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Index Eukaryote

Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea). [1]

302 relations: Acritarch, Actin, Actinin, Adenosine triphosphate, Aigarchaeota, Algae, Alphaproteobacteria, Alternation of generations, Alveolate, Amoeba, Amoebozoa, Anabolism, Anaerobic organism, Ancient history, Ancoracysta twista, Ancyromonadida, Ancyromonas, Andrew H. Knoll, Andrew J. Roger, Animal, Apusomonadida, Archaea, Archaeplastida, Asexual reproduction, Asgard (archaea), Australia, Autotroph, Édouard Chatton, Babesia bovis, Bacteria, Bikont, Biological membrane, Biomarker, Biomass (ecology), Biomolecule, Boletus edulis, Breviata, Brown algae, Bryophyte, C. B. van Niel, Carbohydrate, Carbon dioxide, Carl Linnaeus, Carl Woese, Catabolism, Cell division, Cell envelope, Cell membrane, Cell nucleus, Cell type, ..., Cell wall, Cellular respiration, Cellulose, Centriole, Centrohelid, Chemokinesis, Chemotaxis, Chitin, Chlorophyll, Chloroplast, Chloroplast DNA, Choanoflagellate, Chromalveolata, Chromista, Chromosome, Chytridiomycota, Ciliate, Cilium, Cisterna, Clade, Coenocyte, Collodictyon, Common chimpanzee, Corticata, Crenarchaeota, Crista, Crown eukaryotes, Crown group, Cryptista, Cryptomonad, Cyanobacteria, Cycad, Cyst, Cytoplasm, Cytoskeleton, Cytosol, Diatom, Discicristata, Diskagma, DNA, DNA replication, Domain (biology), Dynein, Ectosymbiosis, Ejectosome, Electron, Embryophyte, Endocytosis, Endomembrane system, Endoplasmic reticulum, Endospore, Endosymbiont, Enzyme, Eocyte hypothesis, Ernst Haeckel, Eubacterium, Euglenozoa, Evolution, Evolution of flagella, Evolution of sexual reproduction, Evolutionary grade, Excavata, Extrusome, Fermentation, Fertilisation, Filamin, Fimbrin, Flagellate, Flagellum, Flowering plant, Foraminifera, Fungus, Gamete, Gap junction, Gene, Genetic recombination, Genome, Georg August Goldfuss, Geosiphon, Giardia, Giardia lamblia, Ginkgo, Glaucophyte, Gloeobacter, Glucose, Golgi apparatus, Gram-positive bacteria, Greek language, Green algae, Grypania, Hacrobia, Halvaria, Haptista, Haptophyte, Heliozoa, Hemicellulose, Heterokont, Heterotroph, Holocene, Holomycota, Holozoa, Horizontal gene transfer, Hydrogen, Hydrogen hypothesis, Hydrogenosome, Hypha, Hypothesis, Inner mitochondrial membrane, Intermediate filament, International Microbiology, Intron, Invagination, Isotricha intestinalis, Jakoba, Jakobid, Kinesin, Kingdom (biology), Kleptoplasty, Konstantin Mereschkowski, Korarchaeota, Leishmania, Lineage (evolution), Lipid bilayer, List of sequenced eukaryotic genomes, Lokiarchaeota, Long branch attraction, Loukozoa, Lynn Margulis, Lysosome, Malawimonadidae, Malawimonas, Mastigoneme, Meiosis, Metabolism, Metamonad, Methane, Methanogenesis, Microfibril, Microfilament, Microtubule, Mitochondrial DNA, Mitochondrion, Mitosis, Mitosome, Molecule, Monocercomonoides, Monophyly, Motility, Motor protein, Multicellular organism, Multinucleate, Mutualism (biology), Myosin, Neokaryotes, Neomura, New Scientist, Nuclear envelope, Nucleic acid sequence, Obazoa, Online Etymology Dictionary, Opisthokont, Organelle, Organism, Osmia bicornis, Osmotic pressure, Parakaryon myojinensis, Pectin, Pelomyxa, Peptidoglycan, Percolozoa, Peroxide, Peroxisome, Peter Ward (paleontologist), Phagocyte, Photosynthesis, Phylogenetics, Picozoa, Pinophyta, Plant, Plant cell, Plants+HC+SAR megagroup, Plasmodesma, Plastid, Ploidy, Podiata, Polysaccharide, Population bottleneck, Pre-cell, Prokaryote, Protein biosynthesis, Proteoarchaeota, Proteobacteria, Proterozoic, Protist, Protoplast, Protozoa, Pseudopodia, Pteridophyte, Radiolaria, Ranunculus asiaticus, Red algae, Rhizaria, Rhyacian, Ribosomal RNA, Ribosome, Rigifilida, Robert Whittaker, Roger Stanier, Sap, SAR supergroup, Scotokaryotes, Septum, Sexual reproduction, Shale, Slime mold, Spindle apparatus, Spirochaete, Sterane, Sulfur, Supertree, Surface-area-to-volume ratio, Symbiogenesis, Symbiosis, Syntrophy, Taxonomic rank, Telonemia, Thaumarchaeota, The Vital Question, Thermoplasmatales, Thomas Cavalier-Smith, Three-domain system, Tissue (biology), Transfer RNA, Tree of life (biology), Trichomonas, Trichomonas vaginalis, Tsukubea, Tubulin, Turgor pressure, Undulipodium, Unicellular organism, Unikont, University of California, Berkeley, Vacuole, Varisulca, Vault (organelle), Vesicle (biology and chemistry), Vindhya Range, Viral eukaryogenesis, Viridiplantae, Volvox carteri, Xyloglucan. Expand index (252 more) »


Acritarchs are organic microfossils, present from approximately to the present.

