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A1 Grand Prix
A1 Grand Prix (A1GP) was a 'single make' open wheel auto racing series that ran from 2005 until 2009.
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A1 Team Switzerland
A1 Team Switzerland is the Swiss team of A1 Grand Prix, an international racing series.
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Aarau (locally) is a town, a municipality, and the capital of the northern Swiss canton of Aargau.
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The Aare or Aar is a tributary of the High Rhine and the longest river that both rises and ends entirely within Switzerland.
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ABB (ASEA Brown Boveri) is a Swedish-Swiss multinational corporation headquartered in Zurich, Switzerland, operating mainly in robotics, power, heavy electrical equipments, and automation technology areas.
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Academic Ranking of World Universities
Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU), also known as Shanghai Ranking, is one of the annual publications of world university rankings.
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Act of Mediation
The Act of Mediation was issued by Napoleon Bonaparte on 19 February 1803 establishing the Swiss Confederation.
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Adrian Richard West Room (27 September 1933, Melksham – 6 November 2010, Stamford)Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2002; accessed 20 May 2013.
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Aegidius (or Giles or Glig) Tschudi (5 February 150528 February 1572) was a Swiss statesman and historian, an eminent member of the Tschudi family of Glarus, Switzerland.
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Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God, of the divine or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable.
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The Agri Decumates or Decumates Agri were a region of the Roman Empire's provinces of Germania superior ("Upper Germania") and Raetia; covering the Black Forest, Swabian Jura, and Franconian Jura areas between the Rhine, Main, and Danube rivers; in present southwestern Germany, including present Frankfurt, Stuttgart, Freiburg im Breisgau, and Weißenburg in Bayern.
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Aigle (French for "eagle") is a historic town and a municipality and the capital of the district of Aigle in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland.
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Ain (Arpitan: En) is a department named after the Ain River on the eastern edge of France.
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Alain Berset (born 9 April 1972) is a Swiss politician of the Social Democratic Party.
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Alain Menu (born 9 August 1963 in Geneva) is a Swiss racing driver who is currently working for Team BMR as a driving coach.
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Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
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The Alemanni (also Alamanni; Suebi "Swabians") were a confederation of Germanic tribes on the Upper Rhine River.
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Alemannic (German) is a group of dialects of the Upper German branch of the Germanic language family.
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The Aletsch Glacier (Aletschgletscher) or Great Aletsch Glacier (Grosser Aletschgletscher) is the largest glacier in the Alps.
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Alinghi is the syndicate set up by Ernesto Bertarelli, racing under the colors of the Société Nautique de Genève, to challenge for the America's Cup, as well as other competitions.
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Allies of World War II
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
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The alphorn or alpenhorn or alpine horn is a labrophone, consisting of a straight several-meter-long wooden natural horn of conical bore, with a wooden cup-shaped mouthpiece.
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The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.
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Altdorf (sometimes written as Altdorf UR in order to distinguish it from the other "Altdorfs"; German for "old village") is a historic and statistical town and a municipality in the Swiss canton of Uri.
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The America's Cup, affectionately known as the "Auld Mug", is a trophy awarded to the winner of the America's Cup match races between two sailing yachts.
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The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
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Andreas Rudolph Bodenstein von Karlstadt (1486 in Karlstadt, Bishopric of Würzburg in the Holy Roman Empire24 December 1541 in Basel, Canton of Basel in the Old Swiss Confederacy), better known as Andreas Karlstadt or Andreas Carlstadt or Karolostadt, or simply as Andreas Bodenstein, was a German Protestant theologian, University of Wittenberg chancellor, a contemporary of Martin Luther and a reformer of the early Reformation.
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Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.
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The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.
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The anti-nuclear movement is a social movement that opposes various nuclear technologies.
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Appenzell is a village, a statistic town, but not a municipality, and the capital of the canton of Appenzell Innerrhoden in Switzerland.
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An army (from Latin arma "arms, weapons" via Old French armée, "armed" (feminine)) or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land.
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Art Basel is a for-profit, privately owned and managed international art fair staged annually in Basel, Switzerland, Miami Beach, Florida, and Hong Kong, selling established and emerging artists.
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Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
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Auguste Antoine Piccard (28 January 1884 – 24 March 1962) was a Swiss physicist, inventor and explorer, known for his record-breaking helium-filled balloon flights, with which he studied Earth's upper atmosphere and cosmic rays, and for his invention of the first bathyscaphe, FNRS-2, with which he made a number of unmanned dives in 1948 to explore the ocean's depths.
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Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
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Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.
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Aventicum was the largest town and capital of Roman Switzerland (Helvetia or Civitas Helvetiorum).
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The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
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École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne
The École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) is a research institute and university in Lausanne, Switzerland, that specializes in natural sciences and engineering.
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Baden is a historical German territory.
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A bank is a financial institution that accepts deposits from the public and creates credit.
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Bank for International Settlements
The Bank for International Settlements (BIS) is an international financial institution owned by central banks which "fosters international monetary and financial cooperation and serves as a bank for central banks".
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Barry Callebaut is among the world's largest cocoa producers and grinders, with an average annual production of 1.7 million tonnes of cocoa.
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Basel (also Basle; Basel; Bâle; Basilea) is a city in northwestern Switzerland on the river Rhine.
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A bathyscaphe is a free-diving self-propelled deep-sea submersible, consisting of a crew cabin similar to a bathysphere, but suspended below a float rather than from a surface cable, as in the classic bathysphere design.
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Battle of Bibracte
The Battle of Bibracte was fought between the Helvetii and six Roman legions, under the command of Gaius Julius Caesar.
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Battle of Marignano
The Battle of Marignano was fought during the phase of the Italian Wars (1494–1559) called the War of the League of Cambrai, between France and the Old Swiss Confederacy.
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Battle of Näfels
The Battle of Näfels was fought on 9 April 1388 between Glarus with its allies, the Old Swiss Confederation, and the Habsburgs.
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Battle of Sempach
The Battle of Sempach was fought on 9 July 1386, between Leopold III, Duke of Austria and the Old Swiss Confederacy.
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Büsingen am Hochrhein
Büsingen am Hochrhein ("Buesingen on the High Rhine"), commonly known as Büsingen, is a German town entirely surrounded by the Swiss canton of Schaffhausen and, south across the High Rhine, by the Swiss cantons of Zürich and Thurgau.
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BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
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Bellinzona (Bellinzone, Bellenz, Blizuna) is the capital of the canton Ticino in Switzerland.
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Berchtold Haller (c. 149225 February 1536) was a German Protestant reformer.
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Bern or Berne (Bern, Bärn, Berne, Berna, Berna) is the de facto capital of Switzerland, referred to by the Swiss as their (e.g. in German) Bundesstadt, or "federal city".
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Bern Airport, formerly Regionalflugplatz Bern-Belp in German, is an airport serving Bern, the capital of Switzerland.
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The Bernese Alps (Berner Alpen, Alpes bernoises, Alpi bernesi) are a mountain range of the Alps, located in western Switzerland.
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The Bernina Range is a mountain range in the Alps of eastern Switzerland and northern Italy.
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Biberist is a municipality in the district of Wasseramt in the canton of Solothurn in Switzerland.
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A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.
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Bilateralism is the conduct of political, economic, or cultural relations between two sovereign states.
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Frédéric-Louis Sauser (1 September 1887 – 21 January 1961), better known as Blaise Cendrars, was a Swiss-born novelist and poet who became a naturalized French citizen in 1916.
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BLS AG is a Swiss railway company created by the 2006 merger of BLS Lötschbergbahn and Regionalverkehr Mittelland AG.
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Bobsleigh or bobsled is a winter sport in which teams of two or four teammates make timed runs down narrow, twisting, banked, iced tracks in a gravity-powered sleigh.
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Bombings of Switzerland in World War II
Bombings of Switzerland in World War II consisted of initially sporadic bombing events that became more frequent during the later stage of World War II.
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A border checkpoint is a place, generally between two countries, where travelers or goods are inspected.
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Brugg is a municipality in the Swiss canton of Aargau and is the seat of the district of the same name.
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Brusio is a municipality in the Bernina Region in the canton of Grisons in Switzerland.
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Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.
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Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
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Buddhism in Switzerland
According to the 2000 census of Switzerland, 21,305 Swiss residents (0.29% of the total population) self-identified as Buddhists.
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Burgundy (Bourgogne) is a historical territory and a former administrative region of France.
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Campione d'Italia is a comune (municipality) of the Province of Como in the Lombardy region of Italy and an exclave surrounded by the Swiss canton of Ticino.
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Canton of Aargau
The canton of Aargau (German: Kanton; sometimes anglicized Argovia; see also other names) is one of the more northerly cantons of Switzerland.
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Canton of Appenzell Ausserrhoden
The canton of Appenzell Ausserrhoden (in English sometimes Appenzell Outer Rhodes) is a canton of Switzerland.
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Canton of Appenzell Innerrhoden
The canton of Appenzell Innerrhoden (in English sometimes Appenzell Inner-Rhodes) is the smallest canton of Switzerland by population and the second smallest by area, with canton of Basel-City being the smallest.
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Canton of Basel-Landschaft
The canton of Basel-Landschaft (Kanton Basel-Landschaft, canton of Basel-Country, canton de Bâle-Campagne, Cantone di Basilea Campagna; informally: Baselland, Baselbiet), is one of the 26 cantons of Switzerland.
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Canton of Basel-Stadt
The canton of Basel-Stadt (Kanton Basel-Stadt, canton of Basel-City, canton de Bâle-Ville, Cantone di Basilea Città) is one of the 26 cantons of Switzerland, and the smallest of the cantons by area.
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Canton of Bern
The canton of Bern (Bern, canton de Berne) is the second largest of the 26 Swiss cantons by both surface area and population.
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Canton of Fribourg
The canton of Fribourg, also canton of Friburg (canton de Fribourg, Freiburg) is located in western Switzerland.
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Canton of Geneva
The Republic and Canton of Geneva (République et canton de Genève; Rèpublica et canton de Geneva; Republik und Kanton Genf; Repubblica e Canton di Ginevra; Republica e chantun Genevra) is the French-speaking westernmost canton or state of Switzerland, surrounded on almost all sides by France.
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Canton of Glarus
The canton of Glarus, also canton of Glaris (ˈɡlarʊs) is a canton in east central Switzerland.
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Canton of Grisons
The canton of (the) Grisons, or canton of Graubünden is the largest and easternmost canton of Switzerland.
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Canton of Jura
The Republic and Canton of the Jura (République et canton du Jura), also known as the canton of Jura or canton Jura, is the newest (founded in 1979) of the 26 Swiss cantons, located in the northwestern part of Switzerland.
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Canton of Lucerne
The canton of Lucerne (Kanton Luzern) is a canton of Switzerland.
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Canton of Neuchâtel
The Republic and Canton of Neuchâtel (la République et Canton de Neuchâtel) is a canton of French-speaking western Switzerland.
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Canton of Nidwalden
The canton of Nidwalden, also canton of Nidwald (ˈnidˌvaldən) is a canton of Switzerland.
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Canton of Obwalden
The canton of Obwalden, also canton of Obwald (ˈɔbˌvaldən) is a canton of Switzerland.
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Canton of Schaffhausen
The canton of Schaffhausen, also canton of Schaffouse (Schaffhausen) is the northernmost canton of Switzerland.
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Canton of Schwyz
The canton of Schwyz (/ʃviːt͡s/) is a canton in central Switzerland between the Alps in the south, Lake Lucerne to the west and Lake Zürich in the north, centered on and named after the town of Schwyz.
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Canton of Solothurn
The canton of Solothurn, also canton of Soleure (German) is a canton of Switzerland.
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Canton of St. Gallen
The canton of St.
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Canton of Thurgau
The canton of Thurgau (German:, anglicized as Thurgovia) is a northeast canton of Switzerland.
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Canton of Ticino
The canton of Ticino, formally the Republic and Canton of Ticino (Repubblica e Cantone Ticino; Canton Tesin; Kanton Tessin; canton du Tessin, chantun dal Tessin) is the southernmost canton of Switzerland.
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Canton of Uri
The canton of Uri (German: Kanton) is one of the 26 cantons of Switzerland and a founding member of the Swiss Confederation.
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Canton of Valais
The canton of Valais (Kanton Wallis) is one of the 26 cantons of Switzerland, situated in the southwestern part of the country, around the valley of the Rhône from its headwaters to Lake Geneva, separating the Pennine Alps from the Bernese Alps.
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Canton of Vaud
The canton of Vaud is the third largest of the Swiss cantons by population and fourth by size.
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Canton of Zürich
The canton of Zürich (Kanton) has a population (as of) of.
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Canton of Zug
The canton of Zug (also canton of Zoug; De-Zug.ogg) is one of the 26 cantons of Switzerland.
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Cantons of Switzerland
The 26 cantons of Switzerland (Kanton, canton, cantone, chantun) are the member states of the Swiss Confederation.
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The Carolingian Empire (800–888) was a large empire in western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages.
