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Index Archaeology

Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. [1]

332 relations: -logy, Academy, Aerial survey, Africa, African Burial Ground National Monument, Age of Enlightenment, Agent-based model, Agriculture, Airplane, Algonquian peoples, Alison Wylie, Analysis, Ancient astronauts, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek, Ancient monument, Ancient Rome, Anthropology, Antiquarian, Antiquities trade, Aphrodisias, Archaeoastronomy, Archaeobiology, Archaeogenetics, Archaeological culture, Archaeological record, Archaeological science, Archaeological site, Archaeological sub-disciplines, Archaeology (magazine), Archaeology of religion and ritual, Architecture, Area of archaeological potential, Aristocracy, Art history, Arthur Evans, Artifact (archaeology), Astronomy, Auger (drill), Augustus Pitt Rivers, Australopithecine, Backhoe, Balloon (aeronautics), Battlefield archaeology, Biofact (archaeology), Birch bark, Black Death, Blimp, Bronze Age, Bruce Trigger, ..., Bureaucracy, Cadw, Camera, Canadian Museum of History, Cereal, Chariots of the Gods?, Charles Lyell, Chemistry, Christian Jürgensen Thomsen, Christopher Tilley, Chronological dating, Civilization, Classical antiquity, Classical archaeology, Classics, Clergy, Cognitive archaeology, Colin Renfrew, Community archaeology, Computer graphics, Computer simulation, Construction, Copán, Crete, Cultural landscape, Cultural resources management, Culture, Culture-historical archaeology, Curator, Cut (archaeology), Daniel Miller (anthropologist), Data mining, David Hurst Thomas, Decipherment, Denison University, Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport, Direct historical approach, Dorothy King, Dump digging, Earth's magnetic field, Egyptology, El Mundo (Spain), Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Elite, England, English Civil War, English Heritage, Epistemology, Erich von Däniken, Eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79, Ethics, Ethnoarchaeology, Ethnology, Evolution, Excavation (archaeology), Experimental archaeology, Feature (archaeology), Feminist archaeology, Fill (archaeology), First Nations, Flavio Biondo, Flinders Petrie, Frank Calvert, Fresco, Gender archaeology, Geodesy, Geographic information system, Geography, Geology, Geophysical survey (archaeology), GIS in archaeology, Glossary of archaeology, Glyn Daniel, Gordon Willey, Great Pyramid of Giza, Harris matrix, Heinrich Schliemann, Hellenistic period, Herculaneum, Hisarlik, Historic Scotland, Historical archaeology, Historical particularism, History, History of literature, Hoe (tool), Hominini, Homo sapiens, Howard Carter, Human, Human evolution, Human settlement, Humanities, Hunter-gatherer, Hypothesis, Ian Hodder, Indigenous peoples, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indology, Information science, Infrared, Institut national du patrimoine, Intellectual Property Issues in Cultural Heritage project, International Journal of South American Archaeology, Internet, Internet Archaeology, Iron, Jacques Boucher de Crèvecœur de Perthes, James Hutton, JCB (company), Jewellery, John Aubrey, John Leland (antiquary), Juniperus virginiana, Kathleen Kenyon, Kenneth Feder, Kennewick Man, Kent V. Flannery, Kevin Greene (archaeologist), Kiln, Kite, Knossos, L'Isle-aux-Allumettes, Quebec, Landscape archaeology, Lewis Binford, Library, Lidar, Lifeway, Linguistics, List of archaeological periods, List of archaeological sites by country, List of archaeologists, List of paleoethnobotanists, Literacy, Lithic analysis, Local government, Lomekwi, Looting, Magnetic survey (archaeology), Magnetometer, Maniwaki, Map, Maritime archaeology, Material consideration, Material culture, Medieval archaeology, Meet the Ancestors, Megalith, Mesoamerica, Mesopotamia, Metal detector, Metallurgy, Michael Shanks (archaeologist), Midden, Middle Ages, Minoan civilization, Mortimer Wheeler, Music archaeology, Muskrat, National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, Native Americans in the United States, Natural (archaeology), Nautilus Productions, Near Eastern archaeology, Neolithic, New York City, Northern Ireland, Northern Ireland Environment Agency, Occupational safety and health, Oldowan, Online Etymology Dictionary, Ottawa, Ottawa Valley, Overburden, Palaeography, Paleoanthropology, Paleobotany, Paleoecology, Paleoethnobotany, Paleolithic, Paleontology, Paleozoology, Palestine (region), Palynology, Peru, Pharaoh, Phase (archaeology), Phenomenology (philosophy), Photogrammetry, Physics, Pitt Rivers Museum, Plan (archaeology), Plant, Polluter pays principle, Pompeii, Portable Antiquities Scheme, Post-excavation analysis, Post-processual archaeology, Postdoctoral researcher, Postmodernism, PPG 16, Prehistory, Processual archaeology, Provenance, Pseudoarchaeology, Queen Anne's Revenge, Radar, Rare-earth element, Reflexivity (social theory), Relationship (archaeology), Religion, Remote sensing (archaeology), Renaissance humanism, Repatriation, Repatriation and reburial of human remains, Rescue archaeology, Sampling (statistics), Sampling bias, Satellite imagery, Science, Scientific method, Scotland, Section (archaeology), Semiotics, Seriation (archaeology), Shovel test pit, Siberia, Side-scan sonar, Single context recording, Sinology, Sir Richard Hoare, 2nd Baronet, Social science, Solstice, Southwest Museum of the American Indian, State historic preservation office, Statistics, Stone structures, Stone tool, Stonehenge, Stratigraphy, Stratigraphy (archaeology), Structural functionalism, Structure and agency, Survey (archaeology), Systems theory in archaeology, Textual criticism, The Salisbury Museum, Thermography, Time Team, Timothy Pauketat, Tool, Topography, Topography of ancient Rome, Topsoil, Training excavation, Trowel, Troy, Tumulus, Tutankhamun, Typology (archaeology), Ultraviolet, Underwater archaeology, Underwater videography, United States Forest Service, University of California Press, Unmanned aerial vehicle, Urban archaeology, Valley of the Kings, Viru Valley, Wales, Weapon, Webcast, Western Europe, Wheeler-Kenyon method, Wilhelm Dörpfeld, William Camden, William Cunnington, William Smith (geologist), Wiltshire, Zooarchaeology, 3D modeling. Expand index (282 more) »


-logy is a suffix in the English language, used with words originally adapted from Ancient Greek ending in -λογία (-logia).

