343 relations: Acid, Actin, Active site, Adaptive immune system, Adenine, Alpha and beta carbon, Alpha helix, Amine, Amino acid, Amino acid synthesis, Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase, Angiogenin, Antibody, Antigen, Antoine François, comte de Fourcroy, Archaea, Armour and Company, Aspartate kinase, Aspartic acid, Atom, B cell, Bacteria, Base pair, Beta sheet, Binding site, Biochemistry, Bioinformatics, Biomolecular structure, Biomolecule, Blood, C-terminus, Carboxylic acid, Carl von Voit, Cartesian coordinate system, Cartilage, Catalysis, Cell (biology), Cell adhesion, Cell biology, Cell cycle, Cell membrane, Cell nucleus, Cell signaling, Chaperone (protein), Chemical bond, Chemical ligation, Chemical polarity, Chromatography, Circular dichroism, Citric acid cycle, ..., Clustal, Coagulation, Cofactor (biochemistry), Collagen, Colloid, Conformational change, Conformational isomerism, Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, Connective tissue, Coplanarity, Cryogenic electron microscopy, Crystallization, Cyclol, Cytolysis, Cytoplasm, Cytoskeleton, Dehydration, Denaturation (biochemistry), Diet (nutrition), Differential centrifugation, Diffusion, Digestion, Dihedral angle, Dirigent protein, Dissociation constant, Distance geometry problem, Distributed computing, Disulfide, DNA, DNA repair, DNA replication, DNA-binding protein, Docking (molecular), Double bond, Downregulation and upregulation, Dual-polarization interferometry, Dutch people, Dynein, Egg white, Elastin, Electron crystallography, Electron microscope, Electrophoresis, Elemental analysis, Empirical formula, Endoplasmic reticulum, Enzyme, Enzyme assay, Enzyme catalysis, Enzyme kinetics, Escherichia coli, Essential amino acid, Eukaryote, Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource, Evolution, Exoskeleton, Feather, Fibrin, Flocculation, Fluorescence, Folding@home, Franz Hofmeister, Frederick Sanger, Fusion protein, Gel electrophoresis, Gene, Genetic code, Genetic engineering, Genome, Genomics, Gerardus Johannes Mulder, Globular protein, Gluconeogenesis, Glucose, Glutamic acid, Gluten, Graphics processing unit, Greek language, Green fluorescent protein, Guanine, Hair, Half-life, Hemoglobin, Hermann Emil Fischer, Histidine, HIV, Homology (biology), Homology modeling, Hoof, Hormone, Human, Human genome, Huntington's Disease Outreach Project for Education at Stanford, Hydrogen bond, Hydrolysis, Hydrophobe, Hydrophobic effect, Immunofluorescence, Immunohistochemistry, In silico, In vitro, In vivo, In-gel digestion, Insulin, Intein, Interactome, Internet Archive, Intracellular transport, Intrinsically disordered proteins, Ion channel, Isoelectric focusing, Isoelectric point, Isoleucine, James B. Sumner, Jöns Jacob Berzelius, John Kendrew, Kaj Ulrik Linderstrøm-Lang, Karl Heinrich Ritthausen, Keratin, Kinase, Kinesin, Kingdom (biology), Laboratory rat, Lafayette Mendel, Lectin, Leucine, Liebig's law of the minimum, Ligand, Linus Pauling, Lipid, List of proteins, Lung, Lymphoblast, Lysine, Lysis, Macromolecular assembly, Macromolecule, Mass spectrometry, Mathematical model, Max Perutz, Membrane protein, Messenger RNA, Metabolism, Methionine, Microorganism, Microscopy, Molecular dynamics, Molecular mass, Molecular mechanics, Molecular modeling on GPUs, Molecular recognition, Monte Carlo method, Motility, Motor protein, Muscle, Mycoplasma, Myoglobin, Myosin, N-terminus, Nail (anatomy), Native state, Nickel, Nuclear envelope, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of proteins, Nucleic acid, Nucleic acid sequence, Nucleoid, Nucleotide, Oligomer, Oligopeptide, Open reading frame, Organelle, Organic synthesis, Organism, Orotidine 5'-phosphate decarboxylase, Oxygen, Pancreatic ribonuclease, Peptide, Peptide bond, Peptide synthesis, Phylogenetic tree, Plasma cell, Polyamide, Polyhistidine-tag, Polymer, Polysaccharide, Post-transcriptional modification, Post-translational modification, Potassium, Precipitation (chemistry), Prokaryote, Proline, Protease, Protein, Protein biosynthesis, Protein complex, Protein Data Bank, Protein design, Protein domain, Protein engineering, Protein folding, Protein microarray, Protein primary structure, Protein purification, Protein sequencing, Protein structure, Protein structure prediction, Protein subunit, Protein superfamily, Protein targeting, Protein turnover, Protein–carbohydrate interaction, Protein–lipid interaction, Protein–protein interaction, Protein–protein interaction prediction, Proteinogenic amino acid, Proteolysis, Proteome, Proteomics, Proteopathy, Proteopedia, Pyrrolysine, Quantum mechanics, Ranpirnase, Reaction mechanism, Receptor (biochemistry), Reporter gene, Residue (chemistry), Resonance (chemistry), Restriction enzyme, Rhodopsin, Ribonuclease inhibitor, Ribosome, RNA, RNA polymerase, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Salt bridge (protein and supramolecular), Salting out, Sarcomere, Scaffolding, Scleroprotein, Secretion, Selenocysteine, Semipermeable membrane, Sequence alignment, Sequence profiling tool, Sequence space (evolution), Serum