the 19th centuries.
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The Atlantic Time Zone is a geographical region that keeps standard time—called Atlantic Standard Time (AST)—by subtracting four hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), resulting in UTC-4; during part of the year some parts of it observe daylight saving time by instead subtracting only three hours (UTC-3).
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Atlanticism is a belief in the importance of cooperation between Europe and the United States and Canada regarding political, economic, and defense issues, with the purpose of maintaining the security and prosperity of the participating countries, and to protect the values that unite them.
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Australia (colloquially), officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is an Oceanian country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands.
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The Algemene Wet Bijzondere Ziektekosten ("general law on exceptional medical expenses"), often known by the acronym AWBZ, is a Dutch health care law that first came into effect in 1968.
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An axe (in American English also spelled ax) is an implement that has been used for millennia to shape, split and cut wood; to harvest timber; as a weapon; and as a ceremonial or heraldic symbol.
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Ayaan Hirsi Ali (born Ayaan Hirsi Magan, on 13 November 1969) is a Somali-born Dutch-American dual citizen activist, author, and politician.
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The terms Baltic region, Baltic Rim countries, and Baltic Rim refer to slightly different combinations of countries in the general area surrounding the Baltic Sea.
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Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ,, lit. "The land of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
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Barbados is a sovereign island country in the Lesser Antilles.
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A barrel organ (or roller organ) is a mechanical musical instrument consisting of bellows and one or more ranks of pipes housed in a case, usually of wood, and often highly decorated.
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Baruch Spinoza (born Benedito de Espinosa; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677, later Benedict de Spinoza) was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi Portuguese origin.
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Basel (or; or less often used Basle; Basel; Bâle; Basilea; Basilea) is Switzerland's third most populous city (behind Zürich and Geneva) with about 195,000 inhabitants.
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Basic Instinct is a 1992 erotic thriller film directed by Paul Verhoeven and written by Joe Eszterhas, and starring Michael Douglas and Sharon Stone.
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The Batavi were an ancient Germanic tribe that lived around the modern Dutch Rhine delta in the area that the Romans called Batavia, from the second half of the first century BC to the third century AD.
The Batavian Republic (Bataafse Republiek; République Batave) was the successor of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands.
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The Battle of Leipzig or Battle of the Nations (Russian: Битва народов, German: Völkerschlacht bei Leipzig, French: Bataille des Nations) was fought 16–19 October 1813, at Leipzig, in Saxony.
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The Battle of the Boarn (Slach oan de Boarn Slag aan de Boorne) was an eighth century battle between the Franks and the Frisians near the mouth of the river Boarn in what is now the Dutch province of Friesland.
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The Battle of the Netherlands (Slag om Nederland) was part of Case Yellow (Fall Gelb), the German invasion of the Low Countries (Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands) and France during World War II.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
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The Bell-Beaker culture (sometimes shortened to Beaker culture, Beaker people, or Beaker folk), ca.
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A bear raid is a type of stock market strategy, where a trader (or group of traders) attempts to force down the price of a stock to cover a short position.
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The Belgian Revolution was the conflict which led to the secession of the southern provinces from the United Kingdom of the Netherlands and established an independent Kingdom of Belgium.
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Belgium (België; Belgique; Belgien), officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a sovereign state in Western Europe.
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The Benelux Union (Benelux Unie; Union Benelux) is a politico-economic union of three neighbouring states in central-western Europe: Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg.
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Albert 'Bert' Haanstra (31 May 1916 – 23 October 1997) was a Dutch film director of films and documentaries.
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The Betuweroute is a double track freight railway from Rotterdam to Germany.
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Bhutan (Dzongkha Dru Ü), officially the Kingdom of Bhutan, is a landlocked country in South Asia at the eastern end of the Himalayas.
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The Bible Belt (De Bijbelgordel in Dutch) is the name given to a strip of land in the Netherlands, after the Bible Belt of the United States.
A bicameral legislature is one in which the legislators are divided into two separate assemblies, chambers or houses.
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Big Brother is a reality game show franchise created by John de Mol and was originally based on "1984", a book by George Orwell.
Global Biodiversity is the variety of different types of life found on Earth and the variations within species.
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Black Book (Zwartboek) is a 2006 Dutch World War II thriller film co-written and directed by Paul Verhoeven and starring Carice van Houten, Sebastian Koch, Thom Hoffman, and Halina Reijn.
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A blacksmith is a metalsmith who creates objects from wrought iron or steel by forging the metal, using tools to hammer, bend, and cut (cf. whitesmith).
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Blade Runner is a 1982 American neo-noir science fiction film directed by Ridley Scott and starring Harrison Ford, Rutger Hauer, Sean Young, and Edward James Olmos.
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BLØF is a four-piece Dutch rock band from Vlissingen, in Zeeland, which has become popular regionally and internationally for its music, its frequent collaborations with bands from other parts of the world, willingness to incorporate other genres into their "sound", and focus on bettering the world around them.
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A bog is a mire that accumulates peat, a deposit of dead plant material—often mosses, and in a majority of cases, sphagnum moss.
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Bog iron is impure iron deposits that develop in bogs or swamps by the chemical or biochemical oxidation of iron carried in the solutions.
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Bonaire (Bonaire, Papiamentu: Boneiru) is an island in the Leeward Antilles in the Caribbean Sea.
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The Boreal Kingdom or Holarctic Kingdom (Holarctis) is a floristic kingdom identified by botanist Ronald Good (and later by Armen Takhtajan), which includes the temperate to Arctic portions of North America and Eurasia.
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Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian Bosna i Hercegovina,; Cyrillic script: Боснa и Херцеговина), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, abbreviated BiH, and in short often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
The Bosnian War was an international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1992 and 1995.
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Brabantian or Brabantish, also Brabantic (Brabants, Standard Dutch pronunciation:, Brabantian), is a dialect group of the Dutch language.
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BrabantStad is a partnership between the municipalities of Breda, Eindhoven, Helmond, 's-Hertogenbosch and Tilburg and the province of North Brabant.
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Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and the Latin American region.
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Breda is a municipality and a city in the southern part of the Netherlands.
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Bronbeek is a former Royal palace in Arnhem, Netherlands.
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Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
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The Bronze Age is a time period characterized by the use of bronze, proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
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Bruges (in English; Brugge; Bruges; Brügge) is the capital and largest city of the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium, in the northwest of the country.
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Buddhism is a small minority religion in the Netherlands, but it has shown rapid growth in recent years.
Bulk material handling is an engineering field that is centered on the design of equipment used for the handling of dry materials such as ores, coal, cereals, wood chips, sand, gravel and stone in loose bulk form.
Burgundy (Bourgogne) is an administrative and historical region of east-central France.
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The business cycle or economic cycle is the downward and upward movement of gross domestic product (GDP) around its long-term growth trend.
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A business magnate (formally industrialist) refers to an entrepreneur of great influence, importance, or standing in a particular enterprise or field of business.
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The cabinet of the Netherlands is the main executive body of the Dutch government.
Generally speaking, a calendar year begins on the New Year's Day of the given calendar system and ends on the day before the following New Year's Day, and thus consists of a whole number of days.
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Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
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Canada is a country, consisting of ten provinces and three territories, in the northern part of the continent of North America.
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The Cananefates - also referred to as Canninefates, Caninefates, or Canenefatae; meaning leek masters - were a Germanic tribe that lived in the Rhine delta, on the western part of the Batavian Island (province of Germania Inferior, currently Betuwe in the western part of the Netherlands), in the Roman era, before and during the Roman conquest.
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Cannabis, also known as marijuana and by numerous other names, is a preparation of the ''Cannabis'' plant intended for use as a psychoactive drug or medicine.
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The Cape of Good Hope, colloquially also known as the Cape Colony (Kaapkolonie), was a British colony in present-day South Africa and Namibia, named for the Cape of Good Hope.
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According to the Dutch constitution, Amsterdam is the capital of the Netherlands, although the parliament and the Dutch government have been situated in The Hague since 1588, along with the Supreme Court and the Council of State.
Capitalism is an economic system in which trade, industry, and the means of production are privately owned and operated via profit and loss calculation (price signals) through the price system.
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Capsicum (also known as peppers) is a genus of flowering plants in the nightshade family Solanaceae.
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The Caribbean (or; Caribe; Caraïben; Caribbean Hindustani: कैरिबियन (Kairibiyana); Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles) is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean), and the surrounding coasts.
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The Caribbean Netherlands (Caribisch Nederland) are the three special municipalities of the Netherlands that are located in the Caribbean Sea.
Carice Anouk van Houten (born 5 September 1976) is a Dutch actress and singer.
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Caroline Esmeralda van der Leeuw (born 26 April 1981), known by her stage name of Caro Emerald, is a Dutch pop and jazz singer.
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The Carolingian Empire (800–924) was the final stage in the history of the early medieval realm of the Franks, ruled by the Carolingian dynasty.
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A castle (from castellum) is a type of fortified structure built in Europe and the Middle East during the Middle Ages by nobility.
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The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is, the largest Christian church, with more than 1.25 billion members worldwide.
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Cees Nooteboom (born 31 July 1933) is a Dutch novelist, poet, and journalist.
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The Celts (occasionally, see pronunciation of ''Celtic'') were people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
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Central Europe (archaically "Middle Europe") is a region lying between the variously defined areas of the Eastern and Western parts of the European continent.
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Central European Summer Time (CEST) is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time (UTC + one hour) during the rest of the year.
Central European Time (CET), used in most parts of the European Union, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the U.S. Government, tasked with gathering, processing and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
The centre-left or moderate left is an adherence to views leaning to the left but closer to the centre on the left-right political spectrum than other left-wing variants.
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Centre-right politics, also referred to as moderate-right politics, are politics that lean to the right of the left-right political spectrum, but are closer to the centre than other right-wing variants.
A chanson ("song", from Latin cantio, gen. cantionis) is in general any lyric-driven French song, usually polyphonic and secular.
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Charles I (Carlos I) (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558), of the Spanish Empire from 1516, and as Charles V (Charles Quint; Karl V.) was ruler of the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 until his voluntary abdication in favor of his younger brother Ferdinand I as Holy Roman Emperor and his son Philip II as King of Spain in 1556.
The Charter for the Kingdom of the Netherlands (in Dutch: Statuut voor het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden; in Papiamentu: Statuut pa e Reino di Hulanda) describes the political relationship between the four different countries which form the Kingdom of the Netherlands: Aruba, Curaçao, and Sint Maarten in the Caribbean and the Netherlands (for the most part) in Europe.
Christiaan Huygens, FRS (Hugenius) (14 April 1629 – 8 July 1695) was a prominent Dutch mathematician and scientist.
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Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje (8 February 1857 – 26 June 1936) was a Dutch scholar of Oriental cultures and languages and Advisor on Native Affairs to the colonial government of the Netherlands East Indies (now Indonesia).
Christian democracy is a political ideology which emerged in nineteenth-century Europe under the influence of conservatism and Catholic social teaching.
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The Christian Democratic Appeal (Christen-Democratisch Appèl,; CDA) is a Christian-democratic political party in the Netherlands founded in 1977, which participated in all but three governments since then.
ChristianityFrom the Ancient Greek word Χριστός, Christos, a translation of the Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", together with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
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The ChristianUnion (ChristenUnie), abbreviated to CU, is a Christian democratic political party in the Netherlands.
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The Circumboreal Region is a floristic region within the Holarctic Kingdom in Eurasia and North America, as delineated by such geobotanists as Josias Braun-Blanquet and Armen Takhtajan.
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City rights are a feature of the medieval history of the Low Countries.
Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western music, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music.
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Climate is the long-term pattern of weather in a particular area.
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Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
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Clogs are a type of footwear made in part or completely from wood.
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Clovis (Latin: Chlodovechus; reconstructed Frankish: *Hlodowig; c. 466 – c. 511) was the first king of the Franks to unite all of the Frankish tribes under one ruler, changing the form of leadership from a group of royal chieftains to rule by a single king and ensuring that the kingship was passed down to his heirs.
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A coalition government is a cabinet of a parliamentary government in which several political parties cooperate, reducing the dominance of any one party within that coalition.
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The Cold War was a state of political and military tension after World War II between powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others) and powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its allies in the Warsaw Pact).
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Within nations occupied by the Axis Powers, some citizens, driven by nationalism, ethnic hatred, anti-communism, anti-Semitism, or opportunism knowingly engaged in collaboration with the Axis Powers during World War II.
Cologne (German Köln, Kölle), Germany's fourth-largest city (after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich), is the largest city both in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than ten million inhabitants.
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The Columbia Encyclopedia is a one-volume encyclopedia produced by Columbia University Press and in the last edition, sold by the Gale Group.
Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.
The Royal Concertgebouw (Koninklijk Concertgebouw) is a concert hall in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
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A confederation (also known as confederacy or league) is a union of political units for common action in relation to other units.
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The Congress of Vienna was a conference of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich, and held in Vienna from September 1814 to June 1815.
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Conscription, or drafting, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
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Consociationalism is often viewed as synonymous with power-sharing, although it is technically only one form of power-sharing.
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Constituent country is a term sometimes used in contexts in which a country makes up a part of a larger political entity, such as a sovereign state.
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A constitutional monarchy, limited monarchy or parliamentary monarchy (also called a crowned republic) is a form of government in which governing powers of the monarch are restricted by a constitution.
A container terminal is a facility where cargo containers are transshipped between different transport vehicles, for onward transportation.
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A conurbation is a region comprising a number of cities, large towns, and other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban and industrially developed area.
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Coordinated Universal Time (temps universel coordonné), abbreviated as UTC, is the primary time standard by which the world regulates clocks and time.
The Corded Ware culture (Schnurkeramik; ceramique cordée; snoerbekercultuur; in Middle Europe c. 2900–2450/2350 cal. BC), alternatively characterized as the Battle Axe culture or Single Grave culture, is an enormous European archaeological horizon that begins in the late Neolithic (Stone Age), flourishes through the Copper Age and culminates in the early Bronze Age.
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The Council of Ministers (Ministerraad) is the executive council of Dutch government, formed by all the ministers.
The Counts of Holland ruled over the County of Holland in the Low Countries between the 10th and the 16th century.
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A neutral country in a particular war is a sovereign state which officially declares itself to be neutral towards the belligerents.
The County of Drenthe, (In Dutch Landschap Drenthe), was the name given to the present Dutch province of Drenthe between 1528 and 1795.
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The County of Flanders (Graafschap Vlaanderen, Comté de Flandre) was a historic territory in the Low Countries.