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An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀκαδήμεια; Koine Greek Ἀκαδημία) is an institution of secondary education, higher learning, research, or honorary membership.

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Aerial survey

Aerial survey is a method of collecting geomatics or other imagery by using airplanes, helicopters, UAVs, balloons or other aerial methods.

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Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).

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African Burial Ground National Monument

African Burial Ground National Monument is a monument at Duane Street and African Burial Ground Way (Elk Street) in the Civic Center section of Lower Manhattan, New York City.

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Age of Enlightenment

The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".

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Agent-based model

An agent-based model (ABM) is a class of computational models for simulating the actions and interactions of autonomous agents (both individual or collective entities such as organizations or groups) with a view to assessing their effects on the system as a whole.

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Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.

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An airplane or aeroplane (informally plane) is a powered, fixed-wing aircraft that is propelled forward by thrust from a jet engine, propeller or rocket engine.

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Algonquian peoples

The Algonquian are one of the most populous and widespread North American native language groups.

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Alison Wylie

Alison Wylie (born 1954) is a British-Canadian philosopher and archaeologist.

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Analysis is the process of breaking a complex topic or substance into smaller parts in order to gain a better understanding of it.

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Ancient astronauts

"Ancient astronauts" (or "ancient aliens") refers to the pseudoscientific idea that intelligent extraterrestrial beings visited Earth and made contact with humans in antiquity and prehistoric times.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Ancient monument

In British law, an ancient monument is an early historical structure or monument (e.g. an archaeological site) worthy of preservation and study due to archaeological or heritage interest.

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Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

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Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.

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An antiquarian or antiquary (from the Latin: antiquarius, meaning pertaining to ancient times) is an aficionado or student of antiquities or things of the past.

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Antiquities trade

The antiquities trade is the exchange of antiquities and archaeological artifacts from around the world.

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Aphrodisias (Aphrodisiás) was a small ancient Greek Hellenistic city in the historic Caria cultural region of western Anatolia, Turkey.

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Archaeoastronomy (also spelled archeoastronomy) is the study of how people in the past "have understood the phenomena in the sky, how they used these phenomena and what role the sky played in their cultures".

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Archaeobiology, the study of the biology of ancient times through archaeological materials, is a subspecialty of archaeology.

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Archaeogenetics is the study of ancient DNA using various molecular genetic methods and DNA resources.

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Archaeological culture

An archaeological culture is a recurring assemblage of artifacts from a specific time and place that may constitute the material culture remains of a particular past human society.

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Archaeological record

The archaeological record is the body of physical (not written) evidence about the past.

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Archaeological science

Archaeological science, also known as archaeometry, consists of the application of scientific techniques to the analysis of archaeological materials, to assist in dating the materials.

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Archaeological site

An archaeological site is a place (or group of physical sites) in which evidence of past activity is preserved (either prehistoric or historic or contemporary), and which has been, or may be, investigated using the discipline of archaeology and represents a part of the archaeological record.

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Archaeological sub-disciplines

As with most academic disciplines, there are a number of archaeological sub-disciplines typically characterised by a focus on a specific method or type of material, geographical or chronological focus, or other thematic concern.

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Archaeology (magazine)

Archaeology is a bimonthly magazine for the general public, published by the Archaeological Institute of America.

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Archaeology of religion and ritual

The archaeology of religion and ritual is a growing field of study within archaeology that applies ideas from religious studies, theory and methods, anthropological theory, and archaeological and historical methods and theories to the study of religion and ritual in past human societies from a material perspective.

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Architecture is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or any other structures.

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Area of archaeological potential

Areas of archaeological potential and other terms such as area of high archaeological potential or urban archaeological zone are terms used to identify parts of the country where it is known that buried archaeology is likely to survive.

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Aristocracy (Greek ἀριστοκρατία aristokratía, from ἄριστος aristos "excellent", and κράτος kratos "power") is a form of government that places strength in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class.

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Art history

Art history is the study of objects of art in their historical development and stylistic contexts; that is genre, design, format, and style.

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Arthur Evans

Sir Arthur John Evans (8 July 1851 – 11 July 1941) was an English archaeologist and pioneer in the study of Aegean civilization in the Bronze Age.

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Artifact (archaeology)

An artifact, or artefact (see American and British English spelling differences), is something made or given shape by humans, such as a tool or a work of art, especially an object of archaeological interest.

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Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.

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Auger (drill)

An auger is a drilling device, or drill bit, that usually includes a rotating helical screw blade called a "flighting" to act as a screw conveyor to remove the drilled out material.

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Augustus Pitt Rivers

Augustus Henry Lane-Fox Pitt Rivers (14 April 18274 May 1900) was an English officer in the British Army, ethnologist, and archaeologist.

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Australopithecines are generally all species in the related Australopithecus and Paranthropus genera, and it typically includes Kenyanthropus, Ardipithecus, and Praeanthropus.

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A backhoe — also called rear actor or back actor — is a type of excavating equipment, or digger, consisting of a digging bucket on the end of a two-part articulated arm.

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Balloon (aeronautics)

In aeronautics, a balloon is an unpowered aerostat, which remains aloft or floats due to its buoyancy.

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Battlefield archaeology

Battlefield archaeology is a sub-discipline of archaeology that began in North America with Dr.

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Biofact (archaeology)

In archaeology, a biofact (or ecofact) is organic material found at an archaeological site that carries archaeological significance.

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Birch bark

Birch bark or birchbark is the bark of several Eurasian and North American birch trees of the genus Betula.

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Black Death

The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.

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A blimp, or non-rigid airship, is an airship (dirigible) or barrage balloon without an internal structural framework or a keel.

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Bronze Age

The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.

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Bruce Trigger

Bruce Graham Trigger, (June 18, 1937 – December 1, 2006) was a Canadian archaeologist, anthropologist, and ethnohistorian.

