388 relations: Abundance of elements in Earth's crust, Acetylene, Acetylide, Acid, Adaptation, Adduct, Aerospace, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Agricultural lime, Alkene, Alkylation, Allergy, Alloy, Alnico, Alum, Aluminate, Aluminium acetate, Aluminium alloy, Aluminium bronze, Aluminium carbide, Aluminium chloride, Aluminium chlorohydrate, Aluminium dross recycling, Aluminium fluoride, Aluminium foil, Aluminium granules, Aluminium hydride, Aluminium hydroxide, Aluminium nitride, Aluminium oxide, Aluminium phosphate, Aluminium phosphide, Aluminium sulfate, Aluminium(II) oxide, Aluminium–air battery, Aluminum building wiring, Aluminum can, Alzheimer's disease, Alzheimer's Society, Amalgam (chemistry), American Chemical Society, American National Standards Institute, Amine, Ammonia, Ammonium aluminium sulfate, Ancient Greece, Andreas Libavius, Andreas Sigismund Marggraf, Angewandte Chemie, Anhydrous, ..., Annalen der Physik, Annealing (metallurgy), Antacid, Anthracite, Argon, Asphalt, Asteroid, Astringent, Atmosphere of Earth, Atomic number, Atomic radius, Bacteria, Bar stock, Baseball bat, Bauxite, Bayer process, Beryl, Beryllium, Beverage can, Bicycle, Blood–brain barrier, Blow torch, Boehmite, Boron group, Breast cancer, BRIC, British Geological Survey, Butterworth-Heinemann, Calcium fluoride, Cambridge University Press, Car, Carl Josef Bayer, Casting (metalworking), Catalysis, Catalyst support, Cement, Central processing unit, Ceramic, Cerium, Cerium(IV) oxide, Charles Martin Hall, Chelation, Chemical element, Chemical formula, Chemical vapor deposition, Chloride, Chromium, Cladosporium, Claus process, Coin, Cold seep, Compact disc, Concrete, Contact dermatitis, Continental margin, Cookware and bakeware, Coordination number, Copper, Corrosion, Corundum, Cosmetics, Cosmic ray, CRC Press, Creep (deformation), Crusades, Crust (geology), Cryolite, Cubic crystal system, Deferoxamine, Density, Deodorant, Deutsches Institut für Normung, Diaspore, Digestion, Dimer (chemistry), Disproportionation, Door, Drawing (manufacturing), Dross, Ductility, Duralumin, Dye, E number, Elastic modulus, Electric power transmission, Electrical conductor, Electrical termination, Electrolysis, Electron configuration, Electronegativity, Encyclopædia Britannica, English Wikipedia, Estrogen, Even and odd atomic nuclei, Extinct radionuclide, Extrusion, Fatigue (material), Fatigue limit, Feldspar, Fire extinguisher, Fireproofing, Fluoride, Food additive, Food and Chemical Toxicology, French Academy of Sciences, Friedrich Hoffmann, Friedrich Wöhler, Fugacity, Galvanic cell, Gamma ray, Garnet, Gauss (unit), Gemstone, Gene expression, Geotrichum candidum, Gibbsite, Glass, Gold, Gyrodactylus salaris, Half-life, Halide, Hall–Héroult process, Hans Christian Ørsted, Harvard University Press, Heat sink, Heavy metals, Henri Étienne Sainte-Claire Deville, Herodotus, Hoopes process, Household, Human body weight, Humphry Davy, Hydrogen, Hydrogen ion, Hydrogen sulfide, Hydrolysis, Hydroxide, Immunologic adjuvant, Infrared, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Organization for Standardization, International Resource Panel, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Interstellar medium, Ion, Ionic radius, Ionization energy, Iron, IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry 2005, Kelvin, Kitchen utensil, Kramer Guitars, Lake pigment, Lanthanum, Lanthanum oxide, Latin, Leaching (chemistry), Lead, LED lamp, Lewis acids and bases, Ligand, Light, List of countries by aluminium production, Lithium aluminium hydride, Lithium hydride, London Metal Exchange, Machining, Magnesium, Magnesium oxide, Maltol, Manganese, Mantle (geology), Marcel Dekker, Mast (sailing), McGraw-Hill Education, Median lethal dose, Melting point, Metabolism, Metal, Metal aquo complex, Metal Stocks in Society report, Metallic bonding, Metalloestrogen, Metastability, Methane, Methylaluminoxane, Mineral, Mirror, MKM steel, Mohs scale of mineral hardness, Molybdenum, Mononuclidic element, Mordant, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Native metal, Nature (journal), Neon, Noah Webster, Non-ferrous metal, NYU Langone Medical Center, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Online Etymology Dictionary, Optical coating, Ore, Organic chemistry, Organic compound, Organoaluminium chemistry, Organoboron chemistry, Oxide, Oxygen, Paint, Panel edge staining, Paracelsus, Parts-per notation, Pascal (unit), Passivation (chemistry), Paul Héroult, Per capita, Periodic Videos, Permissible exposure limit, Petroleum, Phosphine, Physical Review, Physical vapor deposition, Picometre, Planetary differentiation, Platinum, Polyethylene, Polymer, Polymerization, Polymorphism (materials science), Potash, Potassium, Primordial nuclide, Protein, Proto-Indo-European language, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pulmonary fibrosis, Pulp (paper), Pyrophoricity, Pyrotechnics, Quantum clock, Qubit, Radioactive decay, Radiometric dating, Railroad car, Real versus nominal value (economics), Recommended