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The County of Hainaut (Comté de Hainaut, Graafschap Henegouwen; Grafschaft Hennegau), sometimes given the archaic spelling Hainault, was a historical lordship within the medieval Holy Roman Empire, with its capital at Mons (Bergen).
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The County of Holland was a State of the Holy Roman Empire and from 1482 up to 1581 part of the Habsburg Netherlands.
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The County of Zeeland was a county of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries.
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Cremation is the combustion, vaporization and oxidation of dead bodies to basic chemical compounds, such as gases, ashes and mineral fragments retaining the appearance of dry bone.
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The criminal justice system of the Netherlands is the system of practices and institutions of the Netherlands directed at upholding social control, deterring and mitigating crime, and sanctioning those who violate laws with criminal penalties and rehabilitation efforts.
The Cultivation System (cultuurstelsel), or less accurately the Culture System, was a Dutch government policy in the mid-nineteenth century for its Dutch East Indies colony (now Indonesia).
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Cultural Christians are individuals who identify themselves with Christian culture while not being religious Christians.
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Cultural heritage is the legacy of physical artifacts and intangible attributes of a group or society that are inherited from past generations, maintained in the present and bestowed for the benefit of future generations.
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The Colony of Curaçao and Dependencies (Kolonie Curaçao en onderhorigheden; Colonia di Kòrsou i las dependenshas) was a Dutch colony from 1815 until 1828 and from 1845 until 1936.
Cycling is a ubiquitous mode of transport in the Netherlands, with 31% of the people listing the bike as their main mode of transport for daily activities.
Cycling infrastructure refers to all infrastructure which may be used by cyclists.
Dam Square, or simply the Dam (de Dam), is a town square in Amsterdam, the capital of the Netherlands.
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Damascus steel was a type of steel used for manufacturing blades in the Near East made with wootz steel imported from India.
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De Bilt is a municipality and a town in the Netherlands, in the province of Utrecht.
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De Lift (also known as The Lift and The Elevator) is a 1983 film by Dutch director Dick Maas about an intelligent and murderous elevator starting a killing spree on random people.
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de Volkskrant (the People's Paper) is a Dutch daily morning newspaper.
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Deal or No Deal is the name of several closely related television game shows, the first of which (launching the format) was the Dutch Miljoenenjacht (Hunt for Millions) produced by Dutch producer Endemol.
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Death is the termination of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.
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Decolonization (US) or decolonisation (UK) is the undoing of colonialism, where a nation establishes and maintains its domination over dependent territories.
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, in old Western documents latinized as 'Decima', 'Desjima', 'Dezima', 'Disma', or 'Disima', was a small fan-shaped artificial island built in the bay of Nagasaki in 1634 by local merchants. This island, which was formed by digging a canal through a small peninsula, remained as the single place of direct trade and exchange between Japan and the outside world during the Edo period. Dejima was built to constrain foreign traders as part of sakoku, the self-imposed isolationist policy. Originally built to house Portuguese traders, it was used by the Dutch as a trading post from 1641 until 1853. Covering an area of 120 m × 75 m (9000 m2, or 0.9 hectares), it was later integrated into the city through the process of land reclamation. In 1922, "Dejima Dutch Trading Post" was designated a Japanese national historic site.
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Delft is a city and a municipality in the Netherlands.
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Delftware or Delft pottery, also known as Delft Blue (Delfts blauw), is blue and white pottery made in and around Delft in the Netherlands and the tin-glazed pottery made in the Netherlands from the 16th century.
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The Delta Works (Deltawerken) is a series of construction projects in the southwest of the Netherlands to protect a large area of land around the Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt delta from the sea.
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Democracy, or democratic government, is "a system of government in which all the people of a state or polity...
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The Democracy Index is an index compiled by the Economist Intelligence Unit, that measures the state of democracy in 167 countries, of which 166 are sovereign states and 165 are United Nations member states.
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Democrats 66 (Democraten 66, D66; official name: Politieke Partij Democraten 66) is a social-liberal and progressive political party in the Netherlands.
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Denmark (Danmark) is a country in Northern Europe.
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Dick Hein "Derek" de Lint (born 17 July 1950) is a Dutch film and television actor.
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Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (28 OctoberGleason, John B. "The Birth Dates of John Colet and Erasmus of Rotterdam: Fresh Documentary Evidence," Renaissance Quarterly, The University of Chicago Press on behalf of the Renaissance Society of America, Vol. 32, No. 1 (Spring, 1979), pp. 73–76; 1466 – 12 July 1536), known as Erasmus of Rotterdam, or simply Erasmus,Erasmus was his baptismal name, given after St. Erasmus of Formiae.
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Dick Maas (born 15 April 1951, Heemstede) is a Dutch film director, screenwriter, film producer and film composer.
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Direct election is a term describing a system of choosing political officeholders in which the voters directly cast ballots for the person, persons, or political party that they desire to see elected.
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Disarmament is the act of reducing, limiting, or abolishing weapons.
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The Netherlands Antilles, an autonomous Caribbean country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands, was dissolved on 10 October 2010.
DJ Magazine (also known as DJ Mag) is a British monthly magazine dedicated to electronic dance music and DJs.
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A doctorate (from Latin docere, "to teach") or doctor's degree (from Latin doctor, "teacher") or doctoral degree is an academic degree (Ph.D. or Ed.D.) awarded by universities that, in most countries, qualifies the holder to teach at the university level in the degree's field, or to work in a specific profession.
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Doe Maar was a Dutch ska band with punk and reggae influences.
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Dokkum is a Dutch fortified town in the municipality of Dongeradeel in the province of Friesland.
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A dolmen, also known as a cromlech, portal tomb, portal grave or quoit, is a type of single-chamber megalithic tomb, usually consisting of two or more megaliths supporting a large flat horizontal capstone ("table"), although there are also more complex variants.
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The Early-Medieval emporium of Dorestad was located in the south-east of the province of Utrecht in the Netherlands close to the modern day town of Wijk bij Duurstede.
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Drèents (also Dreins, Dreints, Drents, Drints; Drents) is a collective term for the dialects spoken in Drenthe, a province of the Netherlands.
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Drenthe is a province of the Netherlands, located in the northeast of the country.
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The drug policy of the Netherlands officially has four major objectives.
DSM (in full Koninklijke DSM N.V., or Royal DSM) is a Dutch-based multinational life sciences and materials sciences company.
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The Duchy of Brabant was a State of the Holy Roman Empire established in 1183.
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The Duchy of Burgundy (Duché de Bourgogne) from 1032 existed as a successor of an ancient and prestigious patrimony and a large division of the lands of the Kingdom of the Burgundians.
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The Duchy of Limburg or Limbourg was a state of the Holy Roman Empire.
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Duke of Burgundy (Fr.: duc de Bourgogne) was a title borne by the rulers of the Duchy of Burgundy, a small portion of traditional lands of Burgundians west of river Saône which in 843 was allotted to Charles the Bald's kingdom of West Franks.
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In physical geography, a dune is a hill of sand built by either wind or water flow.
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The Dutch American ethnic group in the United States consists of people who identify with Dutch ancestry.
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Dutch colonisation of the Guianas the coastal region between the Orinoco and Amazon rivers in South America began in the early 16th century.
The Dutch have a code of etiquette which governs social behaviour and is considered important.
The Dutch diaspora is the movement, migration, or scattering of the Dutch away from the Netherlands.
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The United East Indian Company (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie; VOC), referred to by the British as the Dutch East India Company, was originally established as a chartered company in 1602, when the Dutch government granted it a 21-year monopoly on Dutch spice trade.
The Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East Indies; Nederlands-Indië; Hindia Belanda) was a Dutch colony that became modern Indonesia following World War II.
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The Dutch Empire (Nederlands-koloniale Rijk) comprised the overseas territories controlled by the Dutch Republic and, later, the modern Netherlands from the 17th century to the mid-1950s.
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General elections were held in the Netherlands on 3 May 1994.
General elections were held in the Netherlands on 15 May 2002.
General elections were held in the Netherlands on 22 January 2003.
General elections were held in the Netherlands on 22 November 2006 following the fall of the Second Balkenende cabinet.
The 2010 Dutch general election was held on Wednesday, 9 June 2010.
The Dutch Golden Age (Gouden Eeuw) was a period in Dutch history, roughly spanning the 17th century, in which Dutch trade, science, military, and art were among the most acclaimed in the world.
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The Dutch Golden Age painting is the painting of the Dutch Golden Age, a period in Dutch history generally spanning the 17th century, during and after the later part of the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) for Dutch independence.
The Dutch government in exile (Nederlandse regering in ballingschap), also known as the London Cabinet (Londens cabinet) was the government in exile of the Netherlands, headed by Queen Wilhelmina, that evacuated to London after the German invasion of the country during World War II.
The Dutch guilder (gulden) or fl. was the currency of the Netherlands from the 17th century until 2002, when it was replaced by the euro.
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Dutch hip hop or Nederhop is hip hop music created by musicians in the Netherlands and Flanders.
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Dutch Indies literature or Dutch East Indies literature (Dutch: Indische letteren or Nederlands Indische literatuur, Indonesia: Sastra Hindia Belanda.) is a section of Dutch literature encompassing Dutch language literature inspired by colonial and post-colonial Insulinde from the Dutch Golden Age to the present day.
Dutch is a West Germanic language that is spoken in the European Union by about 23 million people as a first language—including most of the population of the Netherlands and about sixty percent of that of Belgium—and by another 5 million as a second language.
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Dutch Low Saxon (Nederlands Nedersaksisch; Dutch Low Saxon: Nederlaands Leegsaksies) are the Low Saxon dialects spoken in the northeastern Netherlands.
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The Dutch (Dutch), occasionally referred to as Netherlanders, a term that is cognate to the Dutch word for Dutch people, "Nederlanders" are a Germanic ethnic group native to the Netherlands.
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The Dutch Reformed Church (in Dutch: Nederlandse Hervormde Kerk or NHK) was a Reformed Christian denomination in the Netherlands.
The Dutch Republic, also known as the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands (Republiek der Zeven Verenigde Nederlanden), Republic of the United Netherlands or Republic of the Seven United Provinces (Republiek der Zeven Verenigde Provinciën), was a republic in Europe existing from 1581, when part of the Netherlands separated from Spanish rule, until 1795.
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The Dutch resistance to the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands during World War II can be mainly characterized by its prominent non-violence, peaking at over 300,000 people in hiding in the autumn of 1944, tended to by some 60,000 to 200,000 illegal landlords and caretakers and tolerated knowingly by some one million people, including German occupiers and military.
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The Dutch States Party (without the qualifier "Dutch" if the meaning is clear from the context) is the name used in Anglophone historiography for the faction in the politics of the Dutch Republic referred to in (older) Dutch historiography as the Staatsgezinde partij.
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Dutch West India Company (Geoctroyeerde Westindische Compagnie, or GWIC; Chartered West India Company) was a chartered company (known as the "WIC") of Dutch merchants.
Dutch-language literature comprises all writings of literary merit written through the ages in the Dutch language, a language which currently has around 23 million native speakers.
Earthenware is low-fired pottery that has not been fired to vitrification and is thus permeable to water.
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In medieval historiography, East Francia (Latin: Francia orientalis) or the Kingdom of the East Franks (regnum Francorum orientalium) forms the earliest stage of the Kingdom of Germany, lasting from about 840 until about 962.
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Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
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The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other allies, which encompassed Northern, Southern and Central and Eastern Europe from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.
The Eastern Scheldt (Oosterschelde) is a tidal basin in the province of Zeeland, Netherlands, between Schouwen-Duiveland and Tholen on the north and Noord-Beveland and Zuid-Beveland on the south.
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The Eburones (Greek: Ἐβούρωνες, Strabo), were a people who lived in the northeast of Gaul, in what is now the southern Netherlands, eastern Belgium, and the German Rhineland, in the period immediately before this region was conquered by Rome.
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An ecoregion (ecological region) is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than an ecozone.
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Egalitarianism—or, rarely, equalitarianism or equalism—is a trend of thought that favors equality for all people.
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The Eighty Years' War or Dutch War of Independence (1568–1648), began as a revolt of the Seventeen Provinces against the political and religious hegemony of Philip II of Spain, the sovereign of the Habsburg Netherlands.
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Eindhoven is a municipality and a city located in the province of North Brabant in the south of the Netherlands, originally at the confluence of the Dommel and Gender streams.
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Electronic dance music (also known as EDM, electronic dance, dance music, club music, or simply dance) is a broad range of percussive electronic music genres produced largely for nightclubs, raves, and festivals.
Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death.
The Elp culture (c. 1800—800 BCE) is a Bronze Age archaeological culture of the Netherlands having earthenware pottery of low quality known as "Kümmerkeramik" (also "Grobkeramik") as a marker.
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An employers' organization or employers' association is a collective organization of manufacturers, retailers, or other employers of wage labor.
Encyclopædia Britannica Online is the website of the Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. and its Encyclopædia Britannica, with more than 120,000 articles that are updated regularly.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. is a Scottish-founded, now American company best known for publishing the Encyclopædia Britannica, the world's oldest continuously published encyclopedia.
Endemol is a Dutch-based media company that produces and distributes multiplatform entertainment content.
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England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
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The English Channel (Manche, "Sleeve"; Mor Breizh, "Bretons Sea"; Mor Bretannek, "British Sea"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France, and joins the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.
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English language in the Netherlands refers to the use of English in the Netherlands.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
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Enschede, also known as Eanske in the local dialect of Twents, is a municipality and a city in the eastern Netherlands in the province of Overijssel and in the Twente region.
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Environmental issues are harmful effects of human activity on the biophysical environment.
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Epica is a Dutch symphonic metal band, founded by guitarist and vocalist Mark Jansen subsequent to his departure from After Forever.
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The Bishopric of Utrecht (1024–1528) was a civil principality of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries, in present Netherlands, which was ruled by the bishops of Utrecht as princes of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Ertebølle culture (ca 5300 BC – 3950 BC) is the name of a hunter-gatherer and fisher, pottery-making culture dating to the end of the Mesolithic period.
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An estuary is a partly enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.
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Etiquette in Europe is not uniform.
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The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the eurozone, which consists of 19 of the 28 member states of the European Union: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Spain.
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The euro banknotes are the banknotes of the euro, the currency of the Eurozone.
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There are eight euro coin denominations, ranging from one cent to two euros (the euro is divided into a hundred cents).
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Euro Health Consumer Index (EHCI) is a comparison of European health care systems based on waiting times, results, and generosity.
