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Index DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses. [1]

384 relations: A-DNA, Acetylation, Acridine, Active site, Acute myeloid leukemia, Adenine, Adenosine monophosphate, Adenosine triphosphate, Aflatoxin, Agilent Technologies, Agriculture, Albrecht Kossel, Alec Jeffreys, Alfred Hershey, Alkylation, Amino acid, Animal, Anthropology, Antiparallel (biochemistry), Archaea, Aromaticity, Arsenic biochemistry, Astrobiology, Atom, Autosome, Avery–MacLeod–McCarty experiment, Ångström, Backbone chain, Bacteria, Bacteriophage, Base J, Base pair, Benzo(a)pyrene, Bessel function, Binding site, Biochemistry, Biofilm, Bioinformatics, Biology, Biopolymer, Biosynthesis, Blood, Bond cleavage, Brain, Branched DNA assay, C-value, Caenorhabditis elegans, Cambridge University Press, Cancer, Carbohydrate, ..., Carbon, Carcinogen, Catalysis, Cavendish Laboratory, Cell division, Cell nucleus, Cell-free fetal DNA, Cellular differentiation, Central dogma of molecular biology, Centromere, Chelation, Chemotherapy, Chloroplast, Chromatin, Chromatin remodeling, Chromosomal crossover, Chromosomal translocation, Chromosome, Chromosome 1, Chromosome territories, Colin Munro MacLeod, Colin Pitchfork, Colloidal gold, Comparison of nucleic acid simulation software, Complementary DNA, Computer science, Conformational isomerism, Cosmic dust, Covalent bond, Crime scene, Crosstalk (biology), Crystallography, Cytoplasm, Cytosine, D-loop, Data mining, Database theory, Daunorubicin, Deamination, Deletion (genetics), Deoxyribose, Deoxyribozyme, Diplonema (excavate), Directionality (molecular biology), Divergent evolution, DNA clamp, DNA computing, DNA condensation, DNA damage (naturally occurring), DNA ligase, DNA machine, DNA microarray, DNA origami, DNA paternity testing, DNA polymerase, DNA profiling, DNA repair, DNA replication, DNA sequencing, DNA supercoil, DNA-encoded chemical library, Double jeopardy, Doxorubicin, Ecological genetics, Elasticity (physics), Electromagnetic radiation, Endonuclease, Enhancer (genetics), Enterobacteria phage T2, Enzyme, Ergodic theory, Escherichia, Ethidium bromide, Euglena, Eukaryote, European Bioinformatics Institute, Evolution, Evolutionary biology, Exon, Exonuclease, Flagellate, Forensic science, Fossil, Francis Crick, Frederick Griffith, Friedrich Miescher, Fungus, G-quadruplex, GC-content, Gene, Gene duplication, Gene expression, Gene prediction, Gene product, Genetic code, Genetic disorder, Genetic engineering, Genetic genealogy, Genetic recombination, Genetics, Genome, Genome size, Genotype, GFAJ-1, Glycosylation, Griffith's experiment, Guanine, Hair, Haplotype, Har Gobind Khorana, Harvard University, Helicase, Heredity, Hershey–Chase experiment, Heterocyclic compound, Histone, Holliday junction, Homologous recombination, Homology (biology), Human genome, Human Genome Project, Hydrogen bond, Hydrogen peroxide, Hydrolysis, Hydroxy group, In vitro, In vivo, Information, Insertion (genetics), Intercalation (biochemistry), Ion, Ionic bonding, James Watson, Jean Brachet, Kinetoplastida, Life, Linus Pauling, Lipid, List of distinct cell types in the adult human body, Machine learning, Maclyn McCarty, Macromolecule, Marshall Warren Nirenberg, Martha Chase, Maurice Wilkins, Medical research, Meiosis, Meselson–Stahl experiment, Messenger RNA, Metabolism, Meteorite, Methyl group, Methylation, Microsatellite, Minisatellite, Mitochondrial DNA, Mitochondrion, Molecular biology, Molecular cloning, Molecular models of DNA, Molecular motor, Molecular recognition, Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid, Monomer, Monosaccharide, Multiple sequence alignment, Mutagen, Mutation, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Nanometre, Nanotechnology, NASA, National Center for Biotechnology Information, Natural selection, Nature (journal), Nikolai Koltsov, Nitrogenous base, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Non-coding DNA, Non-coding RNA, Nuclear DNA, Nuclease, Nucleic acid, Nucleic acid analogue, Nucleic acid double helix, Nucleic acid notation, Nucleic acid sequence, Nucleic acid thermodynamics, Nucleobase, Nucleoid, Nucleoside, Nucleoside triphosphate, Nucleosome, Nucleotide, Open reading frame, Organelle, Organic compound, Organism, Organophosphate, Oswald Avery, Outer space, Overlapping gene, Oxford University Press, Oxidizing agent, Pangenesis, Paracrystalline, Patterson function, Pentose, PH, Phenol–chloroform extraction, Phenotype, Phenotypic trait, Phoebus Levene, Phosphate, Phosphodiester bond, Phosphoramidite, Phosphorylation, Photo 51, Phylogenetics, Pi bond, Plant, Plasmid, Point mutation, Polyamine, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, Polyhedron, Polymer, Polymerase, Polymerase chain reaction, Polynucleotide, Polysaccharide, Population genetics, Pribnow box, Prokaryote, Promoter (genetics), Proofreading (biology), Protein, Protein A, Protein complex, Protein primary structure, Proteinogenic amino acid, Protist, Pseudogene, Pub, Purine, Pyrimidine, Pyrimidine dimer, RAD51, Radical (chemistry), Raymond Gosling, Recombinant DNA, Recombinase, Red giant, Regulation of gene expression, Regulatory sequence, Repeated sequence (DNA), Replisome, Reproduction, Restriction digest, Restriction enzyme, Restriction modification system, Retrovirus, Reverse transcriptase, Rhizobium, Ribose, Ribosomal DNA, Ribosome, Ribozyme, RNA, RNA polymerase, RNA polymerase II, RNA world, Robert Corey, Robert W. Holley, Rosalind Franklin, Saliva, Science Daily, Sea urchin, Semen, Sequence alignment, Sexual reproduction, Shadow biosphere, Signal transduction, Site-specific DNA-methyltransferase (cytosine-N4-specific), Skin, Solvation shell, Southern blot, Species, Stacking (chemistry), Stem-loop, Streptavidin, String-searching algorithm, Synechocystis, Systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment, Telomerase, Telomere, Temperature, Teratology, Terminator (genetics), The Double Helix, The Eagle, Cambridge, The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, Thymine, Timeline of the evolutionary history of life, Topoisomerase, Transcription (biology), Transcription factor, Transfer RNA, Transformation (genetics), Translation (biology), Transmission (genetics), Triple-stranded DNA, Ultraviolet, Universe, University of California, San Diego, University of Cambridge, Uracil, Vertebrate, Viral vector, Virus, William Astbury, X-inactivation, X-ray, X-ray crystallography, X-ray scattering techniques, Xanthomonas oryzae, Xeno nucleic acid, Z-DNA, 2,6-Diaminopurine, 5-Hydroxycytosine, 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine, 5-Methylcytosine, 6-O-Methylguanine. Expand index (334 more) »


