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Georges Ernest Boulanger

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Georges Ernest Jean-Marie Boulanger (29 April 1837 – 30 September 1891), nicknamed Général Revanche, was a French general and politician. [1]

145 relations: Alexander Meyrick Broadley, Alfred Joseph Naquet, Amélie of Orléans, Anne de Rochechouart de Mortemart, Arthur Dillon (1834–1922), Arthur Meyer (journalist), Authoritarianism, École spéciale militaire de Saint-Cyr, Émile Flourens, Belfort, Belgium, Blanquism, Bonapartiste, Bourbon Restoration, Brigadier general, Brussels, Cabaret, Captain (armed forces), Carlos I of Portugal, Catholic Church, Central Revolutionary Committee, Chamber of Deputies, Champigny-sur-Marne, Charles de Freycinet, Charles Floquet, Clermont-Ferrand, Cleveland Street scandal, Cochinchina, Cochinchina Campaign, Communards, Conservatism, Count, Coup d'état, Decazeville, Democracy, Departments of France, Drill instructor, Electoral district, Elena and Her Men, Ernest Granger, Far-left politics, Far-right politics, Fascism, France, Franco-Prussian War, French Army, French colonial empire, French conquest of Tunisia, French legislative election, 1889, French nationalism, ..., French nationality law, French Parliament, French Third Republic, Gare de Lyon, General officer, Georges Clemenceau, German Empire, Guillaume Schnaebelé, Guy de Maupassant, Henri d'Orléans, Duke of Aumale, Ille-et-Vilaine, IMDb, Inspector general, Interior ministry, Ixelles Cemetery, Jacques Leroy de Saint-Arnaud, Jean Antoine Ernest Constans, Jean Marais, Jean Renoir, Jean-Baptiste Billot, Jean-Baptiste Campenon, Jerome Napoleon Bonaparte II, Jersey, Jules Ferry, Jules Grévy, Lady Randolph Churchill, Le Figaro, Le Gaulois, Lebel Model 1886 rifle, Legion of Honour, Liberalism and radicalism in France, Libourne, Lieutenant colonel, Ligue des Patriotes, List of French monarchs, List of political conspiracies, List of Prime Ministers of France, Lohengrin (opera), London, Louis Philippe I, Major, Marguerite Crouzet, Marie François Sadi Carnot, Mass (liturgy), Maurice Leblanc, Maurice Ronet, Maurice Rouvier, Military dictatorship, Minister of the Armed Forces (France), Minister of the Interior (France), Morale, Mysticism, Nadar, National Assembly (France), Nord (French department), Opportunist Republicans, Orléanist, Otto von Bismarck, Panthéon, Paris, Paris Commune, Parliamentary immunity, Parliamentary system, Patrice de MacMahon, Duke of Magenta, Paul Cambon, Paul Déroulède, Penal transportation, Pierre Tirard, President of France, Prince Philippe, Count of Paris, Raoul Girardet, René Goblet, Rennes, Reservist, Revanchism, Robecchetto con Induno, Second Italian War of Independence, Second lieutenant, Secret society, Seine (department), Senate (France), Siege of Paris (1870–71), Sino-French War, Smokeless powder, Soldier, Strike action, Switzerland, Third Italian War of Independence, Tonkin, Treason, Tunis, Vichy France, Victor Henri Rochefort, Marquis de Rochefort-Luçay, Victor Jaclard, Viscounts and Dukes of Uzès. Expand index (95 more) »

Alexander Meyrick Broadley

Alexander Meyrick Broadley (19 July 1847 – 16 April 1916), also known as Broadley Pasha, was a British barrister, author, company promoter and social figure.

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Alfred Joseph Naquet

Alfred Joseph Naquet (6 October 183410 November 1916), was a French chemist and politician.

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Amélie of Orléans

Princess Amélie of Orléans (28 September 1865 – 25 October 1951) was the last Queen consort of Portugal, known to her husband's subjects as "Maria Amélia de Orleães".

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Anne de Rochechouart de Mortemart

Anne de Rochechouart de Mortemart (10 February 1847 – 3 February 1933), Duchess of Uzès, was a wealthy French aristocrat.

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Arthur Dillon (1834–1922)

Arthur Dillon (or comte Dillon) (1834, Paris - 1922) was a French cavalry officer and journalist, and friend of général Boulanger.