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Actin is a family of globular multi-functional proteins that form microfilaments.

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Actinin is a microfilament protein.

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Adenosine triphosphate

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.

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The 'Aigarchaeota' are a proposed archaeal phylum of which the main representative is Caldiarchaeum subterraneum.

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Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.

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Alphaproteobacteria is a class of bacteria in the phylum Proteobacteria (See also bacterial taxonomy).

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Alternation of generations

Alternation of generations (also known as metagenesis) is the type of life cycle that occurs in those plants and algae in the Archaeplastida and the Heterokontophyta that have distinct sexual haploid and asexual diploid stages.

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The alveolates (meaning "with cavities") are a group of protists, considered a major clade and superphylum within Eukarya, and are also called Alveolata.

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An amoeba (rarely spelled amœba, US English spelled ameba; plural am(o)ebas or am(o)ebae), often called amoeboid, is a type of cell or organism which has the ability to alter its shape, primarily by extending and retracting pseudopods.

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Amoebozoa is a major taxonomic group containing about 2,400 described species of amoeboid protists, often possessing blunt, fingerlike, lobose pseudopods and tubular mitochondrial cristae.

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Anabolism (from ἁνά, "upward" and βάλλειν, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that construct molecules from smaller units.

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Anaerobic organism

An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth.

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Ancient history

Ancient history is the aggregate of past events, "History" from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the post-classical history.

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Ancoracysta twista

Ancoracysta twista is a eukaryotic microorganism.

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Ancyromonadida or Planomonadida is a small group of biflagellated protists found in the soil and in aquatic habitats, where they feed on bacteriaCavalier-Smith, T. (2013).

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Ancyromonas is a genus of Varisulca.

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Andrew H. Knoll

Andrew Herbert Knoll (born 1951) is the Fisher Professor of Natural History and a Professor of Earth and Planetary Scienceshttp://eps.harvard.edu/people/andrew-h-knoll at Harvard University.

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Andrew J. Roger

Andrew J. Roger is a Canadian-Australian molecular biologist and evolutionary bioinformatician.

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Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.

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The Apusomonadida are an taxonomic group of protozan zooflagellates, that appear to be the sister group to the Opisthokonts.

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Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.

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The Archaeplastida (or kingdom Plantae sensu lato) are a major group of eukaryotes, comprising the red algae (Rhodophyta), the green algae, and the land plants, together with a small group of freshwater unicellular algae called glaucophytes.

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Asexual reproduction

Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes, and almost never changes the number of chromosomes.

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Asgard (archaea)

Asgard is a proposed superphylum consisting of a group of uncultivated archaea that includes Lokiarchaeota, Thorarchaeota, Odinarchaeota, Heimdallarchaeota.

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Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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An autotroph ("self-feeding", from the Greek autos "self" and trophe "nourishing") or producer, is an organism that produces complex organic compounds (such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) from simple substances present in its surroundings, generally using energy from light (photosynthesis) or inorganic chemical reactions (chemosynthesis).

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Édouard Chatton

Édouard Chatton (11 October 1883 – 23 April 1947, Banyuls-sur-Mer) was a French biologist who first characterized the distinction between the eukaryotic and prokaryotic systems of cellular organization.

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Babesia bovis

Babesia bovis is a single-celled parasite of cattle which occasionally infects humans.

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Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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A bikont ("two flagella") is any of the eukaryotic organisms classified in the group Bikonta.

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Biological membrane

A biological membrane or biomembrane is an enclosing or separating membrane that acts as a selectively permeable barrier within living things.

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A biomarker, or biological marker, generally refers to a measurable indicator of some biological state or condition.

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Biomass (ecology)

Biomass is the mass of living biological organisms in a given area or ecosystem at a given time.

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A biomolecule or biological molecule is a loosely used term for molecules and ions that are present in organisms, essential to some typically biological process such as cell division, morphogenesis, or development.

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Boletus edulis

Boletus edulis (English: penny bun, cep, porcino or porcini) is a basidiomycete fungus, and the type species of the genus Boletus.

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Breviata anathema is a single-celled flagellate amoeboid eukaryote, previously studied under the name Mastigamoeba invertens.

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Brown algae

The brown algae (singular: alga), comprising the class Phaeophyceae, are a large group of multicellular algae, including many seaweeds located in colder waters within the Northern Hemisphere.

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Bryophytes are an informal group consisting of three divisions of non-vascular land plants (embryophytes): the liverworts, hornworts and mosses.

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C. B. van Niel

Cornelis Bernardus van Niel (November 4, 1897, Haarlem – March 10, 1985, Carmel, California) was a Dutch-American microbiologist.

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A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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Carl Linnaeus

Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.

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Carl Woese

Carl Richard Woese (July 15, 1928 – December 30, 2012) was an American microbiologist and biophysicist.

