309 relations: Acetal, Acetyl-CoA, Actin, Activation energy, Adenine, Adenosine triphosphate, Agriculture, Alanine, Aldehyde, Aldose, Aliphatic compound, Alpha helix, Aluminium, Amine, Amino acid, Ammonia, Ammonium, Amphiphile, Amylase, Amylose, Ancient Greece, Andrew Fire, Animal, Anselme Payen, Antibody, Antoine Lavoisier, Arginine, Aromaticity, Asparagine, Aspartic acid, Base (chemistry), Basic research, Beta sheet, Biochemist, Biochemistry, Biochemistry (journal), Biological activity, Biological Chemistry (journal), Biology, Biomolecular structure, Biomolecule, Biophysics, Biopolymer, Blood plasma, Boron, Botany, Branches of science, Branching (polymer chemistry), Bromine, Butter, ..., Calcium, Capsid, Carbohydrate, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Carbonyl group, Carboxylic acid, Carl Neuberg, Catalysis, Cell (biology), Cell nucleus, Cell signaling, Cell wall, Cell–cell interaction, Cellular respiration, Cellulose, Cengage, Central dogma of molecular biology, Cheese, Chemical biology, Chemical ecology, Chemical element, Chemical energy, Chemical polarity, Chemical process, Chemist, Chemistry, Cholesterol, Chromatography, Citric acid cycle, Colin Pitchfork, Composition of the human body, Cori cycle, Craig Mello, Cyclic compound, Cysteine, Cytosine, Dairy product, Dehydration reaction, Deoxyribose, Diastase, Dipeptide, Disaccharide, Disease, DNA, DNA replication, Double bond, Drug, Drug carrier, Dual-polarization interferometry, Eduard Buchner, Edward Tatum, Electron microscope, Electron transport chain, ELISA, Enzyme, Enzyme Commission number, Epistasis, Essential amino acid, Ethanol, Ethanol fermentation, Ether, Fat, Fatty acid, Felix Hoppe-Seyler, Fermentation, Fertilizer, Flavin adenine dinucleotide, Forensic science, Francis Crick, Franz Hofmeister, Frederick Gowland Hopkins, Friedrich Wöhler, Fructose, Fruit, Furan, Furanose, Galactose, Gene, Gene expression, Gene therapy, Genetic code, Genetics, Genome, George Beadle, Ghee, Gluconeogenesis, Glucose, Glutamic acid, Glutamine, Glycerol, Glycine, Glycogen, Glycogen phosphorylase, Glycolipid, Glycolysis, Glycosidic bond, Guanine, Hemiacetal, Heptose, Hermann Emil Fischer, Histidine, Homology (biology), Human serum albumin, Hydrogen, Hydrogen bond, Hydrolysis, Hydrophile, Hydrophobe, Hydroxy group, Hypothetical types of biochemistry, Inner mitochondrial membrane, Inorganic compound, International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Iodine, Ion, Isoleucine, Isotopic labeling, James Watson, Justus von Liebig, Keto acid, Ketose, Lactase, Lactic acid, Lactose, Lactose intolerance, Leucine, Life, Lipid, Liposome, List of biochemists, List of biomolecules, List of life sciences, Liver, Lysine, Macromolecule, Malnutrition, Maurice Wilkins, Medication, Medicine, Metabolic pathway, Metabolism, Metabolome, Metabolomics, Metal, Methionine, Modelling biological systems, Molecular biology, Molecular dynamics, Molecular medicine, Molecule, Monomer, Monosaccharide, Mutant, Myosin, National Center for Biotechnology Information, Neurotransmitter, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, Nitrogen, Nitrogenous base, Nobel Prize, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of proteins, Nucleic acid, Nucleic acid sequence, Nucleotide, Nutrition, Oil, Oligosaccharide, One gene–one enzyme hypothesis, Open-chain compound, Organ (anatomy), Organic chemistry, Organic compound, Organism, Osteichthyes, Outline of biochemistry, Oxygen, Pentose phosphate pathway, Peptide bond, Pest control, Phenotype, Phenylalanine, Phosphate, Phospholipid, Phosphorus, Plant, Plant physiology, Polymer, Polysaccharide, Polyunsaturated fatty acid, Proline, Protein, Protein biosynthesis, Protein family, Protein tertiary structure, Proteinogenic amino acid, Proteolysis, Purine, Pyran, Pyranose, Pyrimidine, Pyruvic acid, Quinone, Rare-earth element, Reducing sugar, Retinoid, RNA, RNA interference, Rosalind Franklin, Saturation (chemistry), Second messenger system, Selenium, Sequence alignment, Serine, Sickle cell disease, Silicon, Skeletal muscle, Small intestine, Small molecule, Sodium, Soil, Sphingolipid, Starch, Steroid, Structural alignment, Structural biology, Substrate (chemistry), Sucrose, Sugar, Sweetness, Terpenoid, Threonine, Thymine, Tissue (biology), Titanium, Transaminase, Transamination, Transcription (biology), Transfersome, Translation (biology), Triglyceride, Tryptophan, Tyrosine, Unicellular organism, Uracil, Urea, Urea cycle, Valine, Vegetable oil, Vertebrate, Vitalism, Water, Wax, Wöhler synthesis, Wild type, X-ray crystallography, Yeast, 19th century. Expand index (259 more) » « Shrink index