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Bureaucracy refers to both a body of non-elective government officials and an administrative policy-making group.

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Cadw (a Welsh verbal noun meaning "keep/preserve") is the historic environment service of the Welsh Government and part of the Tourism and Culture group.

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A camera is an optical instrument for recording or capturing images, which may be stored locally, transmitted to another location, or both.

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Canadian Museum of History

The Canadian Museum of History (Musée canadien de l’histoire), formerly the Canadian Museum of Civilization (Musée canadien des civilisations), is Canada's national museum of human history.

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A cereal is any edible components of the grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis) of cultivated grass, composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran.

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Chariots of the Gods?

Chariots of the Gods? Unsolved Mysteries of the Past (Erinnerungen an die Zukunft: Ungelöste Rätsel der Vergangenheit; in English, Memories of the Future: Unsolved Mysteries of the Past) is a book authored in 1968 by Erich von Däniken.

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Charles Lyell

Sir Charles Lyell, 1st Baronet, (14 November 1797 – 22 February 1875) was a Scottish geologist who popularised the revolutionary work of James Hutton.

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Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.

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Christian Jürgensen Thomsen

Christian Jürgensen Thomsen (29 December 1788 – 21 May 1865) was a Danish antiquarian who developed early archaeological techniques and methods.

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Christopher Tilley

Chris Tilley is a British archaeologist known for his contributions to postprocessualist archaeological theory.

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Chronological dating

Chronological dating, or simply dating, is the process of attributing to an object or event a date in the past, allowing such object or event to be located in a previously established chronology.

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A civilization or civilisation (see English spelling differences) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication (for example, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.

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Classical antiquity

Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.

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Classical archaeology

Classical archaeology is the archaeological investigation of the Mediterranean civilizations of Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome.

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Classics or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity.

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Clergy are some of the main and important formal leaders within certain religions.

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Cognitive archaeology

Cognitive archaeology is a theoretical perspective in archaeology which focuses on the ways that ancient societies thought and the symbolic structures that can be perceived in past material culture.

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Colin Renfrew

Andrew Colin Renfrew, Baron Renfrew of Kaimsthorn, FBA, FSA, Hon FSA Scot (born 25 July 1937 in Stockton-on-Tees) is a British archaeologist, paleolinguist and Conservative peer noted for his work on radiocarbon dating, the prehistory of languages, archaeogenetics, and the prevention of looting at archaeological sites.

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Community archaeology

Community archaeology is archaeology by the people for the people.

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Computer graphics

Computer graphics are pictures and films created using computers.

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Computer simulation

Computer simulation is the reproduction of the behavior of a system using a computer to simulate the outcomes of a mathematical model associated with said system.

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Construction is the process of constructing a building or infrastructure.

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Copán is an archaeological site of the Maya civilization located in the Copán Department of western Honduras, not far from the border with Guatemala.

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Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.

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Cultural landscape

A cultural landscape, as defined by the World Heritage Committee, is the "cultural properties represent the combined works of nature and of man.".

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Cultural resources management

In the broadest sense, cultural resources management (CRM) is the vocation and practice of managing cultural resources, such as the arts and heritage.

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Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.

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Culture-historical archaeology

Culture-historical archaeology is an archaeological theory that emphasises defining historical societies into distinct ethnic and cultural groupings according to their material culture.

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A curator (from cura, meaning "to take care") is a manager or overseer.

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Cut (archaeology)

In archaeology and archaeological stratification a cut or truncation is a context that represents a moment in time when other archaeological deposits were removed for the creation of some feature such as a ditch or pit.

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Daniel Miller (anthropologist)

Daniel Miller (born 1954) is an anthropologist most closely associated with studies of our relationships to things and the consequences of consumption.

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Data mining

Data mining is the process of discovering patterns in large data sets involving methods at the intersection of machine learning, statistics, and database systems.

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David Hurst Thomas

David Hurst Thomas (born 1945) is the Curator of North American Archaeology in the Division of Anthropology at the American Museum of Natural History and a Professor at Richard Gilder Graduate School.

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In philology, decipherment is the discovery of the meaning of texts written in ancient or obscure languages or scripts.

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Denison University

Denison University is a private, coeducational, and residential four-year liberal arts college in Granville, Ohio, about east of Columbus.

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Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport

The Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) is a department of the United Kingdom government, with responsibility for culture and sport in England, and some aspects of the media throughout the whole UK, such as broadcasting and internet.

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Direct historical approach

The direct historical approach to archaeology was a methodology developed in the United States of America during the 1920s-1930s by William Duncan Strong and others, which argued that knowledge relating to historical periods is extended back into earlier times.

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Dorothy King

Dorothy Louise Victoria Lobel King (born 1975) is an American author and archeologist who lives and works in England.

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Dump digging

Dump digging is the practice of locating and excavating old garbage dumps with the intent of discovering objects which have potential value as collectibles or antiques.

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Earth's magnetic field

Earth's magnetic field, also known as the geomagnetic field, is the magnetic field that extends from the Earth's interior out into space, where it meets the solar wind, a stream of charged particles emanating from the Sun.

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Egyptology (from Egypt and Greek -λογία, -logia. علم المصريات) is the study of ancient Egyptian history, language, literature, religion, architecture and art from the 5th millennium BC until the end of its native religious practices in the 4th century AD.

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El Mundo (Spain)

El Mundo (The World), formally El Mundo del Siglo Veintiuno (The World of the Twenty-First Century) is the second largest printed daily newspaper in Spain.

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Electrical resistivity and conductivity

Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.

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In political and sociological theory, the elite (French élite, from Latin eligere) are a small group of powerful people who hold a disproportionate amount of wealth, privilege, political power, or skill in a society.

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England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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English Civil War

The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's governance.

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English Heritage

English Heritage (officially the English Heritage Trust) is a registered charity that manages the National Heritage Collection.

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Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.

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Erich von Däniken

Erich Anton Paul von Däniken (born 14 April 1935) is a Swiss author of several books which make claims about extraterrestrial influences on early human culture, including the best-selling Chariots of the Gods?, published in 1968.