exposure limit, Recycling, Redox, Refinery, Refining, Reflectance, Resonator guitar, RM-81 Agena, Royal Society of Chemistry, Ruby, Rusal, Salt (chemistry), Sapphire, Science (journal), Sediment, Siding, Silicon, Silver, Silver (color), Slurry, Smelting, Sodium bis(2-methoxyethoxy)aluminium hydride, Sodium chloride, Sodium hydroxide, Sodium-vapor lamp, Soil test, Solar System, Solid-propellant rocket, Sorghum, South China Sea, Spallation, Spinel, Sputnik 1, Stacking-fault energy, Standard atomic weight, Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, Steel, Stellar nucleosynthesis, Street light, Strontium, Sulfate, Superconductivity, Synthetic rubber, Tanning (leather), Tantalum, Tempering (metallurgy), Tesla (unit), Textile, The Astrophysical Journal, Thermal conduction, Thermal conductivity, Thermite, Thomas Young (scientist), Thorium, Thorium dioxide, Tin, Trace radioisotope, Transistor, Transport, Travis Bean, Trekking pole, Triethylamine, Triisobutylaluminium, Trimethylaluminium, Truck, Turquoise, Type II supernova, Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Ultraviolet, United States Department of Health and Human Services, United States Geological Survey, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Vaccine, Vacuum, Varnish, Vinyl polymer, Vomiting, Waste & Resources Action Programme, Watch, Water, Water treatment, Waterproofing, Weathering, Wheat, Wiley-VCH, Window, World War I, Yield (engineering), Ziegler–Natta catalyst, Zinc. 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The abundance of elements in Earth's crust is shown in tabulated form with the estimated crustal abundance for each chemical element shown as either percentage or parts per million (ppm) by mass (10,000 ppm.
Acetylene (systematic name: ethyne) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H2.
Acetylide refers to chemical compounds with the chemical formulas MC≡CH and MC≡CM, where M is a metal.
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
In biology, adaptation has three related meanings.
An adduct (from the Latin adductus, "drawn toward" alternatively, a contraction of "addition product") is a product of a direct addition of two or more distinct molecules, resulting in a single reaction product containing all atoms of all components.
Aerospace is the human effort in science, engineering and business to fly in the atmosphere of Earth (aeronautics) and surrounding space (astronautics).
The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) is a federal public health agency within the United States Department of Health and Human Services.
Agricultural lime, also called aglime, agricultural limestone, garden lime or liming, is a soil additive made from pulverized limestone or chalk.
In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond.
Alkylation is the transfer of an alkyl group from one molecule to another.
Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment.
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.
Alnico is an acronym referring to a family of iron alloys which in addition to iron are composed primarily of aluminium (Al), nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co), hence al-ni-co.
An alum is a type of chemical compound, usually a hydrated double sulfate salt of aluminium with the general formula, where X is a monovalent cation such as potassium or ammonium.
In chemistry aluminate is a compound containing an oxyanion of aluminium, such as sodium aluminate.
Aluminium acetate or aluminium ethanoate (also "aluminum ~"), sometimes abbreviated AlAc in geochemistry, can refer to a number of different salts of aluminum with acetic acid.
Aluminium alloys (or aluminum alloys; see spelling differences) are alloys in which aluminium (Al) is the predominant metal.
Aluminium bronze is a type of bronze in which aluminium is the main alloying metal added to copper, in contrast to standard bronze (copper and tin) or brass (copper and zinc).
Aluminum carbide, chemical formula Al4C3, is a carbide of aluminum.
Aluminium chloride (AlCl3) is the main compound of aluminium and chlorine.
Aluminium chlorohydrate is a group of specific aluminium salts having the general formula AlnCl(3n-m)(OH)m.
Aluminium dross, a byproduct of the aluminium smelting process, can be mechanically recycled to separate the residual aluminium metal from the aluminium oxide.
Aluminium fluoride (AlF3) is an inorganic compound used primarily in the production of aluminium.
Aluminium foil (or aluminum foil), often referred to with the misnomer tin foil, is aluminium prepared in thin metal leaves with a thickness less than; thinner gauges down to are also commonly used.
Aluminium granules are fine spherical aggregates of aluminium.
Aluminium hydride (also known as alane or alumane) is an inorganic compound with the formula AlH3.
Aluminium hydroxide, Al(OH)3, is found in nature as the mineral gibbsite (also known as hydrargillite) and its three much rarer polymorphs: bayerite, doyleite, and nordstrandite.
Aluminium nitride (AlN) is a nitride of aluminium.