An acetal is a functional group with the following connectivity R2C(OR')2, where both R' groups are organic fragments.
Acetyl-CoA (acetyl coenzyme A) is a molecule that participates in many biochemical reactions in protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
Actin is a family of globular multi-functional proteins that form microfilaments.
In chemistry and physics, activation energy is the energy which must be available to a chemical or nuclear system with potential reactants to result in: a chemical reaction, nuclear reaction, or other various other physical phenomena.
Adenine (A, Ade) is a nucleobase (a purine derivative).
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Alanine (symbol Ala or A) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
An aldehyde or alkanal is an organic compound containing a functional group with the structure −CHO, consisting of a carbonyl center (a carbon double-bonded to oxygen) with the carbon atom also bonded to hydrogen and to an R group, which is any generic alkyl or side chain.
An aldose is a monosaccharide (a simple sugar) with a carbon backbone chain with a carbonyl group on the endmost carbon atom, making it an aldehyde, and hydroxyl groups connected to all the other carbon atoms.
In organic chemistry, hydrocarbons (compounds composed of carbon and hydrogen) are divided into two classes: aromatic compounds and aliphatic compounds (G. aleiphar, fat, oil) also known as non-aromatic compounds.
The alpha helix (α-helix) is a common motif in the secondary structure of proteins and is a righthand-spiral conformation (i.e. helix) in which every backbone N−H group donates a hydrogen bond to the backbone C.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
The ammonium cation is a positively charged polyatomic ion with the chemical formula.
An amphiphile (from the Greek αμφις, amphis: both and φιλíα, philia: love, friendship) is a chemical compound possessing both hydrophilic (water-loving, polar) and lipophilic (fat-loving) properties.
An amylase is an enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of starch into sugars.
Amylose is a polysaccharide made of α-D-glucose units, bonded to each other through α(1→4) glycosidic bonds.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Andrew Zachary Fire (born April 27, 1959) is an American biologist and professor of pathology and of genetics at the Stanford University School of Medicine.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
Anselme Payen (6 January 1795 – 13 May 1871) was a French chemist known for discovering the enzyme diastase, and the carbohydrate cellulose.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution;; 26 August 17438 May 1794) CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) was a French nobleman and chemist who was central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and who had a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology.
Arginine (symbol Arg or R) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
In organic chemistry, the term aromaticity is used to describe a cyclic (ring-shaped), planar (flat) molecule with a ring of resonance bonds that exhibits more stability than other geometric or connective arrangements with the same set of atoms.
Asparagine (symbol Asn or N), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Aspartic acid (symbol Asp or D; salts known as aspartates), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
Basic research, also called pure research or fundamental research, has the scientific research aim to improve scientific theories for improved understanding or prediction of natural or other phenomena.
The β-sheet (also β-pleated sheet) is a common motif of regular secondary structure in proteins.