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Eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79

Mount Vesuvius, a stratovolcano in modern-day Italy, erupted in 79 AD in one of the most catastrophic volcanic eruptions in European history.

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Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.

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Ethnoarchaeology is the ethnographic study of peoples for archaeological reasons, usually through the study of the material remains of a society (see David & Kramer 2001).

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Ethnology (from the Greek ἔθνος, ethnos meaning "nation") is the branch of anthropology that compares and analyzes the characteristics of different peoples and the relationship between them (cf. cultural, social, or sociocultural anthropology).

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Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.

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Excavation (archaeology)

In archaeology, excavation is the exposure, processing and recording of archaeological remains.

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Experimental archaeology

Experimental archaeology (also called experiment archaeology and experiential archaeology) is a field of study which attempts to generate and test archaeological hypotheses, usually by replicating or approximating the feasibility of ancient cultures performing various tasks or feats.

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Feature (archaeology)

A feature in archaeology and especially excavation is a collection of one or more contexts representing some human non-portable activity that generally has a vertical characteristic to it in relation to site stratigraphy.

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Feminist archaeology

Feminist archaeology employs a feminist perspective in interpreting past societies.

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Fill (archaeology)

In archaeology a fill is the material that has accumulated or has been deposited into a cut feature such as ditch or pit of some kind of a later date than the feature itself.

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First Nations

In Canada, the First Nations (Premières Nations) are the predominant indigenous peoples in Canada south of the Arctic Circle.

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Flavio Biondo

Flavio Biondo (Latin Flavius Blondus) (1392 – June 4, 1463) was an Italian Renaissance humanist historian.

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Flinders Petrie

Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie, FRS, FBA (3 June 1853 – 28 July 1942), commonly known as Flinders Petrie, was an English Egyptologist and a pioneer of systematic methodology in archaeology and preservation of artifacts.

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Frank Calvert

Frank Calvert (1828–1908) was an English expatriate who was a consular official in the eastern Mediterranean region and an amateur archaeologist.

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Fresco (plural frescos or frescoes) is a technique of mural painting executed upon freshly laid, or wet lime plaster.

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Gender archaeology

Gender archaeology is a method of studying past societies through their material culture by closely examining the social construction of gender identities and relations.

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Geodesy, also known as geodetics, is the earth science of accurately measuring and understanding three of Earth's fundamental properties: its geometric shape, orientation in space, and gravitational field.

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Geographic information system

A geographic information system (GIS) is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present spatial or geographic data.

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Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.

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Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse") is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.

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Geophysical survey (archaeology)

In archaeology, geophysical survey is ground-based physical sensing techniques used for archaeological imaging or mapping.

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GIS in archaeology

GIS or Geographic Information Systems has been an important tool in archaeology since the early 1990s.

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Glossary of archaeology

This page is a glossary of archaeology, the study of the human past from material remains.

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Glyn Daniel

Glyn Edmund Daniel (23 April 1914 – 13 December 1986) was a Welsh scientist and archaeologist who taught at Cambridge University, where he specialised in the European Neolithic period.

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Gordon Willey

Gordon Randolph Willey (7 March 1913 – 28 April 2002) was an American archaeologist who was described by colleagues as the "dean" of New World archaeology.

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Great Pyramid of Giza

The Great Pyramid of Giza (also known as the Pyramid of Khufu or the Pyramid of Cheops) is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza pyramid complex bordering what is now El Giza, Egypt.

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Harris matrix

The Harris matrix is a tool used to depict the temporal succession of archaeological contexts and thus the sequence of depositions and surfaces on a 'dry land' archaeological site, otherwise called a 'stratigraphic sequence'.

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Heinrich Schliemann

Heinrich Schliemann (6 January 1822 – 26 December 1890) was a German businessman and a pioneer in the field of archaeology.

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Hellenistic period

The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.

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Located in the shadow of Mount Vesuvius, Herculaneum (Italian: Ercolano) was an ancient Roman town destroyed by volcanic pyroclastic flows in 79 AD.

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Hisarlik (Turkish: Hisarlık, "Place of Fortresses"), often spelled Hissarlik, is the modern name for the generally agreed-upon site of ancient Troy, also known as Ilion, and is located in what is now Turkey (historically Anatolia) near to the modern city of Çanakkale.

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Historic Scotland

Historic Scotland (Alba Aosmhor) was an executive agency of the Scottish Government from 1991 to 2015, responsible for safeguarding Scotland's built heritage, and promoting its understanding and enjoyment.

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Historical archaeology

Historical archaeology is a form of archaeology dealing with places, things, and issues from the past or present when written records and oral traditions can inform and contextualize cultural material.

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Historical particularism

Historical particularism (coined by Marvin Harris in 1968) is widely considered the first American anthropological school of thought.

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History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.

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History of literature

The history of literature is the historical development of writings in prose or poetry that attempt to provide entertainment, enlightenment, or instruction to the reader/listener/observer, as well as the development of the literary techniques used in the communication of these pieces.

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Hoe (tool)

A hoe is an ancient and versatile agricultural and horticultural hand tool used to shape soil, remove weeds, clear soil, and harvest root crops.

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The Hominini, or hominins, form a taxonomic tribe of the subfamily Homininae ("hominines").

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Homo sapiens

Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.

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Howard Carter

Howard Carter (9 May 18742 March 1939) was a British archaeologist and Egyptologist who became world-famous after discovering the intact tomb (designated KV62) of the 18th Dynasty Pharaoh, Tutankhamun (colloquially known as "King Tut" and "the boy king"), in November 1922.

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Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.

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Human evolution

Human evolution is the evolutionary process that led to the emergence of anatomically modern humans, beginning with the evolutionary history of primates – in particular genus Homo – and leading to the emergence of Homo sapiens as a distinct species of the hominid family, the great apes.

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Human settlement

In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live.

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Humanities are academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture.

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A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.

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A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon.

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Ian Hodder

Ian Hodder FBA (born 23 November 1948 in Bristol) is a British archaeologist and pioneer of postprocessualist theory in archaeology that first took root among his students and in his own work between 1980-1990.

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Indigenous peoples

Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.