A-DNA is one of the possible double helical structures which DNA can adopt.

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Acetylation (or in IUPAC nomenclature ethanoylation) describes a reaction that introduces an acetyl functional group into a chemical compound.

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Acridine is an organic compound and a nitrogen heterocycle with the formula C13H9N.

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Active site

In biology, the active site is the region of an enzyme where substrate molecules bind and undergo a chemical reaction.

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Acute myeloid leukemia

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a cancer of the myeloid line of blood cells, characterized by the rapid growth of abnormal cells that build up in the bone marrow and blood and interfere with normal blood cells.

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Adenine (A, Ade) is a nucleobase (a purine derivative).

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Adenosine monophosphate

Adenosine monophosphate (AMP), also known as 5'-adenylic acid, is a nucleotide.

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Adenosine triphosphate

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.

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Aflatoxins are poisonous carcinogens that are produced by certain molds (Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus) which grow in soil, decaying vegetation, hay, and grains.

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Agilent Technologies

Agilent Technologies is an American public research, development and manufacturing company established in 1999 as a spin-off from Hewlett-Packard.

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Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.

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Albrecht Kossel

Ludwig Karl Martin Leonhard Albrecht Kossel (16 September 1853 – 5 July 1927) was a German biochemist and pioneer in the study of genetics.

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Alec Jeffreys

Sir Alec John Jeffreys, (born 9 January 1950) is a British geneticist, who developed techniques for genetic fingerprinting and DNA profiling which are now used worldwide in forensic science to assist police detective work and to resolve paternity and immigration disputes.

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Alfred Hershey

Alfred Day Hershey (December 4, 1908 – May 22, 1997) was an American Nobel Prize–winning bacteriologist and geneticist.

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Alkylation is the transfer of an alkyl group from one molecule to another.

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Amino acid

Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.

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Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.

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Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.

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Antiparallel (biochemistry)

In biochemistry, two biopolymers are antiparallel if they run parallel to each other but with opposite alignments.

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Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.

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In organic chemistry, the term aromaticity is used to describe a cyclic (ring-shaped), planar (flat) molecule with a ring of resonance bonds that exhibits more stability than other geometric or connective arrangements with the same set of atoms.

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Arsenic biochemistry

Arsenic biochemistry refers to biochemical processes that can use arsenic or its compounds, such as arsenate.

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Astrobiology is a branch of biology concerned with the origins, early evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe.

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An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.

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An autosome is a chromosome that is not an allosome (a sex chromosome).

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Avery–MacLeod–McCarty experiment

The Avery–MacLeod–McCarty experiment was an experimental demonstration, reported in 1944 by Oswald Avery, Colin MacLeod, and Maclyn McCarty, that DNA is the substance that causes bacterial transformation, in an era when it had been widely believed that it was proteins that served the function of carrying genetic information (with the very word protein itself coined to indicate a belief that its function was primary).

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The ångström or angstrom is a unit of length equal to (one ten-billionth of a metre) or 0.1 nanometre.

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Backbone chain

In polymer science, the backbone chain of a polymer is the longest series of covalently bonded atoms that together create the continuous chain of the molecule.

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Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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A bacteriophage, also known informally as a phage, is a virus that infects and replicates within Bacteria and Archaea.

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Base J

β-D-Glucopyranosyloxymethyluracil or base J is a hypermodified nucleobase found in the DNA of kinetoplastids including the human pathogenic trypanosomes.

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Base pair

A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.

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Benzopyrene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and the result of incomplete combustion of organic matter at temperatures between and.

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Bessel function

Bessel functions, first defined by the mathematician Daniel Bernoulli and then generalized by Friedrich Bessel, are the canonical solutions of Bessel's differential equation for an arbitrary complex number, the order of the Bessel function.

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Binding site

In biochemistry, a binding site is a region on a protein or piece of DNA or RNA to which ligands (specific molecules and/or ions) may form a chemical bond.

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Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.

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A biofilm comprises any group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other and often also to a surface.

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Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field that develops methods and software tools for understanding biological data.

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Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.

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Biopolymers are polymers produced by living organisms; in other words, they are polymeric biomolecules.

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Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.

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Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.

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Bond cleavage

Bond cleavage, or scission, is the splitting of chemical bonds.

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The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.

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Branched DNA assay

In biology, a branched DNA assay is a signal amplification assay (as opposed to a target amplification assay) that is used to detect nucleic acid molecules.

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C-value is the amount, in picograms, of DNA contained within a haploid nucleus (e.g. a gamete) or one half the amount in a diploid somatic cell of a eukaryotic organism.