albumin, Sexual reproduction, SH3 domain, Side chain, Signal transduction, Site-directed mutagenesis, Slaughterhouse, Small molecule, Sodium, Solubility, Solvation shell, Spectroscopy, Spermatozoon, Spirochaete, Staphylococcus aureus, Starvation, Stereochemistry, Structural genomics, Substrate (chemistry), Thomas Burr Osborne (chemist), Threonine, Tissue (biology), Titin, Toxin, Transcription (biology), Transfer RNA, Translation (biology), Transmembrane protein, Transmission electron cryomicroscopy, Tubulin, Turn (biochemistry), Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, Two-hybrid screening, Unified atomic mass unit, Uracil, Urease, Valine, Vertebrate, Villin, Virus, Walter Kauzmann, William Astbury, William Cumming Rose, X-ray crystallography, Yeast. 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An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
Actin is a family of globular multi-functional proteins that form microfilaments.
In biology, the active site is the region of an enzyme where substrate molecules bind and undergo a chemical reaction.
The adaptive immune system, also known as the acquired immune system or, more rarely, as the specific immune system, is a subsystem of the overall immune system that is composed of highly specialized, systemic cells and processes that eliminate pathogens or prevent their growth.
Adenine (A, Ade) is a nucleobase (a purine derivative).
The alpha carbon (Cα) in organic molecules refers to the first carbon atom that attaches to a functional group, such as a carbonyl.
The alpha helix (α-helix) is a common motif in the secondary structure of proteins and is a righthand-spiral conformation (i.e. helix) in which every backbone N−H group donates a hydrogen bond to the backbone C.
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Amino acid synthesis is the set of biochemical processes (metabolic pathways) by which the various amino acids are produced from other compounds.
An aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS or ARS), also called tRNA-ligase, is an enzyme that attaches the appropriate amino acid onto its tRNA.
Angiogenin (Ang) also known as ribonuclease 5 is a small 123 amino acid protein that in humans is encoded by the ANG gene.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism.
Antoine François, comte de Fourcroy (15 June 175516 December 1809) was a French chemist and a contemporary of Antoine Lavoisier.
Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.
Armour & Company was an American company that used to be one of the five leading firms in the meat packing industry.
Aspartate kinase (aspartokinase, aspartic kinase) is an enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of the amino acid aspartate.
Aspartic acid (symbol Asp or D; salts known as aspartates), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
B cells, also known as B lymphocytes, are a type of white blood cell of the lymphocyte subtype.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.
The β-sheet (also β-pleated sheet) is a common motif of regular secondary structure in proteins.
In biochemistry, a binding site is a region on a protein or piece of DNA or RNA to which ligands (specific molecules and/or ions) may form a chemical bond.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field that develops methods and software tools for understanding biological data.
Biomolecular structure is the intricate folded, three-dimensional shape that is formed by a molecule of protein, DNA, or RNA, and that is important to its function.
A biomolecule or biological molecule is a loosely used term for molecules and ions that are present in organisms, essential to some typically biological process such as cell division, morphogenesis, or development.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
The C-terminus (also known as the carboxyl-terminus, carboxy-terminus, C-terminal tail, C-terminal end, or COOH-terminus) is the end of an amino acid chain (protein or polypeptide), terminated by a free carboxyl group (-COOH).
A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.
Carl von Voit (31 October 1831 – 31 January 1908) was a German physiologist and dietitian.
A Cartesian coordinate system is a coordinate system that specifies each point uniquely in a plane by a pair of numerical coordinates, which are the signed distances to the point from two fixed perpendicular directed lines, measured in the same unit of length.
Cartilage is a resilient and smooth elastic tissue, a rubber-like padding that covers and protects the ends of long bones at the joints, and is a structural component of the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the bronchial tubes, the intervertebral discs, and many other body components.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Cell adhesion is the process by which cells interact and attach to neighbouring cells through specialised molecules of the cell surface.
Cell biology (also called cytology, from the Greek κυτος, kytos, "vessel") is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, the basic unit of life.