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Catabolism (from Greek κάτω kato, "downward" and βάλλειν ballein, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy or used in other anabolic reactions.

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Cell division

Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.

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Cell envelope

The cell envelope comprises the inner cell membrane and the cell wall of a bacterium, if present, plus a bacterial outer membrane (i.e. in gram-negative bacteria).

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Cell membrane

The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).

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Cell nucleus

In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

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Cell type

A cell type is a classification used to distinguish between morphologically or phenotypically distinct cell forms within a species.

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Cell wall

A cell wall is a structural layer surrounding some types of cells, just outside the cell membrane.

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Cellular respiration

Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.

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Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.

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In cell biology a centriole is a cylindrical cellular organelle composed mainly of a protein called tubulin.

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The centrohelids or centroheliozoa are a large group of heliozoan protists.

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Chemokinesis is chemically prompted kinesis, a motile response of unicellular prokaryotic or eukaryotic organisms to chemicals that cause the cell to make some kind of change in their migratory/swimming behaviour.

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Chemotaxis (from chemo- + taxis) is the movement of an organism in response to a chemical stimulus.

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Chitin (C8H13O5N)n, a long-chain polymer of ''N''-acetylglucosamine, is a derivative of glucose.

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Chlorophyll (also chlorophyl) is any of several related green pigments found in cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of algae and plants.

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Chloroplasts are organelles, specialized compartments, in plant and algal cells.

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Chloroplast DNA

Chloroplasts have their own DNA, often abbreviated as cpDNA.

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The choanoflagellates are a group of free-living unicellular and colonial flagellate eukaryotes considered to be the closest living relatives of the animals.

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Chromalveolata is an eukaryote supergroup present in a major classification of 2005, then regarded as one of the six major groups within the eukaryotes.

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The Chromista is an eukaryotic kingdom, probably polyphyletic.

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A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.

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Chytridiomycota is a division of zoosporic organisms in the kingdom Fungi, informally known as chytrids.

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The ciliates are a group of protozoans characterized by the presence of hair-like organelles called cilia, which are identical in structure to eukaryotic flagella, but are in general shorter and present in much larger numbers, with a different undulating pattern than flagella.

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A cilium (the plural is cilia) is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

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A cisterna (plural cisternae) is a flattened membrane disk of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus.

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A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".

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A coenocyte (from Greek: κοινός (koinós).

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Collodictyon is a basal genus of single-celled eukaryotes not closely related to any heretofore known kingdom of that domain.

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Common chimpanzee

The common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), also known as the robust chimpanzee, is a species of great ape.

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Corticata ("one with a cortex"), in the classification of eukaryotes (living organisms with a cell nucleus), is a clade suggested by Cavalier-Smith to encompass the eukaryote supergroups of the following two groups.

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The Crenarchaeota (Greek for "spring old quality" as specimens were originally isolated from geothermally heated sulfuric springs in Italy) (also known as Crenarchaea or eocytes) are archaea that have been classified as a phylum of the Archaea domain.

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A crista (plural cristae) is a fold in the inner membrane of a mitochondrion.

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Crown eukaryotes

Crown eukaryotes are an artificial group of eukaryotic organisms found at the top of molecular phylogenetic trees including both eukaryotes and prokaryotes.

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Crown group

In phylogenetics, the crown group of a collection of species consists of the living representatives of the collection together with their ancestors back to their most recent common ancestor as well as all of that ancestor's descendants.

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Cryptista is a clade of eukaryotes.

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The cryptomonads (or cryptophytes) are a group of algae, most of which have plastids.

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Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.

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Cycads are seed plants with a long fossil history that were formerly more abundant and more diverse than they are today.

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A cyst is a closed sac, having a distinct membrane and division compared with the nearby tissue.

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In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.

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A cytoskeleton is present in all cells of all domains of life (archaea, bacteria, eukaryotes).

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The cytosol, also known as intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytoplasmic matrix, is the liquid found inside cells.

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Diatoms (diá-tom-os "cut in half", from diá, "through" or "apart"; and the root of tém-n-ō, "I cut".) are a major group of microorganisms found in the oceans, waterways and soils of the world.

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Discicristata is a proposed eukaryotic clade.

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Diskagma ("disc-like fragment") is a genus of problematic fossil from a Paleoproterozoic (2200 million years old) paleosol from South Africa, and significant as the oldest likely eukaryote and earliest evidence for life on land.

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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DNA replication

In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.

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Domain (biology)

In biological taxonomy, a domain (Latin: regio), also superkingdom or empire, is the highest taxonomic rank of organisms in the three-domain system of taxonomy designed by Carl Woese, an American microbiologist and biophysicist.

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Dynein is a family of cytoskeletal motor proteins that move along microtubules in cells.

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Ectosymbiosis is symbiosis in which the symbiont lives on the body surface of the host, including internal surfaces such as the lining of the digestive tube and the ducts of glands.

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An ejectosome is a cellular organelle responsible for ejecting their contents from the cell.

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The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

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The Embryophyta are the most familiar group of green plants that form vegetation on earth.

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Endocytosis is a form of bulk transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) into the cell (endo- + cytosis) by engulfing them in an energy-using process.