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Arthur Meyer (journalist)

Arthur Meyer (16 June 1844 in Le Havre – 2 February 1924 in Paris) was a French press baron.

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Authoritarianism

Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.

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École spéciale militaire de Saint-Cyr

The École Spéciale Militaire de Saint-Cyr (ESM, literally the "Special Military School of Saint-Cyr") is the foremost French military academy.

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Émile Flourens

Émile Flourens (27 April 1841, in Paris – 7 January 1920) was a French politician, who was Minister of Foreign Affairs during the Third Republic.

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Belfort

Belfort is a city in northeastern France in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté région, situated between Lyon and Strasbourg.

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Belgium

Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.

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Blanquism

Blanquism refers to a conception of revolution generally attributed to Louis Auguste Blanqui (1805–1881) which holds that socialist revolution should be carried out by a relatively small group of highly organised and secretive conspirators.

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Bonapartiste

A Bonapartiste was a person who either actively participated in or advocated conservative, monarchist and imperial political faction in nineteenth century France.

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Bourbon Restoration

The Bourbon Restoration was the period of French history following the fall of Napoleon in 1814 until the July Revolution of 1830.

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Brigadier general

Brigadier general (Brig. Gen.) is a senior rank in the armed forces.

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Brussels

Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.

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Cabaret

Cabaret is a form of theatrical entertainment featuring music, song, dance, recitation, or drama.

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Captain (armed forces)

The army rank of captain (from the French capitaine) is a commissioned officer rank historically corresponding to the command of a company of soldiers.

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Carlos I of Portugal

Dom Carlos I of Portugal (English: Charles) known as the Diplomat (also known as the Martyr); o Diplomata and o Martirizado; 28 September 1863 – 1 February 1908) was the King of Portugal and the Algarves. He was the first Portuguese king to be murdered since Sebastian of Portugal in 1578.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Central Revolutionary Committee

The Central Revolutionary Committee (Comité révolutionnaire central, CRC) was a French Blanquist political party founded in 1881 and dissolved in 1898.

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Chamber of Deputies

The chamber of deputies is the legislative body such as the lower house of a bicameral legislature, or also a unicameral legislature.

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Champigny-sur-Marne

Champigny-sur-Marne is a commune in the southeastern suburbs of Paris, France.

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Charles de Freycinet

Charles Louis de Saulces de Freycinet (14 November 1828 – 14 May 1923) was a French statesman and four times Prime Minister during the Third Republic.

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Charles Floquet

Charles Thomas Floquet (2 October 1828 – 18 January 1896) was a French statesman.

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Christmas

Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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Christmas and holiday season

The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.

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Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.

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Christmas traditions

Christmas traditions vary from country to country.

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Clermont-Ferrand

Clermont-Ferrand (Auvergnat Clharmou, Augustonemetum) is a city and commune of France, in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region, with a population of 141,569 (2012).

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Cleveland Street scandal

The Cleveland Street scandal occurred in 1889, when a homosexual male brothel in Cleveland Street, London, was discovered by police.

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Cochinchina

Cochinchina (Nam Kỳ; ''Kausangsin''.; Cochinchine) is a region encompassing the southern third of current Vietnam whose principal city is Saigon or Prey Nokor in Khmer.

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Cochinchina Campaign

The Cochinchina Campaign (Campagne de Cochinchine; Expedición franco-española a Cochinchina; Chiến dịch Nam Kỳ; Filipino: Expedisiyong pranses-espanyol sa Cochinchina); (1858–1862), fought between the French and Spanish on one side and the Vietnamese on the other, began as a limited punitive campaign for the murder of several Spanish and French missionaries in Vietnam.

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Communards

The Communards were members and supporters of the short-lived 1871 Paris Commune formed in the wake of the Franco-Prussian War and France's defeat.

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Conservatism

Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization.

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Count

Count (Male) or Countess (Female) is a title in European countries for a noble of varying status, but historically deemed to convey an approximate rank intermediate between the highest and lowest titles of nobility.

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Coup d'état

A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.

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Decazeville

Decazeville (La Sala) is a commune in the Aveyron department in the Occitanie region in southern France.

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Democracy

Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.

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Departments of France

In the administrative divisions of France, the department (département) is one of the three levels of government below the national level ("territorial collectivities"), between the administrative regions and the commune.