The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.
In molecular biology, molecular chaperones are proteins that assist the covalent folding or unfolding and the assembly or disassembly of other macromolecular structures.
A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds.
Chemical ligation is a set of techniques used for creating long peptide or protein chains.
In chemistry, polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment.
Chromatography is a laboratory technique for the separation of a mixture.
Circular dichroism (CD) is dichroism involving circularly polarized light, i.e., the differential absorption of left- and right-handed light.
The citric acid cycle (CAC) – also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle – is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Clustal is a series of widely used computer programs used in Bioinformatics for multiple sequence alignment.
Coagulation (also known as clotting) is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a blood clot.
A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity.
Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies.
In chemistry, a colloid is a mixture in which one substance of microscopically dispersed insoluble particles is suspended throughout another substance.
In biochemistry, a conformational change is a change in the shape of a macromolecule, often induced by environmental factors.
In chemistry, conformational isomerism is a form of stereoisomerism in which the isomers can be interconverted just by rotations about formally single bonds (refer to figure on single bond rotation).
The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station (CAES) is the Connecticut state government's agricultural experiment station, a state government component that engages in scientific research and public outreach in agriculture and related fields.
Connective tissue (CT) is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue.
In geometry, a set of points in space are coplanar if there exists a geometric plane that contains them all.
Electron cryomicroscopy (CryoEM) is an electron microscopy (EM) technique where the sample is cooled to cryogenic temperatures.
Crystallization is the (natural or artificial) process by which a solid forms, where the atoms or molecules are highly organized into a structure known as a crystal.
The cyclol hypothesis is the first structural model of a folded, globular protein.
Cytolysis, or osmotic lysis, occurs when a cell bursts due to an osmotic imbalance that has caused excess water to diffuse into the cell.
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.
A cytoskeleton is present in all cells of all domains of life (archaea, bacteria, eukaryotes).
In physiology, dehydration is a deficit of total body water, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processes.
Denaturation is a process in which proteins or nucleic acids lose the quaternary structure, tertiary structure, and secondary structure which is present in their native state, by application of some external stress or compound such as a strong acid or base, a concentrated inorganic salt, an organic solvent (e.g., alcohol or chloroform), radiation or heat.
In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism.
Differential centrifugation is a common procedure in microbiology and cytology used to separate certain organelles from whole cells for further analysis of specific parts of cells.
Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.
Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.
A dihedral angle is the angle between two intersecting planes.
Dirigent proteins are members of a class of proteins which dictate the stereochemistry of a compound synthesized by other enzymes.
In chemistry, biochemistry, and pharmacology, a dissociation constant (K_d) is a specific type of equilibrium constant that measures the propensity of a larger object to separate (dissociate) reversibly into smaller components, as when a complex falls apart into its component molecules, or when a salt splits up into its component ions.
The distance geometry problem is that of characterization and study of sets of points based only on given values of the distances between member pairs.
Distributed computing is a field of computer science that studies distributed systems.
In chemistry, a disulfide refers to a functional group with the structure R−S−S−R′.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome.
In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.
DNA-binding proteins are proteins that have DNA-binding domains and thus have a specific or general affinity for single- or double-stranded DNA.
In the field of molecular modeling, docking is a method which predicts the preferred orientation of one molecule to a second when bound to each other to form a stable complex.
A double bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two chemical elements involving four bonding electrons instead of the usual two.
In the biological context of organisms' production of gene products, downregulation is the process by which a cell decreases the quantity of a cellular component, such as RNA or protein, in response to an external stimulus.
Dual-polarization interferometry (DPI) is an analytical technique that probes molecular layers adsorbed to the surface of a waveguide using the evanescent wave of a laser beam.
The Dutch (Dutch), occasionally referred to as Netherlanders—a term that is cognate to the Dutch word for Dutch people, "Nederlanders"—are a Germanic ethnic group native to the Netherlands.
Dynein is a family of cytoskeletal motor proteins that move along microtubules in cells.
Egg white is the clear liquid (also called the albumen or the glair/glaire) contained within an egg.
Elastin is a highly elastic protein in connective tissue and allows many tissues in the body to resume their shape after stretching or contracting.
Electron crystallography is a method to determine the arrangement of atoms in solids using a transmission electron microscope (TEM).
An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.
Electrophoresis (from the Greek "Ηλεκτροφόρηση" meaning "to bear electrons") is the motion of dispersed particles relative to a fluid under the influence of a spatially uniform electric field.
Elemental analysis is a process where a sample of some material (e.g., soil, waste or drinking water, bodily fluids, minerals, chemical compounds) is analyzed for its elemental and sometimes isotopic composition.