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Catholic Church in Switzerland
The Roman Catholic Church in Switzerland (Römisch-katholische Landeskirche, Église nationale catholique romaine, Chiesa cattolica romana della Svizzera) is organised into six dioceses and two territorial abbeys, comprising approximately 3 million Catholics, about 38.6%.
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Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
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Central European Summer Time
Central European Summer Time (CEST), sometime referred also as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time (UTC+1) during the other part of the year.
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Central European Time
Central European Time (CET), used in most parts of Europe and a few North African countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
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Central Switzerland is the region of the Alpine foothills geographically the heart and historically the origin of Switzerland, with the cantons of Uri, Schwyz, Obwalden, Nidwalden, Lucerne and Zug.
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A cereal is any edible components of the grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis) of cultivated grass, composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran.
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The European Organization for Nuclear Research (Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (derived from the name Conseil européen pour la recherche nucléaire), is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world.
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Chancellor of Switzerland
The Federal Chancellor (Bundeskanzler(in); Chancelier(-ière) fédéral(e); Cancelliere(-a) della Confederazione; Chancelier(a) federal(a)) is the head of the Federal Chancellery of Switzerland, which acts as the general staff of the seven-member Federal Council.
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Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
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Charles the Bold
Charles the Bold (also translated as Charles the Reckless).
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Charles-Ferdinand Ramuz (24 September 1878 – 23 May 1947) was a French-speaking Swiss writer.
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Chasselas or Chasselas blanc is a wine grape variety grown in Switzerland, France, Germany, Portugal, Hungary, Romania, New Zealand and Chile.
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Cheese is a dairy product derived from milk that is produced in a wide range of flavors, textures, and forms by coagulation of the milk protein casein.
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The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals.
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Chiasso (or commonly in Lombard: Ciass, English: Noise) is a municipality in the district of Mendrisio in the canton of Ticino in Switzerland.
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Chinook winds, or simply Chinooks, are föhn winds in the interior West of North America, where the Canadian Prairies and Great Plains meet various mountain ranges, although the original usage is in reference to wet, warm coastal winds in the Pacific Northwest.
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Chocolate is a typically sweet, usually brown food preparation of Theobroma cacao seeds, roasted and ground.
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A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
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Christian Democratic People's Party of Switzerland
The Christian Democratic People's Party of Switzerland (Christlichdemokratische Volkspartei der Schweiz, CVP; Parti Démocrate-Chrétien, PDC; Partito Popolare Democratico, PPD; Partida cristiandemocratica Svizra, PCD) is a Christian democratic political party in Switzerland.
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ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
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Chur or Coire (or; Cuira or; Coira; Coire)Others: CVRIA, CVRIA RHAETORVM and CVRIA RAETORVM is the capital and largest town of the Swiss canton of Grisons and lies in the Grisonian Rhine Valley, where the Rhine turns towards the north, in the northern part of the canton.
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The Cisalpine Republic (Repubblica Cisalpina) was a sister republic of France in Northern Italy that lasted from 1797 to 1802.
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A citizen legislature is a legislative chamber made up primarily of citizens who have a full-time occupation besides being a legislator.
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Gianclaudio Giuseppe Regazzoni (5 September 1939 – 15 December 2006), commonly called "Clay", was a Swiss racing driver.
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Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
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Clovis (Chlodovechus; reconstructed Frankish: *Hlōdowig; 466 – 27 November 511) was the first king of the Franks to unite all of the Frankish tribes under one ruler, changing the form of leadership from a group of royal chieftains to rule by a single king and ensuring that the kingship was passed down to his heirs.
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Coins of the Swiss franc
The coins of the Swiss franc are the official coins used in Switzerland and Liechtenstein.
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The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
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A conche is a surface scraping mixer and agitator that evenly distributes cocoa butter within chocolate, and may act as a "polisher" of the particles.
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Congress of Vienna
The Congress of Vienna (Wiener Kongress) also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814.
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Conrad Grebel (c. 1498–1526), son of a prominent Swiss merchant and councilman, was a co-founder of the Swiss Brethren movement.
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Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
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Conscription in Switzerland
Switzerland has mandatory military service (Militärdienst; service militaire; servizio militare) in the Swiss Army for all able-bodied male citizens, who are conscripted when they reach the age of majority, though women may volunteer for any position.
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Consociationalism is often viewed as synonymous with power-sharing, although it is technically only one form of power-sharing.
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A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.
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A constitutional amendment is a modification of the constitution of a nation or state.
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A controlled-access highway is a type of highway which has been designed for high-speed vehicular traffic, with all traffic flow and ingress/egress regulated.
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Convenience food, or tertiary processed food, is food that is commercially prepared (often through processing) to optimise ease of consumption.
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Cornol is a municipality in the district of Porrentruy in the canton of Jura in Switzerland.
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Council of Europe
The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.
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Council of States (Switzerland)
The Council of States (Ständerat, Conseil des États, Consiglio degli Stati, Cussegl dals Stadis) is the smaller chamber of the Federal Assembly of Switzerland, and is considered the Assembly's upper house, with the National Council being the lower house.
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Court of Arbitration for Sport
The Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS; Tribunal arbitral du sport, TAS) is an international quasi-judicial body established to settle disputes related to sport through arbitration.
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Credit Suisse Group AG is a Swiss multinational investment bank and financial services company founded and based in Switzerland.
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Culture of Europe
The culture of Europe is rooted in the art, architecture, music, literature, and philosophy that originated from the continent of Europe.
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A currency union (also known as monetary union) involves two or more states sharing the same currency without them necessarily having any further integration (such as an economic and monetary union, which would have, in addition, a customs union and a single market).
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Dairy products, milk products or lacticinia are a type of food produced from or containing the milk of mammals, primarily cattle, water buffaloes, goats, sheep, camels, and humans.
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Daniel Peter (9 March 1836 – 4 November 1919) was a Swiss chocolatier.
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Davos (German pronunciation; Tavau, archaic Italian: Tavate) is an Alpine town, and a municipality in the Prättigau/Davos Region in the canton of Graubünden, Switzerland.
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In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
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In law and government, de jure (lit) describes practices that are legally recognised, whether or not the practices exist in reality.
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Delémont (D'lémont, Delsberg) is the capital of the Swiss canton of Jura.
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A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
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Diazepam, first marketed as Valium, is a medicine of the benzodiazepine family that typically produces a calming effect.
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Didier Cuche (born 16 August 1974) is a former World Cup alpine ski racer from Switzerland.
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In linguistics, diglossia is a situation in which two dialects or languages are used by a single language community.
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Direct democracy or pure democracy is a form of democracy in which people decide on policy initiatives directly.
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A directorial republic is a country ruled by a college of several people who jointly exercise the powers of a head of state or a head of government.
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Dominique Aegerter (born 30 September 1990) is a Swiss Grand Prix motorcycle road racer, currently competing in the Moto2 World Championship.
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Doris Leuthard (born 10 April 1963) is a Swiss politician and lawyer.
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A double majority is a voting system which requires a majority of votes according to two separate criteria.
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The Dublin Regulation (Regulation No. 604/2013; sometimes the Dublin III Regulation; previously the Dublin II Regulation and Dublin Convention) is a European Union (EU) law that determines the EU Member State responsible for examining an application for asylum seekers seeking international protection under the Geneva Convention and the EU Qualification Directive, within the European Union.
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Duchy of Austria
The Duchy of Austria (Herzogtum Österreich) was a medieval principality of the Holy Roman Empire, established in 1156 by the Privilegium Minus, when the Margraviate of Austria (Ostarrîchi) was detached from Bavaria and elevated to a duchy in its own right.
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Duchy of Burgundy
The Duchy of Burgundy (Ducatus Burgundiae; Duché de Bourgogne) emerged in the 9th century as one of the successors of the ancient Kingdom of the Burgundians, which after its conquest in 532 had formed a constituent part of the Frankish Empire.
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The Duden is a dictionary of the German language, first published by Konrad Duden in 1880.
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Early Middle Ages
The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.
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Early Modern Switzerland
The early modern history of the Old Swiss Confederacy (Eidgenossenschaft, also known as the "Swiss Republic" or Republica Helvetiorum) and its constituent Thirteen Cantons encompasses the time of the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) until the French invasion of 1798.
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Ease of doing business index
The ease of doing business index is an index created by Simeon Djankov at the World Bank Group.
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East Francia (Latin: Francia orientalis) or the Kingdom of the East Franks (regnum Francorum orientalium) was a precursor of the Holy Roman Empire.
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Eastern Orthodox Church
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
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Edmond H. Fischer
Edmond Henri Fischer (born April 6, 1920) is a Chinese Swiss American biochemist.
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Edwin O. Reischauer
Edwin Oldfather Reischauer (October 15, 1910 – September 1, 1990) was an American educator and professor at Harvard University.
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Eidgenossenschaft is a German word meaning confederation.
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The Eiger is a mountain of the Bernese Alps, overlooking Grindelwald and Lauterbrunnen in the Bernese Oberland of Switzerland, just north of the main watershed and border with Valais.
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Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.
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Elisabeth Kopp (born 16 December 1936, in Zürich) is a Swiss politician and the first woman elected to the Swiss Federal Council (1984–1989).
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The Emmental is a valley in west central Switzerland, forming part of the canton of Bern.
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Emmental (Emmentaler or Emmenthal) is a yellow, medium-hard Swiss cheese that originated in the area around Emmental, Canton Bern.
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Enclave and exclave
An enclave is a territory, or a part of a territory, that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state.
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The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
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Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–11) is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica.
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The Engadin or Engadine (Engiadina, Engadin, Engadina, Engadine; lit.: Valley of the Inn people) is a long high Alpine valley region in the eastern Swiss Alps located in the canton of Graubünden in most southeastern Switzerland with about 25,000 inhabitants.
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Environmental Performance Index
The Environmental Performance Index (EPI) is a method of quantifying and numerically marking the environmental performance of a state's policies.
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ETH Zurich (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich; Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich) is a science, technology, engineering and mathematics STEM university in the city of Zürich, Switzerland.
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The Etruscan civilization is the modern name given to a powerful and wealthy civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany, western Umbria and northern Lazio.
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EUobserver is a European online newspaper, launched in 2000 by the Brussels-based organisation EUobserver.com ASBL.
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EuroAirport Basel Mulhouse Freiburg
EuroAirport Basel Mulhouse Freiburg IATA airport 3-letter codes for the French area, the Swiss area, and the metropolitan area is an international airport northwest of the city of Basel, Switzerland, southeast of Mulhouse in France, and south-southwest of Freiburg im Breisgau in Germany.
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Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
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European Economic Area
The European Economic Area (EEA) is the area in which the Agreement on the EEA provides for the free movement of persons, goods, services and capital within the European Single Market, including the freedom to choose residence in any country within this area.
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European Free Trade Association
The European Free Trade Association (EFTA) is a regional trade organization and free trade area consisting of four European states: Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, and Switzerland.
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European Single Market
The European Single Market, Internal Market or Common Market is a single market which seeks to guarantee the free movement of goods, capital, services, and labour – the "four freedoms" – within the European Union (EU).
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European Space Agency
The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.
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The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
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Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, crossdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.
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A Fachhochschule (plural Fachhochschulen), abbreviated FH, or University of Applied Sciences (UAS) is a German tertiary education institution, specializing in topical areas (e.g. engineering, technology or business).
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Federal administration of Switzerland
The federal administration of Switzerland (Bundesverwaltung, Administration fédérale, Amministrazione federale, Tribunal administrativ federal) is the ensemble of agencies that constitute, together with the Swiss Federal Council, the executive branch of the Swiss federal authorities.
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Federal Administrative Court (Switzerland)
The Federal Administrative Court of Switzerland (Bundesverwaltungsgericht, Tribunal administratif fédéral, Tribunale amministrativo federale; Tribunal administrative federal) is a Swiss federal court.
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Federal Assembly (Switzerland)
The Federal Assembly (Bundesversammlung, Assemblée fédérale, Assemblea federale, Assamblea federala) is Switzerland's federal legislature.
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Federal budget of Switzerland
The Swiss federal budget (schweizer Bundesbudget) refers to the annual revenue (money received) and expenditures (money spend) of the Swiss Confederation.
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Federal Charter of 1291
The Federal Charter or Letter of Alliance (Bundesbrief) documents the Eternal Alliance or League of the Three Forest Cantons (Ewiger Bund der Drei Waldstätten), the union of three cantons in what is now central Switzerland.
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Federal Council (Switzerland)
The Federal Council is the seven-member executive council which constitutes the federal government of the Swiss Confederation and serves as the collective executive head of government and state of Switzerland.
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Federal Criminal Court of Switzerland
The Federal Criminal Court, (Bundesstrafgericht; Tribunal pénal féderal; Tribunale penale federale; Tribunal penal federal) is a Swiss federal court.