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Caenorhabditis elegans

Caenorhabditis elegans is a free-living (not parasitic), transparent nematode (roundworm), about 1 mm in length, that lives in temperate soil environments.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).

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Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

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A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.

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Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.

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Cavendish Laboratory

The Cavendish Laboratory is the Department of Physics at the University of Cambridge, and is part of the School of Physical Sciences.

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Cell division

Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.

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Cell nucleus

In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

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Cell-free fetal DNA

Cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) is fetal DNA which circulates freely in the maternal blood.

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Cellular differentiation

In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.

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Central dogma of molecular biology

The central dogma of molecular biology is an explanation of the flow of genetic information within a biological system.

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The centromere is the specialized DNA sequence of a chromosome that links a pair of sister chromatids (a dyad).

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Chelation is a type of bonding of ions and molecules to metal ions.

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Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.

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Chloroplasts are organelles, specialized compartments, in plant and algal cells.

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Chromatin is a complex of macromolecules found in cells, consisting of DNA, protein, and RNA.

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Chromatin remodeling

Chromatin remodeling is the dynamic modification of chromatin architecture to allow access of condensed genomic DNA to the regulatory transcription machinery proteins, and thereby control gene expression.

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Chromosomal crossover

Chromosomal crossover (or crossing over) is the exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes that results in recombinant chromosomes during sexual reproduction.

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Chromosomal translocation

In genetics, a chromosome translocation is a chromosome abnormality caused by rearrangement of parts between nonhomologous chromosomes.

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A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.

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Chromosome 1

Chromosome 1 is the designation for the largest human chromosome.

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Chromosome territories

In cell biology, chromosome territories are regions of the nucleus preferentially occupied by particular chromosomes.

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Colin Munro MacLeod

Colin Munro MacLeod (January 28, 1909 – February 11, 1972) was a Canadian-American geneticist.

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Colin Pitchfork

Colin Pitchfork (born 23 March 1960) is a British convicted murderer and rapist.

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Colloidal gold

Colloidal gold is a sol or colloidal suspension of nanoparticles of gold in a fluid, usually water.

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Comparison of nucleic acid simulation software

This is a list of computer programs that are used for nucleic acids simulations.

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Complementary DNA

In genetics, complementary DNA (cDNA) is DNA synthesized from a single stranded RNA (e.g., messenger RNA (mRNA) or microRNA) template in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme reverse transcriptase.

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Computer science

Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.

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Conformational isomerism

In chemistry, conformational isomerism is a form of stereoisomerism in which the isomers can be interconverted just by rotations about formally single bonds (refer to figure on single bond rotation).

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Cosmic dust

Cosmic dust, also called extraterrestrial dust or space dust, is dust which exists in outer space, as well as all over planet Earth.

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Covalent bond

A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.

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Crime scene

A crime scene is any location that may be associated with a committed crime.

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Crosstalk (biology)

Biological crosstalk refers to instances in which one or more components of one signal transduction pathway affects another.

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Crystallography is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in crystalline solids (see crystal structure).

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In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.

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Cytosine (C) is one of the four main bases found in DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).

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In molecular biology, a displacement loop or D-loop is a DNA structure where the two strands of a double-stranded DNA molecule are separated for a stretch and held apart by a third strand of DNA.

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Data mining

Data mining is the process of discovering patterns in large data sets involving methods at the intersection of machine learning, statistics, and database systems.

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Database theory

Database theory encapsulates a broad range of topics related to the study and research of the theoretical realm of databases and database management systems.

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Daunorubicin, also known as daunomycin, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat cancer.

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Deamination is the removal of an amine group from a protein molecule.

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Deletion (genetics)

In genetics, a deletion (also called gene deletion, deficiency, or deletion mutation) (sign: Δ) is a mutation (a genetic aberration) in which a part of a chromosome or a sequence of DNA is lost during DNA replication.

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Deoxyribose, or more precisely 2-deoxyribose, is a monosaccharide with idealized formula H−(C.

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Deoxyribozymes, also called DNA enzymes, DNAzymes, or catalytic DNA, are DNA oligonucleotides that are capable of performing a specific chemical reaction, often but not always catalytic.

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Diplonema (excavate)

Diplonema is a genus of free living excavates in the Euglenozoa.

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Directionality (molecular biology)

Directionality, in molecular biology and biochemistry, is the end-to-end chemical orientation of a single strand of nucleic acid.

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Divergent evolution

Divergent evolution is the accumulation of differences between groups, leading to the formation of new species.

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DNA clamp

A DNA clamp, also known as a sliding clamp, is a protein fold that serves as a processivity-promoting factor in DNA replication.

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DNA computing

DNA computing is a branch of computing which uses DNA, biochemistry, and molecular biology hardware, instead of the traditional silicon-based computer technologies.

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DNA condensation

DNA condensation refers to the process of compacting DNA molecules in vitro or in vivo.

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DNA damage (naturally occurring)

DNA damage is distinctly different from mutation, although both are types of error in DNA.

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DNA ligase

DNA ligase is a specific type of enzyme, a ligase, that facilitates the joining of DNA strands together by catalyzing the formation of a phosphodiester bond.

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DNA machine

A DNA machine is a molecular machine constructed from DNA.

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DNA microarray

A DNA microarray (also commonly known as DNA chip or biochip) is a collection of microscopic DNA spots attached to a solid surface.

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DNA origami

DNA origami is the nanoscale folding of DNA to create non-arbitrary two- and three-dimensional shapes at the nanoscale.

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DNA paternity testing

DNA paternity testing is the use of DNA profiling (known as genetic fingerprinting) to determine whether two individuals are biologically parent and child.

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DNA polymerase

DNA polymerases are enzymes that synthesize DNA molecules from deoxyribonucleotides, the building blocks of DNA.