Eurodance (sometimes known as Euro-NRG or Euro) is a genre of electronic music that originated in the late 1980s primarily in Europe.
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Eurojust (also spelled capitalised as EUROJUST) is an agency of the European Union (EU) dealing with judicial co-operation in criminal matters.
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Euronext NV is a European stock exchange seated in Amsterdam, Brussels, London, Lisbon and Paris.
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The European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC or Euratom) is an international organisation founded in 1957 with the purpose of creating a specialist market for nuclear power in Europe, developing nuclear energy and distributing it to its member states while selling the surplus to non-member states.
The European Baseball Championship is the main championship tournament between national baseball teams in Europe, governed by the Confederation of European Baseball (CEB).
The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe.
The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was an international organisation<!--British spelling--> serving to unify European countries after World War II.
The European Commission (EC) is the executive body of the European Union responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
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European Cyclists' Federation (ECF) is an umbrella federation for national cycling organizations (organizations that promote bike for urban mobility) throughout Europe.
The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration between its member states.
European integration is the process of industrial, political, legal, economic, social and cultural integration of states wholly or partially in Europe.
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The European Union (EU) is a politico-economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
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The European Police Office, commonly abbreviated Europol, is the law enforcement agency of the European Union (EU) that handles criminal intelligence and combating serious international organised crime by means of cooperation between the relevant authorities of the member states, including those tasked with customs, immigration services, border and financial police etc.
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Eurostat is a Directorate-General of the European Commission located in Luxembourg.
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Eurozone (euro area).
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Euthanasia (from εὐθανασία; "good death": εὖ, eu; "well" or "good" – θάνατος, thanatos; "death") is the practice of intentionally ending a life in order to relieve pain and suffering.
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Euthanasia in the Netherlands is regulated by the "Termination of Life on Request and Assisted Suicide (Review Procedures) Act" from 2002.
The Evangelical Lutheran Church in the Kingdom of the Netherlands (Evangelisch-Lutherse Kerk in het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden) was a denomination in the Netherlands which under that name existed from 1818 to 2004.
The executive branch is the part of the government that has its authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state.
An expatriate (often shortened to expat) is a person temporarily or permanently residing in a country other than that of their citizenship.
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The German extermination camps or death camps were designed and built by Nazi Germany during World War II (1939–45) to systematically kill millions, primarily by gassing, but also in mass executions and through extreme work under starvation conditions.
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Famke Beumer Janssen (born 1964) is a Dutch actress, director, screenwriter and former fashion model.
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A farm is an area of land that is devoted primarily to agricultural processes or an area of water that is devoted primarily to aquacultural processes in order to produce and manage such commodities as fibres, grains, livestock, dairy, or fuel.
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Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian nationalism that came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.
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Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
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A fief (feudum) was the central element of feudalism and consisted of heritable property or rights granted by an overlord to a vassal who held it in fealty (or "in fee") in return for a form of feudal allegiance and service, usually given by the personal ceremonies of homage and fealty.
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Field hockey, or simply hockey, is a team sport of the hockey family.
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The first cabinet of Jan Peter Balkenende was in office in the Netherlands from 22 July 2002 until 16 October of the same year.
The First Canadian Army was the senior Canadian operational formation that served in North-western Europe from July 1944 until May 1945 during the Second World War.
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Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish.
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A flag is a piece of fabric (most often rectangular or quadrilateral) with a distinctive design that is used as a symbol, as a signaling device, or as decoration.
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Flanders (Dutch: Vlaanderen, Flandre) today normally refers to the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium.
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The Flemish Region (Dutch:; Région flamande) is one of the three official regions of the Kingdom of Belgium—alongside the Walloon Region and the Brussels-Capital Region.
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Flevoland is a province of the Netherlands.
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Flood control is an important issue for the Netherlands, as about two thirds of its area is vulnerable to flooding, while the country is among the most densely populated on Earth.
Focus is a Dutch progressive rock band, founded by classically trained organist/flautist Thijs van Leer in 1969, most famous for the instrumental "Hocus Pocus".
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Foederatus (in English; pl. foederati) was any one of several outlying nations to which ancient Rome provided benefits in exchange for military assistance.
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Alphonse Marie "Fons" Rademakers (5 September 1920 – 22 February 2007) was a Dutch actor, film director, film producer and screenwriter.
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A country's foreign policy, also called foreign relations policy, consists of self-interest strategies chosen by the state to safeguard its national interests and to achieve goals within its international relations milieu.
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The foreign policy of the Netherlands is based on four basic commitments: to the Atlantic cooperation, to European integration, to international development and to international law.
Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, using, conserving, and repairing forests and associated resources to meet desired goals, needs, and values for human benefit.
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Forging is a manufacturing process involving the shaping of metal using localized compressive forces.
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The fourth Balkenende cabinet or Balkenende IV was a Dutch coalition cabinet formed by the political parties Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA), Labour Party (PvdA), and ChristianUnion (CU).
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state comprising territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.
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The Kingdom of France in the Middle Ages (roughly, from the 5th century to the middle of the 15th century; for the period before Hugh Capet's accession to the throne, see Francia and Carolingian Empire) was marked by the expansion of royal control by the House of Capet (987–1328); their struggles with the virtually independent principalities (duchies and counties, such as the Norman and Angevin regions) that had developed following the Viking invasions and through the piecemeal dismantling of the Carolingian Empire and West Francia (843–987); the creation and extension of administrative/state control (notably under Philip II Augustus and Louis IX) in the 13th century; the rise of the House of Valois (1328–1589) and the protracted dynastic crisis of the Hundred Years' War with the Kingdom of England (1337–1453) compounded by the catastrophic Black Death epidemic (1348), which laid the seeds for a more centralized and expanded state in the early modern period and the creation of a sense of French identity.
Francia or Frankia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks (Regnum Francorum), Frankish Kingdom, Frankish Empire, Frankish Realm or occasionally Frankland, was the territory inhabited and ruled by the Franks, a confederation of Germanic tribes, during Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages.
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Franconian (Fränkisch; Frankisch) is a term for a number of West Germanic languages and dialects possibly derived from the languages and dialects originally spoken by the Franks from their ethnogenesis in the 3rd century AD.
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Frankish (also Old Franconian or Old Frankish) was the West Germanic language spoken by the Franks between the 4th and 8th century.
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The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) are historically first known as a group of Germanic tribes that roamed the land between the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, and second as the people of Gaul who merged with the Gallo-Roman populations during succeeding centuries, passing on their name to modern-day France and becoming part of the heritage of the modern day French people.
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Frans Bauer (born 30 December 1973 in Roosendaal) is a Dutch singer of "het levenslied" (Dutch Schlager).
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A free market is a market economy system in which the prices for goods and services are set freely by consent between vendors and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.
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In the history of France, the First Republic, officially the French Republic (République française), was founded on 22 September 1792 during the French Revolution.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was an influential period of social and political upheaval in France that lasted from 1789 until 1799, and was partially carried forward by Napoleon during the later expansion of the French Empire.
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Friesland (Fryslân) or Frisia is a province in the northwest of the Netherlands.
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Frisia or Friesland is a coastal region along the southeastern corner of the North Sea in what today is mostly a large part of the Netherlands, including modern Friesland, and smaller parts of Germany.
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Friese freedom or freedom of the Frisians was the absence of feudalism and serfdom in Frisia, the area that was originally inhabited by the Frisians.
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The Frisian Kingdom (Fryske Keninkryk), also known as Magna Frisia, is a modern name for the Frisian empire in the period when it was at its largest (650-734).
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The Frisian languages are a closely related group of Germanic languages, spoken by about 500,000 Frisian people, who live on the southern fringes of the North Sea in the Netherlands, Germany, and Denmark.
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The Frisian–Frankish wars were a series of conflicts between the Frankish Empire and the Frisian kingdom in the 7th and 8th centuries.
The Frisians are a Germanic ethnic group native to the coastal parts of the Netherlands and Germany.
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The Frisii were an ancient Germanic tribe living in the low-lying region between the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta and the River Ems, and the presumed ancestors of the modern-day ethnic Frisians.
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The Funnel(-neck-)beaker culture, short TRB or TBK from (German) Trichter(-rand-)becherkultur (ca 4300 BC–ca 2800 BC) was an archaeological culture in north-central Europe.
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Gabber, gabba, (from), Rotterdam techno, Rotterdam hardcore or retrospectively called early hardcore, is a style of electronic music and a subgenre of hardcore.
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Gallia Belgica (Belgic Gaul) was a province of the Roman empire located in Belgium, present-day northern France, Luxembourg, part of the present-day Netherlands below the Rhine, and the German Rhineland.
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The Gallic Wars were a series of military campaigns waged by the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar against several Gallic tribes.
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Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, parts of Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
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Geert Wilders (born 6 September 1963) is a Dutch politician and the founder and leader of the Party for Freedom (Partij voor de Vrijheid – PVV), which is a political party in the Dutch parliament.
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Gelderland (also Guelders in English) is a province of the Netherlands.
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In the medical profession, a general practitioner (GP) is a medical doctor who treats acute and chronic illnesses and provides preventive care and health education to patients.
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The Generality Lands, Lands of the Generality or Common Lands (Generaliteitslanden) were about one fifth of the territories of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, that were directly governed by the States-General.
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Gerard Kornelis van het Reve (14 December 1923 – 8 April 2006) was a Dutch writer.
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Germania Inferior was a Roman province located on the west bank of the Rhine.
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Germania Superior ("Upper Germania"), so called because it lay upstream of Germania Inferior, was a province of the Roman Empire.
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The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin, identified by their use of the Germanic languages which diversified out of Proto-Germanic starting during the Pre-Roman Iron Age.
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Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history, and speak the German language as their native language.
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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a federal parliamentary republic in western-central Europe.
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. Gerolf or Gerulf (c. 850 – 895/896) was the second count of this name who is attested in the area of Friesland (which also included Holland at the time).
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"Get Ready for This" is a song recorded by Eurodance group 2 Unlimited.
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The Gini coefficient (also known as the Gini index or Gini ratio) is a measure of statistical dispersion intended to represent the income distribution of a nation's residents, and is the most commonly used measure of inequality.
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The Global Competitiveness Report (GCR) is a yearly report published by the World Economic Forum.
A global cuisine is a cuisine that is practiced around the world.
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The Global Enabling Trade Report was first published in 2008 by the World Economic Forum.
Global warming and climate change are terms for the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
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Godfrid, Godafrid, Gudfrid, or Gottfrid (Guðfrið; murdered June 885) was a Danish Viking leader of the late ninth century.
Golden Earring is a Dutch rock band, founded in 1961 in The Hague as the Golden Earrings (the "s" was dropped in 1969).
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The Grand Ducal Family of Luxembourg constitutes the House of Luxembourg-Nassau, headed by the sovereign Grand Duke, and in which the throne of the grand duchy is hereditary.
A greenhouse (also called a glasshouse, or, if with additional heating, a hothouse) is a structure with walls and roof made chiefly of transparent material, such as glass, in which plants requiring regulated climatic conditions are grown.
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Groningen (Gronings: Grunnen; West Frisian: Grins) is the main municipality as well as the capital city of the eponymous province in the Netherlands.
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Groningen (Gronings: Grönnen; Grinslân) is the northeasternmost province of the Netherlands.
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The Groningen gas field is a giant natural gas field located near Slochteren in Groningen province in the northeastern part of the Netherlands.
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The Group of Ten or G-10 refers to the group of countries that have agreed to participate in the General Arrangements to Borrow (GAB).
Guadeloupe (Antillean Creole: Gwadloup) is an overseas region of France, consisting of a single overseas department, located in the Leeward Islands, part of the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean.
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Guelders or Gueldres (Gelre, Geldern) is a historical county, later duchy of the Holy Roman Empire, located in the Low Countries.
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Guyana (pronounced or), officially the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, is a sovereign state on the northern mainland of South America.
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A gymnasium is a type of school with a strong emphasis on academic learning, and providing advanced secondary education in some parts of Europe and the CIS, comparable to British grammar schools, sixth form colleges and U.S. preparatory high schools.
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Haarlem (formerly known as Harlem in the English language) is a city and municipality in the Netherlands.
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Habitat conservation is a land management practice that seeks to conserve, protect and restore habitat areas for wild plants and animals, especially conservation reliant species, and prevent their extinction, fragmentation or reduction in range.
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Habsburg Netherlands is the collective name of Holy Roman Empire fiefs in the Low Countries held by the House of Habsburg and later by the Spanish Empire, also known as the Spanish Netherlands.
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The Hanseatic League (also known as the Hanse or Hansa; Hanse, Dudesche Hanse, Hansa, Hansa Teutonica or Liga Hanseatica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and their market towns.
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Hardstyle is an electronic dance genre mixing influences from hardtechno and hardcore.
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Robbert van de Corput (born 7 January 1988 in Breda, Netherlands), better known by his stage name Hardwell, is a Dutch big room house and electro house DJ and music producer.
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Harry Kurt Victor Mulisch (29 July 1927 – 30 October 2010) was a Dutch writer.
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Haute cuisine (French: literally "high cooking") or Grande cuisine refers to the cuisine of "high level" establishments, gourmet restaurants and luxury hotels.
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Head of government is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony who often presides over a cabinet.
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A head of state is the highest-ranking constitutional position in a sovereign state and is vested with powers to act as the chief public representative of that state.
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Health Consumer Powerhouse (HCP) is a Swedish company comparing healthcare throughout Europe.
Health insurance is insurance against the risk of incurring medical expenses among individuals.
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A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.
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In 2014 the Netherlands has maintained its number one position at the top of the annual Euro health consumer index (EHCI), which compares healthcare systems in Europe, scoring 898 of a maximum 1,000 points.
A heath or heathland is a shrubland habitat found mainly on free-draining infertile, acidic soils, and is characterised by open, low-growing woody vegetation.
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Heineken International is a Dutch brewing company, founded in 1864 by Gerard Adriaan Heineken in Amsterdam.
Hélène "Hella" Serafia Haasse (2 February 1918 – 29 September 2011) was a Dutch writer, often referred to as "the Grand Old Lady" of Dutch literature, and whose novel Oeroeg (1948) was a staple for generations of Dutch schoolchildren.
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Helmond (called Héllemond in the local dialect) is a municipality and a city in the province of North Brabant in the southern Netherlands.
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The Hilversum culture is a prehistoric material culture found in middle Bronze Age in the region of the southern Netherlands and northern Belgium.