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Federal Department of Economic Affairs, Education and Research
The Federal Department of Economic Affairs, Education and Research (EAER, Eidgenössisches Departement für Wirtschaft, Bildung und Forschung; Département fédéral de l'économie, de la formation et de la recherche; Dipartimento federale dell'economia, della formazione e della ricerca) is one of the seven departments of the federal government of Switzerland, headed by a member of the Swiss Federal Council.
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Federal Department of Environment, Transport, Energy and Communications
The Federal Department of Environment, Transport, Energy and Communications (DETEC, Eidgenössisches Departement für Umwelt, Verkehr, Energie und Kommunikation, Département fédéral de l'environnement, des transports, de l'énergie et des communications, Dipartimento federale dell'ambiente, dei trasporti, dell'energia e delle comunicazioni, Departament federal per ambient, traffic, energia e communicaziun) is one of the seven departments of the Swiss federal government, headed by a member of the Swiss Federal Council.
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Federal Department of Foreign Affairs
The Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (FDFA, Eidgenössisches Departement für auswärtige Angelegenheiten, Département fédéral des affaires étrangères, Dipartimento federale degli affari esteri, Departament federal d’affars exteriurs), so named since 1979, is one of the seven Departments of the Swiss government federal administration of Switzerland, and corresponds in its range of tasks to the ministry of foreign affairs in other countries.
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Federal Palace of Switzerland
The Federal Palace (Bundeshaus, Palais fédéral, Palazzo federale, Chasa federala, Curia Confœderationis Helveticæ) refers to the building in Bern housing the Swiss Federal Assembly (legislature) and the Federal Council (executive).
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Federal Patent Court (Switzerland)
The Swiss Federal Patent Court (German: Bundespatentgericht, French: Tribunal fédéral des brevets) is a Swiss federal court competent for particular legal matters, such as patent cases.
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A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government.
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Federal Statistical Office (Switzerland)
The Federal Statistical Office (FSO) is a Federal agency of the Swiss Confederation.
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Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland
The Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland (Bundesgericht, Tribunal fédéral, Tribunale federale, Tribunal federal) is the supreme court of the Swiss Confederation.
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Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government (the central or 'federal' government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system.
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A federated state (which may also be referred to by various terms such as a state, a province, a canton, a land) is a territorial and constitutional community forming part of a federation.
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Felix Manz (also Felix Mantz) (c. 1498 in Zürich, Canton of Zürich, Old Swiss Confederacy – 5 January 1527 in Zürich, Canton of Zürich, Old Swiss Confederacy) was an Anabaptist, a co-founder of the original Swiss Brethren congregation in Zürich, Switzerland, and the first martyr of the Radical Reformation.
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The International Basketball Federation, more commonly known as FIBA, FIBA World, or FIBA International, from its French name Fédération internationale de basket-ball, is an association of national organizations which governs international competition in basketball.
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The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA; French for "International Federation of Association Football") is an association which describes itself as an international governing body of association football, futsal, and beach soccer.
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The Financial Times (FT) is a Japanese-owned (since 2015), English-language international daily newspaper headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.
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First War of Villmergen
The First War of Villmergen was a Swiss religious war which lasted from 5 January until 7 March 1656, at the time of the Old Swiss Confederacy.
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FIS Alpine World Ski Championships
The FIS Alpine World Ski Championships are organized by the International Ski Federation (FIS).
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A föhn or foehn is a type of dry, warm, down-slope wind that occurs in the lee (downwind side) of a mountain range.
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Fondue is a Swiss dish of melted cheese served in a communal pot (caquelon or fondue pot) over a portable stove (réchaud) heated with a candle or spirit lamp, and eaten by dipping bread into the cheese using long-stemmed forks.
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Football in Switzerland
Football is the most popular sport in Switzerland.
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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
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Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks (Regnum Francorum), or Frankish Empire was the largest post-Roman Barbarian kingdom in Western Europe.
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Francis II of the Two Sicilies
Francis II (Francesco II, christened Francesco d'Assisi Maria Leopoldo, 16 January 1836 – 27 December 1894) was King of the Two Sicilies from 1859 to 1861.
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The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War (Deutsch-Französischer Krieg, Guerre franco-allemande), often referred to in France as the War of 1870 (19 July 1871) or in Germany as 70/71, was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia.
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Frauenfeld is the capital of the canton of Thurgau in Switzerland.
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Free Democratic Party of Switzerland
The Free Democratic Party or Radical Democratic Party (Freisinnig-Demokratische Partei, FDP; Parti radical-démocratique, PRD; Partito liberale-radicale svizzero, PLR; Partida liberaldemocrata svizra, PLD) was a liberal political party in Switzerland.
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The French Army, officially the Ground Army (Armée de terre) (to distinguish it from the French Air Force, Armée de L'air or Air Army) is the land-based and largest component of the French Armed Forces.
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French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
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The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
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Fribourg (Fribôrg or Friboua) or Freiburg (German, or Freiburg im Üechtland, Swiss German pronunciation:; Friborgo or Friburgo; Friburg) is the capital of the Swiss canton of Fribourg and the district La Sarine.
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Friedrich Dürrenmatt (5 January 1921 – 14 December 1990) was a Swiss author and dramatist.
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Friendly fire is an attack by a military force on non-enemy, own, allied or neutral, forces while attempting to attack the enemy, either by misidentifying the target as hostile, or due to errors or inaccuracy.
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Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster
The was an energy accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Ōkuma, Fukushima Prefecture, initiated primarily by the tsunami following the Tōhoku earthquake on 11 March 2011.
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Galileo (satellite navigation)
Galileo is the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) that is being created by the European Union (EU) through the European Space Agency (ESA), headquartered in Prague in the Czech Republic, with two ground operations centres, Oberpfaffenhofen near Munich in Germany and Fucino in Italy.
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Gallia Belgica ("Belgic Gaul") was a province of the Roman empire located in the north-eastern part of Roman Gaul, in what is today primarily Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands.
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Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
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The Gauls were Celtic people inhabiting Gaul in the Iron Age and the Roman period (roughly from the 5th century BC to the 5th century AD).
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Gächlingen is a municipality in the canton of Schaffhausen in Switzerland.
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The Geary–Khamis dollar, more commonly known as the international dollar (Int'l. dollar or Intl. dollar, abbreviation: Int'l$., Intl$. or Int$), is a hypothetical unit of currency that has the same purchasing power parity that the U.S. dollar had in the United States at a given point in time.
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Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.
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Geneva Airport, formerly and still unofficially known as Cointrin Airport, is the international airport of Geneva, the second most populous city in Switzerland.
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Original document as PDF in single pages, 1864 The Geneva Conventions comprise four treaties, and three additional protocols, that establish the standards of international law for humanitarian treatment in war.
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Geothermal gradient is the rate of increasing temperature with respect to increasing depth in the Earth's interior.
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Germaine de Staël
Anne Louise Germaine de Staël-Holstein (née Necker; 22 April 176614 July 1817), commonly known as Madame de Staël, was a French woman of letters of Swiss origin whose lifetime overlapped with the events of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic era.
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German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
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Germania Superior ("Upper Germania") was an imperial province of the Roman Empire.
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The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
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Germanic-speaking Europe refers to the area of Europe that today uses a Germanic language.
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Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
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The Glacier Express (GEX) is an express train connecting railway stations of the two major mountain resorts of Zermatt and St. Moritz in the center of the Swiss Alps.
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Glarus (Glaris; Glaris; Glarona; Glaruna) is the capital of the canton of Glarus in Switzerland.
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Glencore plc (an acronym for Global Energy Commodity Resources) is an Anglo–Swiss multinational commodity trading and mining company with headquarters in Baar, Switzerland, and a registered office in Saint Helier, Jersey.
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A global city, also called world city or sometimes alpha city or world center, is a city which is a primary node in the global economic network.
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Global Competitiveness Report
The Global Competitiveness Report (GCR) is a yearly report published by the World Economic Forum.
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Gottfried Keller (19 July 1819 – 15 July 1890) was a Swiss poet and writer of German literature.
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Gotthard Base Tunnel
The Gotthard Base Tunnel (GBT; Gotthard-Basistunnel, Galleria di base del San Gottardo, Tunnel da basa dal Son Gottard) is a railway tunnel through the Alps in Switzerland.
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The Gotthard Pass or St.
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The Gotthard railway (Gotthardbahn; Ferrovia del Gottardo) is the Swiss trans-alpine railway line from northern Switzerland to the canton of Ticino.
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Government spending or expenditure includes all government consumption, investment, and transfer payments.
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Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies
The Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, or the Graduate Institute (in French: Institut de hautes études internationales et du développement (previously known as Institut (universitaire) de hautes études internationales), abbreviated IHEID (previously HEI, IHEI, or IUHEI) is a post-graduate university located in Geneva, Switzerland. The institution counts one UN secretary-general (Kofi Annan), seven Nobel Prize recipients, one Pulitzer Prize winner, and numerous ambassadors, foreign ministers, and heads of state among its alumni and faculty. Founded by two senior League of Nations officials, the Graduate Institute maintains strong links with that international organisation's successor, the United Nations, and many alumni have gone on to work at UN agencies. The school is a full member of the APSIA. Founded in 1927, the Graduate Institute of International Studies (IHEI or HEI) is continental Europe's oldest school of international relations and was the world's first university dedicated solely to the study of international affairs. It offered one of the first doctoral programmes in international relations in the world. In 2008, the Graduate Institute absorbed the Graduate Institute of Development Studies, a smaller post-graduate institution also based in Geneva founded in 1961. The merger resulted in the current Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies. Today the school enrolls about 800 graduate students from over 100 countries. Foreign students make up nearly 80% of the student body and the school is officially a bilingual English-French institution, although the majority of classes are in English.. With Maison de la Paix acting as its primary seat of learning, the Institute's campuses are located blocks from the United Nations Office at Geneva, International Labour Organization, World Trade Organization, World Health Organization, International Committee of the Red Cross, World Intellectual Property Organization and many other international organizations. It runs joint degree programmes with universities such as Smith College and Yale University, and is Harvard Kennedy School's only partner university to co-deliver double degrees.
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Grand Prix motorcycle racing
Grand Prix motorcycle racing refers to the premier class of motorcycle racing events held on road circuits sanctioned by FIM.
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Grand Slam (tennis)
The Grand Slam tournaments, also called majors, are the four most important annual tennis events.
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Green Party of Switzerland
The Green Party of Switzerland (Grüne Partei der Schweiz; Les vertsParti écologiste suisse; I VerdiPartito ecologista svizzero; La VerdaPartida ecologica svizra; "The GreensSwiss ecological party") is the fifth-largest party in the National Council of Switzerland, and the largest party that is not represented on the Federal Council.
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A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
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The Grimm–Hoffmann affair was a short-lived scandal that seriously brought into question Switzerland's neutrality during World War I. Robert Grimm, a socialist politician, travelled to Russia as an activist to negotiate a separate peace between Russia and Germany, in order to end the war on the Eastern Front in the interests of socialism.
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Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
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Group for a Switzerland Without an Army
The Group for a Switzerland without an Army, (GSwA; Gruppe für eine Schweiz ohne Armee, GSoA; Groupe pour une Suisse sans armée, GSsA; Gruppo per una Svizzera senza Esercito, GSsE) is a group working to reduce the military activities of Switzerland.
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Growth of the Old Swiss Confederacy
The Old Swiss Confederacy began as a late medieval alliance between the communities of the valleys in the Central Alps, at the time part of the Holy Roman Empire, to facilitate the management of common interests such as free trade and to ensure the peace along the important trade routes through the mountains.
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Gruyère (or;, German: Greyerzer) is a hard yellow cheese that originated in the cantons of Fribourg, Vaud, Neuchâtel, Jura, and Bern in Switzerland.
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Gruyères (Greyerz) is a town in the district of Gruyère in the canton of Fribourg in Switzerland.
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Gun laws in Switzerland
Firearms legislation in Switzerland comes from a long tradition of shooting (''tirs'') as a formative element of national identity in the post-Napoleonic Restoration of the Confederacy, and the long-standing practice of a militia organization of the Swiss Army in which soldiers' service rifles are stored privately at their homes.
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Gunvor Group Ltd is a global commodity trading company registered in Cyprus, with its main trading office in Geneva, Switzerland.
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Guy Parmelin (born 9 November 1959) (Page visited on 9 December 2015).
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The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.
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The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Western and Central European culture of Early Iron Age Europe from the 8th to 6th centuries BC, developing out of the Urnfield culture of the 12th century BC (Late Bronze Age) and followed in much of its area by the La Tène culture.
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Hans Denck (c. 1495 – November 27, 1527) was a German theologian and Anabaptist leader during the Reformation.
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Head of state
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
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Heidi is a work of children's fiction published in 1881 by Swiss author Johanna Spyri, originally published in two parts as Heidi: her years of wandering and learning (Heidis Lehr- und Wanderjahre) and Heidi: How she used what she learned (Heidi kann brauchen, was sie gelernt hat).
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Heinrich Bullinger (18 July 1504 – 17 September 1575) was a Swiss reformer, the successor of Huldrych Zwingli as head of the Zürich church and pastor at Grossmünster.