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Indigenous peoples of the Americas

The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.

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Indology or South Asian studies is the academic study of the history and cultures, languages, and literature of India and as such is a subset of Asian studies.

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Information science

Information science is a field primarily concerned with the analysis, collection, classification, manipulation, storage, retrieval, movement, dissemination, and protection of information.

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Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.

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Institut national du patrimoine

French national institute of cultural heritage, called Institut national du patrimoine (Inp), is the only academy in France in charge of the training of both curators and conservators.

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Intellectual Property Issues in Cultural Heritage project

The Intellectual Property Issues in Cultural Heritage (IPinCH) Project is a seven-year international research initiative based at Simon Fraser University, in British Columbia, Canada.

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International Journal of South American Archaeology

The International Journal of South American Archaeology – IJSA is an eJournal listed by scholarly journal and one of the first fully peer-reviewed electronic journal for archaeology published by Syllaba Press.

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The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.

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Internet Archaeology

Internet Archaeology is an international scholarly journal and one of the first fully peer-reviewed electronic journals for archaeology.

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Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

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Jacques Boucher de Crèvecœur de Perthes

Jacques Boucher de Crèvecœur de Perthes (10 September 1788 – 5 August 1868), sometimes referred to as Boucher de Perthes, was a French archaeologist and antiquary notable for his discovery, in about 1830, of flint tools in the gravels of the Somme valley.

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James Hutton

James Hutton (3 June 1726 – 26 March 1797) was a Scottish geologist, physician, chemical manufacturer, naturalist, and experimental agriculturalist.

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JCB (company)

J.C. Bamford Excavators Limited, universally known as JCB, is an English multinational corporation, with headquarters in Rocester, Staffordshire, manufacturing equipment for construction, agriculture, waste handling and demolition.

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Jewellery (British English) or jewelry (American English)see American and British spelling differences consists of small decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, pendants, bracelets, and cufflinks.

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John Aubrey

John Aubrey (12 March 1626 – 7 June 1697) was an English antiquary, natural philosopher and writer.

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John Leland (antiquary)

John Leland or Leyland (13 September, – 18 April 1552) was an English poet and antiquary.

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Juniperus virginiana

Juniperus virginiana — its common names include red cedar, eastern redcedar,Flora of North America: Virginian juniper, eastern juniper, red juniper, pencil cedar, and aromatic cedar — is a species of juniper native to eastern North America from southeastern Canada to the Gulf of Mexico and east of the Great Plains.

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Kathleen Kenyon

Dame Kathleen Mary Kenyon, (5 January 1906 – 24 August 1978), was a leading British archaeologist of Neolithic culture in the Fertile Crescent.

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Kenneth Feder

Kenneth L. "Kenny" Feder (born August 1, 1952) is a professor of archaeology at Central Connecticut State University and the author of several books on archaeology and criticism of pseudoarchaeology such as Frauds, Myths, and Mysteries: Science and Pseudoscience in Archaeology.

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Kennewick Man

Kennewick Man is the name generally given to the skeletal remains of a prehistoric Paleoamerican man found on a bank of the Columbia River in Kennewick, Washington, United States, on July 28, 1996.

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Kent V. Flannery

Kent Vaughn Flannery (born 1934) is a North American archaeologist who has conducted and published extensive research on the pre-Columbian cultures and civilizations of Mesoamerica, and in particular those of central and southern Mexico.

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Kevin Greene (archaeologist)

Kevin Greene is a British classical archaeologist.

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A kiln (or, originally pronounced "kill", with the "n" silent) is a thermally insulated chamber, a type of oven, that produces temperatures sufficient to complete some process, such as hardening, drying, or chemical changes.

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A kite is a tethered heavier-than-air craft with wing surfaces that react against the air to create lift and drag.

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Knossos (also Cnossos, both pronounced; Κνωσός, Knōsós) is the largest Bronze Age archaeological site on Crete and has been called Europe's oldest city.

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L'Isle-aux-Allumettes, Quebec

L'Isle-aux-Allumettes is a municipality in the Outaouais region, part of the Pontiac Regional County Municipality, Quebec, Canada.

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Landscape archaeology

Landscape archaeology is the study of the ways in which people in the past constructed and used the environment around them.

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Lewis Binford

Lewis Roberts Binford (November 21, 1931 – April 11, 2011) was an American archaeologist known for his influential work in archaeological theory, ethnoarchaeology and the Paleolithic period.

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A library is a collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing.

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Lidar (also called LIDAR, LiDAR, and LADAR) is a surveying method that measures distance to a target by illuminating the target with pulsed laser light and measuring the reflected pulses with a sensor.

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The expression lifeway is a fairly new technical term that is not yet in most general dictionaries and for which most textbooks instead still use "way of life".

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Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.

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List of archaeological periods

The names for archaeological periods in the list of archaeological periods vary enormously from region to region.

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List of archaeological sites by country

This is a list of notable archaeological sites sorted by country and territories.

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List of archaeologists

This is a list of archaeologists – people who study or practise archaeology, the study of the human past through material remains.

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List of paleoethnobotanists

List of paleoethnobotanists.

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Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write.

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Lithic analysis

In archaeology, lithic analysis is the analysis of stone tools and other chipped stone artifacts using basic scientific techniques.

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Local government

A local government is a form of public administration which, in a majority of contexts, exists as the lowest tier of administration within a given state.

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Lomekwi 3 is the name of an archaeological site in Kenya where ancient stone tools have been discovered dating to 3.3 million years ago, which make them the oldest ever found.

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Looting, also referred to as sacking, ransacking, plundering, despoiling, despoliation, and pillaging, is the indiscriminate taking of goods by force as part of a military or political victory, or during a catastrophe, such as war, natural disaster (where law and civil enforcement are temporarily ineffective), or rioting.

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Magnetic survey (archaeology)

Magnetic survey is one of a number of methods used in archaeological geophysics.

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A magnetometer is an instrument that measures magnetism—either the magnetization of a magnetic material like a ferromagnet, or the direction, strength, or relative change of a magnetic field at a particular location.

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Maniwaki is a town located north of Gatineau and north-west of Montreal, in the province of Quebec, Canada.