In chemistry, the empirical formula of a chemical compound is the simplest positive integer ratio of atoms present in a compound.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Enzyme assays are laboratory methods for measuring enzymatic activity.
Enzyme catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction by the active site of a protein.
Enzyme kinetics is the study of the chemical reactions that are catalysed by enzymes.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
An essential amino acid, or indispensable amino acid, is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized ''de novo'' (from scratch) by the organism, and thus must be supplied in its diet.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
The Eukaryotic Linear Motif (ELM) resource is a computational biology resource (developed at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL)) for investigating short linear motifs (SLiMs) in eukaryotic proteins.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
An exoskeleton (from Greek έξω, éxō "outer" and σκελετός, skeletós "skeleton") is the external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body, in contrast to the internal skeleton (endoskeleton) of, for example, a human.
Feathers are epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds and other, extinct species' of dinosaurs.
Fibrin (also called Factor Ia) is a fibrous, non-globular protein involved in the clotting of blood.
Flocculation, in the field of chemistry, is a process wherein colloids come out of suspension in the form of floc or flake, either spontaneously or due to the addition of a clarifying agent.
Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.
Folding@home (FAH or F@h) is a distributed computing project for disease research that simulates protein folding, computational drug design, and other types of molecular dynamics.
Franz Hofmeister (30 August 1850, Prague – 26 July 1922, Würzburg) was an early protein scientist, and is famous for his studies of salts that influence the solubility and conformational stability of proteins.
Frederick Sanger (13 August 1918 – 19 November 2013) was a British biochemist who twice won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, one of only two people to have done so in the same category (the other is John Bardeen in physics), the fourth person overall with two Nobel Prizes, and the third person overall with two Nobel Prizes in the sciences.
Fusion proteins or chimeric (\kī-ˈmir-ik) proteins (literally, made of parts from different sources) are proteins created through the joining of two or more genes that originally coded for separate proteins.
Gel electrophoresis is a method for separation and analysis of macromolecules (DNA, RNA and proteins) and their fragments, based on their size and charge.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) into proteins.
Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
Genomics is an interdisciplinary field of science focusing on the structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing of genomes.
Gerardus Johannes Mulder (27 December 1802 – 18 April 1880) was a Dutch organic and analytical chemist.
Globular proteins or spheroproteins are spherical ("globe-like") proteins and are one of the common protein types (the others being fibrous, disordered and membrane proteins).
Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from certain non-carbohydrate carbon substrates.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Gluten (from Latin gluten, "glue") is a composite of storage proteins termed prolamins and glutelins and stored together with starch in the endosperm (which nourishes the embryonic plant during germination) of various cereal (grass) grains.
A graphics processing unit (GPU) is a specialized electronic circuit designed to rapidly manipulate and alter memory to accelerate the creation of images in a frame buffer intended for output to a display device.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a protein composed of 238 amino acid residues (26.9 kDa) that exhibits bright green fluorescence when exposed to light in the blue to ultraviolet range.
Guanine (or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
Hair is a protein filament that grows from follicles found in the dermis.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.
Hermann Emil Louis Fischer FRS FRSE FCS (9 October 1852 – 15 July 1919) was a German chemist and 1902 recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Histidine (symbol His or H) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.
Homology modeling, also known as comparative modeling of protein, refers to constructing an atomic-resolution model of the "target" protein from its amino acid sequence and an experimental three-dimensional structure of a related homologous protein (the "template").
A hoof, plural hooves or hoofs, is the tip of a toe of an ungulate mammal, strengthened by a thick, horny, keratin covering.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
The human genome is the complete set of nucleic acid sequences for humans, encoded as DNA within the 23 chromosome pairs in cell nuclei and in a small DNA molecule found within individual mitochondria.
The Huntington’s disease Outreach Project for Education at Stanford (HOPES) is a student-run project at Stanford University dedicated to making scientific information about Huntington's disease (HD) more readily accessible to patients and the public.
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.
The hydrophobic effect is the observed tendency of nonpolar substances to aggregate in an aqueous solution and exclude water molecules.
Immunofluorescence is a technique used for light microscopy with a fluorescence microscope and is used primarily on microbiological samples.
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) involves the process of selectively imaging antigens (proteins) in cells of a tissue section by exploiting the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in biological tissues.
In silico (literally cod Latin for "in silicon", alluding to the mass use of silicon for semiconductor computer chips) is an expression used to mean "performed on computer or via computer simulation." The phrase was coined in 1989 as an allusion to the Latin phrases in vivo, in vitro, and in situ, which are commonly used in biology (see also systems biology) and refer to experiments done in living organisms, outside living organisms, and where they are found in nature, respectively.
In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.
Studies that are in vivo (Latin for "within the living"; often not italicized in English) are those in which the effects of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms or cells, usually animals, including humans, and plants, as opposed to a tissue extract or dead organism.