Biochemists are scientists that are trained in biochemistry.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
Biochemistry is a peer-reviewed academic journal in the field of biochemistry.
In pharmacology, biological activity or pharmacological activity describes the beneficial or adverse effects of a drug on living matter.
Biological Chemistry is a peer-reviewed scientific journal focusing on biological chemistry.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
Biomolecular structure is the intricate folded, three-dimensional shape that is formed by a molecule of protein, DNA, or RNA, and that is important to its function.
A biomolecule or biological molecule is a loosely used term for molecules and ions that are present in organisms, essential to some typically biological process such as cell division, morphogenesis, or development.
Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science that applies the approaches and methods of physics to study biological systems.
Biopolymers are polymers produced by living organisms; in other words, they are polymeric biomolecules.
Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.
Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.
Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology.
The branches of science, also referred to as sciences, "scientific fields", or "scientific disciplines" are commonly divided into three major groups.
In polymer chemistry, branching occurs by the replacement of a substituent, e.g., a hydrogen atom, on a monomer subunit, by another covalently bonded chain of that polymer; or, in the case of a graft copolymer, by a chain of another type.
Bromine is a chemical element with symbol Br and atomic number 35.
Butter is a dairy product containing up to 80% butterfat (in commercial products) which is solid when chilled and at room temperature in some regions and liquid when warmed.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
A capsid is the protein shell of a virus.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom: C.
A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.
Carl Alexander Neuberg (29 July 1877 – 30 May 1956) was an early pioneer in biochemistry, and he is often referred to as the "father of modern biochemistry".
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.
A cell wall is a structural layer surrounding some types of cells, just outside the cell membrane.
Cell–cell interaction refers to the direct interactions between cell surfaces that play a crucial role in the development and function of multicellular organisms.
Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.
Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.
Cengage is an educational content, technology, and services company for the higher education, K-12, professional, and library markets worldwide.
The central dogma of molecular biology is an explanation of the flow of genetic information within a biological system.
Cheese is a dairy product derived from milk that is produced in a wide range of flavors, textures, and forms by coagulation of the milk protein casein.
Chemical biology is a scientific discipline spanning the fields of chemistry and biology.
Chemical ecology examines the role of chemical interactions between living organisms and their environment, as the consequences of those interactions on the ethology and evolution of the organisms involved.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
In chemistry, chemical energy is the potential of a chemical substance to undergo a transformation through a chemical reaction to transform other chemical substances.
In chemistry, polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment.
In a scientific sense, a chemical process is a method or means of somehow changing one or more chemicals or chemical compounds.
A chemist (from Greek chēm (ía) alchemy; replacing chymist from Medieval Latin alchimista) is a scientist trained in the study of chemistry.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.
Chromatography is a laboratory technique for the separation of a mixture.
The citric acid cycle (CAC) – also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle – is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Colin Pitchfork (born 23 March 1960) is a British convicted murderer and rapist.
Body composition may be analyzed in terms of molecular type e.g., water, protein, connective tissue, fats (or lipids), hydroxylapatite (in bones), carbohydrates (such as glycogen and glucose) and DNA.
The Cori cycle (also known as the Lactic acid cycle), named after its discoverers, Carl Ferdinand Cori and Gerty Cori, refers to the metabolic pathway in which lactate produced by anaerobic glycolysis in the muscles moves to the liver and is converted to glucose, which then returns to the muscles and is metabolized back to lactate.
Craig Cameron Mello (born October 18, 1960) is an American biologist and professor of molecular medicine at the University of Massachusetts Medical School in Worcester, Massachusetts.
A cyclic compound (ring compound) is a term for a compound in the field of chemistry in which one or more series of atoms in the compound is connected to form a ring.
Cysteine (symbol Cys or C) is a semi-essential proteinogenic amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH.
Cytosine (C) is one of the four main bases found in DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
Dairy products, milk products or lacticinia are a type of food produced from or containing the milk of mammals, primarily cattle, water buffaloes, goats, sheep, camels, and humans.
In chemistry and the biological sciences, a dehydration reaction, also known as Zimmer's hydrogenesis, is a chemical reaction that involves the loss of a water molecule from the reacting molecule.