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A map is a symbolic depiction emphasizing relationships between elements of some space, such as objects, regions, or themes.

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Maritime archaeology

Maritime archaeology (also known as marine archaeology) is a discipline within archaeology as a whole that specifically studies human interaction with the sea, lakes and rivers through the study of associated physical remains, be they vessels, shore side facilities, port-related structures, cargoes, human remains and submerged landscapes.

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Material consideration

A material consideration, in the United Kingdom, is a process in planning law in which the decision maker when assessing an application for development must consider in deciding the outcome of an application.

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Material culture

Material culture is the physical aspect of culture in the objects and architecture that surround people.

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Medieval archaeology

Medieval archaeology is the study of humankind through its material culture, specialising in the period of the European Middle Ages.

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Meet the Ancestors

Meet the Ancestors (later Ancestors) is a BBC Television documentary series first broadcast in 1998.

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A megalith is a large stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones.

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Mesoamerica is an important historical region and cultural area in the Americas, extending from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, and within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.

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Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.

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Metal detector

A metal detector is an electronic instrument which detects the presence of metal nearby.

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Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.

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Michael Shanks (archaeologist)

Michael Shanks (born 1959, Newcastle upon Tyne) is a British archaeologist specializes in classical archaeology and archaeological theory.

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A midden (also kitchen midden or shell heap) is an old dump for domestic waste which may consist of animal bone, human excrement, botanical material, mollusc shells, sherds, lithics (especially debitage), and other artifacts and ecofacts associated with past human occupation.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Minoan civilization

The Minoan civilization was an Aegean Bronze Age civilization on the island of Crete and other Aegean Islands which flourished from about 2600 to 1600 BC, before a late period of decline, finally ending around 1100.

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Mortimer Wheeler

Sir Robert Eric Mortimer Wheeler (10 September 1890 – 22 July 1976) was a British archaeologist and officer in the British Army.

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Music archaeology

Music archaeology is an interdisciplinary study field that combines musicology and archaeology.

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The muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus), the only species in genus Ondatra and tribe Ondatrini, is a medium-sized semiaquatic rodent native to North America and is an introduced species in parts of Europe, Asia, and South America.

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National Historic Preservation Act of 1966

The National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA; Public Law 89-665; 54 U.S.C. 300101 et seq.) is legislation intended to preserve historical and archaeological sites in the United States of America.

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Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act

The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), Pub.

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Native Americans in the United States

Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States.

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Natural (archaeology)

In archaeology, natural is a term to denote a layer (stratum) in the stratigraphic record where there is no evidence of anthropogenic activity.

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Nautilus Productions

Nautilus Productions LLC is an American video production, stock footage, and photography company incorporated in Fayetteville, North Carolina in 1997.

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Near Eastern archaeology

Near Eastern Archaeology (sometimes known as Middle Eastern archaeology) is a regional branch of the wider, global discipline of archeology.

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The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.

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Northern Ireland Environment Agency

The Northern Ireland Environment Agency (NIEA) is an executive agency within the Department of Agriculture, Environment and Rural Affairs (DAERA).

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Occupational safety and health

Occupational safety and health (OSH), also commonly referred to as occupational health and safety (OHS), occupational health, or workplace health and safety (WHS), is a multidisciplinary field concerned with the safety, health, and welfare of people at work.

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The Oldowan (or Mode I) is the earliest widespread stone tool archaeological industry (style) in prehistory.

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Online Etymology Dictionary

The Online Etymology Dictionary is a free online dictionary written and compiled by Douglas Harper that describes the origins of English-language words.

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Ottawa is the capital city of Canada.

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Ottawa Valley

The Ottawa Valley is the valley of the Ottawa River, along the boundary between Eastern Ontario and the Outaouais, Quebec, Canada.

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In mining, overburden (also called waste or spoil) is the material that lies above an area that lends itself to economical exploitation, such as the rock, soil, and ecosystem that lies above a coal seam or ore body.

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Palaeography (UK) or paleography (US; ultimately from παλαιός, palaiós, "old", and γράφειν, graphein, "to write") is the study of ancient and historical handwriting (that is to say, of the forms and processes of writing, not the textual content of documents).

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Paleoanthropology or paleo-anthropology is a branch of archaeology with a human focus, which seeks to understand the early development of anatomically modern humans, a process known as hominization, through the reconstruction of evolutionary kinship lines within the family Hominidae, working from biological evidence (such as petrified skeletal remains, bone fragments, footprints) and cultural evidence (such as stone tools, artifacts, and settlement localities).

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Paleobotany, also spelled as palaeobotany (from the Greek words paleon.

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Paleoecology (also spelled palaeoecology) is the study of interactions between organisms and/or interactions between organisms and their environments across geologic timescales.

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Pal(a)eoethnobotany or Archaeobotany, "is the study of remains of plants cultivated or used by people in ancient times, which have survived in archaeological contexts." Paleoethnobotany is the archaeological sub-field that studies plant remains from archaeological sites.

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The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.

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Paleontology or palaeontology is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present).

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Palaeozoology, also spelled as Paleozoology (Greek: παλαιόν, palaeon "old" and ζῷον, zoon "animal"), is the branch of paleontology, paleobiology, or zoology dealing with the recovery and identification of multicellular animal remains from geological (or even archeological) contexts, and the use of these fossils in the reconstruction of prehistoric environments and ancient ecosystems.

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Palestine (region)

Palestine (فلسطين,,; Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Palaestina; פלשתינה. Palestina) is a geographic region in Western Asia.

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Palynology is the "study of dust" (from palunō, "strew, sprinkle" and -logy) or "particles that are strewn".

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Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.

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Pharaoh (ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ Prro) is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until circa 1200 BCE.

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Phase (archaeology)

In archaeology, a phase refers to the logical reduction of contexts recorded during excavation to near contemporary archaeological horizons that represent a distinct "phase" of previous land use.

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Phenomenology (philosophy)

Phenomenology (from Greek phainómenon "that which appears" and lógos "study") is the philosophical study of the structures of experience and consciousness.

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Photogrammetry is the science of making measurements from photographs, especially for recovering the exact positions of surface points.