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Drill instructor

A drill instructor is a non-commissioned officer in the armed forces or police forces with specific duties that vary by country.

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Electoral district

An electoral district, (election) precinct, election district, or legislative district, called a voting district by the US Census (also known as a constituency, riding, ward, division, electoral area, or electorate) is a territorial subdivision for electing members to a legislative body.

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Elena and Her Men

Elena and Her Men is a 1956 film directed by Jean Renoir and starring Ingrid Bergman and Jean Marais.

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Ernest Granger

Ernest Granger (20 April 1844 – 21 May 1914) was a French politician, a veteran of the Paris Commune of 1871, a Blanquist socialist and subsequently a Boulangist nationalist.

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Far-left politics

Far-left politics are political views located further on the left of the left-right spectrum than the standard political left.

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Far-right politics

Far-right politics are politics further on the right of the left-right spectrum than the standard political right, particularly in terms of more extreme nationalist, and nativist ideologies, as well as authoritarian tendencies.

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Fascism

Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian ultranationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.

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France

France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Franco-Prussian War

The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War (Deutsch-Französischer Krieg, Guerre franco-allemande), often referred to in France as the War of 1870 (19 July 1871) or in Germany as 70/71, was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia.

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French Army

The French Army, officially the Ground Army (Armée de terre) (to distinguish it from the French Air Force, Armée de L'air or Air Army) is the land-based and largest component of the French Armed Forces.

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French colonial empire

The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward.

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French conquest of Tunisia

The French Conquest of Tunisia occurred in two phases in 1881: the first (28 April – 12 May) consisting of the invasion and securing of the country before the signing of a treaty of protection, and the second (10 June – 28 October) consisting of the suppression of a rebellion.

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French legislative election, 1889

The 1889 general election was held on 22 September and 6 October 1889, during the Boulanger affair.

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French nationalism

French nationalism promotes the cultural unity of the French nation.

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French nationality law

French nationality law is historically based on the principles of jus soli (Latin for "right of soil"), according to Ernest Renan's definition, in opposition to the German definition of nationality, jus sanguinis (Latin for "right of blood"), formalized by Johann Gottlieb Fichte.

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French Parliament

The French Parliament (Parlement français) is the bicameral legislature of the French Republic, consisting of the Senate (Sénat) and the National Assembly (Assemblée nationale).

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French Third Republic

The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.

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Gare de Lyon

The Gare de Lyon (Lyon Station), officially Paris-Gare-de-Lyon, is one of the six large mainline railway station termini in Paris, France.

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General officer

A general officer is an officer of high rank in the army, and in some nations' air forces or marines.

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Georges Clemenceau

Georges Benjamin Clemenceau (28 September 1841 – 24 November 1929) was a French politician, physician, and journalist who was Prime Minister of France during the First World War.

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German Empire

The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.

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Guillaume Schnaebelé

Guillaume Schnaebelé or Wilhelm Schnäbele (1831 – 5 December 1900) was a French official from Alsace, best known for being arrested by Germans in the April 1887 Schnaebele incident (or Affair) which nearly led to war between France and Germany.

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Guy de Maupassant

Henri René Albert Guy de Maupassant (5 August 1850 – 6 July 1893) was a French writer, remembered as a master of the short story form, and as a representative of the naturalist school of writers, who depicted human lives and destinies and social forces in disillusioned and often pessimistic terms.

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Henri d'Orléans, Duke of Aumale

Henri Eugène Philippe Louis d'Orléans, Duke of Aumale (16 January 1822 – 7 May 1897) was a leader of the Orleanists, a political faction in 19th-century France associated with constitutional monarchy.

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Ille-et-Vilaine

Ille-et-Vilaine (Il-ha-Gwilen) is a department of France, located in the region of Brittany in the northwest of the country.

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IMDb

IMDb, also known as Internet Movie Database, is an online database of information related to world films, television programs, home videos and video games, and internet streams, including cast, production crew and personnel biographies, plot summaries, trivia, and fan reviews and ratings.

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Inspector general

An inspector general is an investigative official in a civil or military organization.

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Interior ministry

An interior ministry (sometimes ministry of internal affairs or ministry of home affairs) is a government ministry typically responsible for policing, emergency management, national security, registration, supervision of local governments, conduct of elections, public administration and immigration matters.