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Heinrich Rohrer (6 June 1933 – 16 May 2013) was a Swiss physicist who shared half of the 1986 Nobel Prize in Physics with Gerd Binnig for the design of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM).
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Helvetia is the female national personification of Switzerland, officially Confœderatio Helvetica, the Swiss Confederation.
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In Swiss history, the Helvetic Republic (1798–1803) represented an early attempt to impose a central authority over Switzerland, which until then had consisted of self-governing cantons united by a loose military alliance (and ruling over subject territories such as Vaud).
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The Helvetii (anglicized Helvetians) were a Gallic tribe or tribal confederation occupying most of the Swiss plateau at the time of their contact with the Roman Republic in the 1st century BC.
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Helvetisms (New Latin Helvetia "Switzerland" and -ism) are features distinctive of Swiss Standard German, that distinguish it from Standard German.
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Henri Guisan (21 October 1874 – 7 April 1960) was a Swiss army officer who held the office of the General of the Swiss Armed Forces during the Second World War.
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Herisau is a municipality of the canton of Appenzell Ausserrhoden in Switzerland.
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Hiking is the preferred term, in Canada and the United States, for a long, vigorous walk, usually on trails (footpaths), in the countryside, while the word walking is used for shorter, particularly urban walks.
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Hillclimbing (also known as hill climbing, speed hillclimbing or speed hill climbing) is a branch of motorsport in which drivers compete against the clock to complete an uphill course.
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Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
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Hinduism in Switzerland
The 2000 census reported 27,839 residents of Switzerland self-identifying as Hindus (0.38% of the total population; 1.11% in Berne, 1% in Zurich, 0.27% in Geneva).
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Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
The Historical Dictionary of Switzerland is an encyclopedia on the history of Switzerland that aims to take into account the results of modern historical research in a manner accessible to a broader audience.
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History of Switzerland
Since 1848, the Swiss Confederation has been a federal state of relatively autonomous cantons, some of which have a history of confederacy that goes back more than 700 years, putting them among the world's oldest surviving republics.
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History of the Jews in Switzerland
History of the Jews in Switzerland reaches back at least a thousand years.
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Holy Roman Emperor
The Holy Roman Emperor (historically Romanorum Imperator, "Emperor of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (800-1806 AD, from Charlemagne to Francis II).
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Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
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The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.
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Hornussen is an indigenous Swiss sport.
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House of Habsburg
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
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House of Savoy
The House of Savoy (Casa Savoia) is a royal family that was established in 1003 in the historical Savoy region. Through gradual expansion, the family grew in power from ruling a small county in the Alps of northern Italy to absolute rule of the kingdom of Sicily in 1713 to 1720 (exchanged for Sardinia). Through its junior branch, the House of Savoy-Carignano, it led the unification of Italy in 1861 and ruled the Kingdom of Italy from 1861 until 1946 and, briefly, the Kingdom of Spain in the 19th century. The Savoyard kings of Italy were Victor Emmanuel II, Umberto I, Victor Emmanuel III, and Umberto II. The last monarch ruled for a few weeks before being deposed following the Constitutional Referendum of 1946, after which the Italian Republic was proclaimed.
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House of Zähringen
Zähringen is an old German noble family in Swabia, which founded a large number of cities in the area that is today Switzerland and the German state of Baden-Württemberg.
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Huldrych Zwingli or Ulrich Zwingli (1 January 1484 – 11 October 1531) was a leader of the Reformation in Switzerland.
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Human Development Index
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
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Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower.
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Hydropower or water power (from ύδωρ, "water") is power derived from the energy of falling water or fast running water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes.
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Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice, usually in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points.
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Ietsism (ietsisme – "somethingism") is an unspecified belief in an undetermined transcendent reality.
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Ignazio Cassis (born 13 April 1961) is a Swiss physician and politician.
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Immigration to Switzerland
There has been significant immigration to Switzerland since the 1980s.
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Imperial immediacy (Reichsfreiheit or Reichsunmittelbarkeit) was a privileged constitutional and political status rooted in German feudal law under which the Imperial estates of the Holy Roman Empire such as Imperial cities, prince-bishoprics and secular principalities, and individuals such as the Imperial knights, were declared free from the authority of any local lord and placed under the direct ("immediate", in the sense of "without an intermediary") authority of the Emperor, and later of the institutions of the Empire such as the Diet (Reichstag), the Imperial Chamber of Justice and the Aulic Council.
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Incineration is a waste treatment process that involves the combustion of organic substances contained in waste materials.
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Index of Economic Freedom
The Index of Economic Freedom is an annual index and ranking created by The Heritage Foundation and The Wall Street Journal in 1995 to measure the degree of economic freedom in the world's nations.
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Index of Switzerland-related articles
The following is an alphabetical list of articles related to Switzerland.
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The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
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In political science, an initiative (also known as a popular or citizens' initiative) is a means by which a petition signed by a certain minimum number of registered voters can force a public vote (referendum, sometimes called a plebiscite).
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The Inn (Aenus; En) is a river in Switzerland, Austria and Germany.
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Insurance is a means of protection from financial loss.
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International Committee of the Red Cross
The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland, and a three-time Nobel Prize Laureate.
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International Ice Hockey Federation
The International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF; Fédération internationale de hockey sur glace; Internationale Eishockey-Föderation) is a worldwide governing body for ice hockey and in-line hockey.
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International Institute for Management Development
International Institute for Management Development (IMD) is a business education school located in Lausanne, Switzerland.
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International Labour Organization
The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a United Nations agency dealing with labour problems, particularly international labour standards, social protection, and work opportunities for all.
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International Monetary Fund
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
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International Olympic Committee
The International Olympic Committee (IOC; French: Comité International Olympique, CIO) is a Swiss private non-governmental organisation based in Lausanne, Switzerland, which is the authority responsible for the modern Olympic Games.
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An international organization is an organization with an international membership, scope, or presence.
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International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War
International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW) is a non-partisan federation of national medical groups in 63 countries, representing doctors, medical students, other health workers, and concerned people who share the common goal of creating a more peaceful and secure world free from the threat of nuclear annihilation.
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International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement
The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an international humanitarian movement with approximately 17 million volunteers, members and staff worldwide which was founded to protect human life and health, to ensure respect for all human beings, and to prevent and alleviate human suffering.
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International Telecommunication Union
The International Telecommunication Union (ITU; Union Internationale des Télécommunications (UIT)), originally the International Telegraph Union (Union Télégraphique Internationale), is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is responsible for issues that concern information and communication technologies.
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Invasion of Poland
The Invasion of Poland, known in Poland as the September Campaign (Kampania wrześniowa) or the 1939 Defensive War (Wojna obronna 1939 roku), and in Germany as the Poland Campaign (Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiss ("Case White"), was a joint invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, the Free City of Danzig, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II.
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In meteorology, an inversion is a deviation from the normal change of an atmospheric property with altitude.
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The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
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Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
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IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
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ISO 4217 is a standard first published by International Organization for Standardization in 1978, which delineates currency designators, country codes (alpha and numeric), and references to minor units in three tables.
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Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
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The Italians (Italiani) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation native to the Italian peninsula.
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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
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Jacques Dubochet (born 8 June 1942) is a retired Swiss biophysicist.
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Jacques Piccard (28 July 19221 November 2008) was a Swiss oceanographer and engineer, known for having developed underwater submarines for studying ocean currents.
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Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer.
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Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.
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Albert Bitzius (October 4, 1797October 22, 1854) was a Swiss novelist, best known by his pen name of Jeremias Gotthelf.
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Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
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Joseph Siffert (7 July 1936 – 24 October 1971) was a Swiss racing driver.
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Joachim Vadian (November 29, 1484 – April 6, 1551), born as Joachim von Watt, was a Swiss humanist, scholar, mayor and reformer in St. Gallen.
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Johann Niklaus Schneider-Ammann (born Schneider; 18 February 1952) is a Swiss businessman and a politician.
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Johanna Louise Spyri (née Heusser;; 12 June 1827 – 7 July 1901) was a Swiss-born author of novels, notably children's stories, and is best known for her book Heidi.
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Johannes Oecolampadius (also Œcolampadius, in German also Oekolampadius, Oekolampad; 1482 in Weinsberg, Electoral Palatinate in the Holy Roman Empire – 24 November 1531 in Basel, Canton of Basel in the Old Swiss Confederacy) was a German Protestant reformer in the Reformed tradition from the Electoral Palatinate.
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John Calvin (Jean Calvin; born Jehan Cauvin; 10 July 150927 May 1564) was a French theologian, pastor and reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation.
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Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
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Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
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The Jungfrau ("maiden, virgin"The name Jungfrau ("maiden, virgin") of the peak is most likely derived from the name Jungfrauenberg given to Wengernalp, so named for the nuns of Interlaken Monastery, its historical owner, but the "virgin" peak was heavily romanticized as "goddess" or "priestess" in late 18th to 19th century Romanticism; after the first ascent in 1811 by Swiss alpinist Johann Rudolf Meyer, the peak was jokingly referred to as "Mme Meyer" (Mrs. Meyer).) at is one of the main summits of the Bernese Alps, located between the northern canton of Bern and the southern canton of Valais, halfway between Interlaken and Fiesch.
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The Jura Mountains (locally; Massif du Jura; Juragebirge; Massiccio del Giura) are a sub-alpine mountain range located north of the Western Alps, mainly following the course of the France–Switzerland border.
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Kaiseraugst (Swiss German: Chäiseraugscht) is a municipality in the district of Rheinfelden in the canton of Aargau in Switzerland.
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The kibibyte is a multiple of the unit byte for quantities of digital information.
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Kingdom of Burgundy
Kingdom of Burgundy was a name given to various states located in Western Europe during the Middle Ages.
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Koblenz (or Coblenz) is a town and municipality in the district of Zurzach in the canton of Aargau in Switzerland.
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Konstanz (locally; formerly English: Constance, Czech: Kostnice, Latin: Constantia) is a university city with approximately 83,000 inhabitants located at the western end of Lake Constance in the south of Germany, bordering Switzerland.
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Kurt Wüthrich (born October 4, 1938 in Aarberg, Canton of Bern) is a Swiss chemist/biophysicist and Nobel Chemistry laureate, known for developing nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods for studying biological macromolecules.
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Kyburg (also Kiburg) was a noble family of grafen (counts) in the Duchy of Swabia, a cadet line of the counts of Dillingen, who in the late 12th and early 13th century ruled the County of Kyburg, corresponding to much of what is now Northeastern Switzerland.
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The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that commits state parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, based on the scientific consensus that (part one) global warming is occurring and (part two) it is extremely likely that human-made CO2 emissions have predominantly caused it.
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La Tène culture
The La Tène culture was a European Iron Age culture named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel in Switzerland, where thousands of objects had been deposited in the lake, as was discovered after the water level dropped in 1857.
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A laboratory (informally, lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed.
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Labour economics seeks to understand the functioning and dynamics of the markets for wage labour.
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Lago di Lei
Lago di Lei is a reservoir in the Valle di Lei, powering the Hinterrhein storage power stations.
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Lake Constance (Bodensee) is a lake on the Rhine at the northern foot of the Alps, and consists of three bodies of water: the Obersee or Upper Lake Constance, the Untersee or Lower Lake Constance, and a connecting stretch of the Rhine, called the Seerhein.
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Lake Geneva (le lac Léman or le Léman, sometimes le lac de Genève, Genfersee) is a lake on the north side of the Alps, shared between Switzerland and France.
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Lake Lucerne (Vierwaldstättersee, literally "Lake of the Four Forested Settlements", lac des Quatre-Cantons, lago dei Quattro Cantoni) is a lake in central Switzerland and the fourth largest in the country.
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Lake Lugano (Lago di Lugano or Ceresio, from Ceresius lacus; Luganersee) is a glacial lake which is situated on the border between southern Switzerland and northern Italy.
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Lake Maggiore (Lago Maggiore, literally 'Greater Lake') or Lago Verbàno (Lacus Verbanus) is a large lake located on the south side of the Alps.
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A landlocked state or landlocked country is a sovereign state entirely enclosed by land, or whose only coastlines lie on closed seas.
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The Landsgemeinde or "cantonal assembly" is a public, non-secret ballot voting system operating by majority rule, which constitutes one of the oldest forms of direct democracy.
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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
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Lausanne (Lausanne Losanna, Losanna) is a city in the French-speaking part of Switzerland, and the capital and biggest city of the canton of Vaud.
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Lauterbrunnen is a village and a municipality in the Interlaken-Oberhasli administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland.
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Lavaux is a region in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland, in the district of Lavaux-Oron.
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Law of war
The law of war is a legal term of art which refers to the aspect of public international law concerning acceptable justifications to engage in war (jus ad bellum) and the limits to acceptable wartime conduct (jus in bello or international humanitarian law).
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Le Temps (literally "The Times") is a Swiss French-language daily newspaper published in Berliner format in Geneva by Le Temps SA.