Deoxyribose, or more precisely 2-deoxyribose, is a monosaccharide with idealized formula H−(C.
A diastase (from Greek διάστασις, "separation") is any one of a group of enzymes that catalyses the breakdown of starch into maltose.
A dipeptide is a sometimes ambiguous designation of two classes of organic compounds: Its molecules contain either two amino acids joined by a single peptide bond or one amino acid with two peptide bonds.
A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or bivose) is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides (simple sugars) are joined by glycosidic linkage.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.
A double bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two chemical elements involving four bonding electrons instead of the usual two.
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.
A drug carrier is any substrate used in the process of drug delivery which serves to improve the selectivity, effectiveness, and/or safety of drug administration.
Dual-polarization interferometry (DPI) is an analytical technique that probes molecular layers adsorbed to the surface of a waveguide using the evanescent wave of a laser beam.
Eduard Buchner (20 May 1860 – 13 August 1917) was a German chemist and zymologist, awarded the 1907 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on fermentation.
Edward Lawrie Tatum (December 14, 1909 – November 5, 1975) was an American geneticist.
An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.
An electron transport chain (ETC) is a series of complexes that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors via redox (both reduction and oxidation occurring simultaneously) reactions, and couples this electron transfer with the transfer of protons (H+ ions) across a membrane.
The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a test that uses antibodies and color change to identify a substance.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
The Enzyme Commission number (EC number) is a numerical classification scheme for enzymes, based on the chemical reactions they catalyze.
Epistasis is the phenomenon where the effect of one gene (locus) is dependent on the presence of one or more 'modifier genes', i.e. the genetic background.
An essential amino acid, or indispensable amino acid, is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized ''de novo'' (from scratch) by the organism, and thus must be supplied in its diet.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Ethanol fermentation, also called alcoholic fermentation, is a biological process which converts sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose into cellular energy, producing ethanol and carbon dioxide as by-products.
Ethers are a class of organic compounds that contain an ether group—an oxygen atom connected to two alkyl or aryl groups.
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.
In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.
Ernst Felix Immanuel Hoppe-Seyler (26 December 1825 – 10 August 1895), né Felix Hoppe, was a German physiologist and chemist, and the principal founder of the disciplines of biochemistry and molecular biology.
Fermentation is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen.
A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
In biochemistry, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is a redox cofactor, more specifically a prosthetic group of a protein, involved in several important enzymatic reactions in metabolism.
Forensic science is the application of science to criminal and civil laws, mainly—on the criminal side—during criminal investigation, as governed by the legal standards of admissible evidence and criminal procedure.
Francis Harry Compton Crick (8 June 1916 – 28 July 2004) was a British molecular biologist, biophysicist, and neuroscientist, most noted for being a co-discoverer of the structure of the DNA molecule in 1953 with James Watson, work which was based partly on fundamental studies done by Rosalind Franklin, Raymond Gosling and Maurice Wilkins.
Franz Hofmeister (30 August 1850, Prague – 26 July 1922, Würzburg) was an early protein scientist, and is famous for his studies of salts that influence the solubility and conformational stability of proteins.
Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins (20 June 1861 – 16 May 1947) was an English biochemist who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1929, with Christiaan Eijkman, for the discovery of vitamins, even though Casimir Funk, a Polish biochemist, is widely credited with discovering vitamins.
Friedrich Wöhler (31 July 1800 – 23 September 1882) was a German chemist, best known for his synthesis of urea, but also the first to isolate several chemical elements.
Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a simple ketonic monosaccharide found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide sucrose.
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.
Furan is a heterocyclic organic compound, consisting of a five-membered aromatic ring with four carbon atoms and one oxygen.
A furanose is a collective term for carbohydrates that have a chemical structure that includes a five-membered ring system consisting of four carbon atoms and one oxygen atom.
Galactose (galacto- + -ose, "milk sugar"), sometimes abbreviated Gal, is a monosaccharide sugar that is about as sweet as glucose, and about 30% as sweet as sucrose.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
In the medicine field, gene therapy (also called human gene transfer) is the therapeutic delivery of nucleic acid into a patient's cells as a drug to treat disease.