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The reception of Hinduism in the western world begins in the 19th century, at first at an academic level of religious studies and antiquarian interest in Sanskrit.
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Hinterland is a German word meaning "the land behind" (a city, a port, or similar).
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Hip hop music, also called hip-hopMerriam-Webster Dictionary entry on hip-hop, retrieved from: A subculture especially of inner-city black youths who are typically devotees of rap music; the stylized rhythmic music that commonly accompanies rap; also rap together with this music.
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Most history of the Jews in the Netherlands was generated between the end of the 16th century and World War II.
The havo or hoger algemeen voortgezet onderwijs (literally: "higher general continued education") is a stream in the secondary educational system of the Netherlands.
Holland is a region and former province on the western coast of the Netherlands.
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Hollandic or Hollandish is, together with Brabantian, the most frequently used dialect of the Dutch language.
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Hollywood is a neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, California.
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The Holy Roman Empire (Latin: Sacrum Romanum Imperium, German: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
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The Hook and Cod wars (Hoekse en Kabeljauwse twisten) comprise a series of wars and battles in the County of Holland between 1350 and 1490.
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House music is a genre of electronic dance music that originated in Chicago in the early 1980s.
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The House of Habsburg, also called House of Hapsburg, or House of Austria, was one of the most important royal houses of Europe.
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The House of Representatives (Dutch: Tweede Kamer der Staten-Generaal, or simply: Tweede Kamer, literally, Second Chamber) is the lower house of the bicameral parliament of the Netherlands, the States General, the other one being the Senate.
The House of Valois-Burgundy (la maison de Valois-Bourgogne), or the Younger House of Burgundy, was a noble French family deriving from the royal House of Valois.
is a theme park in Sasebo, Nagasaki, Japan, which recreates the Netherlands by displaying real size copies of old Dutch buildings.
Human height or stature is the distance from the bottom of the feet to the top of the head in a human body, standing erect.
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Human migration is the movement by people from one place to another with the intention of settling temporarily or permanently in the new location.
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Human sexuality is the capacity of humans to have erotic experiences and responses.
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A hunter-gatherer or early human society is one in which most or all food is obtained from wild plants and animals, in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.
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I Corps ("First Corps") was an army corps in existence as an active formation in the British Army for most of the 80 years from its creation in the First World War until the end of the Cold War, longer than any other corps.
The River IJssel, sometimes called Gelderse IJssel ("Gueldern IJssel") to avoid confusion with the Hollandse IJssel, is the branch of the Rhine in the Dutch provinces of Gelderland and Overijssel.
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Ĳsselmeer (Lake IJssel, alternative spelling: Lake Yssel; Frisian: Iselmar) is a shallow artificial lake of 1100 km² in the central Netherlands bordering the provinces of Flevoland, North Holland and Friesland, with an average depth of 5 to 6 m. The Ĳsselmeer is the largest lake in Western Europe.
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Ilse Annoeska de Lange (born 13 May 1977) is a Dutch country and pop singer, better known as Ilse DeLange (English spelling).
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An immigration policy is any policy of a state that deals with the transit of persons across its borders into the country, but especially those that intend to work and stay in the country.
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The Index of Economic Freedom is an annual index and ranking created by The Heritage Foundation and The Wall Street Journal in 1995 to measure the degree of economic freedom in the world's nations.
India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia.
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Indigenous people are those groups especially protected in international or national legislation as having a set of specific rights based on their historical ties to a particular territory, and their cultural or historical distinctiveness from other populations.
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Individual ministerial responsibility is a constitutional convention in governments using the Westminster System that a cabinet minister bears the ultimate responsibility for the actions of their ministry or department.
Indo is a term used to describe Europeans, Asians, and Eurasian people who were a migrant population that associated themselves with and experienced the colonial culture of the former Dutch East Indies, a Dutch colony in Southeast Asia that became Indonesia after World War II.
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Indo-Surinamese are nationals of Suriname of Indian or other South Asian ancestry.
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Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
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The Indonesian National Revolution or Indonesian War of Independence was an armed conflict and diplomatic struggle between Indonesia and the Dutch Empire, and an internal social revolution.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
The ING Group (ING Groep) is a Dutch multinational banking and financial services corporation headquartered in Amsterdam.
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The Ingaevones or, as Pliny has it, apparently more accurately, Ingvaeones ("people of Yngvi"), as described in Tacitus's Germania, written c. 98 CE, were a West Germanic cultural group living along the North Sea coast in the areas of Jutland, Holstein, Frisia and the Danish islands, where they had by the 1st century BCE become further differentiated to a foreigner's eye into the Frisii, Saxons, Jutes and Angles.
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Ingvaeonic, also known as North Sea Germanic, is a postulated grouping of the northern West Germanic languages, comprising Old Frisian, Old English and Old Saxon.
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An international airport is an airport that offers customs and immigration facilities for passengers travelling between countries.
The International Court of Justice (Cour internationale de justice; commonly referred to as the World Court or ICJ) is the primary judicial branch of the United Nations.
The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt) is an intergovernmental organization and international tribunal that sits in The Hague in the Netherlands.
The International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991, more commonly referred to as the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia or ICTY, is a body of the United Nations established to prosecute serious crimes committed during the Yugoslav Wars, and to try their perpetrators.
International development or global development is a wide concept concerning level of development on an international scale.
International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a United Nations agency dealing with labour issues, particularly international labour standards, social protection, and work opportunities for all.
International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.
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The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, DC, of "188 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world".
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
International relations (IR) or international affairs, depending on academic institution, is either a field of political science or an interdisciplinary academic field similar to global studies, in which students take a variety of internationally focused courses in social science and humanities disciplines.
The International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), known colloquially as the Hare Krishna movement or Hare Krishnas, is a Gaudiya Vaishnava religious organisation.
International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories, which could involve the activities of the government and individual.
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Iran (or; ایران), historically known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia.
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Iraq (or; العراق, Kurdish: Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq (Arabic: جمهورية العراق; كۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia.
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The Iron Age is the period generally occurring after the Bronze Age, marked by the prevalent use of iron.
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Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence of religion, an indifference towards religion, a rejection of religion, or hostility towards religion.
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Isaac Le Maire (Tournai, c. 1558 – Egmond aan den Hoef, September 20, 1624) was a merchant for the Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie and later for the Austraalse Compagnie. He is best known for his constant strife with the VOC, which ultimately led to the discovery of Cape Horn.
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Islam (There are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster). The most common are (Oxford English Dictionary, Random House) and (American Heritage Dictionary). الإسلام,: Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~. In Northwestern Africa, they do not have stress or lengthened vowels.) is a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion articulated by the Qur'an, a religious text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God, and, for the vast majority of adherents, by the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad (circa 570–8 June 632 CE), considered by most of them to be the last prophet of God.
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Islam in the Netherlands is the second largest religion in the country after various forms of Christianity, practiced by 4% of the population according to 2012 estimates.
ISO 4217 is a standard published by International Organization for Standardization, which delineates currency designators, country codes (alpha and numeric), and references to minor units in three tables.
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The Istvaeones, also called Istaevones, Istriaones, Istriones, Sthraones, and Thracones, were a Germanic tribal grouping in the 1st century AD.
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Jacob Isaackszoon van Ruisdael (1629 – 10 March 1682) was the pre-eminent Dutch Golden Age landscape painter.
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Jan de Bont (born 22 October 1943) is a Dutch cinematographer, producer, and film director.
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Jan Pieter "Jan Peter" Balkenende, Jr. (born 7 May 1956) is a Dutch politician of the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA).
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Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck (April or May, 1562 in Deventer – 16 October 1621 in Amsterdam) was a Dutch composer, organist, and pedagogue whose work straddled the end of the Renaissance and beginning of the Baroque eras.
Johannes Hendricus Maria “Jan” Smit (born December 31, 1985) is a Dutch pop music and schlager singer and TV host.
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Jan Havickszoon Steen (c. 1626 – buried 3 February 1679) was a Dutch genre painter of the 17th century (also known as the Dutch Golden Age).
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Jan Hendrik Wolkers (Oegstgeest, 26 October 1925 – Texel, 19 October 2007) was a Dutch author, sculptor and painter.
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Janine Jansen (born 7 January 1978 in Soest in the Netherlands) is a violinist and violist.
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The Japanese Empire occupied the Dutch East Indies, modern Indonesia, during World War II from March 1942 until after the end of the War in 1945.
The Java War or Diponegoro War was fought in Java between 1825 and 1830.
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Jazz is a genre of music that originated in African American communities in the United States in the late 19th and early 20th century.
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Jeroen Aart Krabbé (born 5 December 1944), is a Dutch actor and director, who has appeared in many Dutch and international films.
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Johannes, Jan or Johan Vermeer (1632 – December 1675) was a Dutch painter who specialized in domestic interior scenes of middle-class life.
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Johannes Hendrikus Hubert "John" de Mol, Jr. (born 24 April 1955) is a Dutch media tycoon.
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Johannes "Joop" Adrianus van den Ende (born 23 February 1942) is a Dutch theatrical producer, co-founder of international television production company Endemol and founder/owner of Stage Entertainment, Europe’s largest live entertainment company.
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Joost van den Vondel (17 November 1587 – 5 February 1679) was a Dutch poet, writer and playwright.
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Georg Henri Anton "Joris" Ivens (18 November 1898 – 28 June 1989) was a Dutch documentary filmmaker and communist.
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Julian (Flavius Claudius Iulianus Augustus, Φλάβιος Κλαύδιος Ἰουλιανὸς Αὔγουστος; 331/332 – 26 June 363), also known as Julian the Apostate, was Roman Emperor from 361 to 363, as well as a notable philosopher and author in Greek.
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Gaius Julius Caesar (July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman statesman, general and notable author of Latin prose.
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The Jutes, Iuti, or Iutæ were a Germanic people.
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K-1 began in 1993 and is a kickboxing platform and martial arts brand well-known worldwide mainly for its heavyweight division fights.
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K-1 World Grand Prix, also known as the K-1 World GP, is an elimination kickboxing tournament that has been held annually since 1993 by the K-1 organization.
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Kaseko is a musical genre from Suriname, a fusion of African, European and American styles.
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Kerkrade (Kerkrade dialect: Kirchroa) is a town and a municipality in the southeast of Limburg, the southernmost province of the Netherlands.
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Kerkrade dialect (natively Kirchröadsj Plat or Kirchröadsj, Standard Dutch: Kerkraads, Standard German: Kerkrader Platt) is a Ripuarian dialect spoken in Kerkrade (Netherlands) and Herzogenrath (Germany).
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Kickboxing (in Japanese キックボクシング kikkubokushingu) is a group of stand-up combat sports based on kicking and punching, historically developed from karate, Muay Thai, and Western boxing.
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The Kingdom of Holland (Koninkrijk Holland, Royaume de Hollande) was set up by Napoleon Bonaparte as a puppet kingdom for his third brother, Louis Bonaparte, in order to better control the Netherlands.
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The Kingdom of Italy (Latin: Regnum Italiae or Regnum Italicum, Italian: Regno d'Italia) was one of the constituent kingdoms of the Holy Roman Empire (800–1806), along with the kingdoms of Germany and Burgundy.
The Kingdom of the Netherlands (Koninkrijk der Nederlanden;; Reino Hulandes), commonly known as the Netherlands, is a sovereign state and constitutional monarchy with territory in western Europe and in the Caribbean.
A knife (plural knives) is a tool with a cutting edge or blade, hand-held or otherwise, with most having a handle.
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The knowledge economy is the use of knowledge (savoir, savoir-faire, savoir-être) to generate tangible and intangible values.
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The Korean War (in South Korean Hangul: 한국전쟁, Hanja: 韓國戰爭, Hanguk Jeonjaeng, "Korean War"; in North Korean Chosungul: 조국해방전쟁, Joguk Haebang Jeonjaeng, "Fatherland Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North and South Korea, in which a United Nations force led by the United States of America fought for the South, and China fought for the North, which was also assisted by the Soviet Union.
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The Korps Commandotroepen (KCT) are the special forces of the Royal Netherlands Army.
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Kralendijk is the capital city and main port of the island of Bonaire in the Caribbean Netherlands.
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The La Tène culture was a European Iron Age culture named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel in Switzerland, where a rich cache of artifacts was discovered by Hansli Kopp in 1857.
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The Labour Party (Partij van de Arbeid;, shortened PvdA) is a social-democratic political party in the Netherlands.
Laeti, the plural form of laetus, was a term used in the late Roman Empire to denote communities of barbari ("barbarians") i.e. foreigners, or people from outside the Empire, permitted to settle on, and granted land in, imperial territory on condition that they provide recruits for the Roman military.
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A lake (in Scotland and Ireland, a loch) is an area (prototypically filled with water, also of variable size), localized in a basin, that is surrounded by land apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake.
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Land reclamation, usually known as reclamation, and also known as land fill (not to be confused with a landfill), is the process of creating new land from ocean, riverbeds, or lake beds.
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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
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In geography, latitude (φ) is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north-south position of a point on the Earth's surface.
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Lavinia Meijer is a female harpist born in 1983 in South Korea and adopted into a Dutch family.
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Leeuwarden (Stadsfries: Liwwadden, Frisian: Ljouwert) is a city in the Netherlands.
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The Leeward Antilles (Dutch: Benedenwindse Eilanden) are a chain of islands in the Caribbean – specifically, the southerly islands of the Lesser Antilles (and, in turn, the Antilles and the West Indies) along the southeastern fringe of the Caribbean Sea, just north of the Venezuelan coast of the South American mainland.
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The Leeward Islands are a group of islands in the West Indies.
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A legislature is the law-making body of a political unit, usually a national government, that has power to enact, amend, and repeal public policy.
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Leiden (in English and archaic Dutch also Leyden) is a city and municipality in the Dutch province of South Holland.
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Leiden University (abbreviated as LEI, Universiteit Leiden), located in the city of Leiden, is the oldest university in the Netherlands.
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Lelystad is a municipality and a city in the centre of the Netherlands, and it is the capital of the province of Flevoland.
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The Lesser Antilles (also known as the Caribbees) is the name given to a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea.
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Leuven (Louvain,, often used in English) is the capital of the province of Flemish Brabant in the Flemish Region, Belgium.
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A levee, levée, dike, dyke, embankment, floodbank or stopbank is an elongated naturally occurring ridge or artificially constructed fill or wall, which regulates water levels.
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Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) rights in the Netherlands have been some of the most progressive in Europe and worldwide.
Liberalism is a political philosophy or worldview founded on ideas of liberty and equality.