The in-gel digestion is part of the sample preparation for the mass spectrometric identification of proteins in course of proteomic analysis.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
An intein is a segment of a protein that is able to excise itself and join the remaining portions (the exteins) with a peptide bond in a process termed protein splicing.
In molecular biology, an interactome is the whole set of molecular interactions in a particular cell.
The Internet Archive is a San Francisco–based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge." It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and nearly three million public-domain books.
Intracellular transport is the movement of vesicles and substances within the cell.
An intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) is a protein that lacks a fixed or ordered three-dimensional structure.
Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins that allow ions to pass through the channel pore.
Isoelectric focusing (IEF), also known as electrofocusing, is a technique for separating different molecules by differences in their isoelectric point (pI).
The isoelectric point (pI, pH(I), IEP), is the pH at which a particular molecule carries no net electrical charge or is electrically neutral in the statistical mean.
Isoleucine (symbol Ile or I) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
James Batcheller Sumner (November 19, 1887 – August 12, 1955) was an American chemist.
Baron Jöns Jacob Berzelius (20 August 1779 – 7 August 1848), named by himself and contemporary society as Jacob Berzelius, was a Swedish chemist.
Sir John Cowdery Kendrew, (24 March 1917 – 23 August 1997) was an English biochemist and crystallographer who shared the 1962 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Max Perutz; their group in the Cavendish Laboratory investigated the structure of heme-containing proteins.
Kaj Ulrik Linderstrøm-Lang (29 November 1896 – 25 May 1959) was a Danish protein scientist, who was the director of the Carlsberg Laboratory from 1939 until his death.
Karl Heinrich Ritthausen (13 January 1826 – 16 October 1912) was a German biochemist who identified two amino acids and made other contributions to the science of plant proteins.
Keratin is one of a family of fibrous structural proteins.
In biochemistry, a kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of phosphate groups from high-energy, phosphate-donating molecules to specific substrates.
A kinesin is a protein belonging to a class of motor proteins found in eukaryotic cells.
In biology, kingdom (Latin: regnum, plural regna) is the second highest taxonomic rank, just below domain.
A laboratory rat or lab rat is a rat of the species Rattus norvegicus (brown rat) which is bred and kept for scientific research.
Lafayette Benedict Mendel (February 5, 1872 – December 9, 1935) was an American biochemist known for his work in nutrition, with longtime collaborator Thomas B. Osborne, including the study of Vitamin A, Vitamin B, lysine and tryptophan.
Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins, macromolecules that are highly specific for sugar moieties of other molecules.
Leucine (symbol Leu or L) is an essential amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Liebig's law of the minimum, often simply called Liebig's law or the law of the minimum, is a principle developed in agricultural science by Carl Sprengel (1828) and later popularized by Justus von Liebig.
In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.
Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American chemist, biochemist, peace activist, author, educator, and husband of American human rights activist Ava Helen Pauling.
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
Note that there exists a category for proteins that is more complete than this list. A list of proteins (and protein complexes).
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
A lymphoblast is a modified naive lymphocyte that also looks completely different.
Lysine (symbol Lys or K) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Lysis (Greek λύσις lýsis, "a loosing" from λύειν lýein, "to unbind") refers to the breaking down of the membrane of a cell, often by viral, enzymic, or osmotic (that is, "lytic") mechanisms that compromise its integrity.
The term macromolecular assembly (MA) refers to massive chemical structures such as viruses and non-biologic nanoparticles, cellular organelles and membranes and ribosomes, etc.
A macromolecule is a very large molecule, such as protein, commonly created by the polymerization of smaller subunits (monomers).
Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that ionizes chemical species and sorts the ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio.
A mathematical model is a description of a system using mathematical concepts and language.
Max Ferdinand Perutz (19 May 1914 – 6 February 2002) was an Austrian-born British molecular biologist, who shared the 1962 Nobel Prize for Chemistry with John Kendrew, for their studies of the structures of haemoglobin and myoglobin.
Membrane proteins are proteins that interact with, or are part of, biological membranes.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Methionine (symbol Met or M) is an essential amino acid in humans.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
Microscopy is the technical field of using microscopes to view objects and areas of objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye (objects that are not within the resolution range of the normal eye).
Molecular dynamics (MD) is a computer simulation method for studying the physical movements of atoms and molecules.
Relative Molecular mass or molecular weight is the mass of a molecule.
Molecular mechanics uses classical mechanics to model molecular systems.
Molecular modeling on GPU is the technique of using a graphics processing unit (GPU) for molecular simulations.
The term molecular recognition refers to the specific interaction between two or more molecules through noncovalent bonding such as hydrogen bonding, metal coordination, hydrophobic forces, van der Waals forces, π-π interactions, halogen bonding, electrostatic and/or electromagnetic effects.