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DNA profiling

DNA profiling (also called DNA fingerprinting, DNA testing, or DNA typing) is the process of determining an individual's DNA characteristics, which are as unique as fingerprints.

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DNA repair

DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome.

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DNA replication

In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.

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DNA sequencing

DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule.

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DNA supercoil

DNA supercoiling refers to the over- or under-winding of a DNA strand, and is an expression of the strain on that strand.

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DNA-encoded chemical library

DNA-encoded chemical libraries (DEL) is a technology for the synthesis and screening on unprecedented scale of collections of small molecule compounds.

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Double jeopardy

Double jeopardy is a procedural defence that prevents an accused person from being tried again on the same (or similar) charges and on the same facts, following a valid acquittal or conviction.

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Doxorubicin, sold under the trade names Adriamycin among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat cancer.

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Ecological genetics

Ecological genetics is the study of genetics in natural populations.

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Elasticity (physics)

In physics, elasticity (from Greek ἐλαστός "ductible") is the ability of a body to resist a distorting influence and to return to its original size and shape when that influence or force is removed.

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Electromagnetic radiation

In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.

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Endonucleases are enzymes that cleave the phosphodiester bond within a polynucleotide chain.

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Enhancer (genetics)

In genetics, an enhancer is a short (50–1500 bp) region of DNA that can be bound by proteins (activators) to increase the likelihood that transcription of a particular gene will occur.

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Enterobacteria phage T2

Enterobacteria phage T2 is a virus that infects and kills E. coli.

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Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Ergodic theory

Ergodic theory (Greek: έργον ergon "work", όδος hodos "way") is a branch of mathematics that studies dynamical systems with an invariant measure and related problems.

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Escherichia is a genus of Gram-negative, nonspore forming, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria from the family Enterobacteriaceae.

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Ethidium bromide

Ethidium bromide is an intercalating agent commonly used as a fluorescent tag (nucleic acid stain) in molecular biology laboratories for techniques such as agarose gel electrophoresis.

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Euglena is a genus of single-celled flagellate eukaryotes.

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Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).

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European Bioinformatics Institute

The European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI) is a centre for research and services in bioinformatics, and is part of European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL).

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Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.

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Evolutionary biology

Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth, starting from a single common ancestor.

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An exon is any part of a gene that will encode a part of the final mature RNA produced by that gene after introns have been removed by RNA splicing.

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Exonucleases are enzymes that work by cleaving nucleotides one at a time from the end (exo) of a polynucleotide chain.

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A flagellate is a cell or organism with one or more whip-like appendages called flagella.

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Forensic science

Forensic science is the application of science to criminal and civil laws, mainly—on the criminal side—during criminal investigation, as governed by the legal standards of admissible evidence and criminal procedure.

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A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.

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Francis Crick

Francis Harry Compton Crick (8 June 1916 – 28 July 2004) was a British molecular biologist, biophysicist, and neuroscientist, most noted for being a co-discoverer of the structure of the DNA molecule in 1953 with James Watson, work which was based partly on fundamental studies done by Rosalind Franklin, Raymond Gosling and Maurice Wilkins.

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Frederick Griffith

Frederick Griffith was a British bacteriologist whose focus was the epidemiology and pathology of bacterial pneumonia.

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Friedrich Miescher

Johannes Friedrich Miescher (13 August 1844 – 26 August 1895) was a Swiss physician and biologist.

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A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.

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In molecular biology, G-quadruplex secondary structures are formed in nucleic acids by sequences that are rich in guanine.

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In molecular biology and genetics, GC-content (or guanine-cytosine content) is the percentage of nitrogenous bases on a DNA or RNA molecule that are either guanine or cytosine (from a possibility of four different ones, also including adenine and thymine in DNA and adenine and uracil in RNA).

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In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.

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Gene duplication

Gene duplication (or chromosomal duplication or gene amplification) is a major mechanism through which new genetic material is generated during molecular evolution.

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Gene expression

Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.

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Gene prediction

In computational biology, gene prediction or gene finding refers to the process of identifying the regions of genomic DNA that encode genes.

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Gene product

A gene product is the biochemical material, either RNA or protein, resulting from expression of a gene.

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Genetic code

The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) into proteins.

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Genetic disorder

A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome.

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Genetic engineering

Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.

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Genetic genealogy

Genetic genealogy is the use of DNA testing in combination with traditional genealogical methods to infer relationships between individuals and find ancestors.

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Genetic recombination

Genetic recombination (aka genetic reshuffling) is the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent.

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Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.

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In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.

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Genome size

Genome size is the total amount of DNA contained within one copy of a single genome.

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The genotype is the part of the genetic makeup of a cell, and therefore of an organism or individual, which determines one of its characteristics (phenotype).

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GFAJ-1 is a strain of rod-shaped bacteria in the family Halomonadaceae.

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Glycosylation (see also chemical glycosylation) is the reaction in which a carbohydrate, i.e. a glycosyl donor, is attached to a hydroxyl or other functional group of another molecule (a glycosyl acceptor).

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Griffith's experiment

Griffith's experiment, reported in 1928 by Frederick Griffith, was the first experiment suggesting that bacteria are capable of transferring genetic information through a process known as transformation.

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Guanine (or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).

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Hair is a protein filament that grows from follicles found in the dermis.

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A haplotype (haploid genotype) is a group of alleles in an organism that are inherited together from a single parent.

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Har Gobind Khorana

Har Gobind Khorana (9 January 1922 – 9 November 2011) was an Indian American biochemist.

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Harvard University

Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

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Helicases are a class of enzymes vital to all living organisms.

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Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.

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Hershey–Chase experiment

The Hershey–Chase experiments were a series of experiments conducted in 1952 by Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase that helped to confirm that DNA is genetic material.

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Heterocyclic compound

A heterocyclic compound or ring structure is a cyclic compound that has atoms of at least two different elements as members of its ring(s).

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In biology, histones are highly alkaline proteins found in eukaryotic cell nuclei that package and order the DNA into structural units called nucleosomes.