The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) into proteins.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
George Wells Beadle (October 22, 1903 – June 9, 1989) was an American scientist in the field of genetics, and Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Nobel laureate who with Edward Tatum discovered the role of genes in regulating biochemical events within cells in 1958.
Ghee is a class of clarified butter that originated from the Indian subcontinent.
Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from certain non-carbohydrate carbon substrates.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Glutamine (symbol Gln or Q) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Glycerol (also called glycerine or glycerin; see spelling differences) is a simple polyol compound.
Glycine (symbol Gly or G) is the amino acid that has a single hydrogen atom as its side chain.
Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in humans, animals, fungi, and bacteria.
Glycogen phosphorylase is one of the phosphorylase enzymes.
Glycolipids are lipids with a carbohydrate attached by a glycosidic bond or covalently bonded.
Glycolysis (from glycose, an older term for glucose + -lysis degradation) is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO− + H+.
In chemistry, a glycosidic bond or glycosidic linkage is a type of covalent bond that joins a carbohydrate (sugar) molecule to another group, which may or may not be another carbohydrate.
Guanine (or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
A hemiacetal or a hemiketal is a compound that results from the addition of an alcohol to an aldehyde or a ketone, respectively.
A heptose is a monosaccharide with seven carbon atoms.
Hermann Emil Louis Fischer FRS FRSE FCS (9 October 1852 – 15 July 1919) was a German chemist and 1902 recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Histidine (symbol His or H) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.
Human serum albumin is the serum albumin found in human blood.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
A hydrophile is a molecule or other molecular entity that is attracted to water molecules and tends to be dissolved by water.
In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.
A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.
Hypothetical types of biochemistry are forms of biochemistry speculated to be scientifically viable but not proven to exist at this time.
The inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) is the mitochondrial membrane which separates the mitochondrial matrix from the intermembrane space.
An inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks C-H bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compound, but the distinction is not defined or even of particular interest.
The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB) is an international non-governmental organisation concerned with biochemistry and molecular biology.
Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Isoleucine (symbol Ile or I) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Isotopic labeling (or isotopic labelling) is a technique used to track the passage of an isotope (an atom with a detectable variation) through a reaction, metabolic pathway, or cell.
James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, geneticist and zoologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA in 1953 with Francis Crick and Rosalind Franklin.
Justus Freiherr von Liebig (12 May 1803 – 18 April 1873) was a German chemist who made major contributions to agricultural and biological chemistry, and was considered the founder of organic chemistry.
Keto acids or ketoacids (also called oxo acids or oxoacids) are organic compounds that contain a carboxylic acid group and a ketone group.
A ketose is a monosaccharide containing one ketone group per molecule.
Lactase is an enzyme produced by many organisms.
Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.
Lactose is a disaccharide.
Lactose intolerance is a condition in which people have symptoms due to the decreased ability to digest lactose, a sugar found in dairy products.
Leucine (symbol Leu or L) is an essential amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
A liposome is a spherical vesicle having at least one lipid bilayer.
Articles about notable biochemists include: Note that the definition of biochemist is fairly loose here, and noted chemical biologists, biophysicists and others are included.
This is a list of articles that describe particular biomolecules or types of biomolecules.
The life sciences or biological sciences comprise the branches of science that involve the scientific study of life and organisms – such as microorganisms, plants, and animals including human beings – as well as related considerations like bioethics.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Lysine (symbol Lys or K) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
A macromolecule is a very large molecule, such as protein, commonly created by the polymerization of smaller subunits (monomers).
Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.
Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins (15 December 1916 – 5 October 2004) was a New Zealand-born British physicist and molecular biologist, and Nobel laureate whose research contributed to the scientific understanding of phosphorescence, isotope separation, optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction, and to the development of radar.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a linked series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
The metabolome refers to the complete set of small-molecule chemicals found within a biological sample.
Metabolomics is the scientific study of chemical processes involving metabolites, the small molecule intermediates and products of metabolism.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
Methionine (symbol Met or M) is an essential amino acid in humans.
Modelling biological systems is a significant task of systems biology and mathematical biology.
Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.
Molecular dynamics (MD) is a computer simulation method for studying the physical movements of atoms and molecules.