Monte Carlo methods (or Monte Carlo experiments) are a broad class of computational algorithms that rely on repeated random sampling to obtain numerical results.
Motility is the ability of an organism to move independently, using metabolic energy.
Motor proteins are a class of molecular motors that can move along the cytoplasm of animal cells.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
Mycoplasma is a genus of bacteria that lack a cell wall around their cell membrane.
Myoglobin (symbol Mb or MB) is an iron- and oxygen-binding protein found in the muscle tissue of vertebrates in general and in almost all mammals.
Myosins are a superfamily of motor proteins best known for their roles in muscle contraction and in a wide range of other motility processes in eukaryotes.
The N-terminus (also known as the amino-terminus, NH2-terminus, N-terminal end or amine-terminus) is the start of a protein or polypeptide referring to the free amine group (-NH2) located at the end of a polypeptide.
A nail is a horn-like envelope covering the tips of the fingers and toes in most primates and a few other mammals.
In biochemistry, the native state of a protein or nucleic acid is its properly folded and/or assembled form, which is operative and functional.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
The nuclear envelope, also known as the nuclear membrane, is made up of two lipid bilayer membranes which surrounds the nucleus, and in eukaryotic cells it encases the genetic material.
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon in which nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiation.
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of proteins (usually abbreviated protein NMR) is a field of structural biology in which NMR spectroscopy is used to obtain information about the structure and dynamics of proteins, and also nucleic acids, and their complexes.
Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.
A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.
The nucleoid (meaning nucleus-like) is an irregularly shaped region within the cell of a prokaryote that contains all or most of the genetic material, called genophore.
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
An oligomer (oligo-, "a few" + -mer, "parts") is a molecular complex of chemicals that consists of a few monomer units, in contrast to a polymer, where the number of monomers is, in principle, infinite.
An oligopeptide, often just called peptide (oligo-, "a few"), consists of two to twenty amino acids and can include dipeptides, tripeptides, tetrapeptides, and pentapeptides.
In molecular genetics, an open reading frame (ORF) is the part of a reading frame that has the ability to be translated.
In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live.
Organic synthesis is a special branch of chemical synthesis and is concerned with the intentional construction of organic compounds.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
Orotidine 5'-phosphate decarboxylase (OMP decarboxylase) or orotidylate decarboxylase is an enzyme involved in pyrimidine biosynthesis.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Pancreatic ribonucleases (RNase, RNase I, RNase A, pancreatic RNase, ribonuclease I, endoribonuclease I, ribonucleic phosphatase, alkaline ribonuclease, ribonuclease, gene S glycoproteins, Ceratitis capitata alkaline ribonuclease, SLSG glycoproteins, gene S locus-specific glycoproteins, S-genotype-assocd. glycoproteins, ribonucleate 3'-pyrimidino-oligonucleotidohydrolase) are pyrimidine-specific endonucleases found in high quantity in the pancreas of certain mammals and of some reptiles.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
A peptide bond is a covalent chemical bond linking two consecutive amino acid monomers along a peptide or protein chain.
In organic chemistry, peptide synthesis is the production of peptides, compounds where multiple amino acids are linked via amide bonds, also known as peptide bonds.
A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.
Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, plasmocytes, plasmacytes, or effector B cells, are white blood cells that secrete large volumes of antibodies.
A polyamide is a macromolecule with repeating units linked by amide bonds.
A polyhistidine-tag is an amino acid motif in proteins that consists of at least six histidine (His) residues, often at the N- or C-terminus of the protein.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.
Post-transcriptional modification or Co-transcriptional modification is the process in eukaryotic cells where primary transcript RNA is converted into mature RNA.
Post-translational modification (PTM) refers to the covalent and generally enzymatic modification of proteins following protein biosynthesis.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Precipitation is the creation of a solid from a solution.
A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.
Proline (symbol Pro or P) is a proteinogenic amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
A protease (also called a peptidase or proteinase) is an enzyme that performs proteolysis: protein catabolism by hydrolysis of peptide bonds.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Protein synthesis is the process whereby biological cells generate new proteins; it is balanced by the loss of cellular proteins via degradation or export.
A protein complex or multiprotein complex is a group of two or more associated polypeptide chains.
The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a crystallographic database for the three-dimensional structural data of large biological molecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids.
Protein design is the rational design of new protein molecules to design novel activity, behavior, or purpose, and to advance basic understanding of protein function.
A protein domain is a conserved part of a given protein sequence and (tertiary) structure that can evolve, function, and exist independently of the rest of the protein chain.
Protein engineering is the process of developing useful or valuable proteins.
Protein folding is the physical process by which a protein chain acquires its native 3-dimensional structure, a conformation that is usually biologically functional, in an expeditious and reproducible manner.