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Ixelles Cemetery

The Ixelles Cemetery (French: Cimetière d'Ixelles, Dutch: begraafplaats van Elsene), located in Ixelles in the southern part of Brussels, is one of the major cemeteries in Belgium.

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Jacques Leroy de Saint-Arnaud

Armand-Jacques Leroy de Saint-Arnaud (20 August 1798 – 29 September 1854) was a French soldier and Marshal of France.

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Jean Antoine Ernest Constans

Jean Antoine Ernest Constans (3 May 1833 – 7 April 1913) was a French politician and colonial administrator.

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Jean Marais

Jean-Alfred Villain-Marais, also known as Jean Marais (11 December 1913 – 8 November 1998), was a French actor, writer, director and sculptor.

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Jean Renoir

Jean Renoir (15 September 1894 – 12 February 1979) was a French film director, screenwriter, actor, producer and author.

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Jean-Baptiste Billot

Jean-Baptiste Billot (15 August 1828, Chaumeil, Corrèze – 31 May 1907, Paris) was a French general and politician.

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Jean-Baptiste Campenon

General Jean Baptiste Marie Edouard Campenon (5 May 1819 in Tonnerre – 16 March 1891 in Neuilly-sur-Seine) was a French general and politician.

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Jerome Napoleon Bonaparte II

Jerome Napoleon Bonaparte II (November 5, 1830 – September 3, 1893) was a French-American military officer who served in the United States Army and later in the French Army.

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Jersey

Jersey (Jèrriais: Jèrri), officially the Bailiwick of Jersey (Bailliage de Jersey; Jèrriais: Bailliage dé Jèrri), is a Crown dependency located near the coast of Normandy, France.

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Jules Ferry

Jules François Camille Ferry (5 April 183217 March 1893) was a French statesman and republican.

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Jules Grévy

François Paul Jules Grévy (15 August 1807 – 9 September 1891) was a President of the French Third Republic and one of the leaders of the Opportunist Republican faction.

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Lady Randolph Churchill

Jennie Spencer-Churchill (9 January 1854 – 29 June 1921), known as Lady Randolph Churchill, was an American-born British socialite, the wife of Lord Randolph Churchill and the mother of British Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill.

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Le Figaro

Le Figaro is a French daily morning newspaper founded in 1826 and published in Paris.

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Le Gaulois

Le Gaulois was a French daily newspaper, founded in 1868 by Edmond Tarbé and Henri de Pène.

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Lebel Model 1886 rifle

The Lebel Model 1886 rifle (French: Fusil Modèle 1886 dit "Fusil Lebel") is also known as the "Fusil Mle 1886 M93", after a bolt modification was added in 1893.

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Legion of Honour

The Legion of Honour, with its full name National Order of the Legion of Honour (Ordre national de la Légion d'honneur), is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established in 1802 by Napoléon Bonaparte and retained by all the divergent governments and regimes later holding power in France, up to the present.

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Liberalism and radicalism in France

Liberalism and radicalism in France refer to different movements and ideologies.

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Libourne

Libourne (Gascon: Liborna) is a commune in the Gironde department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France.

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Lieutenant colonel

Lieutenant colonel is a rank of commissioned officer in the armies, most marine forces and some air forces of the world, above a major and below a colonel.

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Ligue des Patriotes

The League of Patriots (Ligue des Patriotes) was a French far right league, founded in 1882 by the nationalist poet Paul Déroulède, historian Henri Martin, and Félix Faure.

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List of French monarchs

The monarchs of the Kingdom of France and its predecessors (and successor monarchies) ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of the Franks in 486 until the fall of the Second French Empire in 1870, with several interruptions.

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List of political conspiracies

In a political sense, conspiracy refers to a group of people united in the goal of usurping, altering or overthrowing an established political power.

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List of Prime Ministers of France

The Prime Minister of France is the head of the Government of France.

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Lohengrin (opera)

Lohengrin, WWV 75, is a Romantic opera in three acts composed and written by Richard Wagner, first performed in 1850.

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London

London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Louis Philippe I

Louis Philippe I (6 October 1773 – 26 August 1850) was King of the French from 1830 to 1848 as the leader of the Orléanist party.

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Major

Major is a military rank of commissioned officer status, with corresponding ranks existing in many military forces throughout the world.

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Marguerite Crouzet

Marguerite Crouzet was the mistress of Georges Boulanger.