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Endomembrane system

The endomembrane system is composed of the different membranes that are suspended in the cytoplasm within a eukaryotic cell.

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Endoplasmic reticulum

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.

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An endospore is a dormant, tough, and non-reproductive structure produced by certain bacteria from the Firmicute phylum.

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An endosymbiont or endobiont is any organism that lives within the body or cells of another organism in a symbiotic relationship with the host body or cell, often but not always to mutual benefit.

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Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Eocyte hypothesis

The Eocyte hypothesis is a biological classification that indicates eukaryotes emerged within the prokaryotic Crenarchaeota (formerly known as eocytes), a phylum within the archaea.

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Ernst Haeckel

Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (16 February 1834 – 9 August 1919) was a German biologist, naturalist, philosopher, physician, professor, marine biologist, and artist who discovered, described and named thousands of new species, mapped a genealogical tree relating all life forms, and coined many terms in biology, including anthropogeny, ecology, phylum, phylogeny, and Protista. Haeckel promoted and popularised Charles Darwin's work in Germany and developed the influential but no longer widely held recapitulation theory ("ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny") claiming that an individual organism's biological development, or ontogeny, parallels and summarises its species' evolutionary development, or phylogeny.

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Eubacterium is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria in the family Eubacteriaceae.

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The euglenozoa are a large group of flagellate excavates.

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Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.

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Evolution of flagella

The evolution of flagella is of great interest to biologists because the three known varieties of flagella (eukaryotic, bacterial, and archaeal) each represent a sophisticated cellular structure that requires the interaction of many different systems.

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Evolution of sexual reproduction

The evolution of sexual reproduction describes how sexually reproducing animals, plants, fungi and protists evolved from a common ancestor that was a single celled eukaryotic species.

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Evolutionary grade

In alpha taxonomy, a grade is a taxon united by a level of morphological or physiological complexity.

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Excavata is a major supergroup of unicellular organisms belonging to the domain Eukaryota.

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Extrusomes are membrane-bound structures in some eukaryotes which, under certain conditions, discharge their contents outside the cell.

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Fermentation is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen.

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Fertilisation or fertilization (see spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, conception, fecundation, syngamy and impregnation, is the fusion of gametes to initiate the development of a new individual organism.

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Filamins are a class of proteins that hold two actin filaments at large angles.

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Fimbrin also known as is plastin 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PLS1 gene.

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A flagellate is a cell or organism with one or more whip-like appendages called flagella.

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A flagellum (plural: flagella) is a lash-like appendage that protrudes from the cell body of certain bacterial and eukaryotic cells.

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Flowering plant

The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.

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Foraminifera (Latin for "hole bearers"; informally called "forams") are members of a phylum or class of amoeboid protists characterized by streaming granular ectoplasm for catching food and other uses; and commonly an external shell (called a "test") of diverse forms and materials.

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A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.

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A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete from gamein "to marry") is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce.

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Gap junction

A gap junction may also be called a nexus or macula communicans.

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In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.

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Genetic recombination

Genetic recombination (aka genetic reshuffling) is the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent.

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In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.

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Georg August Goldfuss

Georg August Goldfuss (Goldfuß, 18 April 1782 – 2 October 1848) was a German palaeontologist, zoologist and botanist.

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Geosiphon is a genus of fungus in the family Geosiphonaceae.

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Giardia is a genus of anaerobic flagellated protozoan parasites of the phylum Sarcomastigophora that colonise and reproduce in the small intestines of several vertebrates, causing giardiasis.

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Giardia lamblia

Giardia lamblia, also known as Giardia intestinalis, is a flagellated parasite that colonizes and reproduces in the small intestine, causing giardiasis.

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Ginkgo is a genus of highly unusual non-flowering plants.

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The glaucophytes, also known as glaucocystophytes or glaucocystids, are a small group of rare freshwater microscopic algae.

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Gloeobacter is a genus of cyanobacteria.

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Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.

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Golgi apparatus

The Golgi apparatus, also known as the Golgi complex, Golgi body, or simply the Golgi, is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.

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Gram-positive bacteria

Gram-positive bacteria are bacteria that give a positive result in the Gram stain test, which is traditionally used to quickly classify bacteria into two broad categories according to their cell wall.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Green algae

The green algae (singular: green alga) are a large, informal grouping of algae consisting of the Chlorophyta and Charophyta/Streptophyta, which are now placed in separate divisions, as well as the more basal Mesostigmatophyceae, Chlorokybophyceae and Spirotaenia.

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Grypania is an early, tube-shaped fossil from the Proterozoic eon.

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The cryptomonads-haptophytes assemblage is a proposed monophyletic grouping of unicellular eukaryotes that are not included in the SAR supergroup.

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Halvaria is a grouping that includes Alveolata and Heterokonta (Stramenopiles).

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Haptista is a proposed group of protists made up of centrohelids and haptophytes.

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The haptophytes, classified either as the Haptophyta, Haptophytina or Prymnesiophyta (named for Prymnesium), are a Division (botany) of algae.

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Heliozoa, commonly known as sun-animalcules, are microbial eukaryotes (protists) with stiff arms (axopodia) radiating from their spherical bodies, which are responsible for their common name.

