70 relations: Active pixel sensor, Analogue electronics, Astronomy, Attenuation, Back-illuminated sensor, Bayer filter, Camera module, Charge-coupled device, Chroma key, Chroma subsampling, CMOS, Color filter array, Color gel, Colour co-site sampling, Computer vision, Contact image sensor, Dartmouth College, Demosaicing, Dichroic filter, Dichroic prism, Digital camera, Digital electronics, Digital imaging, Dynamic range, Electric current, Electromagnetic radiation, Electronics, Flat panel detector, Foveon X3 sensor, Full-frame digital SLR, Gamma camera, History of television, Image, Image sensor format, Information, Laryngoscopy, Light, List of large sensor interchangeable-lens video cameras, List of sensors used in digital cameras, Live MOS, Lossy compression, Medical imaging, Multispectral image, Night vision, NMOS logic, Outline of television broadcasting, Oversampled binary image sensor, Passband, Petzval field curvature, Piezoelectricity, ..., Radar, Reflection (physics), Refraction, Semiconductor, Semiconductor detector, Sensitometry, Sensor, Signal, Signal-to-noise ratio, Sonar, Stained glass, Staring array, Technological change, Thermography, Three-CCD camera, Vacuum tube, Video camera tube, Video editing, Wave, X-ray. Expand index (20 more) » « Shrink index
An active-pixel sensor (APS) is an image sensor where each picture element ("pixel") has a photodetector and an active amplifier.
Analogue electronics (also spelled analog electronics) are electronic systems with a continuously variable signal, in contrast to digital electronics where signals usually take only two levels.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
In physics, attenuation or, in some contexts, extinction is the gradual loss of flux intensity through a medium.
A back-illuminated sensor, also known as backside illumination (BSI or BI) sensor, is a type of digital image sensor that uses a novel arrangement of the imaging elements to increase the amount of light captured and thereby improve low-light performance.
A Bayer filter mosaic is a color filter array (CFA) for arranging RGB color filters on a square grid of photosensors.
A camera module is an image sensor integrated with a lens, control electronics, and an interface like CSI, Ethernet or plain raw low-voltage differential signaling.
A charge-coupled device (CCD) is a device for the movement of electrical charge, usually from within the device to an area where the charge can be manipulated, for example conversion into a digital value.
Chroma key compositing, or chroma keying, is a visual effects/post-production technique for compositing (layering) two images or video streams together based on color hues (chroma range).
Chroma subsampling is the practice of encoding images by implementing less resolution for chroma information than for luma information, taking advantage of the human visual system's lower acuity for color differences than for luminance.
Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor, abbreviated as CMOS, is a technology for constructing integrated circuits.
In photography, a color filter array (CFA), or color filter mosaic (CFM), is a mosaic of tiny color filters placed over the pixel sensors of an image sensor to capture color information.
A color gel or color filter (British spelling: colour gel or colour filter), also known as lighting gel or simply gel, is a transparent colored material that is used in theater, event production, photography, videography and cinematography to color light and for color correction.
Colour co-site sampling is a system of photographic colour sensing, wherein 4, 16 or 36 images are collected from the sensor and merged to form a single image.
Computer vision is a field that deals with how computers can be made for gaining high-level understanding from digital images or videos.
Contact image sensors (CIS) are image sensors used in flatbed scanners almost in direct contact with the object to be scanned.
Dartmouth College is a private Ivy League research university in Hanover, New Hampshire, United States.
A demosaicing (also de-mosaicing, demosaicking or debayering) algorithm is a digital image process used to reconstruct a full color image from the incomplete color samples output from an image sensor overlaid with a color filter array (CFA).
A dichroic filter, thin-film filter, or interference filter is a very accurate color filter used to selectively pass light of a small range of colors while reflecting other colors.
A dichroic prism is a prism that splits light into two beams of differing wavelength (colour).
A digital camera or digicam is a camera that captures photographs in digital memory.