Aluminium oxide (British English) or aluminum oxide (American English) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula 23.
Aluminium phosphate (AlPO4) is a chemical compound.
Aluminium phosphide (aluminum phosphide) is a highly toxic inorganic compound with the chemical formula used as a wide band gap semiconductor and a fumigant.
Aluminium sulfate is a chemical compound with the formula Al2(SO4)3.
Aluminium(II) oxide or aluminium monoxide is a compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula AlO.
Aluminium–air batteries (Al–air batteries) produce electricity from the reaction of oxygen in the air with aluminium.
Aluminum building wiring is a type of electrical wiring for residential construction or houses that uses aluminum electrical conductors.
An aluminum can (British English: aluminium can), sometimes erroneously referred to as a "tin can", is a container for packaging made primarily of aluminum.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
Alzheimer's Society is a United Kingdom care and research charity for people with dementia and their carers.
An amalgam is an alloy of mercury with another metal, which may be a liquid, a soft paste or a solid, depending upon the proportion of mercury.
The American Chemical Society (ACS) is a scientific society based in the United States that supports scientific inquiry in the field of chemistry.
The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is a private non-profit organization that oversees the development of voluntary consensus standards for products, services, processes, systems, and personnel in the United States.
In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Ammonium aluminium sulfate, also known as ammonium alum or just alum, is a white crystalline double sulfate usually encountered as the dodecahydrate, formula (NH4)Al(SO4)2·12H2O.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Andreas Libavius or Andrew Libavius (c. 1555 – 25 July 1616) was a German physician and chemist.
Andreas Sigismund Marggraf (3 March 1709 – 7 August 1782) was a German chemist from Berlin, then capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, and a pioneer of analytical chemistry.
Angewandte Chemie (meaning "Applied Chemistry") is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that is published by Wiley-VCH on behalf of the German Chemical Society (Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker).
A substance is anhydrous if it contains no water.
Annalen der Physik (English: Annals of Physics) is one of the oldest scientific journals on physics and has been published since 1799.
Annealing, in metallurgy and materials science, is a heat treatment that alters the physical and sometimes chemical properties of a material to increase its ductility and reduce its hardness, making it more workable.
An antacid is a substance which neutralizes stomach acidity and is used to relieve heartburn, indigestion or an upset stomach.
Anthracite, often referred to as hard coal, is a hard, compact variety of coal that has a submetallic luster.
Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18.
Asphalt, also known as bitumen, is a sticky, black, and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum.
Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System.
An astringent (sometimes called adstringent) is a chemical that shrinks or constricts body tissues.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
The atomic radius of a chemical element is a measure of the size of its atoms, usually the mean or typical distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of electrons.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Bar stock, also (colloquially) known as blank, slug or billet, is a common form of raw purified metal, used by industry to manufacture metal parts and products.
A baseball bat is a smooth wooden or metal club used in the sport of baseball to hit the ball after it is thrown by the pitcher.
Bauxite is a sedimentary rock with a relatively high aluminium content.
The Bayer process is the principal industrial means of refining bauxite to produce alumina (aluminium oxide).
Beryl is a mineral composed of beryllium aluminium cyclosilicate with the chemical formula Be3Al2(SiO3)6.
Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.
A beverage can is a metal container designed to hold a fixed portion of liquid such as carbonated soft drinks, alcoholic beverages, fruit juices, teas, herbal teas, energy drinks, etc.
A bicycle, also called a cycle or bike, is a human-powered, pedal-driven, single-track vehicle, having two wheels attached to a frame, one behind the other.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
A blowtorch (U.S. and Australia), or blowlamp (UK), is a fuel-burning tool used for applying flame and heat to various applications, usually metalworking.
Boehmite or böhmite is an aluminium oxide hydroxide (γ-AlO(OH)) mineral, a component of the aluminium ore bauxite.
The boron group are the chemical elements in group 13 of the periodic table, comprising boron (B), aluminium (Al), gallium (Ga), indium (In), thallium (Tl), and perhaps also the chemically uncharacterized nihonium (Nh).
Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.
In economics, BRIC is a grouping acronym that refers to the countries of '''B'''razil, '''R'''ussia, '''I'''ndia and '''C'''hina, which are all deemed to be at a similar stage of newly advanced economic development.
The British Geological Survey (BGS) is a partly publicly-funded body which aims to advance geoscientific knowledge of the United Kingdom landmass and its continental shelf by means of systematic surveying, monitoring and research.
Butterworth–Heinemann is a British publishing company specialized in professional information and learning materials for higher education and professional training, in printed and electronic forms.
Calcium fluoride is the inorganic compound of the elements calcium and fluorine with the formula CaF2.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation.
Carl Josef Bayer (also Karl Bayer, March 4, 1847 – October 4, 1904) was an Austrian chemist who invented the Bayer process of extracting alumina from bauxite, essential to this day to the economical production of aluminium.