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League of Nations
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
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Liechtenstein, officially the Principality of Liechtenstein (Fürstentum Liechtenstein), is a doubly landlocked German-speaking microstate in Central Europe.
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Liestal (formerly Liesthal, IPA) is the capital of Liestal District and the canton of Basel-Landschaft in Switzerland, south of Basel.
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List of countries by current account balance as a percentage of GDP
This article includes a list of countries of the world sorted by current account balance as a percentage of gross domestic product (nominal GDP).
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List of countries by exports
This is a list of countries by merchandise exports, based on The World Factbook of the CIA.
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List of countries by GDP (nominal)
Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year.
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List of countries by GDP (PPP)
This article includes a list of countries by their forecasted estimated gross domestic product based on purchasing power parity, abbreviated GDP (PPP).
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List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita
Three lists of countries below calculate gross domestic product (at purchasing power parity) per capita, i.e., the purchasing power parity (PPP) value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given year, divided by the average (or mid-year) population for the same year.
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List of countries by GDP (PPP) per hour worked
The GDP (PPP) per hour worked is a measure of the productivity of a country when not taking into account unemployment or hours worked per week.
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List of countries by tax revenue to GDP ratio
This article lists countries alphabetically, with total tax revenue as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) for the listed countries.
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List of longest tunnels
This list of longest tunnels in the world ranks tunnels that are at least long.
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List of sovereign states and dependent territories by immigrant population
These are lists of countries by foreign-born population (immigrants) and lists of countries by number native-born persons living in a foreign country (emigrants).
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List of universities in Switzerland
This list of universities in Switzerland lists all 12 Swiss universities (10 cantonal universities and 2 federal institutes of technology) and a number of public Swiss Universities of Applied Sciences and other education institutions, as higher education institutions.
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List of valleys of the Alps
The main valleys of the Alps, orographically by drainage basin.
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Locarno (Ticinese: Locarn; formerly in Luggárus) is a southern Swiss town and municipality in the district Locarno (and its capital), located on the northern shore of Lake Maggiore at its northeastern tip in the canton of Ticino at the southern foot of the Swiss Alps.
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The Locarno Festival (formerly called the Festival del film Locarno and commonly referred to as the Locarno Film Festival) is an annual film festival held every August in Locarno, Switzerland.
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A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house.
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Lucerne (Luzern; Lucerne; Lucerna; Lucerna; Lucerne German: Lozärn) is a city in central Switzerland, in the German-speaking portion of the country.
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The Lucerne Festival is a series of classical music festivals based in Lucerne, Switzerland.
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The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht military forces during World War II.
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Lugano is a city in southern Switzerland in the Italian-speaking canton of Ticino bordering Italy.
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Lugano Airport is a regional airport located west of the Swiss city of Lugano, approximately 80 km north of Milan, in the municipalities of Agno, Bioggio and Muzzano.
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Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
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Lysergic acid diethylamide
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), also known as acid, is a psychedelic drug known for its psychological effects, which may include altered awareness of one's surroundings, perceptions, and feelings as well as sensations and images that seem real though they are not.
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In Swiss politics, the magic formula (Zauberformel, formule magique, formula magica) is an arithmetic formula for dividing the seven executive seats of the Federal Council between the four ruling parties.
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A majority is the greater part, or more than half, of the total.
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Marcel Fässler (racing driver)
Marcel Fässler (born 27 May 1976) is a Swiss professional racing driver.
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The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave over $13 billion (nearly $ billion in US dollars) in economic assistance to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II.
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Martina Hingis (born 30 September 1980) is a Swiss former professional tennis player who spent a total of 209 weeks as the singles world No.
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The Matterhorn (Matterhorn; Cervino; Mont Cervin) is a mountain of the Alps, straddling the main watershed and border between Switzerland and Italy.
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Matterhorn Gotthard Bahn
The Matterhorn Gotthard Bahn is a narrow gauge railway line and a railway company (Matterhorn Gotthard Bahn AG, MGB) in Switzerland.
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Matura or its translated terms (Mature, Matur, Maturita, Maturità, Maturität, Maturité, Mатура) is a Latin name for the secondary school exit exam or "maturity diploma" in various countries, including Albania, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy, Kosovo, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland and Ukraine.
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Max Rudolf Frisch (15 May 1911 – 4 April 1991) was a Swiss playwright and novelist.
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Maximilian Oskar Bircher-Benner, M.D. (August 22, 1867 – January 24, 1939) was a Swiss physician and a pioneer nutritionist credited for popularizing muesli.
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Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor
Maximilian I (22 March 1459 – 12 January 1519) was King of the Romans (also known as King of the Germans) from 1486 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death, though he was never crowned by the Pope, as the journey to Rome was always too risky.
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The Mönch (German: "monk") at is a mountain in the Bernese Alps, in Switzerland.
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Mürren is a traditional Walser mountain village in the Bernese Highlands of Switzerland, at an elevation of above sea level and it cannot be reached by public road.
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A measuring instrument is a device for measuring a physical quantity.
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Medieval communes in the European Middle Ages had sworn allegiances of mutual defense (both physical defense and of traditional freedoms) among the citizens of a town or city.
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A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers.
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Member state of the European Union
The European Union (EU) consists of 28 member states.
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Mercer (consulting firm)
Mercer is the world's largest human resources consulting firm.
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Mercuria Energy Group
Mercuria Energy Group Ltd is a privately held Swiss international commodity trading company active ina wide spectrum of global energy markets including crude oil and refined petroleum products, natural gas (including LNG), power, coal, biodiesel, carbon emissions, base metals and agricultural products.
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Merlot is a dark blue-colored wine grape variety, that is used as both a blending grape and for varietal wines.
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The Merovingians were a Salian Frankish dynasty that ruled the Franks for nearly 300 years in a region known as Francia in Latin, beginning in the middle of the 5th century.
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Methodism or the Methodist movement is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley, an Anglican minister in England.
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Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
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Middle Francia (Francia media) was a short-lived Frankish kingdom which was created in 843 by the Treaty of Verdun after an intermittent civil war between the grandsons of Charlemagne resulted in division of the united empire.
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The Monte Rosa (or synonymously used as a pleonasm: Monte Rosa massif (massiccio del Monte Rosa; Monte Rosa-Massiv; massif du Mont Rose) is a mountain massif located in the eastern part of the Pennine Alps. It is located between Switzerland (Valais) and Italy (Piedmont and Aosta Valley). Monte Rosa is the second highest mountain in the Alps and western Europe.John Ball, A Guide to the Western Alps, pp. 308-314 Monte Rosa is a huge ice-covered mountain in the Alps, located on the watershed between central and southern Europe. Its main summit, named Dufourspitze in honor of the surveyor Guillaume-Henri Dufour, culminates at above sea level and is followed by the five nearly equally high subsidiary summits of Dunantspitze, Grenzgipfel, Nordend, Zumsteinspitze and Signalkuppe. Monte Rosa is the highest mountain of both Switzerland and the Pennine Alps and is also the second-highest mountain of the Alps and Europe outside the Caucasus. The north-west side of the central Monte Rosa massif, with its enormous ice slopes and seracs, constitutes the boundary and upper basin of the large Gorner Glacier, which descends towards Zermatt and merges with its nowadays much larger tributary, the Grenzgletscher (Border Glacier), right below the Monte Rosa Hut on the lower end of the visible western wing. The Grenzgletscher is an impressive glacier formation between the western wing of the mountain and Liskamm, a ridge on its southwestern side on the Swiss-Italian border. On the eastern side, in Italy, the mountain falls away in an almost vertical wall of granite and ice, the biggest in Europe, overlooking Macugnaga and several smaller glaciers. Monte Rosa was studied by pioneering geologists and explorers, including Leonardo da Vinci in the late fifteenth century and Horace-Bénédict de Saussure in the late eighteenth century. Following a long series of attempts beginning in the early nineteenth century, Monte Rosa's summit, then still called Höchste Spitze (Highest Peak), was first reached in 1855 from Zermatt by a party of eight climbers led by three guides. The great east wall was first climbed in 1872, from Macugnaga. Each summer a large number of climbers set out from the Monte Rosa Hut on the mountain's west wing for one of its summits via the normal route or for the Margherita Hut on the Signalkuppe (Punta Gnifetti), used as a research station. Many tourists and hikers also come each year to the Gornergrat on the north-west side of the massif, to see the panorama that extends over the giants of the Alps, from Monte Rosa to the Matterhorn.
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Montreux Jazz Festival
The Montreux Jazz Festival (formerly Festival de Jazz Montreux and Festival International de Jazz Montreux) is a music festival in Switzerland, held annually in early July in Montreux on the Lake Geneva shoreline.
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Motorcycle sport is a broad field that encompasses all sporting aspects of motorcycling.
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Motorsport or motor sport is a global term used to encompass the group of competitive sporting events which primarily involve the use of motorised vehicles, whether for racing or non-racing competition.
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Mountain biking is the sport of riding bicycles off-road, often over rough terrain, using specially designed mountain bikes.
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Mountaineering is the sport of mountain climbing.
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Muesli; Swiss German: Müesli, non-Swiss Standard German: Müsli) is a breakfast and brunch dish based on raw rolled oats and other ingredients like grains, fresh or dried fruits, seeds and nuts, that may be mixed with cow's milk, soy milk, almond milk, other plant milks, yogurt, or fruit juice. Developed around 1900 by Swiss physician Maximilian Bircher-Benner for patients in his hospital, muesli is available ready-made in a packaged dry form, or it can be made fresh. In Switzerland and Germany, it is also eaten as a light evening dish called Birchermüesli complet, or muesli with butterbrot and coffee with milk.
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Mulhouse (Alsatian: Milhüsa or Milhüse,;; i.e. mill house) is a city and commune in eastern France, close to the Swiss and German borders.
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A multi-party system is a system in which multiple political parties across the political spectrum run for national election, and all have the capacity to gain control of government offices, separately or in coalition.
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Multilingualism is the use of more than one language, either by an individual speaker or by a community of speakers.
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Multiple citizenship, dual citizenship, multiple nationality or dual nationality, is a person's citizenship status, in which a person is concurrently regarded as a citizen of more than one state under the laws of those states.
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Municipalities of Switzerland
Municipalities (Gemeinden, Einwohnergemeinden or politische Gemeinden; communes; comuni; vischnancas) are the lowest level of administrative division in Switzerland.
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Music of Switzerland
Switzerland has long had a distinct cultural identity, despite its diversity of German, French, Italian, Romansh and other ethnicities.
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A musical instrument is an instrument created or adapted to make musical sounds.
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A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
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Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
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A narrow-gauge railway (narrow-gauge railroad in the US) is a railway with a track gauge narrower than the standard.
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National conservatism is a variant of conservatism that concentrates more on national interests and upholding cultural or ethnic identity than most other conservatives.
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National Council (Switzerland)
The National Council (Nationalrat, Conseil national, Consiglio nazionale, Cussegl naziunal) is the lower house of the Federal Assembly of Switzerland, the upper house being the Council of States.
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National League (ice hockey)
The National League (NL) is a professional ice hockey league in Switzerland.
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A national personification is an anthropomorphism of a nation or its people.
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National Redoubt (Switzerland)
The Swiss National Redoubt was a defensive plan developed by the Swiss government beginning in the 1880s to respond to foreign invasion.
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Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
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National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
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Neel Jani (born 8 December 1983) is a Swiss professional racing driver of Indian Gujarati origin.
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A neologism (from Greek νέο- néo-, "new" and λόγος lógos, "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted into mainstream language.
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Nero Claudius Drusus
Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus (January 14, 38 BC – summer of 9 BC), born Decimus Claudius Drusus, also called Drusus Claudius Nero, Drusus, Drusus I, Nero Drusus, or Drusus the Elder was a Roman politician and military commander.
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Nestlé S.A. is a Swiss transnational food and drink company headquartered in Vevey, Vaud, Switzerland.
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Neuchâtel, or Neuchatel; (neu(f) "new" and chatel "castle" (château); Neuenburg; Neuchâtel; Neuchâtel or Neufchâtel)The city was also called Neuchâtel-outre-Joux (Neuchâtel beyond Joux) to distinguish it from another Neuchâtel in Burgundy, now Neuchâtel-Urtière.
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Neue Zürcher Zeitung
The Neue Zürcher Zeitung (NZZ; lit.: "New Journal of Zurich") is a Swiss, German-language daily newspaper, published by NZZ Mediengruppe in Zurich.
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A neutral country is a state, which is either neutral towards belligerents in a specific war, or holds itself as permanently neutral in all future conflicts (including avoiding entering into military alliances such as NATO).
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Neutron scattering, the irregular dispersal of free neutrons by matter, can refer to either the naturally occurring physical process itself or to the man-made experimental techniques that use the natural process for investigating materials.
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New Apostolic Church
The New Apostolic Church (NAC) is a chiliastic Christian church that split from the Catholic Apostolic Church during a 1863 schism in Hamburg, Germany.