Digital electronics or digital (electronic) circuits are electronics that operate on digital signals.
Digital imaging or digital image acquisition is the creation of a digitally encoded representation of the visual characteristics of an object, such as a physical scene or the interior structure of an object.
Dynamic range, abbreviated DR, DNR, or DYR is the ratio between the largest and smallest values that a certain quantity can assume.
An electric current is a flow of electric charge.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.
Flat panel detectors are a class of solid-state x-ray digital radiography devices similar in principle to the image sensors used in digital photography and video.
The Foveon X3 sensor is an image sensor for digital cameras, designed by Foveon, Inc. (now part of Sigma Corporation) and manufactured by Dongbu Electronics.
The term full frame or ff is used by users of digital single-lens reflex cameras (DSLRs) as a shorthand for an image sensor format which is the same size as 35mm format film.
A gamma camera (γ-camera), also called a scintillation camera or Anger camera, is a device used to image gamma radiation emitting radioisotopes, a technique known as scintigraphy.
The invention of the television was the work of many individuals in the late 19th century and early 20th century.
An image (from imago) is an artifact that depicts visual perception, for example, a photo or a two-dimensional picture, that has a similar appearance to some subject—usually a physical object or a person, thus providing a depiction of it.
Note: If you came here to get a quick understanding of numbers like 1/2.3, skip ahead to table of sensor formats and sizes.
Information is any entity or form that provides the answer to a question of some kind or resolves uncertainty.
Laryngoscopy is endoscopy of the larynx, a part of the throat.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
List of digital video cameras with an image sensor larger than 2/3 inch and producing video in a horizontal resolution equal or higher than 1920 pixels.
|- ! Width (px) ! Height (px) ! Aspect ratio ! Actual pixel count ! Megapixels ! Camera examples |- | 100 | 100 |1:1 | 10,000 | 0.01 | Kodak Prototype by Steven Sasson) (1975) |- | 640 | 480 | | 307,200 | 0.3 | Apple QuickTake 100 (1994) |- | 832 | 608 | | 505,856 | 0.5 | Canon Powershot 600 (1996) |- | 1,024 | 768 | | 786,432 | 0.8 | Olympus D-300L (1996) |- | 1024 | 1024 |1:1 | 1,048,576 | 1.0 | Nikon NASA F4 (1991) |- | 1,280 | 960 | | 1,228,800 | 1.3 | Fujifilm DS-300 (1997) |- | 1,280 | 1,024 |5:4 | 1,310,720 | 1.3 | Fujifilm MX-700, Fujifilm MX-1700 (1999), Leica Digilux (1998), Leica Digilux Zoom (2000) |- | 1,600 | 1,200 | | 1,920,000 | 2 | Nikon Coolpix 950, Samsung GT-S3500 |- | 2,012 | 1,324 | | 2,663,888 | 2.74 | Nikon D1 |- | 2,048 | 1,536 | | 3,145,728 | 3 | Canon PowerShot A75, Nikon Coolpix 995 |- | 2,272 | 1,704 | | 3,871,488 | 4 | Olympus Stylus 410, Contax i4R (although CCD is actually square 2,272×2,272) |- | 2,464 | 1,648 | | 4,060,672 | 4.1 | Canon 1D |- | 2,560 | 1,920 | | 4,915,200 | 5 | Olympus E-1, Sony Cyber-shot DSC-F707, Sony Cyber-shot DSC-F717 |- | 2,816 | 2,112 | | 5,947,392 | 5.9 | Olympus Stylus 600 Digital |- | 3,008 | 2,000 | | 6,016,000 | 6 | D100, Nikon D40, D50, D70, D70s, Pentax K100D, Konica Minolta Maxxum 7D, Konica Minolta Maxxum 5D, Epson R-D1 |- | 3,072 | 2,048 | | 6,291,456 | 6.3 | Canon EOS 10D, Canon EOS 300D |- | 3,072 | 2,304 | | 7,077,888 | 7 | Olympus FE-210, Canon PowerShot A620 |- | 3,456 | 2,304 | | 7,962,624 | 8 | Canon EOS 350D |- | 3,264 | 2,448 | | 7,990,272 | 8 | Olympus E-500, Olympus SP-350, Canon PowerShot A720 IS, Nokia 701, HTC Desire HD, Apple iPhone 4S |- | 3,504 | 2,336 | | 8,185,344 | 8.2 | Canon EOS 30D, Canon EOS-1D Mark II, Canon EOS-1D Mark II N |- | 3,520 | 2,344 | | 8,250,880 | 8.25 | Canon EOS 20D |- | 3,648 | 2,736 | | 9,980,928 | 10 | Canon PowerShot G11, Canon PowerShot G12, Canon PowerShot S90, Canon PowerShot S95, Nikon CoolPix P7000, Nikon CoolPix P7100, Olympus E-410, Olympus E-510, Panasonic FZ50, Fujifilm FinePix HS10, Samsung EX1 |- | 3,872 | 2,592 | | 10,036,224 | 10 | Nikon D40x, Nikon D60, Nikon D3000, Nikon D200, Nikon D80, Pentax K10D, Pentax K200D, Sony DSLR-A100 |- | 3,888 | 2,592 | | 10,077,696 | 10.1 | Canon EOS 40D, Canon EOS 400D, Canon EOS 1000D |- | 4,064 | 2,704 | | 10,989,056 | 11 | Canon EOS-1Ds |- | 4,000 | 3,000 | | 12,000,000 | 12 | Canon Powershot G9, Fujifilm FinePix S200EXR, Nikon Coolpix L110, Kodak Easyshare Max Z990 |- | 4,256 | 2,832 | | 12,052,992 | 12.1 | Nikon D3, Nikon D3S, Nikon D700, Fujifilm FinePix S5 Pro |- | 4,272 | 2,848 | | 12,166,656 | 12.2 | Canon EOS 450D |- | 4,032 | 3,024 | | 12,192,768 | 12.2 | Olympus PEN E-P1 |- | 4,288 | 2,848 | | 12,212,224 | 12.2 | Nikon D2Xs/D2X, Nikon D300, Nikon D300S, Nikon D90, Nikon D5000, Pentax K-x |- | 4,900 | 2,580 | | 12,642,000 | 12.6 | RED ONE Mysterium |- | 4,368 | 2,912 | | 12,719,616 | 12.7 | Canon EOS 5D |- | 5,120 | 2,700 | | 13,824,000 | 13.8 | RED Mysterium-X |- | 7,920 (2,640 × 3) | 1,760 | | 13,939,200 | 13.9 | Sigma SD14, Sigma DP1 (3 layers of pixels, 4.7 MP per layer, in Foveon X3 sensor) |- | 4,672 | 3,104 | | 14,501,888 | 14.5 | Pentax K20D, Pentax K-7 |- | 4,752 | 3,168 | | 15,054,336 | 15.1 | Canon EOS 50D, Canon EOS 500D, Sigma SD1 |- | 4,896 | 3,264 | | 15,980,544 | 16.0 | Canon EOS 1D Mark IV, Fujifilm X-Pro1, Fujifilm X-E1 (X-Trans sensor has a different pattern to a Bayer sensor) |- | 4,928 | 3,264 | | 16,075,136 | 16.1 | Nikon D7000, Nikon D5100, Pentax K-5 |- | 4,992 | 3,328 | | 16,613,376 | 16.6 | Canon EOS-1Ds Mark II |- |4,080 |4,080 |1:1 |16,646,400 |16.6 |Hasselblad 503CWD |- | 5,184 | 3,456 | | 17,915,904 | 17.9 | Canon EOS 1D X, Canon EOS 7D, Canon EOS 60D, Canon EOS 100D, Canon EOS 550D, Canon EOS 600D, Canon EOS 650D, Canon EOS 700D |- | 4,928 | 3,696 | | 18,200,000 | 18.2 | Sony DSC-HX20 |- | 5,270 | 3,516 | | 18,529,320 | 18.5 | Leica M9, RED Dragon |- | 5,472 | 3,648 | | 19,961,856 | 19.9 | Canon EOS-1D X Mark II, Canon EOS 6D, Canon EOS 7D Mark II, Canon EOS 70D |- | 5,616 | 3,744 | | 21,026,304 | 21.0 | Canon EOS-1Ds Mark III, Canon EOS-5D Mark II |- | 5,760 | 3,840 | | 22,118,400 | 22.1 | Canon EOS 5D Mark III |- | 6,000 | 4,000 | | 24,000,000 | 24 | Canon EOS 80D, Canon EOS 750D, Canon EOS 760D |- | 6,048 | 4,032 | | 24,385,536 | 24.4 | Nikon D3X, Nikon D600, Pentax K-3, Sony α850, Sony α900, Sony α99 |- | 5,140 | 5,140 |1:1 | 26,419,600 | 26.4 | Leica S1 (line scanner, 1997) |- | 7,360 | 4,912 | | 36,152,320 | 36.2 | Nikon D800, Pentax K-1, Sony α7R |- | 7,500 | 5,000 | | 37,500,000 | 37.5 | Leica S2 |- | 7,212 | 5,142 | | 39,031,344 | 39.0 | Hasselblad H3DII-39 |- | 7,216 | 5,412 | | 39,052,992 | 39.1 | Leica RCD100 |- | 7,264 | 5,440 | | 39,516,160 | 39.5 | Pentax 645D |- | 7,320 | 5,484 | | 40,142,880 | 40.1 | Phase One IQ140 |- | 7,728 | 5,368 | ~ 10:7 | 41,483,904 | 41.5 | Nokia 808 PureView |- | 8,176 | 6,132 | | 50,135,232 | 50.1 | Hasselblad H3DII-50, Hasselblad H4D-50 |- | 8,256 | 6,192 | | 51,121,152 | 51.1 | Pentax 645Z |- | 8,688 | 5,792 | | 50,320,896 | 50.3 | 5DS R |- | 11,250 | 5,000 | 9:4 | 56,250,000 | 56.3 | Better Light 4000E-HS (scanned) |- | 8,956 | 6,708 | | 60,076,848 | 60.1 | Hasselblad H4D-60 |- | 8,984 | 6,732 | | 60,480,288 | 60.5 | Phase One IQ160, Phase One P65+ |- | 10,320 | 7,752 | | 80,000,640 | 80 | Leaf Aptus-II 12, Leaf Aptus-II 12R |- | 10,328 | 7,760 | | 80,145,280 | 80.1 | Phase One IQ180 |- | 9,372 | 9,372 |1:1 | 87,834,384 | 87.8 | Leica RC30 (point scanner) |- | 12,600 | 10,500 |6:5 | 132,300,000 | 132.3 | Phase One PowerPhase FX/FX+ (line scanner) |- | 18,000 | 8,000 | 9:4 | 144,000,000 | 144 | Better Light 6000-HS/6000E-HS (line scanner) |- | 21,250 | 7,500 | 17:6 | 159,375,000 | 159.4 | Seitz 6x17 Digital (line scanner) |- | 16,352* | 12,264* | | 200,540,928 | 200.5 | Hasselblad H4D-200MS (*actuated multi (6x) shot) |- | 18,000 | 12,000 | | 216,000,000 | 216 | Better Light Super 6K-HS (line scanner) |- | 24,000 | 15,990 | ~ | 383,760,000 | 383.8 | Better Light Super 8K-HS (line scanner) |- | 30,600 | 13,600 | 9:4 | 416,160,000 | 416.2 | Better Light Super 10K-HS (line scanner) |- | 62,830 | 7,500 | ~ 25:3 | 471,225,000 | 471.2 | Seitz Roundshot D3 (80 mm lens) (scanned) |- | 62,830 | 13,500 | ~ 5:1 | 848,205,000 | 848.2 | Seitz Roundshot D3 (110 mm lens) (line scanner) |- | 38,000 | 38,000 |1:1 | 1,444,000,000 | 1,444 | Pan-STARRS PS1 |- | 157,000 | 18,000 | ~ 26:3 | 2,826,000,000 | 2,826 | Better Light 300 mm lens Digital (line scanner) |- |.