In metalworking and jewellery making, casting is a process in which a liquid metal is somehow delivered into a mold (it is usually delivered by a crucible) that contains a hollow shape (i.e., a 3-dimensional negative image) of the intended shape.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
In chemistry, a catalyst support is the material, usually a solid with a high surface area, to which a catalyst is affixed.
A cement is a binder, a substance used for construction that sets, hardens and adheres to other materials, binding them together.
A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.
A ceramic is a non-metallic solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.
Cerium is a chemical element with symbol Ce and atomic number 58.
Cerium(IV) oxide, also known as ceric oxide, ceric dioxide, ceria, cerium oxide or cerium dioxide, is an oxide of the rare-earth metal cerium.
Charles Martin Hall (December 6, 1863 – December 27, 1914) was an American inventor, businessman, and chemist.
Chelation is a type of bonding of ions and molecules to metal ions.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.
Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is deposition method used to produce high quality, high-performance, solid materials, typically under vacuum.
The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.
Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.
Cladosporium is a genus of fungi including some of the most common indoor and outdoor molds.
The Claus process is the most significant gas desulfurizing process, recovering elemental sulfur from gaseous hydrogen sulfide.
A coin is a small, flat, (usually) round piece of metal or plastic used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender.
A cold seep (sometimes called a cold vent) is an area of the ocean floor where hydrogen sulfide, methane and other hydrocarbon-rich fluid seepage occurs, often in the form of a brine pool.
Compact disc (CD) is a digital optical disc data storage format that was co-developed by Philips and Sony and released in 1982.
Concrete, usually Portland cement concrete, is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement (cement paste) that hardens over time—most frequently a lime-based cement binder, such as Portland cement, but sometimes with other hydraulic cements, such as a calcium aluminate cement.
Contact dermatitis is a type of inflammation of the skin.
The continental margin is one of the three major zones of the ocean floor, the other two being deep-ocean basins and mid-ocean ridges.
Cookware and bakeware are types of food preparation containers, commonly found in a kitchen.
In chemistry, crystallography, and materials science the coordination number, also called ligancy, of a central atom in a molecule or crystal is the number of atoms, molecules or ions bonded to it.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide.
Corundum is a crystalline form of aluminium oxide typically containing traces of iron, titanium, vanadium and chromium.
Cosmetics are substances or products used to enhance or alter the appearance of the face or fragrance and texture of the body.
Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.
The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.
In materials science, creep (sometimes called cold flow) is the tendency of a solid material to move slowly or deform permanently under the influence of mechanical stresses.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
Cryolite (Na3AlF6, sodium hexafluoroaluminate) is an uncommon mineral identified with the once large deposit at Ivigtût on the west coast of Greenland, depleted by 1987.
In crystallography, the cubic (or isometric) crystal system is a crystal system where the unit cell is in the shape of a cube.
Deferoxamine (DFOA), sold under the brand name Desferal, is a medication that binds iron and aluminium.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
A deodorant is a substance applied to the body to prevent body odor caused by the bacterial breakdown of perspiration in armpits, feet, and other areas of the body.
Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V. (DIN; in English, the German Institute for Standardization) is the German national organization for standardization and is the German ISO member body.
Diaspore, also known as diasporite, empholite, kayserite, or tanatarite, is an aluminium oxide hydroxide mineral, α-AlO(OH), crystallizing in the orthorhombic system and isomorphous with goethite.
Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.
A dimer (di-, "two" + -mer, "parts") is an oligomer consisting of two monomers joined by bonds that can be either strong or weak, covalent or intermolecular.
Disproportionation, sometimes called dismutation, is a redox reaction in which a compound of intermediate oxidation state converts to two different compounds, one of higher and one of lower oxidation states.
A door is a moving mechanism used to block off and allow access to, an entrance to or within an enclosed space, such as a building, room or vehicle.
Drawing is a metalworking process which uses tensile forces to stretch metal or glass.
Dross is a mass of solid impurities floating on a molten metal or dispersed in the metal, such as in wrought iron.
Ductility is a measure of a material's ability to undergo significant plastic deformation before rupture, which may be expressed as percent elongation or percent area reduction from a tensile test.
Duralumin (also called duraluminum, duraluminium, duralum, dural(l)ium, or dural) is a trade name for one of the earliest types of age-hardenable aluminium alloys.
A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied.
E numbers are codes for substances that are permitted to be used as food additives for use within the European Union and EFTA.
An elastic modulus (also known as modulus of elasticity) is a quantity that measures an object or substance's resistance to being deformed elastically (i.e., non-permanently) when a stress is applied to it.
Electric power transmission is the bulk movement of electrical energy from a generating site, such as a power plant, to an electrical substation.
In physics and electrical engineering, a conductor is an object or type of material that allows the flow of an electrical current in one or more directions.
In electronics, electrical termination is the practice of ending a transmission line with a device that matches the characteristic impedance of the line.
In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.
In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule (or other physical structure) in atomic or molecular orbitals.
Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
The English Wikipedia is the English-language edition of the free online encyclopedia Wikipedia.
Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.