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Nicholas of Flüe
Saint Nicholas of Flüe (Niklaus von Flüe; 1417 – 21 March 1487) was a Swiss hermit and ascetic who is the patron saint of Switzerland.
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Nico Müller (born 25 February 1992 in Thun) is a professional racing driver from Switzerland.
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Niederweningen is a municipality in the district of Dielsdorf in the canton of Zürich in Switzerland.
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Niklaus Manuel Deutsch
Niklaus Manuel Deutsch (Niklaus Manuel, probably 1484 in Bern – 28 April 1530, Bern), was a Swiss artist, writer, mercenary and Reformed politician.
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Nobel Peace Prize
The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes created by the Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature.
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The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
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Novartis International AG is a Swiss multinational pharmaceutical company based in Basel, Switzerland.
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Noviodunum or Colonia Iulia Equestris was a Roman era settlement in what is now Nyon in the Canton of Vaud in Switzerland.
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The New Railway Link through the Alps (NRLA) (Neue Eisenbahn-Alpentransversale, NEAT, nouvelle ligne ferroviaire à travers les Alpes, NLFA, Nuova ferrovia transalpina, NFTA), is a Swiss construction project for faster north-south rail links across the Swiss Alps.
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Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.
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Nuclear power plant
A nuclear power plant or nuclear power station is a thermal power station in which the heat source is a nuclear reactor.
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A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
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Nyon is a municipality in the district of Nyon in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland.
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The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
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An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
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Old Catholic Church
The term Old Catholic Church was used from the 1850s, by groups which had separated from the Roman Catholic Church over certain doctrines, primarily concerned with papal authority; some of these groups, especially in the Netherlands, had already existed long before the term.
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Old High German
Old High German (OHG, Althochdeutsch, German abbr. Ahd.) is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 700 to 1050.
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Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.
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Old Swiss Confederacy
The Old Swiss Confederacy (Modern German: Alte Eidgenossenschaft; historically Eidgenossenschaft, after the Reformation also République des Suisses, Res publica Helvetiorum "Republic of the Swiss") was a loose confederation of independent small states (cantons, German or) within the Holy Roman Empire.
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The Olympic Museum (Musée olympique) in Lausanne, Switzerland houses permanent and temporary exhibits relating to sport and the Olympic movement.
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Onyx (interception system)
Onyx is a Swiss intelligence gathering system maintained by the Federal Intelligence Service - Nachrichtendienst des Bundes (NDB).
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Operation Tannenbaum ("Fir Tree"), known earlier as Operation Grün ("Green"), was a planned but cancelled invasion of Switzerland by Nazi Germany and Italy during World War II.
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Ormonde Maddock Dalton
Ormonde Maddock Dalton (1866–1945) was a British museum curator and archaeologist.
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Orthodoxy (from Greek ὀρθοδοξία orthodoxía "right opinion") is adherence to correct or accepted creeds, especially in religion.
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Outline of Switzerland
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Switzerland: Switzerland – alpine country in Central Europe, located mostly in the Alps.
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Owner-occupancy or home-ownership is a form of housing tenure where a person, called the owner-occupier, owner-occupant, or home owner, owns the home in which he/she lives.
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Oxford English Dictionary
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
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Palace of Nations
The Palace of Nations (Palais des Nations) is the home of the United Nations Office at Geneva, located in Geneva, Switzerland.
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The Paléo Festival de Nyon, usually just called Paléo, is an annual rock festival held in Nyon, Switzerland.
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Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together moist fibres of cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets.
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A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
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Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation.
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A passport is a travel document, usually issued by a country's government, that certifies the identity and nationality of its holder primarily for the purpose of international travel.
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Patrician (post-Roman Europe)
Patricianship, the quality of belonging to a patriciate, began in the ancient world, where cities such as Ancient Rome had a class of patrician families whose members were the only people allowed to exercise many political functions.
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Paul Hermann Scherrer (3 February 1890 – 25 September 1969) was a Swiss physicist.
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Paul Scherrer Institute
The Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) is a multi-disciplinary research institute which belongs to the Swiss Federal Institutes of Technology Domain covering also ETH Zurich and EPFL.
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Peace of Westphalia
The Peace of Westphalia (Westfälischer Friede) was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster that virtually ended the European wars of religion.
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The Pennine Alps (Walliser Alpen, Alpes Pennines, Alpi Pennine, Alpes Poeninae), also known as the Valais Alps, are a mountain range in the western part of the Alps.
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Pentecostalism or Classical Pentecostalism is a renewal movement"Spirit and Power: A 10-Country Survey of Pentecostals",.
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Per capita is a Latin prepositional phrase: per (preposition, taking the accusative case, meaning "by means of") and capita (accusative plural of the noun caput, "head").
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Peter Martyr Vermigli
Peter Martyr Vermigli (8 September 149912 November 1562) was an Italian-born Reformed theologian.
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Le Petit Larousse Illustré, commonly known simply as Le Petit Larousse, is a French-language encyclopedic dictionary published by Éditions Larousse.
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Pharmaceutical industry in Switzerland
The pharmaceutical industry in Switzerland directly and indirectly employs about 135,000 people.
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Pierre Viret (1511 – 4 May 1571) was a Swiss Reformed theologian and Protestant reformer.
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Pietism (from the word piety) was an influential movement in Lutheranism that combined its emphasis on Biblical doctrine with the Reformed emphasis on individual piety and living a vigorous Christian life.
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Pinot noir is a red wine grape variety of the species Vitis vinifera.
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Pirmin Zurbriggen (born 4 February 1963) is a former World Cup alpine ski racer from Switzerland.
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Piz Bernina or Pizzo Bernina is the highest mountain in the Eastern Alps, the highest point of the Bernina Range, and the highest peak in the Rhaetian Alps.
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Pontifical Swiss Guard
The Pontifical Swiss Guard (also Papal Swiss Guard, or just Swiss Guard; Latin: Pontificia Cohors Helvetica or Cohors Pedestris Helvetiorum a Sacra Custodia Pontificis; Guardia Svizzera Pontificia; Päpstliche Schweizergarde; Garde suisse pontificale) is a small force maintained by the Holy See that is responsible for the safety of the Pope, including the security of the Apostolic Palace.
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Popular initiative (Switzerland)
A popular initiative (German: Volksinitiative, French Initiative populaire, Italian Iniziativa popolare, Romansh Iniziativa dal pievel) allows the people to suggest law in Switzerland on a federal, cantonal and municipal level.
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Population ageing is an increasing median age in the population of a region due to declining fertility rates and/or rising life expectancy.
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Population density (in agriculture: standing stock and standing crop) is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume; it is a quantity of type number density.
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Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
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Postage stamps and postal history of Switzerland
This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of Switzerland.
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Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools 3.3 million years ago by hominins and the invention of writing systems.
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President of the Swiss Confederation
The President of the Confederation, colloquially known as the President of Switzerland or Federal President, is the head of Switzerland's seven-member Federal Council, the country's executive branch.
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Primus inter pares
Primus inter pares (Πρῶτος μεταξὺ ἴσων) is a Latin phrase meaning first among equals.
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Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems by which divisions into an electorate are reflected proportionately into the elected body.
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Protestant Reformers were those theologians whose careers, works and actions brought about the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century.
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Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
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Protestantism in Switzerland
The Reformed branch of Protestantism in Switzerland was started in Zürich by Huldrych Zwingli and spread within a few years to Basel (Johannes Oecolampadius), Bern (Berchtold Haller and Niklaus Manuel), St.
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Purchasing power (sometimes retroactively called adjusted for inflation) is the number and quality or value of goods and services that can be purchased with a unit of currency.
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Purchasing power parity
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.
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QS World University Rankings
QS World University Rankings is an annual publication of university rankings by Quacquarelli Symonds (QS).
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Raclette is a semi-hard cow's milk cheese that is usually fashioned into a wheel of about 6 kg (13 lb).
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Raetia (also spelled Rhaetia) was a province of the Roman Empire, named after the Rhaetian (Raeti or Rhaeti) people.
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Rafz is a municipality in the district of Bülach in the northwest of the canton of Zürich in Switzerland.
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Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks.
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Rösti or röschti is a Swiss dish consisting mainly of potatoes, in the style of a fritter.
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The Rütlischwur is a legendary oath of the Old Swiss Confederacy, taken on the Rütli, a meadow above Lake Uri near Seelisberg.
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A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal.
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The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
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Reformation in Switzerland
The Protestant Reformation in Switzerland was promoted initially by Huldrych Zwingli, who gained the support of the magistrate (Mark Reust) and population of Zürich in the 1520s.
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Reformation in Zürich
The Reformation in Zürich was promoted initially by Huldrych Zwingli, who gained the support of the magistrates of the city of Zürich and the princess abbess Katharina von Zimmern of the Fraumünster Abbey, and the population of the city of Zürich and agriculture-oriented population of the present Canton of Zürich in the early 1520s.
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In politics, a regime (also known as "régime", from the original French spelling) is the form of government or the set of rules, cultural or social norms, etc.
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Regulation is an abstract concept of management of complex systems according to a set of rules and trends.
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Renens is a municipality in the canton of Vaud, Switzerland.
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Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
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A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
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Restoration and Regeneration in Switzerland
The periods of Restoration and Regeneration in Swiss history last from 1814 to 1847.
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The Reuss (Swiss German: Rüüss) is a river in Switzerland.
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Revolutions of 1848
The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations, People's Spring, Springtime of the Peoples, or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848.
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The Rhaetian Railway (Rhätische Bahn, Ferrovia Retica, Viafier Retica), abbreviated RhB, is a Swiss transport company that owns the largest network of all private railway operators in Switzerland.
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The Rhône (Le Rhône; Rhone; Walliser German: Rotten; Rodano; Rôno; Ròse) is one of the major rivers of Europe and has twice the average discharge of the Loire (which is the longest French river), rising in the Rhône Glacier in the Swiss Alps at the far eastern end of the Swiss canton of Valais, passing through Lake Geneva and running through southeastern France.
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--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.
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Richard R. Ernst
Richard Robert Ernst (born 14 August 1933) is a Swiss physical chemist and Nobel Laureate.
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Right of asylum
The right of asylum (sometimes called right of political asylum, from the Ancient Greek word ἄσυλον) is an ancient juridical concept, under which a person persecuted by his own country may be protected by another sovereign authority, such as another country or church official, who in medieval times could offer sanctuary.
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Road pricing (also road user charges) are direct charges levied for the use of roads, including road tolls, distance or time based fees, congestion charges and charges designed to discourage use of certain classes of vehicle, fuel sources or more polluting vehicles.
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Roger Federer (born 8 August 1981) is a Swiss professional tennis player who is currently ranked world No.
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Rolf M. Zinkernagel
Rolf Martin Zinkernagel (born January 6, 1944) is Professor of Experimental Immunology at the University of Zurich.
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Rolled oats are traditionally oat groats that have been dehusked and steamed, before being rolled into flat flakes under heavy rollers and stabilized by being lightly toasted.
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The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
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In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin: provincia, pl. provinciae) was the basic and, until the Tetrarchy (from 293 AD), the largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside Italy.
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The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
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Romansh (also spelled Romansch, Rumantsch, or Romanche; Romansh:, rumàntsch, or) is a Romance language spoken predominantly in the southeastern Swiss canton of Grisons (Graubünden), where it has official status alongside German and Italian.
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RUAG (originally Rüstungs Unternehmen Aktiengesellschaft; Joint Stock Defense Company) is a Swiss technology company, with its headquarters in Bern.
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Rudolf I of Germany
Rudolf I, also known as Rudolf of Habsburg (Rudolf von Habsburg, Rudolf Habsburský; 1 May 1218 – 15 July 1291), was Count of Habsburg from about 1240 and the elected King of the Romans from 1273 until his death.
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Ruth Dreifuss (born 9 January 1940 in St. Gallen) is a Swiss politician affiliated with the Social Democratic Party.
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Samedan is a town and municipality in the Maloja Region in the Swiss canton of Grisons.
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Sarnen is a small historic town, a municipality, and the capital of the canton of Obwalden situated on the northern shores of Lake Sarnen (Sarnersee) in Switzerland.
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The term satellite state designates a country that is formally independent in the world, but under heavy political, economic and military influence or control from another country.
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Sébastien Olivier Buemi (born 31 October 1988) is a Swiss professional racing driver, who formerly competed for Scuderia Toro Rosso in Formula One.
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Scanning tunneling microscope
A scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is an instrument for imaging surfaces at the atomic level.
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Schaffhausen (Schafuuse; Schaffhouse; Sciaffusa; Schaffusa; Shaffhouse) is a town with historic roots, a municipality in northern Switzerland, and the capital of the canton of the same name; it has an estimated population of 36,000.
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The Schengen Agreement is a treaty which led to the creation of Europe's Schengen Area, in which internal border checks have largely been abolished.
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The Schengen Area is an area comprising 26 European states that have officially abolished passport and all other types of border control at their mutual borders.