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This article gives an overview of liberalism in the Netherlands.
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of how long a person or organism may live, based on the year of their birth, their current age and other demographic factors including gender.
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Limburg (Dutch and Limburgish: (Nederlands-)Limburg; Limbourg) is the southernmost of the 12 provinces of the Netherlands.
Limburgish, also called Limburgian or Limburgic (Limburgish: Limburgs Dutch: Limburgs, German: Limburgisch, French: Limbourgeois), is a group of East Low Franconian language varieties spoken in the Limburg and Rhineland regions, along the Dutch–Belgian–German border.
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The Limes Germanicus (Latin for Germanic frontier) was a line of frontier (limes) fortifications that bounded the ancient Roman provinces of Germania Inferior, Germania Superior and Raetia, dividing the Roman Empire and the unsubdued Germanic tribes from the years 83 to about 260 AD.
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This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population with inclusion within the list being based on the ISO standard ISO 3166-1.
This article includes a partial List of countries by economic freedom that shows the top 50 highest ranking countries from two reports on economic freedom.
Countries are sorted by nominal GDP estimates from financial and statistical institutions, which are calculated at market or government official exchange rates.
This article includes four lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product per capita at nominal values.
This article includes three lists of countries by gross domestic product (at purchasing power parity) per capita, i.e. the purchasing power parity (PPP) value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given year, divided by the average (or mid-year) population for the same year.
This list of countries by rail transport network size based on International Union of Railways data ranks countries by length of rail lines worked at end of year updated with other reliable sources. These figures also include urban/suburban mass-transport systems; as well as lines which are not used for passenger services.
This is a list of European countries and dependent territories by population, which is sorted by the mid-year normalized demographic projections.
This is a list of metropolitan areas in Europe, with their population according to three different sources.
There are 393 regular municipalities (gemeenten) and 3 public bodies (openbare lichamen), also referred to as special municipalities (bijzondere gemeenten), in the Netherlands.
This article lists political parties in the Netherlands.
This is a list of countries and dependencies ranked by human population density and measured by the number of human inhabitants per square kilometer or square mile.
This is a list of the 100 busiest airports in:Europe, ranked by total passengers per year, including both terminal and transit passengers.
Loneliness is a complex and usually unpleasant emotional response to isolation or lack of companionship.
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The Lordship of Frisia or Lordship of Friesland (Heerlijkheid Friesland) was a feudal dominion in the Netherlands.
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The Lordship of Groningen (Heerlijkheid Groningen) was a lordship under the rule of the House of Habsburg between 1536 and 1594, which is the present-day province of Groningen.
The Lordship of Overijssel or Overissel (Latin: Transisalania) is a former division of the Netherlands named for its position along the river Issel.
The Lordship of Utrecht was formed in 1528 when Charles V of Habsburg conquered the Bishopric of Utrecht, during the Guelderian Wars.
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The Duchy of Lorraine (Lorraine,; Lothringen), was a duchy roughly corresponding with the present-day region of Lorraine in northeastern France, its capital was Nancy.
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Lothair I or Lothar I (German: Lothar, French: Lothaire, Italian: Lotario, Dutch: Lotharius) (795 – 29 September 855) was the Holy Roman Emperor (817–855, co-ruling with his father until 840), and the King of Bavaria (815–817), Italy (818–855) and Middle Francia (840–855).
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Lothair II (835 –) was the king of Lotharingia from 855 until his death.
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Lotharingia was a medieval successor kingdom of the Carolingian Empire, comprising the Low Countries, the western Rhineland, the lands today on the border between France and Germany, and what is now western Switzerland.
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Louis Andriessen (born 6 June 1939) is a Dutch composer and pianist based in Amsterdam.
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Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (2 September 1778 – 25 July 1846), King of Holland (1806–10), known as Lodewijk Napoleon in Dutch, was the fifth surviving child and the fourth surviving son of Carlo Buonaparte and Letizia Ramolino.
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Louis Marie-Anne Couperus (The Hague, 10 June 1863 – De Steeg, 16 July 1923) was a Dutch novelist and poet.
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Love is a variety of different feelings, states, and attitudes that ranges from interpersonal affection ("I love my mother") to pleasure ("I loved that meal").
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The Low Countries (de Lage Landen., les Pays-Bas.) is a coastal region in western Europe, consisting especially of the Netherlands and Belgium, and the low-lying delta of the Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, and Ems rivers where much of the land is at or below sea level.
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Low Franconian, Low Frankish, sometimes equated with Istvaeonic, is a group of several West Germanic languages spoken in the Netherlands, northern Belgium (Flanders), in the northern department of France, in western Germany (Lower Rhine), as well as in Suriname, South Africa and Namibia that originally descended from Old Frankish.
A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house.
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The Duchy of Lower Lorraine or Lower Lotharingia (also referred to sometimes as Lothier or Lottier in titles), established in 959 was a stem duchy of the medieval Kingdom of Germany, which encompassed almost all of the modern-day Netherlands (including Friesland), mid and eastern Belgium, Luxemburg, the northern part of the German Rhineland province and the eastern parts of France's Nord Pas De Calais region.
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Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that identifies with the theology of Martin Luther—a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer, and theologian.
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Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.
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Maurits Cornelis Escher (17 June 1898 – 27 March 1972) was a Dutch graphic artist.
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Maastricht (Limburgish: Mestreech; French: Maestricht; Spanish: Mastrique) is a town and a municipality in the southeast of the Netherlands.
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The Maeslantkering is a storm surge barrier on the imaginary dividing line between the Nieuwe Waterweg waterway located at Hoek van Holland and the river the Scheur located along the cities of Maassluis and Vlaardingen up to the confluence of the rivers Oude Maas and Nieuwe Maas, Netherlands,, which automatically closes when needed.
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Manhattan is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City.
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A maritime boundary is a conceptual division of the Earth's water surface areas using physiographic or geopolitical criteria.
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Mark Rutte (born 14 February 1967) is a Dutch politician who has been the Prime Minister of the Netherlands since 14 October 2010 and the Leader of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (Volkspartij voor Vrijheid en Democratie - VVD) since 31 May 2006.
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Marken (Marken's dialect: Mereke) is a village with a population of 1,810 in the municipality of Waterland in the province of North Holland in the Netherlands.
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Martijn Garritsen (born 14 May 1996), commonly known by his stage name Martin Garrix, is a Dutch DJ and producer.
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Martinique is an island in the Lesser Antilles in the eastern Caribbean Sea, with a land area of and a population of 386,486 inhabitants (as of January 2013).
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The mass media are diversified media technologies that are intended to reach a large audience via mass communication.
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Maurice of Nassau (Maurits van Oranje; 14 November 1567 – 23 April 1625) was sovereign Prince of Orange from 1618, on the death of his eldest half brother, Philip William, Prince of Orange, (1554–1618).
Max Havelaar: Or the Coffee Auctions of the Dutch Trading Company (Max Havelaar, of de koffi-veilingen der Nederlandsche Handel-Maatschappy) is an 1860 novel by Multatuli (the pen name of Eduard Douwes Dekker), which played a key role in shaping and modifying Dutch colonial policy in the Dutch East Indies in the nineteenth and early twentieth century.
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A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament.
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The Menapii were a Belgic tribe of northern Gaul in pre-Roman and Roman times.
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In archaeology, mesolithic (Greek: mesos "middle", lithos "stone") is the culture between paleolithic and neolithic.
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Metonymy is a figure of speech in which a thing or concept is called not by its own name but rather by the name of something associated in meaning with that thing or concept.
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Metres above mean sea level (MAMSL), or simply metres above sea level (MASL or m.a.s.l.), is a standard metric measurement in metres of the elevation of a location in reference to historic mean sea level; the determination of what actually constitutes mean sea level over time however, may be determined by other parameters, such as the effects of climate history and climate change, and may have differed in the past, as well as in the future, from that established by historic, modern, documented elevations.
A metropolitan area, sometimes referred to as a metropolitan region, metro area or just metro, is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing: industry, infrastructure, and housing.
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The Meuse (Walloon: Mouze) or Maas (Maas) is a major European river, rising in France and flowing through Belgium and the Netherlands before draining into the North Sea.
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Meuse-Rhenish (German: Rheinmaasländisch, Dutch: Maas-Rijnlands, and French: francique rhéno-mosan) is a modern term that refers to the literature written in the Middle Ages in the greater Meuse-Rhine area.
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Michiel Huisman (born 18 July 1981) is a Dutch actor, musician, and singer-songwriter, who has acted in both Dutch and English-language TV series and films.
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A microorganism (from the μικρός, mikros, "small" and ὀργανισμός, organismós, "organism") is a microscopic living organism, which may be single celled or multicellular.
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A microscope (from the μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small for the naked eye.
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Middelburg is a municipality and a city in the south-western Netherlands and the capital of the province of Zeeland.
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Middle Francia (Francia media) was an ephemeral (843–855) Frankish kingdom.
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The term "migrant worker" has different official meanings and connotations in different parts of the world.
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The Migration Period, better known as the Barbarian Invasions also referred to as the Völkerwanderung (in German), was a period of intensified barbarian invasion in Europe, often defined from the period when it seriously impacted the Roman world, as running from about 376 to 800 AD during the transition from Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages.
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A minister without portfolio is either a government minister with no specific responsibilities or a minister who does not head a particular ministry.
A minority government, or minority cabinet or minority parliament, is a cabinet formed in a parliamentary system when a political party or coalition of parties does not have a majority of overall seats in the parliament.
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A monarch is the sovereign head of state in a monarchy.
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The Monarchy of the Netherlands is constitutional and as such, the role and position of the monarch are defined and limited by the constitution of the Netherlands.
A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, whether monks or nuns, and whether living in communities or alone (hermits).
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The terms Moroccan-Dutch or Dutch-Moroccans refer to immigrants from Morocco to the Netherlands and their descendants.
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Morocco (المغرب; ⵍⵎⴰⵖⵔⵉⴱ or Muṛṛakuc, ⵎⵓⵔⴰⴽⵓⵛ; Maroc), officially the Kingdom of Morocco, is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa.
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A motion of no confidence (alternatively vote of no confidence, censure motion, no-confidence motion, or (unsuccessful) confidence motion) is a statement or vote which states that a person in a superior position—be it government, managerial, etc.—is no longer deemed fit to hold that position.
Mount Scenery is a potentially active volcano in the Caribbean Netherlands.
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Mudflats or mud flats, also known as tidal flats, are coastal wetlands that form when mud is deposited by tides or rivers.
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Eduard Douwes Dekker (2 March 1820 – 19 February 1887), better known by his pen name Multatuli (from Latin multa tuli, "I have suffered much"), was a Dutch writer famous for his satirical novel, Max Havelaar (1860), which denounced the abuses of colonialism in the Dutch East Indies (today's Indonesia).
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Multiculturalism describes the existence, acceptance, or promotion of multiple cultural traditions within a single jurisdiction, usually considered in terms of the culture associated with an ethnic group.
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Music is an art form whose medium is sound and silence.
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Given the vastness of the continent, the traditional music of Africa is historically ancient, rich, and diverse, with the different regions and nations of Africa having distinct musical traditions.
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Muslim refugees are Muslims who have been expelled from or forced to leave their homes due to persecution, wars, invasions, and occupation of Muslim lands, becoming refugees.
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() is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture on the island of Kyushu in Japan.
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Napoléon Bonaparte (born Napoleone di Buonaparte; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the Revolutionary Wars.
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Nasi goreng, literally meaning "fried rice" in Indonesian and Malay, can refer simply to fried pre-cooked rice, a meal including stir fried rice in small amount of cooking oil or margarine, typically spiced with kecap manis (sweet soy sauce), shallot, garlic, tamarind and chilli and accompanied by other ingredients, particularly egg, chicken and prawns.
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The National Hockey League (NHL; Ligue nationale de hockey—LNH) is a professional ice hockey league composed of 30 member clubs: 23 in the United States and 7 in Canada.
The National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands (Nationaal-Socialistische Beweging in Nederland,, NSB) was a Dutch fascist and later national socialist political party.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949.
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Oil and natural gas are produced by the same geological process according fossil fuel suggestion: anaerobic decay of organic matter deep under the Earth's surface.
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Nazi Germany or the Third Reich (Drittes Reich) are common English names for the period of history in Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a dictatorship under the control of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
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The Neanderthals or Neandertals, us also -, --, -, -) (named after the Neandertal area) were a species of human in the genus Homo that became extinct between 41,000 and 39,000 years ago. They were closely related to modern humans, differing in DNA by just 0.12%. Remains left by Neanderthals include bone and stone tools, which are found in Eurasia, from Western Europe to Central and Northern Asia and the Middle East. Neanderthals are generally classified by biologists as the species Homo neanderthalensis, but a minority considers them to be a subspecies of Homo sapiens (Homo sapiens neanderthalensis). Several cultural assemblages have been linked to the Neanderthals in Europe. The earliest, the Mousterian stone tool culture, dates to about 300,000 years ago. Late Mousterian artifacts were found in Gorham's Cave on the south-facing coast of Gibraltar. Neanderthals were large compared to Homo sapiens because they inhabited higher latitudes, in conformance with Bergmann's rule, and their larger stature explains their larger brain size because brain size generally increases with body size. With an average cranial capacity of 1600 cm3, the cranial capacity of Neanderthals is notably larger than the 1400 cm3 average for modern humans, indicating that their brain size was larger. Males stood and females tall. A 2008 study by the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig suggested Neanderthals probably did not interbreed with anatomically modern humans, while the Neanderthal genome project published in 2010 and 2014 suggests that Neanderthals did contribute to the DNA of modern humans, including most non-Africans as well as a few African populations, through interbreeding, likely between 50,000 to 60,000 years ago. In December 2013, researchers reported evidence that Neanderthals practiced burial behavior and intentionally buried their dead. In addition, scientists reported having sequenced the entire genome of a Neanderthal for the first time. The genome was extracted from the toe bone of a 50,000-year-old Neanderthal found in a Siberian cave.
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Nederpop is a Dutch term that was invented by the mid-1970s to describe the Dutch pop music scene of the 1960s and 1970s that was gaining worldwide attention, exemplified by bands such as Shocking Blue, Golden Earring and Focus.
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The Neolithic Age, Era, or Period, from νέος (néos, "new") and λίθος (líthos, "stone"), or New Stone Age, was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world from First Farmers: The Origins of Agricultural Societies by Peter Bellwood, 2004 and ending between 4,500 and 2,000 BC.