In nuclear physics, properties of a nucleus depend on evenness or oddness of its atomic number Z, neutron number N and, consequently, of their sum, the mass number A. Most notably, oddness of both Z and N tends to lower the nuclear binding energy, making odd nuclei, generally, less stable.
An extinct radionuclide is a radionuclide that was formed by nucleosynthesis before the formation of the Solar System, about 4.6 billion years ago, and incorporated into it, but has since decayed to virtually zero abundance, due to having a half-life shorter than about 100 million years.
Extrusion is a process used to create objects of a fixed cross-sectional profile.
In materials science, fatigue is the weakening of a material caused by repeatedly applied loads.
Fatigue limit, endurance limit, and fatigue strength are all expressions used to describe a property of materials: the amplitude (or range) of cyclic stress that can be applied to the material without causing fatigue failure.
Feldspars (KAlSi3O8 – NaAlSi3O8 – CaAl2Si2O8) are a group of rock-forming tectosilicate minerals that make up about 41% of the Earth's continental crust by weight.
A fire extinguisher is an active fire protection device used to extinguish or control small fires, often in emergency situations.
Fireproofing is rendering something (structures, materials, etc.) resistant to fire, or incombustible; or material for use in making anything fire-proof.
Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or enhance its taste, appearance, or other qualities.
Food and Chemical Toxicology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering aspects of food safety, chemical safety, and other aspects of consumer product safety.
The French Academy of Sciences (French: Académie des sciences) is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research.
Friedrich Hoffmann (19 February 1660 – 12 November 1742) was a German physician and chemist.
Friedrich Wöhler (31 July 1800 – 23 September 1882) was a German chemist, best known for his synthesis of urea, but also the first to isolate several chemical elements.
In chemical thermodynamics, the fugacity of a real gas is an effective partial pressure which replaces the mechanical partial pressure in an accurate computation of the chemical equilibrium constant.
A galvanic cell, or voltaic cell, named after Luigi Galvani, or Alessandro Volta respectively, is an electrochemical cell that derives electrical energy from spontaneous redox reactions taking place within the cell.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
Garnets are a group of silicate minerals that have been used since the Bronze Age as gemstones and abrasives.
The gauss, abbreviated as G or Gs, is the cgs unit of measurement of magnetic flux density (or "magnetic induction") (B).
A gemstone (also called a gem, fine gem, jewel, precious stone, or semi-precious stone) is a piece of mineral crystal which, in cut and polished form, is used to make jewelry or other adornments.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
Geotrichum candidum is a fungus which is a member of the human microbiome, notably associated with skin, sputum and feces where it occurs in 25-30% of specimens.
Gibbsite, Al(OH)3, is one of the mineral forms of aluminium hydroxide.
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
Gyrodactylus salaris, commonly known as salmon fluke, is a tiny monogenean ectoparasite which lives on the body surface of freshwater fish.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
A halide is a binary phase, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative (or more electropositive) than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, astatide, or theoretically tennesside compound.
The Hall–Héroult process is the major industrial process for smelting aluminium.
Hans Christian Ørsted (often rendered Oersted in English; 14 August 17779 March 1851) was a Danish physicist and chemist who discovered that electric currents create magnetic fields, which was the first connection found between electricity and magnetism.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
A heat sink (also commonly spelled heatsink) is a passive heat exchanger that transfers the heat generated by an electronic or a mechanical device to a fluid medium, often air or a liquid coolant, where it is dissipated away from the device, thereby allowing regulation of the device's temperature at optimal levels.
Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers.
Henri Étienne Sainte-Claire Deville (11 March 1818 – 1 July 1881) was a French chemist.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
The Hoopes process is a metallurgical process, used to obtain the aluminium metal of very high purity.
A household consists of one or more people who live in the same dwelling and also share meals or living accommodation, and may consist of a single family or some other grouping of people.
Human body weight refers to a person's mass or weight.
Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet (17 December 177829 May 1829) was a Cornish chemist and inventor, who is best remembered today for isolating, using electricity, a series of elements for the first time: potassium and sodium in 1807 and calcium, strontium, barium, magnesium and boron the following year, as well as discovering the elemental nature of chlorine and iodine.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
A hydrogen ion is created when a hydrogen atom loses or gains an electron.
Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH−.
In immunology, an adjuvant is a component that potentiates the immune responses to an antigen and/or modulates it towards the desired immune responses.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
The International Resource Panel is a scientific panel of experts that aims to help nations use natural resources sustainably without compromising economic growth and human needs.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.
In astronomy, the interstellar medium (ISM) is the matter and radiation that exists in the space between the star systems in a galaxy.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Ionic radius, rion, is the radius of an atom's ion in ionic crystals structure.
The ionization energy (Ei) is qualitatively defined as the amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron, the valence electron, of an isolated gaseous atom to form a cation.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry, IUPAC Recommendations 2005 is the 2005 version of Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry (which is informally called the Red Book).
The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.
A kitchen utensil is a small hand held tool used for food preparation.
Kramer Guitars is an American manufacturer of electric guitars and basses.