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A hemicellulose (also known as polyose) is any of several heteropolymers (matrix polysaccharides), such as arabinoxylans, present along with cellulose in almost all plant cell walls.

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The heterokonts or stramenopiles (formally, Heterokonta or Stramenopiles) are a major line of eukaryotes currently containing more than 25,000 known species.

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A heterotroph (Ancient Greek ἕτερος héteros.

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The Holocene is the current geological epoch.

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Holomycota or Nucletmycea are a basal Opisthokont clade as sister of the Holozoa.

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Holozoa is a group of organisms that includes animals and their closest single-celled relatives, but excludes fungi.

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Horizontal gene transfer

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring.

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Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.

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Hydrogen hypothesis

The hydrogen hypothesis is a model proposed by William F. Martin and Miklós Müller in 1998 that describes a possible way in which the mitochondrion arose as an endosymbiont within an archaeon (without doubts classified as prokaryote at then times), giving rise to a symbiotic association of two cells from which the first eukaryotic cell could have arisen (symbiogenesis).

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A hydrogenosome is a membrane-enclosed organelle of some anaerobic ciliates, trichomonads, fungi, and animals.

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A hypha (plural hyphae, from Greek ὑφή, huphḗ, "web") is a long, branching filamentous structure of a fungus, oomycete, or actinobacterium.

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A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon.

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Inner mitochondrial membrane

The inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) is the mitochondrial membrane which separates the mitochondrial matrix from the intermembrane space.

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Intermediate filament

Intermediate filaments (IFs) are cytoskeletal components found in the cells of vertebrate animal species, and perhaps also in other animals, fungi, plants, and unicellular organisms.

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International Microbiology

International Microbiology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Springer and the official journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology.

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An intron is any nucleotide sequence within a gene that is removed by RNA splicing during maturation of the final RNA product.

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In developmental biology, invagination is a mechanism that takes place during gastrulation.

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Isotricha intestinalis

Isotricha intestinalis is a species of holotrichhttp://mic.sgmjournals.org/cgi/reprint/106/1/33.pdf protozoa in the class Litostomatea.

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Jakoba is a genus in the taxon Excavata and currently has only a single described species, Jakoba libera.

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Jakobids are an order of eukaryotes in the supergroup of Excavates.

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A kinesin is a protein belonging to a class of motor proteins found in eukaryotic cells.

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Kingdom (biology)

In biology, kingdom (Latin: regnum, plural regna) is the second highest taxonomic rank, just below domain.

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Kleptoplasty or kleptoplastidy is a symbiotic phenomenon whereby plastids, notably chloroplasts from algae, are sequestered by host organisms.

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Konstantin Mereschkowski

Konstantin Sergeevich Mereschkowski (p; – 9 January 1921) was a prominent Russian biologist and botanist, active mainly around Kazan, whose research on lichens led him to propose the theory of symbiogenesis – that larger, more complex cells (of eukaryotes) evolved from the symbiotic relationship between less complex ones.

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In taxonomy, the Korarchaeota are a phylum of the Archaea.

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Leishmania is a genus of trypanosomes that are responsible for the disease leishmaniasis.

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Lineage (evolution)

An evolutionary lineage is a temporal series of organisms, populations, cells, or genes connected by a continuous line of descent from ancestor to descendent.

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Lipid bilayer

The lipid bilayer (or phospholipid bilayer) is a thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid molecules.

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List of sequenced eukaryotic genomes

This list of "sequenced" eukaryotic genomes contains all the eukaryotes known to have publicly available complete nuclear and organelle genome sequences that have been sequenced, assembled, annotated and published; draft genomes are not included, nor are organelle-only sequences.

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Lokiarchaeota is a proposed phylum of the Archaea.

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Long branch attraction

In phylogenetics, long branch attraction (LBA) is a form of systematic error whereby distantly related lineages are incorrectly inferred to be closely related.

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Loukozoa (From Greek loukos: groove) is a proposed taxon used in some classifications of excavate eukaryotes.

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Lynn Margulis

Lynn Margulis (born Lynn Petra Alexander; March 5, 1938 – November 22, 2011) was an American evolutionary theorist and biologist, science author, educator, and popularizer, and was the primary modern proponent for the significance of symbiosis in evolution.

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A lysosome is a membrane-bound organelle found in nearly all animal cells.

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Malawimonadidae is a eukaryotic family.

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Malawimonas is an excavate genus.

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Mastigonemes are lateral "hairs" found covering the flagella of heterokont and cryptophyte algae.

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Meiosis (from Greek μείωσις, meiosis, which means lessening) is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them.

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Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.

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The metamonads are a large group of flagellate amitochondriate excavates.

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Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).

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Methanogenesis or biomethanation is the formation of methane by microbes known as methanogens.

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A microfibril is a very fine fibril, or fiber-like strand, consisting of glycoproteins and cellulose.

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Microfilaments, also called actin filaments, are filaments in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells that form part of the cytoskeleton.

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Microtubules are tubular polymers of tubulin that form part of the cytoskeleton that provides the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells and some bacteria with structure and shape.

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Mitochondrial DNA

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

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The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.

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In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei.

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A mitosome is an organelle found in some unicellular eukaryotic organisms.

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A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

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Monocercomonoides is a genus of flagellate Excavata belonging to the order Oxymonadida.