Molecular medicine is a broad field, where physical, chemical, biological, bioinformatics and medical techniques are used to describe molecular structures and mechanisms, identify fundamental molecular and genetic errors of disease, and to develop molecular interventions to correct them.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
A monomer (mono-, "one" + -mer, "part") is a molecule that "can undergo polymerization thereby contributing constitutional units to the essential structure of a macromolecule".
Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single, sacchar: sugar), also called simple sugars, are the most basic units of carbohydrates.
In biology and especially genetics, a mutant is an organism or a new genetic character arising or resulting from an instance of mutation, which is an alteration of the DNA sequence of a gene or chromosome of an organism.
Myosins are a superfamily of motor proteins best known for their roles in muscle contraction and in a wide range of other motility processes in eukaryotes.
The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is part of the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), a branch of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme found in all living cells.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
A nitrogenous base, or nitrogen-containing base, is an organic molecule with a nitrogen atom that has the chemical properties of a base.
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of proteins (usually abbreviated protein NMR) is a field of structural biology in which NMR spectroscopy is used to obtain information about the structure and dynamics of proteins, and also nucleic acids, and their complexes.
Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.
A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism.
An oil is any nonpolar chemical substance that is a viscous liquid at ambient temperatures and is both hydrophobic (does not mix with water, literally "water fearing") and lipophilic (mixes with other oils, literally "fat loving").
An oligosaccharide (from the Greek ὀλίγος olígos, "a few", and σάκχαρ sácchar, "sugar") is a saccharide polymer containing a small number (typically three to ten) of monosaccharides (simple sugars).
The one gene–one enzyme hypothesis is the idea that genes act through the production of enzymes, with each gene responsible for producing a single enzyme that in turn affects a single step in a metabolic pathway.
In chemistry, an open-chain compound (also spelled as open chain compound) or acyclic compound (Greek prefix "α", without and "κύκλος", cycle) is a compound with a linear structure, rather than a cyclic one.
Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
Osteichthyes, popularly referred to as the bony fish, is a diverse taxonomic group of fish that have skeletons primarily composed of bone tissue, as opposed to cartilage.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to biochemistry: Biochemistry – study of chemical processes in living organisms, including living matter.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
The pentose phosphate pathway (also called the phosphogluconate pathway and the hexose monophosphate shunt) is a metabolic pathway parallel to glycolysis.
A peptide bond is a covalent chemical bond linking two consecutive amino acid monomers along a peptide or protein chain.
Pest control is the regulation or management of a species defined as a pest, a member of the animal kingdom that impacts adversely on human activities.
A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).
Phenylalanine (symbol Phe or F) is an α-amino acid with the formula.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
Phospholipids are a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
Plant physiology is a subdiscipline of botany concerned with the functioning, or physiology, of plants.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are fatty acids that contain more than one double bond in their backbone.
Proline (symbol Pro or P) is a proteinogenic amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Protein synthesis is the process whereby biological cells generate new proteins; it is balanced by the loss of cellular proteins via degradation or export.
A protein family is a group of evolutionarily-related proteins.
Protein tertiary structure is the three dimensional shape of a protein.
Proteinogenic amino acids are amino acids that are incorporated biosynthetically into proteins during translation.
Proteolysis is the breakdown of proteins into smaller polypeptides or amino acids.
A purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound that consists of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring.
In chemistry, pyran, or oxine, is a six-membered heterocyclic, non-aromatic ring, consisting of five carbon atoms and one oxygen atom and containing two double bonds.
Pyranose is a collective term for saccharides that have a chemical structure that includes a six-membered ring consisting of five carbon atoms and one oxygen atom.
Pyrimidine is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound similar to pyridine.
Pyruvic acid (CH3COCOOH) is the simplest of the alpha-keto acids, with a carboxylic acid and a ketone functional group.
The quinones are a class of organic compounds that are formally "derived from aromatic compounds by conversion of an even number of –CH.
A rare-earth element (REE) or rare-earth metal (REM), as defined by IUPAC, is one of a set of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the fifteen lanthanides, as well as scandium and yttrium.