A lake pigment is a pigment manufactured by precipitating a dye with an inert binder, or "mordant", usually a metallic salt.
Lanthanum is a chemical element with symbol La and atomic number 57.
Lanthanum oxide is La2O3, an inorganic compound containing the rare earth element lanthanum and oxygen.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Leaching is the process of extracting substances from a solid by dissolving them in a liquid, either naturally or through an industrial process.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
A LED lamp or LED light bulb is an electric light for use in light fixtures that produces light using light-emitting diode (LED).
A Lewis acid is a chemical species that contains an empty orbital which is capable of accepting an electron pair from a Lewis base to form a Lewis adduct.
In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
This is a list of countries by aluminium production in 2016.
Lithium aluminium hydride, commonly abbreviated to LAH, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula LiAlH4.
Lithium hydride is an inorganic compound with the formula LiH.
The London Metal Exchange (LME) is the futures exchange with the world's largest market in options and futures contracts on base and other metals.
Machining is any of various processes in which a piece of raw material is cut into a desired final shape and size by a controlled material-removal process.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Magnesium oxide (MgO), or magnesia, is a white hygroscopic solid mineral that occurs naturally as periclase and is a source of magnesium (see also oxide).
Maltol is a naturally occurring organic compound that is used primarily as a flavor enhancer.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
The mantle is a layer inside a terrestrial planet and some other rocky planetary bodies.
Marcel Dekker was a journal and encyclopedia publishing company with editorial boards found in New York, New York.
The mast of a sailing vessel is a tall spar, or arrangement of spars, erected more or less vertically on the centre-line of a ship or boat.
McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.
In toxicology, the median lethal dose, LD50 (abbreviation for "lethal dose, 50%"), LC50 (lethal concentration, 50%) or LCt50 is a measure of the lethal dose of a toxin, radiation, or pathogen.
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
Metal aquo complexes are coordination compounds containing metal ions with only water as a ligand.
The report Metal Stocks in Society: Scientific Synthesis was the first of six scientific assessments on global metals to be published by the International Resource Panel (IRP) of the United Nations Environment Programme.
Metallic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that arises from the electrostatic attractive force between conduction electrons (in the form of an electron cloud of delocalized electrons) and positively charged metal ions.
Metalloestrogens are a class of inorganic xenoestrogens which can affect the gene expression of human cells responding to estrogen.
In physics, metastability is a stable state of a dynamical system other than the system's state of least energy.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
Methylaluminoxane, commonly called MAO, is an organoaluminium compound with the approximate formula (Al(CH3)O)n.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
A mirror is an object that reflects light in such a way that, for incident light in some range of wavelengths, the reflected light preserves many or most of the detailed physical characteristics of the original light, called specular reflection.
MKM steel, an alloy containing nickel and aluminum, was developed in 1931 by the Japanese metallurgist Tokuhichi Mishima.
The Mohs scale of mineral hardness is a qualitative ordinal scale characterizing scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of harder material to scratch softer material.
Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42.
A mononuclidic element or monotopic element is one of the 22 chemical elements that is found naturally on Earth essentially as a single nuclide (which may, or may not, be a stable nuclide).
A mordant or dye fixative is a substance used to set (i.e. bind) dyes on fabrics by forming a coordination complex with the dye, which then attaches to the fabric (or tissue).
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.
A native metal is any metal that is found in its metallic form, either pure in nature.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Neon is a chemical element with symbol Ne and atomic number 10.
Noah Webster Jr. (October 16, 1758 – May 28, 1843) was an American lexicographer, textbook pioneer, English-language spelling reformer, political writer, editor, and prolific author.
In metallurgy, a non-ferrous metal is a metal, including alloys, that does not contain iron (ferrite) in appreciable amounts.
NYU Langone Medical Center is an academic medical center located in New York City, New York, United States, affiliated with New York University.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor.
The Ohio Department of Natural Resources (ODNR) is the administrative department of the Ohio state government charged with maintaining natural resources such as state parks, state nature preserves, state wildlife areas, state forests, and state waterways.
The Online Etymology Dictionary is a free online dictionary written and compiled by Douglas Harper that describes the origins of English-language words.
An optical coating is one or more thin layers of material deposited on an optical component such as a lens or mirror, which alters the way in which the optic reflects and transmits light.
An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Organoaluminium chemistry is the study of compounds containing bonds between carbon and aluminium bond.
Organoborane or organoboron compounds are chemical compounds of boron and carbon that are organic derivatives of BH3, for example trialkyl boranes.
An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Paint is any liquid, liquefiable, or mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a thin layer, converts to a solid film.
Panel edge staining is a naturally occurring problem that occurs to anodized aluminium and stainless steel paneling and facades.
Paracelsus (1493/4 – 24 September 1541), born Theophrastus von Hohenheim (full name Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim), was a Swiss physician, alchemist, and astrologer of the German Renaissance.
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength.
Passivation, in physical chemistry and engineering, refers to a material becoming "passive," that is, less affected or corroded by the environment of future use.