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In cladistics, a monophyletic group, or clade, is a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor.

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Motility is the ability of an organism to move independently, using metabolic energy.

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Motor protein

Motor proteins are a class of molecular motors that can move along the cytoplasm of animal cells.

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Multicellular organism

Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.

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Multinucleate cells (also called multinucleated or polynuclear cells) are eukaryotic cells that have more than one nucleus per cell, i.e., multiple nuclei share one common cytoplasm.

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Mutualism (biology)

Mutualism or interspecific cooperation is the way two organisms of different species exist in a relationship in which each individual benefits from the activity of the other.

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Myosins are a superfamily of motor proteins best known for their roles in muscle contraction and in a wide range of other motility processes in eukaryotes.

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The neokaryotes (Cavalier-Smith 1993) are a proposed eukaryote clade consisting of the unikonts and the bikonts as sister of for instance the Jakobea.

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Neomura is a possible clade composed of the two domains of life of Archaea and Eukaryota.

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New Scientist

New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.

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Nuclear envelope

The nuclear envelope, also known as the nuclear membrane, is made up of two lipid bilayer membranes which surrounds the nucleus, and in eukaryotic cells it encases the genetic material.

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Nucleic acid sequence

A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.

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Obazoa (Brown, 2013) is a proposed sister clade of Amoebozoa (which together form Amorphea).

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Online Etymology Dictionary

The Online Etymology Dictionary is a free online dictionary written and compiled by Douglas Harper that describes the origins of English-language words.

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The opisthokonts (Greek: ὀπίσθιος (opísthios).

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In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live.

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In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.

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Osmia bicornis

Osmia bicornis, synonym Osmia rufa, is a species of mason bee, and is known as the red mason bee due to its covering of dense gingery hair.

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Osmotic pressure

Osmotic pressure is the minimum pressure which needs to be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of its pure solvent across a semipermeable membrane.

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Parakaryon myojinensis

Parakaryon myojinensis is a single-celled organism known from a single specimen, described in 2012.

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Pectin (from πηκτικός, "congealed, curdled") is a structural heteropolysaccharide contained in the primary cell walls of terrestrial plants.

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Pelomyxa is a genus of giant flagellar amoeboids, usually 500-800 μm but occasionally up to 5 mm in length, found in anaerobic or microaerobic bottom sediments of stagnant freshwater ponds or slow-moving streams.

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Peptidoglycan, also known as murein, is a polymer consisting of sugars and amino acids that forms a mesh-like layer outside the plasma membrane of most bacteria, forming the cell wall.

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The Percolozoa are a group of colourless, non-photosynthetic excavates, including many that can transform between amoeboid, flagellate, and cyst stages.

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Peroxide is a compound with the structure R-O-O-R. The O−O group in a peroxide is called the peroxide group or peroxo group.

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A peroxisome is a type of organelle known as a microbody, found in virtually all eukaryotic cells.

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Peter Ward (paleontologist)

Peter Douglas Ward (born 1949) is an American paleontologist and professor at the University of Washington, Seattle, and Sprigg Institute of Geobiology at the University of Adelaide.

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Phagocytes are cells that protect the body by ingesting harmful foreign particles, bacteria, and dead or dying cells.

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Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).

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In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.

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Picozoa are a phylum of marine unicellular heterotrophic eukaryotes with a size of less than about 3 µm.

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The Pinophyta, also known as Coniferophyta or Coniferae, or commonly as conifers, are a division of vascular land plants containing a single extant class, Pinopsida.

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Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.

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Plant cell

Plant cells are eukaryotic cells that differ in several key aspects from the cells of other eukaryotic organisms.

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Plants+HC+SAR megagroup

The Archaeplastida+HC+SAR megagroup (Archaeplastida comprising the red algae, the green algae, and the land plants) is a group of eukaryotes proposed by Burki et al.

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Plasmodesmata (singular: plasmodesma) are microscopic channels which traverse the cell walls of plant cells and some algal cells, enabling transport and communication between them.

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The plastid (Greek: πλαστός; plastós: formed, molded – plural plastids) is a double-membrane organelle found in the cells of plants, algae, and some other eukaryotic organisms.

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Ploidy is the number of complete sets of chromosomes in a cell, and hence the number of possible alleles for autosomal and pseudoautosomal genes.

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Podiata (Cavalier-Smith, 2012) or Sulcozoa (incl. Unikonts, Cavalier-Smith, 2012) or Sarcomastigota (incl. Unikonts, Cavalier-Smith, 1983) are a proposed clade containing the Unikonts (incl. Opisthokont and Amoebozoa) and smaller groupings such as Diphyllatea and Rigifilda, Breviata, Ancyromonas (Planomonas), Mantamonadida, and Apusomonadida.

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Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.

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Population bottleneck

A population bottleneck or genetic bottleneck is a sharp reduction in the size of a population due to environmental events (such as earthquakes, floods, fires, disease, or droughts) or human activities (such as genocide).

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A pre-cell is a hypothetical lipid-based structure that, under the RNA world hypothesis, could have confined RNA in ancient times.

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A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.

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Protein biosynthesis

Protein synthesis is the process whereby biological cells generate new proteins; it is balanced by the loss of cellular proteins via degradation or export.