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Marie François Sadi Carnot

Marie François Sadi Carnot (11 August 1837 – 25 June 1894) was a French statesman, who served as the President of France from 1887 until his assassination in 1894.

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Mass (liturgy)

Mass is a term used to describe the main eucharistic liturgical service in many forms of Western Christianity.

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Maurice Leblanc

Maurice Marie Émile Leblanc (11 November 1864 – 6 November 1941) was a French novelist and writer of short stories, known primarily as the creator of the fictional gentleman thief and detective Arsène Lupin, often described as a French counterpart to Arthur Conan Doyle's creation Sherlock Holmes.

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Maurice Ronet

Maurice Ronet (13 April 1927 – 14 March 1983) was a French film actor, director, and writer.

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Maurice Rouvier

Maurice Rouvier (17 April 1842 – 7 June 1911) was a French statesman of the "Opportunist" faction, who served as the Prime Minister of France.

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Military dictatorship

A military dictatorship (also known as a military junta) is a form of government where in a military force exerts complete or substantial control over political authority.

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Minister of the Armed Forces (France)

The Ministry of the Armed Forces (Ministre des Armées) is the French cabinet member charged with running the French Armed Forces.

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Minister of the Interior (France)

The Minister of the Interior (Ministre de l'Intérieur) is an important position in the Government of France.

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Morale

Morale, also known as esprit de corps, is the capacity of a group's members to maintain belief in an institution or goal, particularly in the face of opposition or hardship.

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Mysticism

Mysticism is the practice of religious ecstasies (religious experiences during alternate states of consciousness), together with whatever ideologies, ethics, rites, myths, legends, and magic may be related to them.

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Nadar

Gaspard-Félix Tournachon (6 April 1820 – 20 March 1910), known by the pseudonym Nadar, was a French photographer, caricaturist, journalist, novelist, and balloonist (or, more accurately, proponent of manned flight).

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National Assembly (France)

The National Assembly (Assemblée nationale) is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic, the upper house being the Senate (Sénat).

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New Year

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

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New Year's Day

New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.

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New Year's Eve

In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.

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Nord (French department)

Nord (North; Noorderdepartement) is a department in the far north of France.

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Opportunist Republicans

The Moderates or Moderate Republicans (Républicains modérés), pejoratively labeled Opportunist Republicans (Républicains opportunistes), were a French political group active in the late 19th century, during the Third French Republic.

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Orléanist

The Orléanists were a French right-wing (except for 1814–1830) faction which arose out of the French Revolution as opposed to Legitimists.

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Otto von Bismarck

Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg (1 April 1815 – 30 July 1898), known as Otto von Bismarck, was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890 and was the first Chancellor of the German Empire between 1871 and 1890.

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Panthéon

The Panthéon (pantheon, from Greek πάνθειον (ἱερόν) '(temple) to all the gods') is a building in the Latin Quarter in Paris, France.

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Paris

Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.

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Paris Commune

The Paris Commune (La Commune de Paris) was a radical socialist and revolutionary government that ruled Paris from 18 March to 28 May 1871.

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Parliamentary immunity

Parliamentary immunity, also known as legislative immunity, is a system in which members of the parliament or legislature are granted partial immunity from prosecution.

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Parliamentary system

A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.

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Patrice de MacMahon, Duke of Magenta

Patrice de MacMahon, Duke of Magenta, 6th Marquess of MacMahon, 1st Duke of Magenta (born Marie Edme Patrice Maurice; 13 June 1808 – 17 October 1893), was a French general and politician, with the distinction of Marshal of France.

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Paul Cambon

Pierre Paul Cambon (20 January 1843 in Paris – 29 May 1924 in Paris) was a French diplomat and brother to Jules Cambon.

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Paul Déroulède

Paul Déroulède (2 September 1846 – 30 January 1914) was a French author and politician, one of the founders of the nationalist League of Patriots.

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Penal transportation

Penal transportation or transportation refers to the relocation of convicted criminals, or other persons regarded as undesirable, to a distant place, often a colony for a specified term; later, specifically established penal colonies became their destination.

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Pierre Tirard

Pierre Emmanuel Tirard (27 September 1827 – 4 November 1893) was a French politician.

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President of France

The President of the French Republic (Président de la République française) is the executive head of state of France in the French Fifth Republic.