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Schweizer Radio und Fernsehen
Schweizer Radio und Fernsehen (SRF; Swiss Radio and Television) is a Swiss broadcasting company, created on 1 January 2011, through the merger of radio company, Schweizer Radio DRS (SR DRS) and television company, Schweizer Fernsehen (SF).
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The Swiss Pentecostal Mission (Schweizerische Pfingstmission, abbreviated SPM) is the largest Pentecostal Christian denomination in Switzerland.
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Schwingen (from German schwingen "to swing"), also known as Swiss wrestling (French lutte Suisse) and natively (and colloquially) as Hoselupf (Swiss German for "breeches-lifting"), is a style of folk wrestling native to Switzerland, more specifically the pre-alpine parts of German-speaking Switzerland.
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The town of Schwyz (Schwytz; Svitto) is the capital of the canton of Schwyz in Switzerland.
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Semi-direct democracy is a type of democracy that combines the mechanisms of direct democracy and representative government.
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Separation of church and state
The separation of church and state is a philosophic and jurisprudential concept for defining political distance in the relationship between religious organizations and the nation state.
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September 11 attacks
The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
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Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
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Siege of Gaeta (1860)
The Siege of Gaeta was the concluding event of the war between the Kingdom of Sardinia and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, part of the unification of Italy.
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Simonetta Sommaruga (born 14 May 1960) is a Swiss politician of the Social Democratic Party of Switzerland who is a current member of the Swiss Federal Council, the federal government of Switzerland, and head of the Federal Department of Justice and Police (the Swiss justice minister).
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Sion Airport (Military: LSMS) is the airport of the city of Sion, Switzerland and is located 2.5 km southwest of Sion city in the Rhone Valley.
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Sion (Sitten; Seduno; Sedunum) is a Swiss town, a municipality, and the capital of the canton of Valais and of the district of Sion.
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A ski resort is a resort developed for skiing, snowboarding, and other winter sports.
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Skiing can be a means of transport, a recreational activity or a competitive winter sport in which the participant uses skis to glide on snow.
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Snowboarding is a recreational activity and Olympic and Paralympic sport that involves descending a snow-covered slope while standing on a snowboard attached to a rider's feet.
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Social Democratic Party of Switzerland
The Social Democratic Party of Switzerland (also rendered as Swiss Socialist Party; Sozialdemokratische Partei der Schweiz, SP; Parti socialiste suisse, PS; Partito Socialista Svizzero; Partida Socialdemocrata de la Svizra) is a political party in Switzerland.
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Solothurn (Solothurn; Soleure; Soletta; Soloturn) is a town, a municipality, and the capital of the canton of Solothurn in Switzerland.
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The Sonderbund War (Sonderbundskrieg) of November 1847 was a civil war in Switzerland, then still a relatively loose confederacy of cantons (states).
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South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
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A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
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Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
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In physics, special relativity (SR, also known as the special theory of relativity or STR) is the generally accepted and experimentally well-confirmed physical theory regarding the relationship between space and time.
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Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
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Sri Lankan Tamils
Sri Lankan Tamils (also) or Ceylon Tamils, also known as Eelam Tamils in Tamil, are members of the Tamil ethnic group native to the South Asian island state of Sri Lanka.
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St. Gallen or traditionally St Gall, in German sometimes Sankt Gallen (St Gall; Saint-Gall; San Gallo; Son Gagl) is a Swiss town and the capital of the canton of St. Gallen.
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St. Gallen–Altenrhein Airport
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Stanislas Wawrinka ((professionally known as Stan); born 28 March 1985) is a Swiss professional tennis player.
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Standard German, High German or more precisely Standard High German (Standarddeutsch, Hochdeutsch, or in Swiss Schriftdeutsch) is the standardized variety of the German language used in formal contexts, and for communication between different dialect areas.
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A standard-gauge railway is a railway with a track gauge of.
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Stans is the capital of the canton of Nidwalden (Nidwald) in Switzerland.
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A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.
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Stein am Rhein
Stein am Rhein (abbrv. as Stein a. Rh.) is a historic town and a municipality in the canton of Schaffhausen in Switzerland.
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Steinstossen is the Swiss variant of stone put, a competition in throwing a heavy stone.
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The stone put is one of the main Scottish heavy athletic events at modern-day Highland games gatherings.
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Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote).
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Sursilvan dialects (Romansh)
Sursilvan (or romontsch sursilvan) is a group of dialects of the Romansh language spoken in the Swiss district of Surselva.
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The Suva, headquartered in Lucerne, is a public sector insurer and leading provider of health care coverage for employees in case of accidents in Switzerland.
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The Swabian League (Schwäbischer Bund) was a mutual defence and peace keeping association of Imperial Estates – free Imperial cities, prelates, principalities and knights – principally in the territory of the early medieval stem duchy of Swabia, established in 1488 at the behest of Emperor Frederick III of Habsburg and supported as well by Bertold von Henneberg-Römhild, archbishop of Mainz, whose conciliar rather than monarchic view of the Reich often put him at odds with Frederick's successor Maximilian.
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The Swabian War of 1499 (Schwabenkrieg, also called Schweizerkrieg ("Swiss War") in Germany and Engadiner Krieg in Austria) was the last major armed conflict between the Old Swiss Confederacy and the House of Habsburg.
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Swiss Air Force
The Swiss Air Force (Schweizer Luftwaffe; Forces aériennes suisses; Forze aeree svizzere; Aviatica militara svizra) is the air component of the Swiss Armed Forces, established on 31 July 1914 as part of the army and in October 1936 an independent service.
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The Alpine region of Switzerland, conventionally referred to as the Swiss Alps (Schweizer Alpen, Alpes suisses, Alpi svizzere, Alps svizras), represents a major natural feature of the country and is, along with the Swiss Plateau and the Swiss portion of the Jura Mountains, one of its three main physiographic regions.
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Swiss Armed Forces
The Swiss Armed Forces (German: Schweizer Armee, French: Armée suisse, Italian: Esercito svizzero, Romanisch: Armada svizra) operates on land, in the air, and in international waters.
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Swiss Broadcasting Corporation
The Swiss Broadcasting Corporation (SRG SSR; Schweizerische Radio- und Fernsehgesellschaft, Société suisse de radiodiffusion et télévision, Società svizzera di radiotelevisione, '''S'''ocietad '''S'''vizra da '''R'''adio e Televisiun.) is the Swiss public broadcasting association, founded in 1931.
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Swiss chocolate refers to chocolate produced in Switzerland.
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Swiss Federal Constitution
The Federal Constitution of the Swiss Confederation (SR 10, Bundesverfassung der Schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft (BV), Constitution fédérale de la Confédération suisse (Cst.), Costituzione federale della Confederazione Svizzera (Cost.), Constituziun federala da la Confederaziun svizra) of 18 April 1999 (SR 101) is the third and current federal constitution of Switzerland.
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Swiss Federal Council election, 2015
An election for all seven members of the Federal Council, the government of Switzerland, was held on 9 December 2015, following the federal election on 19 October 2015.
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Swiss Federal Railways
Swiss Federal Railways (Schweizerische Bundesbahnen, SBB, Chemins de fer fédéraux suisses, CFF, Ferrovie federali svizzere, FFS) is the national railway company of Switzerland.
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The franc (sign: Fr. or SFr.; Franken, French and Romansh: franc, franco; code: CHF) is the currency and legal tender of Switzerland and Liechtenstein; it is also legal tender in the Italian exclave Campione d'Italia.
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Swiss German (Standard German: Schweizerdeutsch, Schwyzerdütsch, Schwiizertüütsch, Schwizertitsch Mundart,Because of the many different dialects, and because there is no defined orthography for any of them, many different spellings can be found. and others) is any of the Alemannic dialects spoken in the German-speaking part of Switzerland and in some Alpine communities in Northern Italy bordering Switzerland.
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Swiss Ice Hockey Federation
The Swiss Ice Hockey Federation (SIHF) (Schweizerischer Eishockeyverband (SEHV), Ligue Suisse de Hockey sur Glace (LSHG), Federazione Svizzera di hockey su ghiaccio) is the governing body of ice hockey in Switzerland, as recognized by the International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF).
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Swiss immigration referendum, February 2014
The Swiss federal popular initiative "against mass immigration" (Eidgenössische Volksinitiative "Gegen Masseneinwanderung"., Initiative populaire « Contre l'immigration de masse »., Iniziativa popolare "Contro l'immigrazione di massa".) was a referendum that aimed to limit immigration through quotas, as it had been prior to the bilateral treaties between Switzerland and the European Union (EU) launched 2002.
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Swiss International Air Lines
Swiss International Air Lines AG (short Swiss, stylized as SWISS) is the national airline of Switzerland operating scheduled services in Europe and to North America, South America, Africa and Asia.
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Swiss mercenaries (Reisläufer) were notable for their service in foreign armies, especially the armies of the Kings of France, throughout the Early Modern period of European history, from the Later Middle Ages into the Age of the European Enlightenment.
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Swiss neutrality is one of the main principles of Switzerland's foreign policy which dictates that Switzerland is not to be involved in armed conflicts between other states.
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Switzerland is a confederation of states of which each one has its own history.
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Swiss peasant war of 1653
The Swiss peasant war of 1653 was a popular revolt in the Old Swiss Confederacy at the time of the Ancien Régime.
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The Swiss (die Schweizer, les Suisses, gli Svizzeri, ils Svizzers) are the citizens of Switzerland, or people of Swiss ancestry. The number of Swiss nationals has grown from 1.7 million in 1815 to 7 million in 2016. More than 1.5 million Swiss citizens hold multiple citizenship. About 11% of citizens live abroad (0.8 million, of whom 0.6 million hold multiple citizenship). About 60% of those living abroad reside in the European Union (0.46 million). The largest groups of Swiss descendants and nationals outside Europe are found in the United States and Canada. Although the modern state of Switzerland originated in 1848, the period of romantic nationalism, it is not a nation-state, and the Swiss are not usually considered to form a single ethnic group, but a confederacy (Eidgenossenschaft) or Willensnation ("nation of will", "nation by choice", that is, a consociational state), a term coined in conscious contrast to "nation" in the conventionally linguistic or ethnic sense of the term. The demonym Swiss (formerly in English also Switzer) and the name of Switzerland, ultimately derive from the toponym Schwyz, have been in widespread use to refer to the Old Swiss Confederacy since the 16th century.
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Swiss People's Party
The Swiss People's Party (Schweizerische Volkspartei, SVP; Partida populara Svizra, PPS), also known as the Democratic Union of the Centre (Union démocratique du centre, UDC; Unione Democratica di Centro, UDC), is a national-conservative and right-wing populist political party in Switzerland.
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The Swiss Plateau or Central Plateau (Schweizer Mittelland; plateau suisse; altopiano svizzero) is one of the three major landscapes in Switzerland alongside the Jura Mountains and the Swiss Alps.
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The Swiss Psalm (Schweizerpsalm, Cantique suisse, Salmo svizzero, Psalm Svizzer) is the national anthem of Switzerland.
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Swiss Reinsurance Company Ltd,"." Swiss Re.
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Swiss Reformed Church
The Swiss Reformed Church (Evangelisch-reformierte Kirchen der Schweiz, "Evangelical Reformed Churches of Switzerland") refers to the Reformed branch of Protestantism in Switzerland started in Zürich by Huldrych Zwingli (1484–1531) and spread within a few years to Basel (Johannes Oecolampadius), Bern (Berchtold Haller and Niklaus Manuel), St. Gallen (Joachim Vadian), to cities in southern Germany and via Alsace (Martin Bucer) to France.
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Swiss Space Office
The Swiss Space Office (SSO) is the national space program of Switzerland.
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Swiss Standard German
Swiss Standard German (Schweizer Standarddeutsch), or Swiss High German (Schweizer Hochdeutsch or Schweizerhochdeutsch), referred to by the Swiss as Schriftdeutsch, or Hochdeutsch, is the written form of one of four official languages in Switzerland, besides French, Italian and Romansh.
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Swiss Super League
The Swiss Super League (known as the Raiffeisen Super League for sponsorship reasons) is a professional league in the top tier of the Swiss football league system and has been played in its current format since the 2003–04 season.
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Swiss Telegraphic Agency
The Swiss Telegraphic Agency (German: Schweizerische Depeschenagentur, SDA; French: Agence télégraphique suisse, ATS; Italian: Agenzia telegrafica svizzera, ATS) is the national press agency of Switzerland, founded in 1894.
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Swiss wine is produced from nearly 15 000 hectares of vineyards, and the wines are mainly produced in the west and in the south of Switzerland, in the cantons of Geneva, Neuchâtel, Ticino, Valais and Vaud.
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SWI swissinfo.ch is a ten-language news and information platform produced by the Swiss Broadcasting Corporation.
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Switzerland and weapons of mass destruction
Switzerland made detailed plans to acquire and test nuclear weapons during the Cold War.
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Switzerland as a federal state
The rise of Switzerland as a federal state began on 12 September 1848, with the creation of a federal constitution in response to a 27-day civil war in Switzerland, the ''Sonderbundskrieg''.