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Proteoarchaeota are a proposed archaeal kingdom.

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Proteobacteria is a major phylum of gram-negative bacteria. They include a wide variety of pathogens, such as Escherichia, Salmonella, Vibrio, Helicobacter, Yersinia, Legionellales, and many other notable genera. Others are free-living (non-parasitic), and include many of the bacteria responsible for nitrogen fixation. Carl Woese established this grouping in 1987, calling it informally the "purple bacteria and their relatives". Because of the great diversity of forms found in this group, it was named after Proteus, a Greek god of the sea capable of assuming many different shapes and is not named after the genus Proteus. Some Alphaproteobacteria can grow at very low levels of nutrients and have unusual morphology such as stalks and buds. Others include agriculturally important bacteria capable of inducing nitrogen fixation in symbiosis with plants. The type order is the Caulobacterales, comprising stalk-forming bacteria such as Caulobacter. The Betaproteobacteria are highly metabolically diverse and contain chemolithoautotrophs, photoautotrophs, and generalist heterotrophs. The type order is the Burkholderiales, comprising an enormous range of metabolic diversity, including opportunistic pathogens. The Hydrogenophilalia are obligate thermophiles and include heterotrophs and autotrophs. The type order is the Hydrogenophilales. The Gammaproteobacteria are the largest class in terms of species with validly published names. The type order is the Pseudomonadales, which include the genera Pseudomonas and the nitrogen-fixing Azotobacter. The Acidithiobacillia contain only sulfur, iron and uranium-oxidising autotrophs. The type order is the Acidithiobacillales, which includes economically important organisms used in the mining industry such as Acidithiobacillus spp. The Deltaproteobacteria include bacteria that are predators on other bacteria and are important contributors to the anaerobic side of the sulfur cycle. The type order is the Myxococcales, which includes organisms with self-organising abilities such as Myxococcus spp. The Epsilonproteobacteria are often slender, Gram-negative rods that are helical or curved. The type order is the Campylobacterales, which includes important food pathogens such as Campylobacter spp. The Oligoflexia are filamentous aerobes. The type order is the Oligoflexales, which contains the genus Oligoflexus.

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The Proterozoic is a geological eon representing the time just before the proliferation of complex life on Earth.

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A protist is any eukaryotic organism that has cells with nuclei and is not an animal, plant or fungus.

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Protoplast, from ancient Greek πρωτόπλαστος (prōtóplastos, "first-formed"), is a biological term proposed by Hanstein in 1880 to refer to the entire cell, excluding the cell wall, but currently has several definitions.

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Protozoa (also protozoan, plural protozoans) is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.

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A pseudopod or pseudopodium (plural: pseudopods or pseudopodia) (from the Greek word ψευδοποδός, ψευδός "false" + ποδός "foot") is a temporary cytoplasm-filled projection of an eukaryotic cell membrane or a unicellular protist.

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A pteridophyte is a vascular plant (with xylem and phloem) that disperses spores (and lacks seeds).

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The Radiolaria, also called Radiozoa, are protozoa of diameter 0.1–0.2 mm that produce intricate mineral skeletons, typically with a central capsule dividing the cell into the inner and outer portions of endoplasm and ectoplasm.The elaborate mineral skeleton is usually made of silica.

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Ranunculus asiaticus

Ranunculus asiaticus, the Persian buttercup, is a species of buttercup (Ranunculus) native to the eastern Mediterranean region in southwestern Asia, southeastern Europe (Crete, Karpathos and Rhodes), and northeastern Africa.

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Red algae

The red algae, or Rhodophyta, are one of the oldest groups of eukaryotic algae.

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The Rhizaria are a species-rich supergroup of mostly unicellular eukaryotes.

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The Rhyacian Period (translit, meaning "stream of lava") is the second geologic period in the Paleoproterozoic Era and lasted from Mya to Mya (million years ago).

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Ribosomal RNA

Ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) is the RNA component of the ribosome, and is essential for protein synthesis in all living organisms.

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The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation).

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Rigifilida is a group of non-ciliate phagotrophic eukaryotes.

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Robert Whittaker

Robert Harding Whittaker (December 27, 1920 – October 20, 1980) was a distinguished American plant ecologist, active in the 1950s to the 1970s.

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Roger Stanier

Roger Yate Stanier (22 October 1916 – 29 January 1982) was a Canadian microbiologist who was influential in the development of modern microbiology.

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Sap is a fluid transported in xylem cells (vessel elements or tracheids) or phloem sieve tube elements of a plant.

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SAR supergroup

Sar or Harosa (informally the SAR supergroup) is a clade that includes stramenopiles (heterokonts), alveolates, and Rhizaria.

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The Scotokaryotes (Cavalier-Smith) or Opimoda is a proposed basal Neokaryote clade as sister of the Diaphoratickes.

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In biology, a septum (Latin for something that encloses; plural septa) is a wall, dividing a cavity or structure into smaller ones.

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Sexual reproduction

Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.

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Shale is a fine-grained, clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other minerals, especially quartz and calcite.

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Slime mold

Slime mold or slime mould is an informal name given to several kinds of unrelated eukaryotic organisms that can live freely as single cells, but can aggregate together to form multicellular reproductive structures.