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Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

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Pitt Rivers Museum

The Pitt Rivers Museum is a museum displaying the archaeological and anthropological collections of the University of Oxford in Oxford, England.

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Plan (archaeology)

In archaeological excavation, a plan is a drawn record of features and artifacts in the horizontal plane.

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Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.

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Polluter pays principle

In environmental law, the polluter pays principle is enacted to make the party responsible for producing pollution responsible for paying for the damage done to the natural environment.

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Pompeii was an ancient Roman city near modern Naples in the Campania region of Italy, in the territory of the comune of Pompei.

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Portable Antiquities Scheme

The Portable Antiquities Scheme (PAS) is a voluntary programme run by the United Kingdom government to record the increasing numbers of small finds of archaeological interest found by members of the public.

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Post-excavation analysis

Post-excavation analysis constitutes processes that are used to study archaeological materials after an excavation is completed.

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Post-processual archaeology

Post-processual archaeology, which is sometimes alternately referred to as the interpretative archaeologies by its adherents, is a movement in archaeological theory that emphasizes the subjectivity of archaeological interpretations.

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Postdoctoral researcher

A postdoctoral researcher or postdoc is a person professionally conducting research after the completion of their doctoral studies (typically a PhD).

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Postmodernism is a broad movement that developed in the mid- to late-20th century across philosophy, the arts, architecture, and criticism and that marked a departure from modernism.

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PPG 16

Planning Policy Guidance 16: Archaeology and Planning commonly abbreviated as PPG 16, was a document produced by the UK Government to advise local planning authorities in England and Wales on the treatment of archaeology within the planning process.

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Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools 3.3 million years ago by hominins and the invention of writing systems.

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Processual archaeology

Processual archaeology (formerly the New Archaeology) is a form of archaeological theory that had its genesis in 1958 with the work of Gordon Willey and Philip Phillips, Method and Theory in American Archeology, in which the pair stated that "American archaeology is anthropology or it is nothing" (Willey and Phillips, 1958:2), a rephrasing of Frederic William Maitland's comment: "My own belief is that by and by anthropology will have the choice between being history and being nothing." This idea implied that the goals of archaeology were, in fact, the goals of anthropology, which were to answer questions about humans and human society.

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Provenance (from the French provenir, 'to come from/forth') is the chronology of the ownership, custody or location of a historical object.

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Pseudoarchaeology—also known as alternative archaeology, fringe archaeology, fantastic archaeology, or cult archaeology—refers to interpretations of the past from outside of the archaeological science community, which reject the accepted datagathering and analytical methods of the discipline.

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Queen Anne's Revenge

Queen Anne's Revenge was an early-18th-century frigate, most famously used as a flagship by the pirate Blackbeard (Edward Teach).

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Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.

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Rare-earth element

A rare-earth element (REE) or rare-earth metal (REM), as defined by IUPAC, is one of a set of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the fifteen lanthanides, as well as scandium and yttrium.

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Reflexivity (social theory)

In epistemology, and more specifically, the sociology of knowledge, reflexivity refers to circular relationships between cause and effect, especially as embedded in human belief structures.

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Relationship (archaeology)

An archaeological relationship is the position in space and by implication, in time, of an object or context with respect to another.

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Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.

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Remote sensing (archaeology)

Remote sensing techniques in archaeology are an increasingly important component of the technical and methodological tool set available in archaeological research.

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Renaissance humanism

Renaissance humanism is the study of classical antiquity, at first in Italy and then spreading across Western Europe in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries.

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Repatriation is the process of returning an asset, an item of symbolic value or a person - voluntarily or forcibly - to its owner or their place of origin or citizenship.

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Repatriation and reburial of human remains

The repatriation and reburial of human remains is a current debate in archaeology.

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Rescue archaeology

Rescue archaeology, sometimes called preventive archaeology, salvage archaeology, commercial archaeology, contract archaeology, or compliance archaeology, is state-sanctioned, for-profit archaeological survey and excavation carried out in advance of construction or other land development.

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Sampling (statistics)

In statistics, quality assurance, and survey methodology, sampling is the selection of a subset (a statistical sample) of individuals from within a statistical population to estimate characteristics of the whole population.

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Sampling bias

In statistics, sampling bias is a bias in which a sample is collected in such a way that some members of the intended population are less likely to be included than others.

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Satellite imagery

Satellite imagery (or spaceborne photography) are images of Earth or other planets collected by imaging satellites operated by governments and businesses around the world.

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R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.

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Scientific method

Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.

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Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.

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Section (archaeology)

In archaeology a section is a view in part of the archaeological sequence showing it in the vertical plane, as a cross section, and thereby illustrating its profile and stratigraphy.

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Semiotics (also called semiotic studies) is the study of meaning-making, the study of sign process (semiosis) and meaningful communication.

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Seriation (archaeology)

In archaeology, seriation is a relative dating method in which assemblages or artifacts from numerous sites, in the same culture, are placed in chronological order.

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Shovel test pit

A shovel test pit (STP) is a standard method for Phase I of an archaeological survey.

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Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.

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Side-scan sonar

Side-scan sonar (also sometimes called side scan sonar, sidescan sonar, side imaging sonar, side-imaging sonar and bottom classification sonar) is a category of sonar system that is used to efficiently create an image of large areas of the sea floor.

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Single context recording

Single context recording was initially developed by Ed Harris and Patrick Ottaway in 1976, from a suggestion by Lawrence Keene.

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Sinology or Chinese studies is the academic study of China primarily through Chinese language, literature, Chinese culture and history, and often refers to Western scholarship.

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Sir Richard Hoare, 2nd Baronet

Sir Richard Colt Hoare, 2nd Baronet FRS (9 December 1758 – 19 May 1838) was an English antiquarian, archaeologist, artist, and traveller of the 18th and 19th centuries, the first major figure in the detailed study of the history of his home county of Wiltshire.

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Social science

Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.

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A solstice is an event occurring when the Sun appears to reach its most northerly or southerly excursion relative to the celestial equator on the celestial sphere.

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Southwest Museum of the American Indian

The Southwest Museum of the American Indian is a museum, library, and archive located in the Mt. Washington area of Los Angeles, California.