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Switzerland during the World Wars
During World War I and World War II, the Swiss Confederation maintained armed neutrality.
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Switzerland in the Roman era
The territory of modern Switzerland was a part of the Roman Republic and Empire for a period of about six centuries, beginning with the step-by-step conquest of the area by Roman armies from the 2nd century BC and ending with the decline of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD.
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Switzerland–European Union relations
The relations between Switzerland and the European Union (EU) are framed by a series of bilateral treaties whereby the Swiss Confederation has adopted various provisions of European Union law in order to participate in the Union's single market, without joining as a member state.
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Tages-Anzeiger, also abbreviated Tagi or TA, is a Swiss German-language national daily newspaper published in Zurich, Switzerland.
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The Federal Diet of Switzerland (Eidgenössische Tagsatzung,; Diète fédérale; Dieta federale) was the legislative and executive council of the Swiss Confederacy which existed in various forms since the beginnings of Swiss independence until the formation of the Swiss federal state in 1848.
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Tägerwilen is a municipality in the district of Kreuzlingen in the canton of Thurgau in Switzerland.
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Telephone numbers in Switzerland
Telephone numbers in Switzerland are defined and assigned according to the Swiss telephone numbering plan administered by the Swiss Federal Office of Communications.
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In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.
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Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles).
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Terroir (from terre, "land") is the set of all environmental factors that affect a crop's phenotype, including unique environment contexts, farming practices and a crop's specific growth habitat.
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Tetra Pak is a multinational food packaging and processing sub-company of Tetra Laval, with head offices in Lund, Sweden, and Lausanne, Switzerland.
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Thayngen is a village and a municipality in the canton of Schaffhausen in Switzerland.
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The Adecco Group
The Adecco Group, based in Zurich, Switzerland, is the largest temp staffing firm in the world, and a Fortune Global 500 company.
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The Conference Board
The Conference Board, Inc. is a 501(c)(3) non-profit business membership and research group organization.
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The Physicists (Die Physiker) is a satiric drama written in 1961 by Swiss writer Friedrich Dürrenmatt.
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The Pledge: Requiem for the Detective Novel
The Pledge (German: Das Versprechen) is a crime novella by Swiss author Friedrich Dürrenmatt, published in 1958, after Dürrenmatt thought that his previous movie script, Es geschah am hellichten Tag ("It happened in broad daylight") did not have a realistic ending.
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The Swatch Group
The Swatch Group AG is a Swiss manufacturer of watches and jewelry.
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Theism is broadly defined as the belief in the existence of the Supreme Being or deities.
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Theodore Beza (Theodorus Beza; Théodore de Bèze or de Besze; June 24, 1519 – October 13, 1605) was a French Reformed Protestant theologian, reformer and scholar who played an important role in the Reformation.
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Thirty Years' War
The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648.
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Thomas Lüthi (born 6 September 1986) is a professional motorcycle road racer currently competing in the MotoGP Grand Prix World Championship.
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Tiberius (Tiberius Caesar Divi Augusti filius Augustus; 16 November 42 BC – 16 March 37 AD) was Roman emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD, succeeding the first emperor, Augustus.
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The river Ticino (Tisín; French and Tessin; Ticīnus) is the most important perennial left-bank tributary of the Po.
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Ticino (wine region)
The wine region of Ticino started producing wine in the Roman era, but only after 1906, with the introduction of Merlot, did it begin to produce quality wine.
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The Toggenburg War, also known as the Second War of Villmergen or the Swiss Civil War of 1712, was a Swiss civil war during the Old Swiss Confederacy, that took place from 12 April until 11 August 1712.
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Total fertility rate
The total fertility rate (TFR), sometimes also called the fertility rate, absolute/potential natality, period total fertility rate (PTFR), or total period fertility rate (TPFR) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if.
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Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours.
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Treaty of Verdun
The Treaty of Verdun, signed in August 843, was the first of the treaties that divided the Carolingian Empire into three kingdoms among the three surviving sons of Louis the Pious, who was the son of Charlemagne.
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Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons
The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT, is an international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament.
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Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
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UBS Group AG is a Swiss multinational investment bank and financial services company founded and based in Switzerland.
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The Union of European Football Associations (UEFA; Union des Associations Européennes de Football; Vereinigung Europäischer Fußballverbände) is the administrative body for association football in Europe, although several member states are primarily or entirely located in Asia.
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UEFA Euro 2008
The 2008 UEFA European Football Championship, commonly referred to as UEFA Euro 2008 or simply Euro 2008, was the 13th UEFA European Football Championship, a quadrennial football tournament contested by European nations.
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Ulrich "Ueli" Maurer (born 1 December 1950) is a member of the Swiss Federal Council.
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Unemployment is the situation of actively looking for employment but not being currently employed.
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Union Cycliste Internationale
The Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI;, International Cycling Union) is the world governing body for sports cycling and oversees international competitive cycling events.
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The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
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United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, is a United Nations programme with the mandate to protect refugees, forcibly displaced communities and stateless people, and assist in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country.
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United Nations Human Rights Council
The United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) is a United Nations body whose mission is to promote and protect human rights around the world.
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United Nations Office at Geneva
The United Nations Office at Geneva (UNOG) is the second-largest of the four major office sites of the United Nations (second to the United Nations Headquarters in New York City).
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United States Constitution
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.
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University of Basel
The University of Basel (German: Universität Basel) is located in Basel, Switzerland.
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University of St. Gallen
The University of St.
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University of Zurich
The University of Zurich (UZH, Universität Zürich), located in the city of Zürich, is the largest university in Switzerland, with over 25,000 students.
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Unspunnenfest is a festival held in the town of Interlaken, Switzerland, near the old ruin of Unspunnen Castle, in the Bernese Alps, approximately once every twelve years, most recently in 2017.
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Unterwalden (Latinized as Sylvania, later also Subsylvania as opposed to Supersylvania) is the old name of a forest-canton of the Old Swiss Confederacy in central Switzerland, south of Lake Lucerne, consisting of two valleys or Talschaften, now organized as two half-cantons, an upper part, Obwalden, and a lower part, Nidwalden.
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Unus pro omnibus, omnes pro uno
Unus pro omnibus, omnes pro uno is a Latin phrase that means "One for all, all for one" in English.
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An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature (or one of three chambers of a tricameral legislature), the other chamber being the lower house.
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Urban sprawl or suburban sprawl describes the expansion of human populations away from central urban areas into low-density, monofunctional and usually car-dependent communities, in a process called suburbanization.
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Vallée de Joux
The Vallée de Joux is a valley of the Jura Mountains mainly in the Swiss Canton of Vaud.
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Vals (locally pronounced) is a village and a municipality in the Surselva Region in the canton of Graubünden in Switzerland.
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Valtellina or the Valtelline (occasionally spelled as two words in English: Val Telline; Vuclina, Valtelina); Veltlin, Valtellina, Valtulina, Vuclina, is a valley in the Lombardy region of northern Italy, bordering Switzerland.
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A value-added tax (VAT), known in some countries as a goods and services tax (GST), is a type of tax that is assessed incrementally, based on the increase in value of a product or service at each stage of production or distribution.
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Vatican City (Città del Vaticano; Civitas Vaticana), officially the Vatican City State or the State of Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano; Status Civitatis Vaticanae), is an independent state located within the city of Rome.
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Velcro Companies is a privately held company that produces fasteners and other products.
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Vichy France (Régime de Vichy) is the common name of the French State (État français) headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II.
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Vignette (road tax)
Vignette is a form of road pricing imposed on vehicles, usually in addition to the compulsory road tax, based on a period of time instead of road tolls that are based on distance travelled.
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Villa rustica (countryside villa) was the term used by the ancient Romans to denote a villa set in the open countryside, often as the hub of a large agricultural estate (latifundium).
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Vindonissa (from a Gaulish toponym in *windo- "white") was a Roman legion camp at modern Windisch, Switzerland.
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Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
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Vladimir Prelog ForMemRS (23 July 1906 – 7 January 1998) was a Croatian-Swiss organic chemist who received the 1975 Nobel Prize in chemistry for his research into the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions.
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Walter Thurnherr (born 11 July 1963) is the Federal Chancellor of Switzerland since 1 January 2016.
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Wars of Kappel
The wars of Kappel (Kappelerkriege) is a collective term for two armed conflicts fought near Kappel am Albis between the Protestant and the Roman Catholic cantons of the Old Swiss Confederacy during the Reformation in Switzerland.
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Wealth is the abundance of valuable resources or valuable material possessions.
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Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
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The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
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Whole foods are plant foods that are unprocessed and unrefined, or processed and refined as little as possible, before being consumed.
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William Farel (1489 – 13 September 1565), Guilhem Farel or Guillaume Farel, was a French evangelist, Protestant reformer and a founder of the Reformed Church in the Principality of Neuchâtel, in the Republic of Geneva, and in Switzerland in the Canton of Bern and the (then occupied by Bern) Canton of Vaud.
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The Worldwide Independent Network/Gallup International Association (WIN/GIA) was an international cooperation of independent market research and polling firms.
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Windisch is a municipality in the district of Brugg in the canton of Aargau in Switzerland.
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Winter Olympic Games
The Winter Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques d'hiver) is a major international sporting event held once every four years for sports practised on snow and ice.
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World Economic Forum
The World Economic Forum (WEF) is a Swiss nonprofit foundation, based in Cologny, Geneva, Switzerland.
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World Health Organization
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
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World Intellectual Property Organization
The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is one of the 15 specialized agencies of the United Nations (UN).
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World Touring Car Championship
The FIA World Touring Car Championship was an international touring car championship promoted by Eurosport Events and sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA).
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World Trade Organization
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
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A world war, is a large-scale war involving many of the countries of the world or many of the most powerful and populous ones.
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World War I
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
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Xenophobia is the fear and distrust of that which is perceived to be foreign or strange.
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Yodeling (also jodeling) is a form of singing which involves repeated and rapid changes of pitch between the low-pitch chest register (or "chest voice") and the high-pitch head register or falsetto.
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Zülpich is a town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany between Aachen and Bonn.
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Zürcher Geschnetzeltes (German for "sliced meat Zurich style", Züri-Gschnätzlets in Zürich German, émincé de veau zurichoise in French) is a Swiss dish from the Zurich region.
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Zürich or Zurich is the largest city in Switzerland and the capital of the canton of Zürich.
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The Züriputsch of 6 September 1839 was a putsch of the rural conservative population against the liberal rule of the city of Zürich on the eve of the formation of the Swiss federal state.
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Zermatt is a municipality in the district of Visp in the German-speaking section of the canton of Valais in Switzerland.
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Zug (Zug,; Zoug; Zugo; Zug; Neo-Latin Tugiumnamed in the 16th century), is an affluent municipality and town in Switzerland.
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Zurich Airport (Flughafen Zürich), also known as Kloten Airport, is the largest international airport of Switzerland and the principal hub of Swiss International Air Lines.
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Zurich Insurance Group
Zurich Insurance Group Ltd. is a Swiss insurance company, commonly known as Zurich, headquartered in Zürich, Switzerland.
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.ch is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Switzerland in the Domain Name System of the Internet.
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11th meridian east
The meridian 11° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
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1954 FIFA World Cup
The 1954 FIFA World Cup, the fifth staging of the FIFA World Cup, was held in Switzerland from 16 June to 4 July.
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1955 Le Mans disaster
The 1955 Le Mans disaster occurred during the 24 Hours of Le Mans motor race at Circuit de la Sarthe in Le Mans, France on 11 June 1955.
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The 2000-watt society is an environmental vision, first introduced in 1998 by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich (ETH Zurich), which pictures the average First World citizen reducing their overall average primary energy usage to no more than 2,000 watts (i.e. 2 kilowatt-hours per hour or 48 kWh per day) by the year 2050, without lowering their standard of living.
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2004 enlargement of the European Union
The 2004 enlargement of the European Union was the largest single expansion of the European Union (EU), in terms of territory, number of states, and population to date; however, it was not the largest in terms of gross domestic product.
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2007–08 A1 Grand Prix season
The 2007–08 A1 Grand Prix season was the third in the relatively short history of the championship.
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2009 IIHF World Championship
The 2009 IIHF World Championship took place in Switzerland from 24 April to 10 May.
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2013 IIHF World Championship
The 2013 IIHF World Championship was the 77th event hosted by the International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF), held in Stockholm, Sweden, and Helsinki, Finland, between 3–19 May 2013.
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2014 24 Hours of Le Mans
The 82nd 24 Hours of Le Mans (82e 24 Heures du Mans) was an automobile endurance racing event held from 11 to 15 June 2014 at the Circuit de la Sarthe at Le Mans, France.
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24 Hours Nürburgring
The 24 Hours Nürburgring is a 24-hour annual touring car and GT endurance racing event on the Nordschleife (north loop) of the Nürburgring in central Germany.
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45th parallel north
The 45th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 45 degrees north of Earth's equator.
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48th parallel north
The 48th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 48 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
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5th meridian east
The meridian 5° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
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