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Prince Philippe, Count of Paris

Prince Philippe of Orléans, Count of Paris (Louis Philippe Albert; 24 August 1838 – 8 September 1894), was the grandson of Louis Philippe I, King of the French.

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Raoul Girardet

Raoul Girardet (6 October 1917 – 18 September 2013) was a French historian who specialized in military societies, colonialism and French nationalism.

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René Goblet

René Goblet (26 November 1828 – 13 September 1905) was a French politician, Prime Minister of France for a period in 1886–1887.

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Rennes

Rennes (Roazhon,; Gallo: Resnn) is a city in the east of Brittany in northwestern France at the confluence of the Ille and the Vilaine.

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Reservist

A reservist is a person who is a member of a military reserve force.

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Revanchism

Revanchism (from revanche, "revenge") is the political manifestation of the will to reverse territorial losses incurred by a country, often following a war or social movement.

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Robecchetto con Induno

Robecchetto con Induno is a comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Milan in the Italian region Lombardy, located about west of Milan.

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Second Italian War of Independence

The Second Italian War of Independence, also called the Franco-Austrian War, Austro-Sardinian War or Italian War of 1859 (Campagne d'Italie), was fought by the French Empire and the Kingdom of Sardinia against the Austrian Empire in 1859 and played a crucial part in the process of Italian unification.

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Second lieutenant

Second lieutenant (called lieutenant in some countries) is a junior commissioned officer military rank in many armed forces, comparable to NATO OF-1b rank.

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Secret society

A secret society is a club or an organization whose activities, events, inner functioning, or membership are concealed from non-members.

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Seine (department)

Seine was a department of France encompassing Paris and its immediate suburbs.

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Senate (France)

The Senate (Sénat; pronunciation) is the upper house of the French Parliament, presided over by a president.

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Siege of Paris (1870–71)

The Siege of Paris, lasting from 19 September 1870 to 28 January 1871, and the consequent capture of the city by Prussian forces, led to French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War and the establishment of the German Empire as well as the Paris Commune.

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Sino-French War

The Sino-French War (Guerre franco-chinoise, សង្គ្រាមបារាំង-ចិន, Chiến tranh Pháp-Thanh), also known as the Tonkin War and Tonquin War, was a limited conflict fought from August 1884 through April 1885, to decide whether France would supplant China's control of Tonkin (northern Vietnam).

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Smokeless powder

Smokeless powder is the name given to a number of propellants used in firearms and artillery that produce negligible smoke when fired, unlike the black powder they replaced.

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Soldier

A soldier is one who fights as part of an army.

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Strike action

Strike action, also called labor strike, labour strike, or simply strike, is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal of employees to work.

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Switzerland

Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Third Italian War of Independence

The Third Italian War of Independence (Terza Guerra d'Indipendenza Italiana) was a war between the Kingdom of Italy and the Austrian Empire fought between June and August 1866.

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Tonkin

Tonkin (historically Đàng Ngoài), also spelled Tongkin, Tonquin or Tongking, is in the Red River Delta Region of northern Vietnam.

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Treason

In law, treason is the crime that covers some of the more extreme acts against one's nation or sovereign.

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Tunis

Tunis (تونس) is the capital and the largest city of Tunisia.

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Vichy France

Vichy France (Régime de Vichy) is the common name of the French State (État français) headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II.

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Victor Henri Rochefort, Marquis de Rochefort-Luçay

Victor Henri Rochefort, Marquis de Rochefort-Luçay (30 January 1831 – 30 June 1913) was a French politician.

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Victor Jaclard

Charles Victor Jaclard (1840–1903) was a French revolutionary socialist, a member of the First International and of the Paris Commune.

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Viscounts and Dukes of Uzès

Lords, viscounts and then dukes of Uzès, in the Languedoc.

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2018

2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.

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2019

2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.

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Redirects here:

Boulanger Affair, Boulanger Crisis, Boulanger affair, Boulanger crisis, Boulangism, Boulangisme, Boulangist, Boulangist crisis, Boulangist movement, Boulangiste, Boulangistes, Boulangists, G Boulanger, General Boulanger, George Boulanger, George Ernest Jean Marie Boulanger, Georges Boulanger, Georges Ernest Jean Marie Boulanger, Georges Ernest Jean-Marie Boulanger, Général Boulanger, Jean Marie Boulanger.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georges_Ernest_Boulanger

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