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State historic preservation office

The state historic preservation office (SHPO) is a state governmental function created by the United States federal government in 1966 under Section 101 of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA).

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Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.

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Stone structures

Stone structures, or "megaliths", have been erected by humanity for thousands of years.

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Stone tool

A stone tool is, in the most general sense, any tool made either partially or entirely out of stone.

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Stonehenge is a prehistoric monument in Wiltshire, England, west of Amesbury.

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Stratigraphy is a branch of geology concerned with the study of rock layers (strata) and layering (stratification).

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Stratigraphy (archaeology)

Stratigraphy is a key concept to modern archaeological theory and practice.

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Structural functionalism

Structural functionalism, or simply functionalism, is "a framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability".

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Structure and agency

In the social sciences there is a standing debate over the primacy of structure or agency in shaping human behaviour.

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Survey (archaeology)

In archaeology, survey or field survey is a type of field research by which archaeologists (often landscape archaeologists) search for archaeological sites and collect information about the location, distribution and organization of past human cultures across a large area (e.g. typically in excess of one hectare, and often in excess of many km2).

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Systems theory in archaeology

Systems theory in archaeology is the application of systems theory and systems thinking in archaeology.

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Textual criticism

Textual criticism is a branch of textual scholarship, philology, and literary criticism that is concerned with the identification of textual variants in either manuscripts or printed books.

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The Salisbury Museum

The Salisbury Museum (previously The Salisbury and South Wiltshire Museum) is a museum in Salisbury, Wiltshire, England.

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Infrared thermography (IRT), thermal imaging, and thermal video are examples of infrared imaging science.

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Time Team

Time Team was a British television series that originally aired on Channel 4 from 16 January 1994 to 7 September 2014.

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Timothy Pauketat

Timothy R. Pauketat is an American archaeologist and professor of anthropology at the University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana.

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A tool is any physical item that can be used to achieve a goal, especially if the item is not consumed in the process.

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Topography is the study of the shape and features of the surface of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects including planets, moons, and asteroids.

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Topography of ancient Rome

The topography of ancient Rome is a multidisciplinary field of study that draws on archaeology, epigraphy, cartography and philology.

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Topsoil is the upper, outermost layer of soil, usually the top to.

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Training excavation

Training excavations are normally run by university departments or large contractors and employ professional archaeologists to teach the basics of archaeological methodology, including photography, stratigraphy, illustration and draughtsmanship as well as survey, and finds treatment.

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A trowel is a small hand tool used for digging, applying, smoothing, or moving small amounts of viscous or particulate material.

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Troy (Τροία, Troia or Τροίας, Troias and Ἴλιον, Ilion or Ἴλιος, Ilios; Troia and Ilium;Trōia is the typical Latin name for the city. Ilium is a more poetic term: Hittite: Wilusha or Truwisha; Truva or Troya) was a city in the far northwest of the region known in late Classical antiquity as Asia Minor, now known as Anatolia in modern Turkey, near (just south of) the southwest mouth of the Dardanelles strait and northwest of Mount Ida.

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A tumulus (plural tumuli) is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves.

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Tutankhamun (alternatively spelled with Tutenkh-, -amen, -amon) was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th dynasty (ruled c. 1332–1323 BC in the conventional chronology), during the period of Egyptian history known as the New Kingdom or sometimes the New Empire Period.

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Typology (archaeology)

In archaeology a typology is the result of the classification of things according to their physical characteristics.

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Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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Underwater archaeology

Underwater archaeology is archaeology practiced underwater.

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Underwater videography

Underwater videography is the branch of electronic underwater photography concerned with capturing underwater moving images as a recreational diving, scientific, commercial, documentary, or filmmaking activity.

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United States Forest Service

The United States Forest Service (USFS) is an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture that administers the nation's 154 national forests and 20 national grasslands, which encompass.

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University of California Press

University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.

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Unmanned aerial vehicle

An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), commonly known as a drone, is an aircraft without a human pilot aboard.

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Urban archaeology

Urban archaeology is a sub discipline of archaeology specialising in the material past of towns and cities where long-term human habitation has often left a rich record of the past.

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Valley of the Kings

The Valley of the Kings (وادي الملوك), also known as the Valley of the Gates of the Kings (وادي ابواب الملوك), is a valley in Egypt where, for a period of nearly 500 years from the 16th to 11th century BC, rock cut tombs were excavated for the Pharaohs and powerful nobles of the New Kingdom (the Eighteenth to the Twentieth Dynasties of Ancient Egypt).

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Viru Valley

The Viru Valley is located in La Libertad Region on the north west coast of Peru.

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Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.

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A weapon, arm or armament is any device used with intent to inflict damage or harm.

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A webcast is a media presentation distributed over the Internet using streaming media technology to distribute a single content source to many simultaneous listeners/viewers.

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Western Europe

Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.

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Wheeler-Kenyon method

The Wheeler -Kenyon method is a method of archaeological excavation.

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Wilhelm Dörpfeld

Wilhelm Dörpfeld (26 December 1853 – 25 April 1940) was a German architect and archaeologist, a pioneer of stratigraphic excavation and precise graphical documentation of archaeological projects.

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William Camden

William Camden (2 May 1551 – 9 November 1623) was an English antiquarian, historian, topographer, and herald, best known as author of Britannia, the first chorographical survey of the islands of Great Britain and Ireland, and the Annales, the first detailed historical account of the reign of Elizabeth I of England.

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William Cunnington

William Cunnington FSA (1754 – 31 December 1810) was an English antiquarian and archaeologist.

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William Smith (geologist)

William 'Strata' Smith (23 March 1769 – 28 August 1839) was an English geologist, credited with creating the first nationwide geological map.

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Wiltshire is a county in South West England with an area of.

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Zooarchaeology (or archaeozoology) is the branch of archaeology that studies faunal remains related to ancient people.

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3D modeling

In 3D computer graphics, 3D modeling (or three-dimensional modeling) is the process of developing a mathematical representation of any surface of an object (either inanimate or living) in three dimensions via specialized software.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaeology

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