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Holliday junction

A Holliday junction is a branched nucleic acid structure that contains four double-stranded arms joined together.

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Homologous recombination

Homologous recombination is a type of genetic recombination in which nucleotide sequences are exchanged between two similar or identical molecules of DNA.

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Homology (biology)

In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.

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Human genome

The human genome is the complete set of nucleic acid sequences for humans, encoded as DNA within the 23 chromosome pairs in cell nuclei and in a small DNA molecule found within individual mitochondria.

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Human Genome Project

The Human Genome Project (HGP) was an international scientific research project with the goal of determining the sequence of nucleotide base pairs that make up human DNA, and of identifying and mapping all of the genes of the human genome from both a physical and a functional standpoint.

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Hydrogen bond

A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.

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Hydrogen peroxide

Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound with the formula.

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Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.

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Hydroxy group

A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.

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In vitro

In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.

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In vivo

Studies that are in vivo (Latin for "within the living"; often not italicized in English) are those in which the effects of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms or cells, usually animals, including humans, and plants, as opposed to a tissue extract or dead organism.

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Information is any entity or form that provides the answer to a question of some kind or resolves uncertainty.

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Insertion (genetics)

In genetics, an insertion (also called an insertion mutation) is the addition of one or more nucleotide base pairs into a DNA sequence.

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Intercalation (biochemistry)

In biochemistry, intercalation is the insertion of molecules between the planar bases of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).

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An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

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Ionic bonding

Ionic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that involves the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions, and is the primary interaction occurring in ionic compounds.

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James Watson

James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, geneticist and zoologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA in 1953 with Francis Crick and Rosalind Franklin.

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Jean Brachet

Prof Jean Louis Auguste Brachet (19 March 1909 – 10 August 1988) was a Belgian biochemist who made a key contribution in understanding the role of RNA.

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Kinetoplastida (or Kinetoplastea, as a class) is a group of flagellated protists belonging to the phylum Euglenozoa, and characterised by the presence of an organelle with a large massed DNA called kinetoplast (hence the name).

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Life is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.

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Linus Pauling

Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American chemist, biochemist, peace activist, author, educator, and husband of American human rights activist Ava Helen Pauling.

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In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.

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List of distinct cell types in the adult human body

There are many different types of cell in the human body.

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Machine learning

Machine learning is a subset of artificial intelligence in the field of computer science that often uses statistical techniques to give computers the ability to "learn" (i.e., progressively improve performance on a specific task) with data, without being explicitly programmed.

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Maclyn McCarty

Maclyn McCarty (June 9, 1911 – January 2, 2005) was an American geneticist.

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A macromolecule is a very large molecule, such as protein, commonly created by the polymerization of smaller subunits (monomers).

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Marshall Warren Nirenberg

Marshall Warren Nirenberg (April 10, 1927 – January 15, 2010) was a Jewish American biochemist and geneticist.

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Martha Chase

Martha Cowles Chase (November 30, 1927 – August 8, 2003), also known as Martha C. Epstein, was an American geneticist known for having in 1952, with Alfred Hershey, experimentally helped to confirm that DNA rather than protein is the genetic material of life.

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Maurice Wilkins

Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins (15 December 1916 – 5 October 2004) was a New Zealand-born British physicist and molecular biologist, and Nobel laureate whose research contributed to the scientific understanding of phosphorescence, isotope separation, optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction, and to the development of radar.

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Medical research

Biomedical research (or experimental medicine) encompasses a wide array of research, extending from "basic research" (also called bench science or bench research), – involving fundamental scientific principles that may apply to a ''preclinical'' understanding – to clinical research, which involves studies of people who may be subjects in clinical trials.

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Meiosis (from Greek μείωσις, meiosis, which means lessening) is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them.

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Meselson–Stahl experiment

The Meselson–Stahl experiment is an experiment by Matthew Meselson and Franklin Stahl in 1958 which supported Watson and Crick's hypothesis that DNA replication was semiconservative.

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Messenger RNA

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.

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Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.

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A meteorite is a solid piece of debris from an object, such as a comet, asteroid, or meteoroid, that originates in outer space and survives its passage through the atmosphere to reach the surface of a planet or moon.

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Methyl group

A methyl group is an alkyl derived from methane, containing one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms — CH3.

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In the chemical sciences, methylation denotes the addition of a methyl group on a substrate, or the substitution of an atom (or group) by a methyl group.

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A microsatellite is a tract of repetitive DNA in which certain DNA motifs (ranging in length from 1–6 or more base pairs) are repeated, typically 5–50 times.

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A minisatellite is a tract of repetitive DNA in which certain DNA motifs (ranging in length from 10–60 base pairs) are typically repeated 5-50 times.

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Mitochondrial DNA

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

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The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.

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Molecular biology

Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.

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Molecular cloning

Molecular cloning is a set of experimental methods in molecular biology that are used to assemble recombinant DNA molecules and to direct their replication within host organisms.

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Molecular models of DNA

Molecular models of DNA structures are representations of the molecular geometry and topology of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules using one of several means, with the aim of simplifying and presenting the essential, physical and chemical, properties of DNA molecular structures either in vivo or in vitro.

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Molecular motor

Molecular motors are biological molecular machines that are the essential agents of movement in living organisms.

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Molecular recognition

The term molecular recognition refers to the specific interaction between two or more molecules through noncovalent bonding such as hydrogen bonding, metal coordination, hydrophobic forces, van der Waals forces, π-π interactions, halogen bonding, electrostatic and/or electromagnetic effects.

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Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid

"Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid" was the first article published to describe the discovery of the double helix structure of DNA, using X-ray diffraction and the mathematics of a helix transform.

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A monomer (mono-, "one" + -mer, "part") is a molecule that "can undergo polymerization thereby contributing constitutional units to the essential structure of a macromolecule".