A protein microarray (or protein chip) is a high-throughput method used to track the interactions and activities of proteins, and to determine their function, and determining function on a large scale.
Protein primary structure is the linear sequence of amino acids in a peptide or protein.
Protein purification is a series of processes intended to isolate one or a few proteins from a complex mixture, usually cells, tissues or whole organisms.
Protein sequencing is the practical process of determining the amino acid sequence of all or part of a protein or peptide.
Protein structure is the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in an amino acid-chain molecule.
Protein structure prediction is the inference of the three-dimensional structure of a protein from its amino acid sequence—that is, the prediction of its folding and its secondary and tertiary structure from its primary structure.
In structural biology, a protein subunit is a single protein molecule that assembles (or "coassembles") with other protein molecules to form a protein complex.
A protein superfamily is the largest grouping (clade) of proteins for which common ancestry can be inferred (see homology).
Protein targeting or protein sorting is the biological mechanism by which proteins are transported to the appropriate destinations in the cell or outside it.
Protein turnover is the balance between protein synthesis and protein degradation.
Carbohydrate–protein interactions are the intermolecular and intramolecular interactions between protein and carbohydrate moieties.
Protein–lipid interaction is the influence of membrane proteins on the lipid physical state or vice versa.
Protein–protein interactions (PPIs) are the physical contacts of high specificity established between two or more protein molecules as a result of biochemical events steered by electrostatic forces including the hydrophobic effect.
Protein–protein interaction prediction is a field combining bioinformatics and structural biology in an attempt to identify and catalog physical interactions between pairs or groups of proteins.
Proteinogenic amino acids are amino acids that are incorporated biosynthetically into proteins during translation.
Proteolysis is the breakdown of proteins into smaller polypeptides or amino acids.
The proteome is the entire set of proteins that is, or can be, expressed by a genome, cell, tissue, or organism at a certain time.
Proteomics is the large-scale study of proteins.
In medicine, proteopathy (Proteo-; -pathy; proteopathies pl.; proteopathic adj.) refers to a class of diseases in which certain proteins become structurally abnormal, and thereby disrupt the function of cells, tissues and organs of the body.
Proteopedia is a wiki, 3D encyclopedia of proteins and other molecules.
Pyrrolysine (symbol Pyl or O; encoded by the 'amber' stop codon UAG) is an ɑ-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins in some methanogenic archaea and bacteria; it is not present in humans.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
Ranpirnase is a ribonuclease enzyme found in the oocytes of the Northern Leopard Frog (Rana pipiens).
In chemistry, a reaction mechanism is the step by step sequence of elementary reactions by which overall chemical change occurs.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
In molecular biology, a reporter gene (often simply reporter) is a gene that researchers attach to a regulatory sequence of another gene of interest in bacteria, cell culture, animals or plants.
In chemistry residue is whatever remains or acts as a contaminant after a given class of events.
In chemistry, resonance or mesomerism is a way of describing delocalized electrons within certain molecules or polyatomic ions where the bonding cannot be expressed by one single Lewis structure.
A restriction enzyme or restriction endonuclease is an enzyme that cleaves DNA into fragments at or near specific recognition sites within the molecule known as restriction sites.
Rhodopsin (also known as visual purple) is a light-sensitive receptor protein involved in visual phototransduction.
Ribonuclease inhibitor (RI) is a large (~450 residues, ~49 kDa), acidic (pI ~4.7), leucine-rich repeat protein that forms extremely tight complexes with certain ribonucleases.
The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation).
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
RNA polymerase (ribonucleic acid polymerase), both abbreviated RNAP or RNApol, official name DNA-directed RNA polymerase, is a member of a family of enzymes that are essential to life: they are found in all organisms (-species) and many viruses.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of yeast.
In chemistry, a salt bridge is a combination of two non-covalent interactions: hydrogen bonding and ionic bonding (Figure 1).
Salting out (also known as salt-induced precipitation, salt fractionation, anti-solvent crystallization, precipitation crystallization, or drowning out) is an effect based on the electrolyte-non electrolyte interaction, in which the non-electrolyte could be less soluble at high salt concentrations.
A sarcomere (Greek sarx "flesh", meros "part") is the basic unit of striated muscle tissue.
Scaffolding, also called scaffold or staging, is a temporary structure used to support a work crew and materials to aid in the construction, maintenance and repair of buildings, bridges and all other man made structures.
Scleroproteins or fibrous proteins constitute one of the three main types of proteins (alongside globular and membrane proteins).
Secretion is the movement of material from one point to another, e.g. secreted chemical substance from a cell or gland.
Selenocysteine (symbol Sec or U, in older publications also as Se-Cys) is the 21st proteinogenic amino acid.
A semipermeable membrane is a type of biological or synthetic, polymeric membrane that will allow certain molecules or ions to pass through it by diffusion—or occasionally by more specialized processes of facilitated diffusion, passive transport or active transport.