Paul (Louis-Toussaint) Héroult (10 April 1863 – 9 May 1914) was a French scientist.
Per capita is a Latin prepositional phrase: per (preposition, taking the accusative case, meaning "by means of") and capita (accusative plural of the noun caput, "head").
The Periodic Table of Videos (usually shortened to Periodic Videos) is a series of videos about chemical elements and the periodic table.
The permissible exposure limit (PEL or OSHA PEL) is a legal limit in the United States for exposure of an employee to a chemical substance or physical agent such as loud noise.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
Phosphine (IUPAC name: phosphane) is the compound with the chemical formula PH3.
Physical Review is an American peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1893 by Edward Nichols.
Physical vapor deposition (PVD) describes a variety of vacuum deposition methods which can be used to produce thin films and coatings.
The picometre (international spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: pm) or picometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to, or one trillionth of a metre, which is the SI base unit of length.
In planetary science, planetary differentiation is the process of separating out different constituents of a planetary body as a consequence of their physical or chemical behaviour, where the body develops into compositionally distinct layers; the denser materials of a planet sink to the center, while less dense materials rise to the surface, generally in a magma ocean.
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
Polyethylene or polythene (abbreviated PE; IUPAC name polyethene or poly(ethylene)) is the most common plastic.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.
In materials science, polymorphism is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one form or crystal structure.
Potash is some of various mined and manufactured salts that contain potassium in water-soluble form.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
In geochemistry, geophysics and geonuclear physics, primordial nuclides, also known as primordial isotopes, are nuclides found on Earth that have existed in their current form since before Earth was formed.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that can cause disease in plants and animals, including humans.
Pulmonary fibrosis (literally "scarring of the lungs") is a respiratory disease in which scars are formed in the lung tissues, leading to serious breathing problems.
Pulp is a lignocellulosic fibrous material prepared by chemically or mechanically separating cellulose fibres from wood, fiber crops, waste paper, or rags.
A pyrophoric substance (from Greek πυροφόρος, pyrophoros, "fire-bearing") ignites spontaneously in air at or below 55 °C (130 °F).
Pyrotechnics is the science of using materials capable of undergoing self-contained and self-sustained exothermic chemical reactions for the production of heat, light, gas, smoke and/or sound.
A quantum clock is a type of atomic clock with laser cooled single ions confined together in an electromagnetic ion trap.
In quantum computing, a qubit or quantum bit (sometimes qbit) is a unit of quantum information—the quantum analogue of the classical binary bit.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
Radiometric dating or radioactive dating is a technique used to date materials such as rocks or carbon, in which trace radioactive impurities were selectively incorporated when they were formed.
A railroad car or railcar (American and Canadian English), railway wagon or railway carriage (British English and UIC), also called a train car or train wagon, is a vehicle used for the carrying of cargo or passengers on a rail transport system (a railroad/railway).
In economics, a real value of a good or other entity has been adjusted for inflation, enabling comparison of quantities as if prices had not changed.
A recommended exposure limit (REL) is an occupational exposure limit that has been recommended by the United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for adoption as a permissible exposure limit.
Recycling is the process of converting waste materials into new materials and objects.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
A refinery is a production facility composed of a group of chemical engineering unit processes and unit operations refining certain materials or converting raw material into products of value.
Refining (also perhaps called by the mathematical term affining) is the process of purification of a (1) substance or a (2) form.
Reflectance of the surface of a material is its effectiveness in reflecting radiant energy.
A resonator guitar or resophonic guitar is an acoustic guitar that produces sound by conducting string vibrations through the bridge to one or more spun metal cones (resonators), instead of to the guitar's sounding board (top).
The RM-81 Agena was an American rocket upper stage and satellite bus which was developed by Lockheed initially for the canceled WS-117L reconnaissance satellite program.
The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences".
A ruby is a pink to blood-red colored gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum (aluminium oxide).
United Company RUSAL (OK RUSAL) is the world's second largest aluminium company by primary production output (as of 2016).
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
Sapphire is a precious gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum, an aluminium oxide.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently transported by the action of wind, water, or ice, and/or by the force of gravity acting on the particles.
Siding or wall cladding is the protective material attached to the exterior side of a wall of a house or other building.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Silver or metallic gray is a color tone resembling gray that is a representation of the color of polished silver.
A slurry is a thin sloppy mud or cement or, in extended use, any fluid mixture of a pulverized solid with a liquid (usually water), often used as a convenient way of handling solids in bulk.
Smelting is a process of applying heat to ore in order to melt out a base metal.
Sodium bis(2-methoxyethoxy)aluminium hydride (SMEAH; trade names Red-Al, Synhydrid, Vitride) is a complex hydride reductant with the formula NaAlH2(OCH2CH2OCH3)2.
Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.
Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and hydroxide anions. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·n. The monohydrate NaOH· crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes.
A sodium-vapor lamp is a gas-discharge lamp that uses sodium in an excited state to produce light at a characteristic wavelength near 589 nm.