The Live MOS sensor is a brand name of an NMOS Image sensor Dpreview used by Panasonic, Olympus and Leica in their Four Thirds System DSLR manufactured since 2006.
In information technology, lossy compression or irreversible compression is the class of data encoding methods that uses inexact approximations and partial data discarding to represent the content.
Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).
A multispectral image is one that captures image data within specific wavelength ranges across the electromagnetic spectrum.
Night vision is the ability to see in low-light conditions.
N-type metal-oxide-semiconductor logic uses n-type field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) to implement logic gates and other digital circuits.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to television broadcasting: Television broadcasting: form of broadcasting in which a television signal is transmitted by radio waves from a terrestrial (Earth based) transmitter of a television station to TV receivers having an antenna.
An oversampled binary image sensor is an image sensor with non-linear response capabilities reminiscent of traditional photographic film.
A passband is the range of frequencies or wavelengths that can pass through a filter.
Petzval field curvature, named for Joseph Petzval, describes the optical aberration in which a flat object normal to the optical axis (or a non-flat object past the hyperfocal distance) cannot be brought properly into focus on a flat image plane.
Piezoelectricity is the electric charge that accumulates in certain solid materials (such as crystals, certain ceramics, and biological matter such as bone, DNA and various proteins) in response to applied mechanical stress.
Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.
Reflection is the change in direction of a wavefront at an interface between two different media so that the wavefront returns into the medium from which it originated.
Refraction is the change in direction of wave propagation due to a change in its transmission medium.
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.
This article is about ionizing radiation detectors.
Sensitometry is the scientific study of light-sensitive materials, especially photographic film.
In the broadest definition, a sensor is a device, module, or subsystem whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment and send the information to other electronics, frequently a computer processor.
A signal as referred to in communication systems, signal processing, and electrical engineering is a function that "conveys information about the behavior or attributes of some phenomenon".
Signal-to-noise ratio (abbreviated SNR or S/N) is a measure used in science and engineering that compares the level of a desired signal to the level of background noise.
Sonar (originally an acronym for SOund Navigation And Ranging) is a technique that uses sound propagation (usually underwater, as in submarine navigation) to navigate, communicate with or detect objects on or under the surface of the water, such as other vessels.
The term stained glass can refer to coloured glass as a material or to works created from it.
A staring array, staring-plane array, focal-plane array (FPA), or focal-plane is an image sensing device consisting of an array (typically rectangular) of light-sensing pixels at the focal plane of a lens.
Technological change (TC), technological development, technological achievement, or technological progress is the overall process of invention, innovation and diffusion of technology or processes.
Infrared thermography (IRT), thermal imaging, and thermal video are examples of infrared imaging science.
A three-CCD (3CCD) camera is a camera whose imaging system uses three separate charge-coupled devices (CCDs), each one receiving filtered red, green, or blue color ranges.
In electronics, a vacuum tube, an electron tube, or just a tube (North America), or valve (Britain and some other regions) is a device that controls electric current between electrodes in an evacuated container.
The video camera tube was a type of cathode ray tube used to capture the television image prior to the introduction of charge-coupled devices (CCDs) in the 1980s.
Video editing is the manipulation and arrangement of video shots.
In physics, a wave is a disturbance that transfers energy through matter or space, with little or no associated mass transport.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.