In bioinformatics, a sequence alignment is a way of arranging the sequences of DNA, RNA, or protein to identify regions of similarity that may be a consequence of functional, structural, or evolutionary relationships between the sequences.
A sequence profiling tool in bioinformatics is a type of software that presents information related to a genetic sequence, gene name, or keyword input.
In evolutionary biology, sequence space is a way of representing all possible sequences (for a protein, gene or genome).
Serum albumin, often referred to simply as blood albumin, is an albumin (a type of globular protein) found in vertebrate blood.
Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.
The SRC Homology 3 Domain (or SH3 domain) is a small protein domain of about 60 amino acid residues.
In organic chemistry and biochemistry, a side chain is a chemical group that is attached to a core part of the molecule called "main chain" or backbone.
Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.
Site-directed mutagenesis is a molecular biology method that is used to make specific and intentional changes to the DNA sequence of a gene and any gene products.
A slaughterhouse or abattoir is a facility where animals are slaughtered for consumption as food.
Within the fields of molecular biology and pharmacology, a small molecule is a low molecular weight (< 900 daltons) organic compound that may regulate a biological process, with a size on the order of 1 nm.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.
A solvation shell is the solvent interface of any chemical compound or biomolecule that constitutes the solute.
Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.
A spermatozoon (pronounced, alternate spelling spermatozoön; plural spermatozoa; from σπέρμα "seed" and ζῷον "living being") is a motile sperm cell, or moving form of the haploid cell that is the male gamete.
A spirochaete or spirochete is a member of the phylum Spirochaetes, which contains distinctive diderm (double-membrane) bacteria, most of which have long, helically coiled (corkscrew-shaped or spiraled, hence the name) cells.
Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive, round-shaped bacterium that is a member of the Firmicutes, and it is a member of the normal flora of the body, frequently found in the nose, respiratory tract, and on the skin.
Starvation is a severe deficiency in caloric energy intake, below the level needed to maintain an organism's life.
Stereochemistry, a subdiscipline of chemistry, involves the study of the relative spatial arrangement of atoms that form the structure of molecules and their manipulation.
Structural genomics seeks to describe the 3-dimensional structure of every protein encoded by a given genome.
In chemistry, a substrate is typically the chemical species being observed in a chemical reaction, which reacts with a reagent to generate a product.
Thomas Burr Osborne (August 5, 1859 – January 29, 1929) was a biochemist and early discoverer of Vitamin A. He is known for his work isolating and characterizing seed proteins, and for determining protein nutritional requirements.
Threonine (symbol Thr or T) is an amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Titin, also known as connectin, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the TTN gene.
A toxin (from toxikon) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
A transfer RNA (abbreviated tRNA and formerly referred to as sRNA, for soluble RNA) is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length, that serves as the physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins.
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.
A transmembrane protein (TP) is a type of integral membrane protein that spans the entirety of the biological membrane to which it is permanently attached.
Transmission electron cryomicroscopy (CryoTEM) is a form of cryogenic electron microscopy, more specifically a type of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) where the sample is studied at cryogenic temperatures (generally liquid-nitrogen temperatures).
Tubulin in molecular biology can refer either to the tubulin protein superfamily of globular proteins, or one of the member proteins of that superfamily.
A turn is an element of secondary structure in proteins where the polypeptide chain reverses its overall direction.
Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, abbreviated as 2-DE or 2-D electrophoresis, is a form of gel electrophoresis commonly used to analyze proteins.
Two-hybrid screening (originally known as yeast two-hybrid system or Y2H) is a molecular biology technique used to discover protein–protein interactions (PPIs) and protein–DNA interactions by testing for physical interactions (such as binding) between two proteins or a single protein and a DNA molecule, respectively.
The unified atomic mass unit or dalton (symbol: u, or Da) is a standard unit of mass that quantifies mass on an atomic or molecular scale (atomic mass).
Uracil (U) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of RNA that are represented by the letters A, G, C and U. The others are adenine (A), cytosine (C), and guanine (G).
Ureases, functionally, belong to the superfamily of amidohydrolases and phosphotriesterases.
Valine (symbol Val or V) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
Villin is a 92.5 kDa tissue-specific actin-binding protein associated with the actin core bundle of the brush border.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
Walter J. Kauzmann (18 August 1916 – 27 January 2009) was an American chemist and professor emeritus of Princeton University.
William Thomas Astbury FRS (also Bill Astbury; 25 February 1898, Longton – 4 June 1961, Leeds) was an English physicist and molecular biologist who made pioneering X-ray diffraction studies of biological molecules.
William Cumming Rose (April 4, 1887 – September 25, 1985) was an American biochemist and nutritionist.
X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.
Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.
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