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The Netherlands (Nederland) is the main "constituent country" (land) of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
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The Netherlands Antillean guilder (gulden) is currently the currency of Curaçao and Sint Maarten which until 2010 formed the Netherlands Antilles along with Bonaire, Saba and Sint Eustatius.
The Netherlands Antilles (Dutch: Nederlandse Antillen; Papiamentu: Antia Hulandes) were a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands consisting of several island territories located in the Caribbean.
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The Korps Mariniers is the marine corps and amphibious infantry component of the Royal Netherlands Navy.
The Netherlands national baseball team is the national baseball team of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, representing the country in international men's baseball.
The Netherlands national football team (Het Nederlands Elftal) represents the Netherlands in international association football.
The Netherlands' national women's field hockey team is currently number one on the FIH world rankings and they are the reigning world champions as well as the reigning Olympic champions.
New Amsterdam (Nieuw-Amsterdam) was a 17th-century Dutch settlement established at the southern tip of Manhattan Island, which served as the seat of the colonial government in New Netherland territory.
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The New Imperialism (sometimes Neoimperialism or Neo-imperialism) was a period of colonial expansion—and its accompanying ideologies—by the European powers, the United States of America and the Empire of Japan during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
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New Netherland (Dutch: Nieuw-Nederland, Latin: Nova Belgica or Novum Belgium) was a 17th-century colonial province of the Seven United Netherlands that was located on the East Coast of North America.
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Nick & Simon is a Dutch singer-songwriter duo compsed of Simon Keizer and Nick Schilder.
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Nick Rotteveel van Gotum (born 6 January 1989), better known by his stage name Nicky Romero, is a Dutch DJ and music producer.
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Nijmegen (Nijmeegs: Nimwegen), historically anglicized as Nimeguen, is a municipality and a city in the Dutch province of Gelderland.
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The acronym NLD can refer to.
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The Nordic Bronze Age (also Northern Bronze Age) is a period of Scandinavian prehistory from c. 1700–500 BC.
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The Nordwestblock (English: "Northwest Block") is a hypothetical Northwestern European cultural region that several scholars propose as a prehistoric culture in the present-day Netherlands, Belgium, northern France, and northwest Germany in an area approximately bounded by the rivers Somme, Oise, Meuse, and Elbe, and possibly extending to the eastern part of what is now England, during the Bronze and Iron Ages from the 3rd to 1st millennia BCE up to the onset of historical sources in the 1st century BCE.
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North Brabant (Noord-Brabant), also unofficially called Brabant since 2001, is a province in the south of the Netherlands.
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North Holland (Noord-Holland, West Frisian: Noard-Holland) is a province in the northwest of the Netherlands.
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The North Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
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The 1953 North Sea flood (Watersnoodramp, literally "flood disaster") was a major flood caused by a heavy storm that occurred on the night of Saturday, 31 January 1953 and morning of Sunday, 1 February 1953.
An oceanic climate (also known as marine, west coast and maritime) is the climate typical of the west coasts at the middle latitudes of most continents, and generally features warm (but not hot) summers and cool (but not cold) winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range.
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In linguistics, Old Dutch or Old Low Franconian is the set of Franconian (or Frankish) dialects spoken in the Low Countries during the Early Middle Ages, from around the 5th to the 12th century.
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Oliver Heldens (born Olivier Heldens; February 1, 1995) is a Dutch music producer from Rotterdam in the Netherlands.
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In the history of the Dutch Republic, Orangism or prinsgezindheid ("pro-prince stance") was a political force opposing the ''Staatsgezinde'' (pro-Republic) party.
Oranjestad (Dutch: Prins van Oranje) and related articles for more. Town) is a small town of approximately 1,000 inhabitants; it is the capital of the island of Sint Eustatius in the Caribbean Netherlands.
An ore is a type of rock that contains sufficient minerals with important elements including metals that can be economically extracted from the rock.
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The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an international economic organisation of 34 countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) is an intergovernmental organisation, located in The Hague, Netherlands.
The Oude Rijn (Old Rhine) is a branch of the Rhine delta in the Dutch provinces of Utrecht and South Holland.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the Netherlands: The Netherlands (Nederland) is a sovereign country comprising the mainland located in Northwest Europe and several islands located in the Caribbean that, together with Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten in the Caribbean Sea, constitute the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
Overijssel or Overissel (Dutch Low Saxon: Oaveriessel) is a province of the Netherlands in the central-eastern part of the country.
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An Overseas Indonesian is a person of Indonesian origin who lives outside of Indonesia.
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Oxfam is an international confederation of 17 organisations working in approximately 94 countries worldwide to find solutions to poverty and what it considers injustice around the world.
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The Paleolithic (American spelling; British spelling: Palaeolithic; pronunciation: or) Age, Era or Period is a prehistoric period of human history distinguished by the development of the most primitive stone tools discovered (Grahame Clark's Modes I and II), and covers roughly 95% of human technological prehistory.
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Papiamentu or Papiamento is the most widely spoken language on the Caribbean ABC islands, having official status as the native language on the islands of Aruba and Curaçao.
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A parliament is a legislature.
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A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state in which the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from, and is held accountable to, the legislature (parliament); the executive and legislative branches are thus interconnected.
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Pars pro toto, Latin for "a part (taken) for the whole", is a figure of speech where the name of a portion of an object, place or concept represents the entire object, place or concept.
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The Party for Freedom (Partij voor de Vrijheid, PVV) is a right-wing political party in the Netherlands.
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A party system is a concept in comparative political science concerning the system of government by political parties in a democratic country.
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Party-list proportional representation systems are a family of voting systems emphasizing proportional representation (PR) in elections in which multiple candidates are elected (e.g. elections to parliament) through allocations to an electoral list.
Pasar malam (Nacht Markt or Avondmarkt) is a Malay and Indonesian word that literally means "night market" (the word comes from "bazaar" in Persian).
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The Patriots (Patriotten) were a political faction in the Dutch Republic in the second half of the 18th century.
Paul Verhoeven (born 18 July 1938) is a Dutch film director, screenwriter, and producer who has made movies in the Netherlands and the United States.
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The Peace of Münster was a treaty between the Dutch Republic and Spain signed in 1648.
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Peat (turf) is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation or organic matter that is unique to natural areas called peatlands or mires.
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A pendulum clock is a clock that uses a pendulum, a swinging weight, as its timekeeping element.
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Pentecost (Πεντηκοστή, Pentēkostē, "the fiftieth ") is the Greek name for Shavuot, the Feast of Weeks, a prominent feast in the calendar of ancient Israel celebrating the giving of the Law to Moses at Sinai (still celebrated in Judaism as Shavuot).
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The People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (Volkspartij voor Vrijheid en Democratie, VVD) (is a conservative-liberal political party in the Netherlands. The VVD supports private enterprise in the Netherlands and is an economically liberal party.Andeweg R.B. and G.A. Irwin Government & Politics in the Netherlands 2002 Palgrave p. 48http://www.whois.ws/domain_information-nl/vvd.nl/ After the fourth Balkenende cabinet was formed (22 February 2007), the VVD was the second-largest opposition party in the Dutch House of Representatives. During the Dutch general-election of 2010 the VVD obtained the highest number of votes cast and came to occupy 31 of the 150 seats in the House of Representatives. The VVD was the senior party in a centre-right minority government coalition together with the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA) under the leadership of VVD party leader Mark Rutte. Rutte has been the leader of the VVD since 31 May 2006. The First Rutte cabinet's parliamentary majority was provided by Geert Wilders' anti-Islam, -immigration, and -EU Party for Freedom (PVV), but this majority became unstable when, as was to be expected, Wilders' party refused to support austerity measures in connection with the Euro crisis. Therefore, elections for the House of Representatives were held on 12 September 2012 The VVD remained the largest party, with 41 seats. Since 5 November 2012, the VVD has been the senior partner in the second Rutte cabinet, a "purple" coalition with the Labour Party (PvdA).
The Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) is an international organization based in The Hague in the Netherlands.
A personal union is the combination of two or more states who have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct.
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The Pesse canoe is believed to be the world's oldest known boat.
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Petrochemicals are chemical products derived from petroleum.
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Philip Morris Glass (born January 31, 1937) is an American composer.
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Philip II (Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 and of Portugal from 1581 (as Philip I, Filipe I).
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Philip IV of Spain (Felipe IV; 8 April 1605 – 17 September 1665) was King of Spain (as Philip IV in Castille and Philip III in Aragon) and Portugal as Philip III (Filipe III).
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Philip the Good (Philippe le Bon, Filips de Goede; 31 July 1396 – 15 June 1467) was Duke of Burgundy as Philip III from 1419 until his death.
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Koninklijke Philips N.V. (Royal Philips, commonly known as Philips) is a Dutch diversified technology company headquartered in Amsterdam with primary divisions focused in the areas of electronics, healthcare and lighting.
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Phytogeography (from Greek φυτό, phyto.
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Pieter Cornelis "Piet" Mondriaan, after 1906 Mondrian (later; March 7, 1872 – February 1, 1944), was a Dutch painter.
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Pieter Corneliszoon Hooft (16 March 1581 in Amsterdam – 21 May 1647 in The Hague) - Knight in the Order of Saint Michael - was a Dutch historian, poet and playwright from the period known as the Dutch Golden Age.
Pillarisation (Dutch: verzuiling) is the politico-denominational segregation of a society.
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Wilhelmus Simon Petrus Fortuijn, known as Pim Fortuyn (19 February 1948 – 6 May 2002) was a Dutch politician, civil servant, sociologist, author and professor who formed his own party, Pim Fortuyn List (Lijst Pim Fortuyn or LPF) in 2002.
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The Pim Fortuyn List (Lijst Pim Fortuyn, LPF) was a political party in the Netherlands.
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A pin is a device used for fastening objects or material together.
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A polder is a low-lying tract of land enclosed by embankments (barriers) known as dikes that forms an artificial hydrological entity, meaning it has no connection with outside water other than through manually operated devices.
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A political faction is a group of individuals, such as a political party, a trade union, or other group with a common political purpose.
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Pop music (a term that originally derives from an abbreviation of "popular") is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form in the Western world during the 1950s and 1960s, deriving from rock and roll.
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Population density (in agriculture: standing stock and standing crop) is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume; it is a quantity of type number density.
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In biology, population growth is the increase in the number of individuals in a population.
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The Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, located in the city of Rotterdam, Netherlands.
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The Minister-President of the Netherlands (Minister-president van Nederland), commonly referred to in English as the Prime Minister, is the head of the executive arm of the Dutch government and the chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Netherlands.
Primus inter pares (Πρῶτος μεταξὺ ἴσων, prōtos metaxỳ ísōn) is a Latin phrase meaning first among equals.
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Progressivism is a broad philosophy based on the Idea of Progress, which asserts that advancement in science, technology, economic development, and social organization are vital to improve the human condition.
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Prostitution in the Netherlands is legal and regulated.
The Protestant Church in the Netherlands (Protestantse Kerk in Nederland, abbreviated PKN) is the largest Protestant Christian denomination in the Netherlands.
The Protestant Reformation, often referred to simply as the Reformation, was the schism within Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther, John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli and other early Protestant Reformers.
Protestantism is a form of Christian faith and practice which originated with the Protestant Reformation, a movement against what its followers considered to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church.
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In the Netherlands, the term public body (a literal translation from the Dutch term openbaar lichaam) is the general denomination for administrative divisions within the Dutch state, such as the central government, a province, a municipality or a water board.
Puerto Rico, officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, literally the "Free Associated State of Puerto Rico"), is a United States territory located in the northeastern Caribbean.
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Purple is a common term in politics for governments or other political entities consisting of parties that have red and blue as their political colours.
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Rabobank (full name: Coöperatieve Centrale Raiffeisen-Boerenleenbank B.A.) is a Dutch multinational banking and financial services company headquartered in Utrecht, the Netherlands.
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The term "Radical" (from the Latin radix meaning root) during the late 18th-century identified proponents of the Radical Movement.
The Randstad is a megalopolis in the Netherlands.
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Randstad Holding NV is a Dutch multinational human resource consulting firm headquartered in Diemen, Netherlands.
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Redbad or Radbod (died 719) was the king (or duke) of Frisia from c. 680 until his death.
The Reformed Churches in the Netherlands (Gereformeerde Kerken in Nederland, abbreviated Gereformeerde kerk) was the second largest Protestant church in the Netherlands until it merged into the Protestant Church in the Netherlands in 2004.
The Reformed Political Party (Staatkundig Gereformeerde Partij, SGP) is an orthodox Protestant CalvinistThese sources describe the SGP as a Calvinist political party.
The Regiment van Heutsz is a line infantry regiment of the Royal Netherlands Army.
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Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (15 July 1606 – 4 October 1669) was a Dutch painter and etcher.
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René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 159611 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist who spent about 20 years of his life in the Dutch Republic.
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The Revolt of the Batavi took place in the Roman province of Germania Inferior (S. Netherlands/North Rhineland) between AD 69 and 70.
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--> The Rhine is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Austrian, Swiss- Liechtenstein border, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the Rhineland and eventually empties into the North Sea in the Netherlands.
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The Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta or Helinium is a river delta in the Netherlands formed by the confluence of the Rhine, the Meuse and the Scheldt rivers.
The Indonesian rijsttafel, a Dutch word that literally translates to "rice table", is an elaborate meal adapted by the Dutch following the hidang presentation of Nasi Padang from the Padang region of West Sumatra.
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Ripuarian (also Ripuarian Franconian or Ripuarisch Platt; natively Ripoarėsch) is a German dialect group, part of the West Central German language group.
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Risk equalization is a way of equalizing the risk profiles of insurance members in order to avoid loading premiums on the insured to some predetermined extent.
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A risk pool is one of the forms of risk management mostly practiced by insurance companies.
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Maria Cornelia Frederika "Rita" Verdonk (born October 18, 1955) is a former Dutch politician.
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A river delta is a landform that forms at the mouth of a river, where the river flows into an ocean, sea, estuary, lake, or reservoir.
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With 139,000 km of public roads, the Netherlands has one of the most dense road networks in the world - much denser than Germany and France, but still not as dense as Belgium.
Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, KG (24 June 1532 or 1533 – 4 September 1588) was an English nobleman and the favourite and close friend of Elizabeth I from her first year on the throne until his death.
RoboCop is a 1987 American cyberpunk action film directed by Paul Verhoeven and written by Edward Neumeier and Michael Miner.
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Rock music is a genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the 1950s, and developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and later, particularly in the United Kingdom and the United States.