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Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single, sacchar: sugar), also called simple sugars, are the most basic units of carbohydrates.

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Multiple sequence alignment

A multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is a sequence alignment of three or more biological sequences, generally protein, DNA, or RNA.

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In genetics, a mutagen is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic material, usually DNA, of an organism and thus increases the frequency of mutations above the natural background level.

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In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.

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Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a species of pathogenic bacteria in the family Mycobacteriaceae and the causative agent of tuberculosis.

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The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).

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Nanotechnology ("nanotech") is manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale.

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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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National Center for Biotechnology Information

The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is part of the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), a branch of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

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Natural selection

Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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Nikolai Koltsov

Nikolai Konstantinovich Koltsov (Николай Константинович Кольцов; July 14, 1872December 2, 1940) was a Russian biologist and a pioneer of modern genetics.

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Nitrogenous base

A nitrogenous base, or nitrogen-containing base, is an organic molecule with a nitrogen atom that has the chemical properties of a base.

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Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.

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Non-coding DNA

In genomics and related disciplines, noncoding DNA sequences are components of an organism's DNA that do not encode protein sequences.

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Non-coding RNA

A non-coding RNA (ncRNA) is an RNA molecule that is not translated into a protein.

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Nuclear DNA

Nuclear DNA, or nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid (nDNA), is the DNA contained within the nucleus of a eukaryotic organism.

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A nuclease (also archaically known as nucleodepolymerase or polynucleotidase) is an enzyme capable of cleaving the phosphodiester bonds between monomers of nucleic acids.

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Nucleic acid

Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.

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Nucleic acid analogue

Nucleic acid analogues are compounds which are analogous (structurally similar) to naturally occurring RNA and DNA, used in medicine and in molecular biology research.

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Nucleic acid double helix

In molecular biology, the term double helix refers to the structure formed by double-stranded molecules of nucleic acids such as DNA.

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Nucleic acid notation

The nucleic acid notation currently in use was first formalized by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) in 1970.

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Nucleic acid sequence

A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.

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Nucleic acid thermodynamics

Nucleic acid thermodynamics is the study of how temperature affects the nucleic acid structure of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA).

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Nucleobases, also known as nitrogenous bases or often simply bases, are nitrogen-containing biological compounds that form nucleosides, which in turn are components of nucleotides, with all of these monomers constituting the basic building blocks of nucleic acids.

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The nucleoid (meaning nucleus-like) is an irregularly shaped region within the cell of a prokaryote that contains all or most of the genetic material, called genophore.

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Nucleosides are glycosylamines that can be thought of as nucleotides without a phosphate group.

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Nucleoside triphosphate

A nucleoside triphosphate is a molecule containing a nitrogenous base bound to a 5-carbon sugar (either ribose or deoxyribose), with three phosphate groups bound to the sugar.

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A nucleosome is a basic unit of DNA packaging in eukaryotes, consisting of a segment of DNA wound in sequence around eight histone protein cores.

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Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.

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Open reading frame

In molecular genetics, an open reading frame (ORF) is the part of a reading frame that has the ability to be translated.

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In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live.

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Organic compound

In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.

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In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.

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Organophosphates (also known as phosphate esters) are a class of organophosphorus compounds with the general structure O.

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Oswald Avery

Oswald Theodore Avery Jr. (October 21, 1877 – February 20, 1955) was a Canadian-American physician and medical researcher.

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Outer space

Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies.

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Overlapping gene

An overlapping gene is a gene whose expressible nucleotide sequence partially overlaps with the expressible nucleotide sequence of another gene.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Oxidizing agent

In chemistry, an oxidizing agent (oxidant, oxidizer) is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances — in other words to cause them to lose electrons.

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Pangenesis was Charles Darwin's hypothetical mechanism for heredity, in which he proposed that each part of the body continually emitted its own type of small organic particles called gemmules that aggregated in the gonads, contributing heritable information to the gametes.

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Paracrystalline materials are defined as having short- and medium-range ordering in their lattice (similar to the liquid crystal phases) but lacking crystal-like long-range ordering at least in one direction.

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Patterson function

The Patterson function is used to solve the phase problem in X-ray crystallography.

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A pentose is a monosaccharide with five carbon atoms.

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In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.

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Phenol–chloroform extraction

Phenol–chloroform extraction is a liquid-liquid extraction technique in molecular biology used to separate nucleic acids from proteins and lipids.

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A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).

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Phenotypic trait

A phenotypic trait, or simply trait, is a distinct variant of a phenotypic characteristic of an organism; it may be either inherited or determined environmentally, but typically occurs as a combination of the two.

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Phoebus Levene

Phoebus Aaron Theodore Levene, M.D. (25 February 1869 – 6 September 1940) was an American biochemist who studied the structure and function of nucleic acids.

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A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.

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Phosphodiester bond

A phosphodiester bond occurs when exactly two of the hydroxyl groups in phosphoric acid react with hydroxyl groups on other molecules to form two ester bonds.

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A phosphoramidite (RO)2PNR2 is a monoamide of a phosphite diester.

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In chemistry, phosphorylation of a molecule is the attachment of a phosphoryl group.

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Photo 51

Photograph 51 is the nickname given to an X-ray diffraction image of crystallized DNA taken by Raymond Gosling in May 1952, working as a PhD student under the supervision of Rosalind Franklin, at King's College London in Sir John Randall's group.

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In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.

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Pi bond

In chemistry, pi bonds (π bonds) are covalent chemical bonds where two lobes of an orbital on one atom overlap two lobes of an orbital on another atom.

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Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.

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A plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently.

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Point mutation

A point mutation is a genetic mutation where a single nucleotide base is changed, inserted or deleted from a sequence of DNA or RNA.

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A polyamine is an organic compound having more than two amino groups.

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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, also polyaromatic hydrocarbons or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons) are hydrocarbons—organic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen—that are composed of multiple aromatic rings (organic rings in which the electrons are delocalized).