A reducing sugar is any sugar that is capable of acting as a reducing agent because it has a free aldehyde group or a free ketone group.
The retinoids are a class of chemical compounds that are vitamers of vitamin A or are chemically related to it.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
RNA interference (RNAi) is a biological process in which RNA molecules inhibit gene expression or translation, by neutralizing targeted mRNA molecules.
Rosalind Elsie Franklin (25 July 192016 April 1958) was an English chemist and X-ray crystallographer who made contributions to the understanding of the molecular structures of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), RNA (ribonucleic acid), viruses, coal, and graphite.
In chemistry, saturation (from the Latin word saturare, meaning 'to fill') has diverse meanings, all based on the idea of reaching a maximum capacity.
Second messengers are intracellular signaling molecules released by the cell in response to exposure to extracellular signaling molecules—the first messengers.
Selenium is a chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34.
In bioinformatics, a sequence alignment is a way of arranging the sequences of DNA, RNA, or protein to identify regions of similarity that may be a consequence of functional, structural, or evolutionary relationships between the sequences.
Serine (symbol Ser or S) is an ɑ-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of blood disorders typically inherited from a person's parents.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
Skeletal muscle is one of three major muscle types, the others being cardiac muscle and smooth muscle.
The small intestine or small bowel is the part of the gastrointestinal tract between the stomach and the large intestine, and is where most of the end absorption of food takes place.
Within the fields of molecular biology and pharmacology, a small molecule is a low molecular weight (< 900 daltons) organic compound that may regulate a biological process, with a size on the order of 1 nm.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
Sphingolipids are a class of lipids containing a backbone of sphingoid bases, a set of aliphatic amino alcohols that includes sphingosine.
Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.
A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.
Structural alignment attempts to establish homology between two or more polymer structures based on their shape and three-dimensional conformation.
Structural biology is a branch of molecular biology, biochemistry, and biophysics concerned with the molecular structure of biological macromolecules (especially proteins, made up of amino acids, and RNA or DNA, made up of nucleic acids), how they acquire the structures they have, and how alterations in their structures affect their function.
In chemistry, a substrate is typically the chemical species being observed in a chemical reaction, which reacts with a reagent to generate a product.
Sucrose is common table sugar.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
Sweetness is a basic taste most commonly perceived when eating foods rich in sugars.
The terpenoids, sometimes called isoprenoids, are a large and diverse class of naturally occurring organic chemicals derived from terpenes.
Threonine (symbol Thr or T) is an amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
---> Thymine (T, Thy) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA that are represented by the letters G–C–A–T.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.
Transaminases or aminotransferases are enzymes that catalyze a transamination reaction between an amino acid and an α-keto acid.
Transamination, a chemical reaction that transfers an amino group to a ketoacid to form new amino acids.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
Transfersome is a trademark registered by the German company IDEA AG, which refers to its proprietary drug delivery technology.
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.
A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (from tri- and glyceride).
Tryptophan (symbol Trp or W) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Tyrosine (symbol Tyr or Y) or 4-hydroxyphenylalanine is one of the 20 standard amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins.
A unicellular organism, also known as a single-celled organism, is an organism that consists of only one cell, unlike a multicellular organism that consists of more than one cell.
Uracil (U) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of RNA that are represented by the letters A, G, C and U. The others are adenine (A), cytosine (C), and guanine (G).
Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.
The urea cycle (also known as the ornithine cycle) is a cycle of biochemical reactions that produces urea ((NH2)2CO) from ammonia (NH3).
Valine (symbol Val or V) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Vegetable oils, or vegetable fats, are fats extracted from seeds, or less often, from other parts of fruits.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
Vitalism is the belief that "living organisms are fundamentally different from non-living entities because they contain some non-physical element or are governed by different principles than are inanimate things".
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
Waxes are a diverse class of organic compounds that are lipophilic, malleable solids near ambient temperatures.
The Wöhler synthesis is the conversion of ammonium cyanate into urea.
Wild type (WT) refers to the phenotype of the typical form of a species as it occurs in nature.
X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.
Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.
The 19th century was a century that began on January 1, 1801, and ended on December 31, 1900.
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