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The Catholic Church in the Netherlands (rooms-katholiek kerkgenootschap in Nederland (RKK)), is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope, Dutch Conference of Bishops, and curia in Rome. The Metropolitan Archbishop of Utrecht, currently Willem Jacobus Eijk, is Primate (bishop) of the Netherlands. Although the number of Catholics in the Netherlands has decreased significantly in recent decades, the Dutch Catholic Church is today the largest religious group in the Netherlands. Once known as a Protestant country, in 2007 the Netherlands was only 16.8 percent Dutch Protestant (down from 60 percent in the early 20th century; defections primarily due to rising unaffiliation). This is considerably less than the 26 percent of the population represented by Dutch Catholics in 2007. There are an estimated 3.992 million Catholics (31 December 2013) in the Netherlands, 23.7 percent of the population down from more than 40 percent in 1970's. The number of Catholics in the Netherlands continues to decrease, roughly by half a percent annually, as do the number of Protestants. Muslims, however, continue to increase and are currently 6% of the population. Sunday church attendance by Catholics has decreased in recent decades to less than 200,000 or 1.2 percent of the Dutch population in 2006 (source). More recent numbers for Sunday church attendance have not been published (with the exception of the diocese of Roermond), although press releases have mentioned a further decline since 2006. In December 2011 a report was published by Wim Deetman, a former Dutch minister, detailing widespread child abuse within the Catholic Church in the Netherlands. 1,800 instances of abuse "by clergy or volunteers within Dutch Catholic dioceses" were reported to have occurred since 1945. Notable Dutch Catholics include Pope Adrian VI, Ruud Lubbers, Henry of Gorkum, Desiderius Erasmus, Cornelius Loos, Jakob Middendorp, Hieronymus Bosch, Piet de Jong, Jan Harmenszoon Krul, Dries van Agt, Jan Steen, Casimir Ubaghs, Maxime Verhagen, and Joan Albert Ban.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum; Ancient and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων Basileia tōn Rhōmaiōn) was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
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In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin: provincia, pl. provinciae) was the basic, and, until the Tetrarchy (293 AD), largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside of Italy.
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Romani (also Romany, Gypsy, or Gipsy; romani ćhib) is any of several languages of the Romani people belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family.
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In the Netherlands, Room for the River; Planologische Kernbeslissing Ruimte voor de Rivier, is a government design plan intended to address flood protection, master landscaping and the improvement of environmental conditions in the areas surrounding Holland's rivers.
Rorik or Hrørek was a Danish Viking, who ruled over different parts of Friesland between 841 and 873.
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Rotterdam is a city in South Holland, the Netherlands, located geographically within the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt river delta at the North Sea.
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The Rotterdam Blitz was the aerial bombardment of Rotterdam by the Luftwaffe (German air force) on 14 May 1940, during the German invasion of the Netherlands in World War II.
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Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
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Rowwen Hèze is a band from the small village of America in the south of the Netherlands.
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The Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra (Koninklijk Concertgebouworkest) is a symphony orchestra in the Netherlands, based at the Amsterdam Royal Concertgebouw (concert hall).
Royal Dutch Shell plc, commonly known as Shell, is an Anglo–Dutch multinational oil and gas company headquartered in the Netherlands and incorporated in the United Kingdom.
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The Koninklijke Marechaussee, the Royal Netherlands Marechaussee, abbreviated to KMar (English is Royal Marshals, but commonly seen as Royal Military Constabulary), is one of the four Services of the armed forces of the Netherlands.
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The Royal Netherlands Air Force (RNLAF) (Koninklijke Luchtmacht (KLu), "Royal Air Force"), is the military aviation branch of the Netherlands Armed Forces.
The Royal Netherlands Army (Koninklijke Landmacht (KL), "Royal Army") is the land forces element of the military of the Netherlands.
The Royal Netherlands East Indies Army (Koninklijk Nederlands Indisch Leger; KNIL) was the military force maintained by the Netherlands in its colony of the Netherlands East Indies (also known as the Dutch East Indies), in areas that are now part of Indonesia.
The Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies (Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, abbreviated: KITLV) at Leiden was founded in 1851.
The Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (Dutch: Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut or KNMI) is the Dutch national weather forecasting service, which has its headquarters in De Bilt, in the province of Utrecht, Netherlands.
The Royal Netherlands Navy (Koninklijke Marine, Royal Navy) is the navy of the Netherlands.
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Saba is a Caribbean island and the smallest special municipality (officially public body) of the Netherlands.
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Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي; 28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq, serving in this capacity from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003.
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The Salian Franks, also called the Salians (Latin: Salii, Greek: Salioi), were the western subgroup of the early Franks who first appear in the historical records in the third century.
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Salic law (or; Lex Salica), or was the ancient Salian Frankish civil law code first compiled around 500 AD by the first Frankish King, Clovis.
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In the Netherlands, same-sex marriage (Dutch: Huwelijk tussen personen van gelijk geslacht or commonly homohuwelijk) has been legal since 1 April 2001.
Sander van Doorn (born Sander Ketelaars on 28 February 1979) is a Dutch electronic dance music producer and DJ.
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Satay, modern Indonesian and Malay spelling of sate, is a dish of seasoned, skewered and grilled meat, served with a sauce.
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Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter.
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The Saxons (Saxones, Seaxe, Sahson, Sassen, Sachsen, Saksen) were a confederation of Germanic tribes on the North German Plain.
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The Scheldt (Dutch: Schelde, French: Escaut) is a long river in northern France, western Belgium and the southwestern part of the Netherlands.
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The Schengen Area is the area comprising 26 European countries that have abolished passport and any other type of border control at their common borders, also referred to as internal borders.
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Schlager music (Schlager, iskelmä, synonym of "hit-songs" or "hits"), also known in the United States as entertainer music or German hit mix, is a style of popular or electronic music prevalent in Central and Northern Europe, and Southeast Europe (in particular Germany, Austria, the Netherlands, Flanders, Republic of Macedonia, Slovenia, Serbia, Croatia, Hungary, Switzerland, Turkey, Scandinavia and the Baltic States) and also (to a lesser extent) in France and Poland.
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Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and is one of the world's top scientific journals.
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Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is a species of pine that is native to Europe and Asia, ranging from western Europe to eastern Siberia, south to the Caucasus Mountains and Anatolia, and north to well inside the Arctic Circle in Scandinavia.
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Scuba diving is a mode of underwater diving in which a diver uses a self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (scuba) to breathe underwater.
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Sea level is generally used to refer to mean sea level (MSL), an average level for the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured.
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The second cabinet of Jan Peter Balkenende of the Netherlands formed on 27 May 2003.
The Second Rutte cabinet is the coalition cabinet in the Netherlands (also called Rutte-Asscher cabinet) formed by the political parties People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) and Labour Party (PvdA).
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Secularity (adjective form secular, from Latin saecularis meaning "worldly" or "temporal") is the state of being separate from religion, or not being exclusively allied with or against any particular religion.
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The First Chamber (Eerste Kamer), often known as the Senate (Senaat), is the upper house of the States General, the legislature of the Netherlands.
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The Seventeen Provinces was a term applied to the Imperial states of the Habsburg Netherlands in the 15th and 16th century.
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Shenyang, formerly known by its Manchu name Mukden or as Fengtian, is the provincial capital and largest city of Liaoning Province, as well as the largest city in Northeast China by urban population.
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Shocking Blue were a Dutch rock band from The Hague, the Netherlands, formed in 1967.
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Simon Vestdijk (October 17, 1898 – March 23, 1971) was a Dutch writer.
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Sint Eustatius, also known affectionately to the locals as StatiaTuchman, Barbara W. The First Salute: A View of the American Revolution New York:Ballantine Books, 1988.
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Slochteren is a village and municipality with a population of 15,546 in the province of Groningen in the northeast of the Netherlands.
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A snap election is an election called earlier than expected.
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Social democracy is a political ideology that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a capitalist economy, and a policy regime involving welfare state provisions, collective bargaining arrangements, regulation of the economy in the general interest, redistribution of income and wealth, and a commitment to representative democracy.
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The Sociaal-Economische Raad (Social and Economic Council; SER) is a major economic advisory council of the Dutch government.
The Socialist Party (Socialistische Partij, SP) (or shortened) is a left-wing social-democratic political party in the Netherlands.
Soldier of Orange (Soldaat van Oranje) is a 1977 Dutch film directed by Paul Verhoeven and produced by Rob Houwer, starring Rutger Hauer and Jeroen Krabbé.
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Somalia (Soomaaliya; الصومال), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.
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South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa.
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South Guelderish (Dutch: Zuid-Gelders, German: Südgeldersch) refers to the easternmost group of Dutch dialects spoken along the lower Rhine (Dutch Nederrijn and German Niederrhein).
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South Holland (Zuid-Holland) is a province in the midwestern Netherlands.
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South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (lit. The Republic of Great Han; ROK), and commonly referred to as Korea, is a sovereign state in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula.
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Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
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The Southern Netherlands, also called the Catholic Netherlands, were the part of the Low Countries largely controlled by Spain (1556–1714), later Austria (1714–94), and annexed by France (1794–1815).
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The Sovereign Principality of the United Netherlands (Souvereine Vorstendom der Verëenigde Nederlanden) was a short-lived sovereign principality and the precursor of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, in which it was reunited with the Southern Netherlands in 1815.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe.
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The Spanish Empire (Imperio español) was one of the largest empires in world history and one of the first of global extent.
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The Special Tribunal for Lebanon (STL) is an international criminal tribunal undertaking the prosecution, under Lebanese criminal law, of the persons responsible for the attack resulting in the assassination of Rafic Hariri, former Lebanese prime minister, and the deaths of 22 others, on 14 February 2005.
Speed is a 1994 American disaster action film directed by Jan de Bont in his feature film directorial debut.
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Speed skating is a competitive form of ice skating in which the competitors race each other in travelling a certain distance on skates.
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Spetters is a Dutch film released in 1980, directed by Paul Verhoeven.
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Sri Lanka (or; Sinhalese Śrī Laṃkāva, Tamil Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka and known from the beginning of British colonial rule until 1972 as Ceylon, is an island country in South Asia near south-east India.
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The SSS islands is an acronym which refers to three island territories in the Lesser Antilles that are under Dutch sovereignty.
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Staatsbosbeheer, founded in 1899, is a Dutch government organization for Forestry and the management of nature reserves.
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A stadtholder (stadhouder), literally place holder (in modern Dutch "stad" means "city", but the older meaning of "stad" - also "stede" - was "place", and it is a cognate of English "stead", as "in stead of"), was a term for a "steward" or "lieutenant".
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A state religion (also called an established religion, state church, established church, or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.
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The States General (Staten-Generaal) are the bicameral legislature of the Netherlands, consisting of the Senate (Eerste Kamer) and the House of Representatives (Tweede Kamer).
The States-Provincial (in Dutch: Provinciale Staten, abbreviated PS – commonly known as simply the Staten) is the provincial parliament and legislative assembly in each of the provinces of the Netherlands.
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Statistics Netherlands, founded in 1899, is a Dutch governmental institution that gathers statistical information about the Netherlands.
Sub-replacement fertility is a total fertility rate (TFR) that (if sustained) leads to each new generation being less populous than the previous one in a given area.
Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote).
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The Summer Olympic Games or the Games of the Olympiad (French: Jeux olympiques d'été), first held in 1896, are an international multi-sport event, occurring every four years, organized by the International Olympic Committee.
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Surinam was a Dutch plantation colony in the Guianas, neighboured by the equally Dutch colony of Berbice to the west, and the French colony of Cayenne to the east.
Suriname (or, also spelled Surinam), officially known as the Republic of Suriname (Republiek Suriname), is a sovereign state on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America.
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Surinamese people are the citizens of Suriname and their descendants abroad.
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Surinamese people in the Netherlands are people in the Netherlands who come from a Surinamese background.
A swamp is a wetland that is forested.
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Swifterbant culture was a mesolithic archaeological culture in the Netherlands, dated between 5300 BC and 3400 BC.
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A sword is a bladed weapon intended for both cutting and thrusting.
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Symphonic metal is a subgenre of metal music which combines the characteristics of this genre, such as heavy drums and guitars, with different elements of classical music including (but not limited to) symphonic instruments, choirs and on occasion, a full symphony orchestra.
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Taiwan (see below), officially the Republic of China (ROC) is a sovereign state in East Asia.
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Techno is a form of electronic dance music that emerged in Detroit, Michigan, in the United States during the mid-to-late 1980s.
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Technology (from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is the collection of techniques, skills, methods and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation.
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Country Code: +599International Call Prefix: 00 The country code +599 was assigned to the Netherlands Antilles (dissolved in 2010), and is now in use by Curaçao and the Caribbean Netherlands (Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba).
Telephone numbers in the Netherlands are administered by the Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation of the Netherlands and may be grouped into three general categories: geographical numbers, non-geographical numbers, and numbers for public services.
The Assault (De aanslag) is a 1986 film adaptation of the novel of the same name by Harry Mulisch.
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The Bottom is the capital and largest town of the island of Saba, the Caribbean Netherlands, and is the first stop on the way from Saba's Port in Fort Bay towards the rest of the island.
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The Diary of a Young Girl (also known as The Diary of Anne Frank) is a book of the writings from the Dutch language diary kept by Anne Frank while she was in hiding for two years with her family during the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands.
The Economist is an English-language weekly newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited in offices in London.
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The Fourth Man (De vierde man) is a 1983 Dutch suspense film directed by Paul Verhoeven, based on the novel De vierde man by Gerard Reve.
The Hague (Den Haag or 's-Gravenhage) is the seat of government in the Netherlands, and the capital city of the province of South Holland.
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The Voice is a reality television singing competition franchise.
The Washington Post is an American daily newspaper.
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Theodoor "Theo" van Gogh (23 July 19572 November 2004) was a Dutch film director, film producer, columnist, author and actor.
The third Balkenende cabinet was formed on 7 July 2006 after a crisis in and the subsequent resignation of the second Balkenende cabinet.
Tijs Michiel Verwest (born 17 January 1969), better known by his stage name Tiësto, is a Dutch DJ and record producer.
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Tien (meaning Ten in Dutch), previously known as Talpa, was the name of a commercial television channel in the Netherlands.
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Tilburg is a landlocked municipality and a city in the Netherlands, located in the southern province of Noord-Brabant.
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Titan (or Saturn VI) is the largest moon of Saturn.
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Toleration is "the practice of deliberately allowing or permitting a thing of which one disapproves.