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In geometry, a polyhedron (plural polyhedra or polyhedrons) is a solid in three dimensions with flat polygonal faces, straight edges and sharp corners or vertices.

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A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.

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A polymerase is an enzyme (EC that synthesizes long chains of polymers or nucleic acids.

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Polymerase chain reaction

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used in molecular biology to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a segment of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.

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A polynucleotide molecule is a biopolymer composed of 13 or more nucleotide monomers covalently bonded in a chain.

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Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.

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Population genetics

Population genetics is a subfield of genetics that deals with genetic differences within and between populations, and is a part of evolutionary biology.

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Pribnow box

The Pribnow box (also known as the Pribnow-Schaller box) is the sequence TATAAT of six nucleotides (thymine, adenine, thymine, etc.) that is an essential part of a promoter site on DNA for transcription to occur in bacteria.

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A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.

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Promoter (genetics)

In genetics, a promoter is a region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene.

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Proofreading (biology)

The term proofreading is used in genetics to refer to the error-correcting processes, first proposed by John Hopfield and Jacques Ninio, involved in DNA replication, immune system specificity, enzyme-substrate recognition among many other processes that require enhanced specificity.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Protein A

Protein A is a 42 kDa surface protein originally found in the cell wall of the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus.

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Protein complex

A protein complex or multiprotein complex is a group of two or more associated polypeptide chains.

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Protein primary structure

Protein primary structure is the linear sequence of amino acids in a peptide or protein.

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Proteinogenic amino acid

Proteinogenic amino acids are amino acids that are incorporated biosynthetically into proteins during translation.

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A protist is any eukaryotic organism that has cells with nuclei and is not an animal, plant or fungus.

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Pseudogenes are segments of DNA that are related to real genes.

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A pub, or public house, is an establishment licensed to sell alcoholic drinks, which traditionally include beer (such as ale) and cider.

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A purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound that consists of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring.

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Pyrimidine is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound similar to pyridine.

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Pyrimidine dimer

Pyrimidine dimers are molecular lesions formed from thymine or cytosine bases in DNA via photochemical reactions.

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RAD51 is a eukaryotic gene.

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Radical (chemistry)

In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.

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Raymond Gosling

Raymond George Gosling (15 July 1926 – 18 May 2015) was a British scientist.

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Recombinant DNA

Recombinant DNA (rDNA) molecules are DNA molecules formed by laboratory methods of genetic recombination (such as molecular cloning) to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in the genome.

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Recombinases are genetic recombination enzymes.

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Red giant

A red giant is a luminous giant star of low or intermediate mass (roughly 0.3–8 solar masses) in a late phase of stellar evolution.

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Regulation of gene expression

Regulation of gene expression includes a wide range of mechanisms that are used by cells to increase or decrease the production of specific gene products (protein or RNA), and is informally termed gene regulation.

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Regulatory sequence

A regulatory sequence is a segment of a nucleic acid molecule which is capable of increasing or decreasing the expression of specific genes within an organism.

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Repeated sequence (DNA)

Repeated sequences (also known as repetitive elements, or repeats) are patterns of nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) that occur in multiple copies throughout the genome.

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The replisome is a complex molecular machine that carries out replication of DNA.

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Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents".

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Restriction digest

A restriction digest is a procedure used in molecular biology to prepare DNA for analysis or other processing.

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Restriction enzyme

A restriction enzyme or restriction endonuclease is an enzyme that cleaves DNA into fragments at or near specific recognition sites within the molecule known as restriction sites.

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Restriction modification system

The restriction modification system (RM system) is found in bacteria and other prokaryotic organisms, and provides a defense against foreign DNA, such as that borne by bacteriophages.

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A retrovirus is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus with a DNA intermediate and, as an obligate parasite, targets a host cell.

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Reverse transcriptase

A reverse transcriptase (RT) is an enzyme used to generate complementary DNA (cDNA) from an RNA template, a process termed reverse transcription.

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Rhizobium is a genus of Gram-negative soil bacteria that fix nitrogen.

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Ribose is a carbohydrate with the formula C5H10O5; specifically, it is a pentose monosaccharide (simple sugar) with linear form H−(C.

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Ribosomal DNA

Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is a DNA sequence that codes for ribosomal RNA.

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The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation).

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Ribozymes (ribonucleic acid enzymes) are RNA molecules that are capable of catalyzing specific biochemical reactions, similar to the action of protein enzymes.

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Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.

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RNA polymerase

RNA polymerase (ribonucleic acid polymerase), both abbreviated RNAP or RNApol, official name DNA-directed RNA polymerase, is a member of a family of enzymes that are essential to life: they are found in all organisms (-species) and many viruses.

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RNA polymerase II

RNA polymerase II (RNAP II and Pol II) is a multiprotein complex.

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RNA world

The RNA world is a hypothetical stage in the evolutionary history of life on Earth, in which self-replicating RNA molecules proliferated before the evolution of DNA and proteins.

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Robert Corey

Robert Brainard Corey (August 19, 1897 – April 23, 1971) was an American biochemist, mostly known for his role in discovery of the α-helix and the β-sheet with Linus Pauling.

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Robert W. Holley

Robert William Holley (January 28, 1922 – February 11, 1993) was an American biochemist.

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Rosalind Franklin

Rosalind Elsie Franklin (25 July 192016 April 1958) was an English chemist and X-ray crystallographer who made contributions to the understanding of the molecular structures of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), RNA (ribonucleic acid), viruses, coal, and graphite.

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Saliva is a watery substance formed in the mouths of animals, secreted by the salivary glands.

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Science Daily

Science Daily is an American website that aggregates press releases and publishes lightly edited press releases (a practice called churnalism) about science, similar to Phys.org and EurekAlert!.

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Sea urchin

Sea urchins or urchins are typically spiny, globular animals, echinoderms in the class Echinoidea.