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Spindle apparatus

In cell biology, the spindle apparatus (or mitotic spindle) refers to the cytoskeletal structure of eukaryotic cells that forms during cell division to separate sister chromatids between daughter cells.

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A spirochaete or spirochete is a member of the phylum Spirochaetes, which contains distinctive diderm (double-membrane) bacteria, most of which have long, helically coiled (corkscrew-shaped or spiraled, hence the name) cells.

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Sterane (cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrenes or cyclopentane perhydro phenanthrene) compounds are a class of 4-cyclic compounds derived from steroids or sterols via diagenetic and catagenetic degradation and saturation.

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Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.

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A supertree is a single phylogenetic tree assembled from a combination of smaller phylogenetic trees, which may have been assembled using different datasets (e.g. morphological and molecular) or a different selection of taxa.

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Surface-area-to-volume ratio

The surface-area-to-volume ratio, also called the surface-to-volume ratio and variously denoted sa/vol or SA:V, is the amount of surface area per unit volume of an object or collection of objects.

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Symbiogenesis, or endosymbiotic theory, is an evolutionary theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells from prokaryotic organisms, first articulated in 1905 and 1910 by the Russian botanist Konstantin Mereschkowski, and advanced and substantiated with microbiological evidence by Lynn Margulis in 1967.

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Symbiosis (from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic.

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Syntrophy, synthrophy, cross-feeding, or cross feeding is the phenomenon that one species lives off the products of another species.

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Taxonomic rank

In biological classification, taxonomic rank is the relative level of a group of organisms (a taxon) in a taxonomic hierarchy.

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Telonemia is a phylum of microscopic eukaryote, single-celled organisms.

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The Thaumarchaeota or Thaumarchaea (from the miracle) are a phylum of the Archaea proposed in 2008 after the genome of Cenarchaeum symbiosum was sequenced and found to differ significantly from other members of the hyperthermophilic phylum Crenarchaeota.

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The Vital Question

The Vital Question is a book by the English biochemist Nick Lane about the way the evolution and origin of life on Earth was constrained by the provision of energy.

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In taxonomy, the Thermoplasmatales are an order of the Thermoplasmata.

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Thomas Cavalier-Smith

Thomas (Tom) Cavalier-Smith, FRS, FRSC, NERC Professorial Fellow (born 21 October 1942), is a Professor of Evolutionary Biology in the Department of Zoology, at the University of Oxford.

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Three-domain system

The three-domain system is a biological classification introduced by Carl Woese et al. in 1977 that divides cellular life forms into archaea, bacteria, and eukaryote domains.

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Tissue (biology)

In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.

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Transfer RNA

A transfer RNA (abbreviated tRNA and formerly referred to as sRNA, for soluble RNA) is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length, that serves as the physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins.

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Tree of life (biology)

The tree of life or universal tree of life is a metaphor, model and research tool used to explore the evolution of life and describe the relationships between organisms, both living and extinct, as described in a famous passage in Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species (1859).

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Trichomonas is a genus of anaerobic excavate parasites of vertebrates.

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Trichomonas vaginalis

Trichomonas vaginalis is an anaerobic, flagellated protozoan parasite and the causative agent of trichomoniasis.

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Tsukubea is a monotypic class of excavates that contains a single species, Tsukubamonas globosa Yabuki et al.

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Tubulin in molecular biology can refer either to the tubulin protein superfamily of globular proteins, or one of the member proteins of that superfamily.

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Turgor pressure

Turgor pressure is the force within the cell that pushes the plasma membrane against the cell wall.

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An undulipodium (a Greek word meaning "swinging foot") or a 9+2 organelle is a motile filamentous extracellular projection of eukaryotic cells.

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Unicellular organism

A unicellular organism, also known as a single-celled organism, is an organism that consists of only one cell, unlike a multicellular organism that consists of more than one cell.

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Unikonts or Amorphea are members of a taxonomic supergroup that includes the basal Amoebozoa and Obazoa.

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University of California, Berkeley

The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.

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A vacuole is a membrane-bound organelle which is present in all plant and fungal cells and some protist, animal and bacterial cells.

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Varisulca is a proposed basal Podiate taxon.

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Vault (organelle)

The vault or vault cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein is a eukaryotic organelle whose function is not fully understood.

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Vesicle (biology and chemistry)

In cell biology, a vesicle is a small structure within a cell, or extracellular, consisting of fluid enclosed by a lipid bilayer.

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Vindhya Range

The Vindhya Range(also known as Vindhyachal)() is a complex, discontinuous chain of mountain ridges, hill ranges, highlands and plateau escarpments in west-central India.

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Viral eukaryogenesis

Viral eukaryogenesis is the hypothesis that the cell nucleus of eukaryotic life forms evolved from a large DNA virus in a form of endosymbiosis within a methanogenic archaeon.

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Viridiplantae (literally "green plants") are a clade of eukaryotic organisms made up of the green algae, which are primarily aquatic, and the land plants (embryophytes), which emerged within them.

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Volvox carteri

Volvox carteri F.Stein 1873 is a species of colonial green algae in the order Volvocales.

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Xyloglucan is a hemicellulose that occurs in the primary cell wall of all vascular plants; however, all enzymes responsible for xyloglucan metabolism are found in Charophyceae algae.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eukaryote

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