53 relations: Adenoviridae, Alternative splicing, Baker's yeast, Biochemistry, Cistron, Common descent, DNA, DNA damage (naturally occurring), Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Eukaryote, Eukaryotic chromosome fine structure, Exitron, Exon, Gene, Genetic recombination, Genome, Group I catalytic intron, Group II intron, Group III intron, Intein, Interrupted gene, Intron-mediated enhancement, LCD Soundsystem, Messenger RNA, MicroRNA, Minor spliceosome, Mitochondrial DNA, Nature (journal), Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Non-coding DNA, Non-coding RNA, Nonsense-mediated decay, Nucleic acid sequence, Nucleic acid tertiary structure, Phillip Allen Sharp, Post-transcriptional modification, Protein, R-loop, Ribosomal RNA, Ribozyme, Richard J. Roberts, RNA editing, RNA splicing, RNA world, Selfish genetic element, Small t intron, Spliceosome, Transcription (biology), Transfer RNA, Translation (biology), ..., Twintron, Untranslated region, Walter Gilbert. Expand index (3 more) » « Shrink index
Adenoviruses (members of the family Adenoviridae) are medium-sized (90–100 nm), nonenveloped (without an outer lipid bilayer) viruses with an icosahedral nucleocapsid containing a double stranded DNA genome.
Alternative splicing, or differential splicing, is a regulated process during gene expression that results in a single gene coding for multiple proteins.
Baker's yeast is the common name for the strains of yeast commonly used as a leavening agent in baking bread and bakery products, where it converts the fermentable sugars present in the dough into carbon dioxide and ethanol.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
A cistron is an alternative term to a gene.
Common descent describes how, in evolutionary biology, a group of organisms share a most recent common ancestor.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
DNA damage is distinctly different from mutation, although both are types of error in DNA.
Encephalitozoon cuniculi is a eukaryotic organism belonging to the phylum Microsporidia, in the kingdom Fungi.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Eukaryotic chromosome fine structure refers to the structure of sequences for eukaryotic chromosomes.
Exitrons (exonic introns) are produced through alternative splicing and have characteristics of both introns and exons, but are described as retained introns.
An exon is any part of a gene that will encode a part of the final mature RNA produced by that gene after introns have been removed by RNA splicing.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Genetic recombination (aka genetic reshuffling) is the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
Group I introns are large self-splicing ribozymes.
Group II introns are a large class of self-catalytic ribozymes and mobile genetic elements found within the genes of all three domains of life.
Group III intron is a class of introns found in mRNA genes of chloroplasts in euglenid protists.
An intein is a segment of a protein that is able to excise itself and join the remaining portions (the exteins) with a peptide bond in a process termed protein splicing.
An interrupted gene (also called a split gene) is a gene that contains sections of DNA called exons, which are expressed as RNA and protein, interrupted by sections of DNA called introns, which are not expressed.
Intron-mediated enhancement (IME) is the ability of an intron sequence to enhance the expression of a gene containing that intron.
LCD Soundsystem is an American rock band from Brooklyn, New York, formed in 2002.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.
A microRNA (abbreviated miRNA) is a small non-coding RNA molecule (containing about 22 nucleotides) found in plants, animals and some viruses, that functions in RNA silencing and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression.
The minor spliceosome is a ribonucleoprotein complex that catalyses the removal (splicing) of an atypical class of spliceosomal introns (U12-type) from eukaryotic messenger RNAs in plants, insects, vertebrates and some fungi (Rhizopus oryzae).
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.
In genomics and related disciplines, noncoding DNA sequences are components of an organism's DNA that do not encode protein sequences.
A non-coding RNA (ncRNA) is an RNA molecule that is not translated into a protein.
Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a surveillance pathway that exists in all eukaryotes.
A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.
Nucleic acid tertiary structure is the three-dimensional shape of a nucleic acid polymer.
Phillip Allen Sharp (born June 6, 1944) is an American geneticist and molecular biologist who co-discovered RNA splicing.
Post-transcriptional modification or Co-transcriptional modification is the process in eukaryotic cells where primary transcript RNA is converted into mature RNA.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
An R-loop is a three-stranded nucleic acid structure, composed of a DNA:RNA hybrid and the associated non-template single-stranded DNA.
Ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) is the RNA component of the ribosome, and is essential for protein synthesis in all living organisms.
Ribozymes (ribonucleic acid enzymes) are RNA molecules that are capable of catalyzing specific biochemical reactions, similar to the action of protein enzymes.
Sir Richard John Roberts (born 6 September 1943) is an English biochemist and molecular biologist.
RNA editing is a molecular process through which some cells can make discrete changes to specific nucleotide sequences within an RNA molecule after it has been generated by RNA polymerase.
In molecular biology, splicing is the editing of the nascent precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) transcript into a mature messenger RNA (mRNA).
The RNA world is a hypothetical stage in the evolutionary history of life on Earth, in which self-replicating RNA molecules proliferated before the evolution of DNA and proteins.
Selfish genetics elements (also sometimes called selfish DNA) are genetic sequences that spread by forming additional copies of itself within the genome; and makes no specific contribution to the reproductive success of its host organism (it might or might not have significant deleterious effects).
Plasmid vectors are circular strands of DNA found in virions that are used in genetic engineering to integrate new genes into a host cell genome.
A spliceosome is a large and complex molecular machine found primarily within the splicing speckles of the cell nucleus of eukaryotic cells.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
A transfer RNA (abbreviated tRNA and formerly referred to as sRNA, for soluble RNA) is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length, that serves as the physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins.
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.
In molecular biology, Twintrons are introns-within-introns excised by sequential splicing reactions.
In molecular genetics, an untranslated region (or UTR) refers to either of two sections, one on each side of a coding sequence on a strand of mRNA.
Walter Gilbert (born March 21, 1932) is an American biochemist, physicist, molecular biology pioneer, and Nobel laureate.