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Semen, also known as seminal fluid, is an organic fluid that may contain spermatozoa.

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Sequence alignment

In bioinformatics, a sequence alignment is a way of arranging the sequences of DNA, RNA, or protein to identify regions of similarity that may be a consequence of functional, structural, or evolutionary relationships between the sequences.

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Sexual reproduction

Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.

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Shadow biosphere

A shadow biosphere is a hypothetical microbial biosphere of Earth that uses radically different biochemical and molecular processes than currently known life.

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Signal transduction

Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.

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Site-specific DNA-methyltransferase (cytosine-N4-specific)

Site-specific DNA-methyltransferase (cytosine-N4-specific) (modification methylase, restriction-modification system, DNAmethyltransferase, m4C-forming MTase, S-adenosyl-L-methionine:DNA-cytosine 4-N-methyltransferase) is an enzyme with systematic name S-adenosyl-L-methionine:DNA-cytosine N4-methyltransferase.

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Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.

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Solvation shell

A solvation shell is the solvent interface of any chemical compound or biomolecule that constitutes the solute.

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Southern blot

A Southern blot is a method used in molecular biology for detection of a specific DNA sequence in DNA samples.

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In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.

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Stacking (chemistry)

In chemistry, pi stacking (also called π–π stacking) refers to attractive, noncovalent interactions between aromatic rings, since they contain pi bonds.

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Stem-loop intramolecular base pairing is a pattern that can occur in single-stranded DNA or, more commonly, in RNA.

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Streptavidin is a 52.8 kDa protein purified from the bacterium Streptomyces avidinii.

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String-searching algorithm

In computer science, string-searching algorithms, sometimes called string-matching algorithms, are an important class of string algorithms that try to find a place where one or several strings (also called patterns) are found within a larger string or text.

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Synechocystis is a genus of unicellular, freshwater cyanobacteria primarily represented by the strain Synechocystis sp.

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Systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment

Systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), also referred to as in vitro selection or in vitro evolution, is a combinatorial chemistry technique in molecular biology for producing oligonucleotides of either single-stranded DNA or RNA that specifically bind to a target ligand or ligands.

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Telomerase, also called terminal transferase, is a ribonucleoprotein that adds a species-dependent telomere repeat sequence to the 3' end of telomeres.

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A telomere is a region of repetitive nucleotide sequences at each end of a chromosome, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes.

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Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.

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Teratology is the study of abnormalities of physiological development.

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Terminator (genetics)

In genetics, a transcription terminator is a section of nucleic acid sequence that marks the end of a gene or operon in genomic DNA during transcription.

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The Double Helix

The Double Helix: A Personal Account of the Discovery of the Structure of DNA is an autobiographical account of the discovery of the double helix structure of DNA written by James D. Watson and published in 1968.

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The Eagle, Cambridge

Originally opened in 1667 as the "Eagle and Child", The Eagle is one of the larger pubs in Cambridge, England, on the north side of Bene't Street in the centre of the city.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Wall Street Journal

The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.

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---> Thymine (T, Thy) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA that are represented by the letters G–C–A–T.

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Timeline of the evolutionary history of life

This timeline of the evolutionary history of life represents the current scientific theory outlining the major events during the development of life on planet Earth.

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Topoisomerases are enzymes that participate in the overwinding or underwinding of DNA.

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Transcription (biology)

Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.

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Transcription factor

In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.

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Transfer RNA

A transfer RNA (abbreviated tRNA and formerly referred to as sRNA, for soluble RNA) is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length, that serves as the physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins.

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Transformation (genetics)

In molecular biology, transformation is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the direct uptake and incorporation of exogenous genetic material from its surroundings through the cell membrane(s).

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Translation (biology)

In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell's nucleus.

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Transmission (genetics)

Genetic transmission is the transfer of genetic information from genes to another generation (from parent to offspring), almost synonymous with heredity, or from one location in a cell to another.

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Triple-stranded DNA

Triple-stranded DNA is a DNA structure in which three oligonucleotides wind around each other and form a triple helix.

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Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.

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University of California, San Diego

The University of California, San Diego is a public research university located in the La Jolla neighborhood of San Diego, California, in the United States.

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University of Cambridge

The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.

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Uracil (U) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of RNA that are represented by the letters A, G, C and U. The others are adenine (A), cytosine (C), and guanine (G).

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Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).

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Viral vector

Viral vectors are tools commonly used by molecular biologists to deliver genetic material into cells.

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A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.

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William Astbury

William Thomas Astbury FRS (also Bill Astbury; 25 February 1898, Longton – 4 June 1961, Leeds) was an English physicist and molecular biologist who made pioneering X-ray diffraction studies of biological molecules.

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X-inactivation (also called lyonization) is a process by which one of the copies of the X chromosome present in female mammals is inactivated.

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X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.

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X-ray crystallography

X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.

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X-ray scattering techniques

X-ray scattering techniques are a family of non-destructive analytical techniques which reveal information about the crystal structure, chemical composition, and physical properties of materials and thin films.

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Xanthomonas oryzae

Xanthomonas oryzae is a species of Proteobacteria.

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Xeno nucleic acid

Xeno nucleic acid (XNA) is a synthetic alternative to the natural nucleic acids DNA and RNA as information-storing biopolymers that differs in the sugar backbone.

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Z-DNA is one of the many possible double helical structures of DNA.

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2,6-Diaminopurine is a compound used to treat leukemia.

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5-Hydroxycytosine is an oxidized form of cytosine that is associated with an increased frequency of C to T transition mutations, with some C to G transversions.

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5-Hydroxymethylcytosine is a DNA pyrimidine nitrogen base derived from cytosine.

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5-Methylcytosine is a methylated form of the DNA base cytosine that may be involved in the regulation of gene transcription.

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6-O-Methylguanine is a derivative of the nucleobase guanine in which a methyl group is attached to the oxygen atom.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNA

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