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Tom Middendorp (born 6 September 1960) is a Dutch Army general and the current Chief of Defence of the Armed forces of the Netherlands.
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TomTom NV is a Dutch company that produces navigation and mapping products.
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The total fertility rate (TFR), sometimes also called the fertility rate, period total fertility rate (PTFR) or total period fertility rate (TPFR) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if.
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The Toxandri (or Texuandri, Taxandri, Toxandrians etc.) were a tribe living in the Roman empire times.
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A trading post was a place or establishment where the trading of goods took place; the term is generally used, in modern parlance, in reference to such establishments in historic Northern America, although the practice long predates that continent's colonization by Europeans.
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Trance denotes any state of awareness or consciousness other than normal waking consciousness.
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Transshipment or transhipment is the shipment of goods or containers to an intermediate destination, then to yet another destination.
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The Treaty of Brussels was signed on 17 March 1948 between Belgium, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, as an expansion to the preceding year's defence pledge, the Dunkirk Treaty signed between Britain and France.
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A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or river main stem (or parent) river or a lake.
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Trinidad and Tobago, officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is a twin island country off the northern edge of South America, lying just off the coast of northeastern Venezuela and south of Grenada in the Lesser Antilles.
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The Tropenmuseum (Museum of the Tropics) is an ethnographic museum located in Amsterdam, Netherlands, founded in 1864.
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A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain.
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The tropics is a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator.
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The tulip is a Eurasian and North African genus of perennial, bulbous plants in the lily family.
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Tulip mania or tulipomania (Dutch names include: tulpenmanie, tulpomanie, tulpenwoede, tulpengekte and bollengekte) was a period in the Dutch Golden Age during which contract prices for bulbs of the recently introduced tulip reached extraordinarily high levels and then suddenly collapsed.
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Tumba is a musical form native to Aruba and Curaçao.
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A tumulus (plural tumuli) is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves.
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The Tumulus culture (Hügelgräberkultur) dominated Central Europe during the Middle Bronze Age (ca. 1600 BC to 1200 BC).
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Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Turkish), is a parliamentary republic in Eurasia, largely located in Western Asia, with the smaller portion of Eastern Thrace in Southeast Europe.
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Turkish Delight (Turks fruit) is a 1973 Dutch film directed by Paul Verhoeven and filmed by Jan de Bont.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeastern Europe and 55–60 million native speakers in Western Asia.
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Turks in the Netherlands (occasionally Dutch Turks or Turkish-Dutch) (Turkse Nederlander; Hollanda Türkleri) are the ethnic Turks living in the Netherlands who form the third largest ethnic group after the Dutch people, other European Union people and Indonesians.
Tweants (Dutch: Twents) is a Dutch Low Saxon group of dialects, descending from Old Saxon.
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Twente (Twenthe, Twente, Tweants dialect: Twente / Tweante) is a non-administrative region in the eastern Netherlands.
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Umoja is the seventh album from the Dutch band BLØF, released on March 3, 2006.
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An undersecretary is an executive government official in many countries, frequently a career public servant, who typically acts as a senior administrator or second-in-command to a politically appointed Cabinet Minister or other government official.
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The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN).
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Unilever is a British-Dutch multinational consumer goods company co-headquartered in Rotterdam, Netherlands, and London, United Kingdom.
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The Union of Utrecht (Unie van Utrecht) was a treaty signed on 23 January 1579 in Utrecht, the Netherlands, unifying the northern provinces of the Netherlands, until then under the control of Habsburg Spain.
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A unitary state is a state governed as one single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (subnational units) exercise only powers that their central government chooses to delegate.
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United and uniting churches are churches formed from the merger or other form of union of two or more different Protestant denominations.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign state in Europe.
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United Kingdom of the Netherlands (1815–1839) (Verenigd Koninkrijk der Nederlanden, Royaume uni des Pays-Bas) was the unofficial name for the Kingdom of the Netherlands (Koninkrijk der Nederlanden, Royaume des Belgiques) during the period after it was first created from part of the First French Empire and before the new Kingdom of Belgium split off from it in 1830.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization to promote international co-operation.
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A United Nations Security Council resolution is a UN resolution adopted by the fifteen members of the Security Council; the UN body charged with "primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security".
The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.
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The United States Army (USA) is the largest branch of the United States Armed Forces and performs land-based military operations.
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The United States Department of State (DoS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department responsible for international relations of the United States, equivalent to the foreign ministry of other countries.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, US dollar or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its overseas territories.
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Universal Newsreel (sometimes known as Universal-International Newsreel or just U-I Newsreel) was a series of 7- to 10-minute newsreels that were released twice a week between 1929 and 1967 by Universal Studios.
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An upper house, often called a Senate, is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the lower house.
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The Urnfield culture (c. 1300 BC – 750 BC) was a late Bronze Age culture of central Europe.
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Urōzgān (اروزګان، روزګان; اروزگان), also spelled as Uruzgan, Oruzgan, Orozgan, or Rozgan, is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan.
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Utopia is a reality series that premiered on Fox on September 7, 2014.
Utrecht is the capital and most populous city in the Dutch province of Utrecht.
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Utrecht is a province of the Netherlands.
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Vaals is a town in the extreme southeastern part of the Dutch province of Limburg, which in its turn finds itself in the southeastern part of the Netherlands.
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Vaals dialect (natively Völser Platt, Standard Dutch: Vaals dialect) is a Ripuarian dialect spoken in Vaals.
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The Veluwe is a forest-rich ridge of hills (1100 km²) in the province of Gelderland in the Netherlands.
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Venezuela, officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela), is a federal republic located on the northern coast of South America.
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Vereniging tot Behoud van Natuurmonumenten in Nederland (Society for preservation of nature monuments in the Netherlands) is a Dutch organisation founded in 1905 by Jac. P. Thijsse, that buys, protects and manages nature reserves in the Netherlands.
Vice is a practice, behavior, or habit generally considered immoral, sinful, depraved, or degrading in the associated society.
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Victory in Europe Day, generally known as V-E Day, VE Day or simply V Day was the public holiday celebrated on 8 May 1945 (7 May in Commonwealth realms) to mark the formal acceptance by the Allies of World War II of Nazi Germany's unconditional surrender of its armed forces.
Vincent Willem van Gogh (The pronunciation of "Van Gogh" varies in both English and Dutch. Especially in British English it is or sometimes. U.S. dictionaries list, with a silent gh, as the most common pronunciation. In the dialect of Holland, it is, with a voiceless V. He grew up in Brabant (although his parents were not born there), and used Brabant dialect in his writing; it is therefore likely that he himself pronounced his name with a Brabant accent:, with a voiced V and palatalized G and gh. In France, where much of his work was produced, it is 30 March 185329 July 1890) was a Post-Impressionist painter.
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The Virgin Islands are the western island group of the Leeward Islands, which are the northern part of the Lesser Antilles, and form the border between the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.
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Vlaardingen Culture was an archaeological culture on the border of the middle and late Neolithic era in what is now the coastal region in the west of the Netherlands.
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A vocational university, sometimes called professional university, applied technological university, college of higher vocational studies or university of applied sciences, is an institution of higher education and sometimes research, which provides both tertiary and sometimes quaternary education and grants academic degrees at all levels (bachelor, master, and sometimes doctorate) in a variety of subjects.
Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net.
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The vmbo (voorbereidend middelbaar beroepsonderwijs, literally, "preparatory middle-level vocational education") education is a school track in the Netherlands.
Voorbereidend wetenschappelijk onderwijs (vwo) or pre-university secondary education is the highest variant in the secondary educational system of the Netherlands, attended by approximately one fifth of all Dutch high school students.
Voorburg is a Dutch town and former municipality in the western part of the province of South Holland, the Netherlands.
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The Vorstengraf (grave of the king) in Oss is one of the largest burial mounds in the Netherlands and Belgium.
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Vulgar Latin is a generic term for the nonstandard (as opposed to classical) sociolects of Latin from which the Romance languages developed.
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The Waal or Rivier Waal ("Waal River") is the main distributary branch of river Rhine flowing through the Netherlands.
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The Wadden Sea (Waddenzee, Wattenmeer, Low German: Wattensee or Waddenzee, Vadehavet, West Frisian: Waadsee) is an intertidal zone in the southeastern part of the North Sea.
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A waltz (German: Walzer; French: Valse, Italian: Valzer, Spanish: Vals, Polish: Walc), probably deriving from German Ländler, is dance music in triple meter, often written in time signature 3/4.
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The War in Afghanistan is the period in which the United States invaded Afghanistan after the September 11 attacks.
Dutch water boards (waterschappen or hoogheemraadschappen) are regional government bodies charged with managing water barriers, waterways, water levels, water quality and sewage treatment in their respective regions.
This article was written in 2008 with some updates in 2012.
A welfare state is a concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the economic and social well-being of its citizens.
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The Weser is a river in north-western Germany.
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In medieval historiography, West Francia (Latin: Francia occidentalis) or the Kingdom of the West Franks (regnum Francorum occidentalium) forms the earliest stage of the Kingdom of France, lasting from about 840 until 987.
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West Frisian, or simply Frisian (Frysk; Fries) is a language spoken mostly in the province of Friesland (Fryslân) in the north of the Netherlands, mostly by those of Frisian ancestry.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
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A wetland is a land area that is saturated with water, either permanently or seasonally, such that it takes on the characteristics of a distinct ecosystem.
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Wilhelmina (Wilhelmina Helena Pauline Maria; 31 August 1880 – 28 November 1962) was Queen of the Kingdom of the Netherlands from 1890 to 1948.
Wilhelmus van Nassouwe, usually known just as the Wilhelmus (Het Wilhelmus;; English translation: the William), is the national anthem of the Netherlands and the oldest national anthem in the world.
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Willem de Kooning (April 24, 1904 – March 19, 1997) was a Dutch American abstract expressionist artist who was born in Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
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Willem Frederik Hermans (1 September 1921 – 27 April 1995) was a Dutch author of poetry, novels, short stories, plays, as well as booklength studies, essays, and literary criticism.
Willem-Alexander (Willem-Alexander Claus George Ferdinand; born 27 April 1967) is the King of the Netherlands.
William I (Willem Frederik, Prince of Orange-Nassau; 24 August 1772 – 12 December 1843) was a Prince of Orange and the first King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg.
William III (Willem Alexander Paul Frederik Lodewijk, anglicised: William Alexander Paul Frederick Louis; 19 February 1817 – 23 November 1890) was King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg from 1849 until his death in 1890.
William V, Prince of Orange (Willem Batavus; 8 March 1748 – 9 April 1806) was the last Stadtholder of the Dutch Republic.
Willibrord (– 7 November 739) was a Northumbrian missionary saint, known as the "Apostle to the Frisians" in the modern Netherlands.
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A windmill is a mill that converts the energy of wind into rotational energy by means of vanes called sails or blades.
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The Windward Islands are the southern, generally larger islands of the Lesser Antilles, within the West Indies.
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The Winter Olympic Games (French: Jeux olympiques d'hiver) is a major international sporting event that occurs once every four years.
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Within Temptation is a Dutch symphonic metal band founded in 1996 by vocalist Sharon den Adel and guitarist Robert Westerholt.
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The Women's Hockey World Cup is the field hockey World Cup competition for women, whose format for qualification and final tournament is similar to the men's.
Women's rights are the rights and entitlements claimed for women and girls of many societies worldwide.
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Woodland is a low-density forest forming open habitats with plenty of sunlight and limited shade.
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The workforce or labour force (also labor force in the United States) is the labour pool in employment.
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The World Economic Forum (WEF) is a Swiss nonprofit foundation, based in Cologny, Geneva.
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The World Happiness Report is a measure of happiness published by the United Nations Sustainable Development Solutions Network.
A World Heritage Site is a place (such as a building, city, complex, desert, forest, island, lake, monument, or mountain) that is listed by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as being of special cultural or physical significance.
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The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization which regulates international trade.
World War I (WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war centered in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918.
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World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier.
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The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization founded on April 29, 1961, working in the field of the biodiversity conservation, and the reduction of humanity's footprint on the environment.
The X-Men film series consists of superhero films based on the Marvel Comics superhero team of the same name.
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Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, literally "Jewish"; in older sources also "Yiddish-Taitsh" (Judaeo-German)) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.
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Zaandam is a city in the Netherlands, in the province of North Holland.
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Zeeland (Zeelandic: Zeêland, historical English exonym Zealand) is the westernmost province of the Netherlands.
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The Zuiderzee (old spelling Zuyderzee) was a shallow bay of the North Sea in the northwest of the Netherlands, extending about 100 km (60 miles) inland and at most 50 km (30 miles) wide, with an overall depth of about 4 to 5 metres (13–16 feet) and a coastline of about 300 km (200 miles).
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The Zuiderzee Works (Zuiderzeewerken) are a man-made system of dams and dikes, land reclamation and water drainage works, in total the largest hydraulic engineering project undertaken by the Netherlands during the twentieth century.
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Zwolle is a municipality and the capital city of the province of Overijssel, Netherlands.
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.bq is designated—but not in use—as the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (the Caribbean Netherlands) following the assignment on December 15, 2010, by the ISO 3166 Maintenance Agency of BQ as the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 to the area.
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.eu is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the European Union (EU).
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.nl is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the Netherlands.
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The Polish 1st Armoured Division (Polish 1 Dywizja Pancerna) was an Allied military unit during World War II.
2 Unlimited is a dance project founded in 1991 by Belgian producers Jean-Paul DeCoster and Phil Wilde and fronted by Dutch rapper Ray Slijngaard and Dutch vocalist Anita Doth.
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Following the 2006 Dutch general election, held on November 22, a process of cabinet formation started, involving negotiations about which coalition partners to form a common programme of policy and to divide the posts in cabinet.
Following the Dutch general election of 2010, held on June 9, a process of cabinet formation started, which typically involves 3 phases.
The 2014 Winter Olympics, officially called the XXII Olympic Winter Games (Les XXIIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver) (r) and commonly known as Sochi 2014, were a major international multi-sport event held from February 7 to February 23, 2014 in Sochi, Russia, with opening rounds in certain events held on the eve of the opening ceremony, 6 February 2014.
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The 23rd SS Volunteer Panzer Grenadier Division Nederland was a German Waffen-SS division comprising volunteers of Dutch background.
The 2nd Infantry Division ("Indianhead") ("2ID" or "2nd ID") is a formation of the United States Army.
The meridian 3° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
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The 50th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 50 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
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The 54th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 54 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
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The meridian 8° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
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