Soil test may refer to one or more of a wide variety of soil analyses conducted for one of several possible reasons.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
A solid-propellant rocket or solid rocket is a rocket with a rocket engine that uses solid propellants (fuel/oxidizer).
Sorghum is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family Poaceae.
The South China Sea is a marginal sea that is part of the Pacific Ocean, encompassing an area from the Karimata and Malacca Straits to the Strait of Taiwan of around.
Spallation is a process in which fragments of material (spall) are ejected from a body due to impact or stress.
Spinel is the magnesium aluminium member of the larger spinel group of minerals.
Sputnik 1 (or; "Satellite-1", or "PS-1", Простейший Спутник-1 or Prosteyshiy Sputnik-1, "Elementary Satellite 1") was the first artificial Earth satellite.
The stacking-fault energy (SFE) is a materials property on a very small scale.
The standard atomic weight (Ar, standard, a relative atomic mass) is the atomic weight (Ar) of a chemical element, as appearing and met in the earthly environment.
Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
Stellar nucleosynthesis is the theory explaining the creation (nucleosynthesis) of chemical elements by nuclear fusion reactions between atoms within the stars.
A street light, light pole, lamppost, street lamp, light standard, or lamp standard is a raised source of light on the edge of a road or path.
Strontium is the chemical element with symbol Sr and atomic number 38.
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.
Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials, called superconductors, when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.
A synthetic rubber is any artificial elastomer.
Tanned leather in Marrakesh Tanning is the process of treating skins and hides of animals to produce leather.
Tantalum is a chemical element with symbol Ta and atomic number 73.
Tempering is a process of heat treating, which is used to increase the toughness of iron-based alloys.
The tesla (symbol T) is a derived unit of magnetic flux density (informally, magnetic field strength) in the International System of Units.
A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread).
The Astrophysical Journal, often abbreviated ApJ (pronounced "ap jay") in references and speech, is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of astrophysics and astronomy, established in 1895 by American astronomers George Ellery Hale and James Edward Keeler.
Thermal conduction is the transfer of heat (internal energy) by microscopic collisions of particles and movement of electrons within a body.
Thermal conductivity (often denoted k, λ, or κ) is the property of a material to conduct heat.
Thermite is a pyrotechnic composition of metal powder, which serves as fuel, and metal oxide.
Thomas Young FRS (13 June 1773 – 10 May 1829) was a British polymath and physician.
Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.
Thorium dioxide (ThO2), also called thorium(IV) oxide, is a crystalline solid, often white or yellow in color.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
A trace radioisotope is a radioisotope that occurs naturally in trace amounts (i.e. extremely small).
A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.
Transport or transportation is the movement of humans, animals and goods from one location to another.
Clifford Travis Bean (21 August 1947 – 10 July 2011, aged 63) was an American luthier and machinist from California.
Trekking poles (also known as hiking poles, hiking sticks or walking poles) are a common hiking accessory used to assist walkers with their rhythm and provide stability on rough terrain.
Triethylamine is the chemical compound with the formula N(CH2CH3)3, commonly abbreviated Et3N.
Triisobutylaluminium (TiBA) is an organoaluminium compound with the formula Al(CH2CH(CH3)2)3.
Trimethylaluminium is one of the simplest examples of an organoaluminium compound.
A truck or lorry is a motor vehicle designed to transport cargo.
Turquoise is an opaque, blue-to-green mineral that is a hydrated phosphate of copper and aluminium, with the chemical formula CuAl6(PO4)4(OH)8·4H2O.
A Type II supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas) results from the rapid collapse and violent explosion of a massive star.
Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry is a reference work related to industrial chemistry published in English and German.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), also known as the Health Department, is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
The University of Wisconsin–Madison (also known as University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin, UW, or regionally as UW–Madison, or simply Madison) is a public research university in Madison, Wisconsin, United States.
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease.
Vacuum is space devoid of matter.
Varnish is a transparent, hard, protective finish or film that is primarily used in wood finishing but also for other materials.
Vinyl polymers are a group of polymers derived from vinyl monomers.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
WRAP (Waste & Resources Action Programme) is a. It works with businesses, individuals and communities to achieve a circular economy through helping them reduce waste, develop sustainable products and use resources in an efficient way.
A watch is a timepiece intended to be carried or worn by a person.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
Water treatment is any process that improves the quality of water to make it more acceptable for a specific end-use.
Waterproofing is the process of making an object or structure waterproof or water-resistant so that it remains relatively unaffected by water or resisting the ingress of water under specified conditions.
Weathering is the breaking down of rocks, soil, and minerals as well as wood and artificial materials through contact with the Earth's atmosphere, water, and biological organisms.
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
Wiley-VCH is a German publisher owned by John Wiley & Sons.
A window is an opening in a wall, door, roof or vehicle that allows the passage of light, sound, and air.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
The yield point is the point on a stress–strain curve that indicates the limit of elastic behavior and the beginning of plastic behavior.
A Ziegler–Natta catalyst, named after Karl Ziegler and Giulio Natta, is a catalyst used in the synthesis of polymers of 1-alkenes (alpha-olefins).
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
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