66 relations: Adam, Adam's Curse, Africa, American Journal of Human Genetics, Archaeogenetics, Archaic human admixture with modern humans, Autosome, Base pair, Bryan Sykes, Cameroon, Central Africa, Chimpanzee, Coalescent theory, Confidence interval, Deletion (genetics), Genealogical DNA test, Genetic genealogy, Genetic recombination, Genographic Project, Genome Research, Haplogroup A (Y-DNA), Haplogroup BT, Haplogroup CT, Homo erectus, Homo sapiens, Human genetics, Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup, Identical ancestors point, Insertion (genetics), Maghreb, Matrilineality, Mbo people (Cameroon), Meiosis, Mitochondrial DNA, Mitochondrial Eve, Molecular clock, Molecular evolution, Monophyly, Most recent common ancestor, Mutation, National Geographic, National Geographic (U.S. TV channel), Neanderthal, Neolithic, Nucleobase, Paternal mtDNA transmission, Patrilineality, Phylogenetic tree, Polygyny, Population bottleneck, ..., Present day, Recent African origin of modern humans, San people, Sardinian people, Science (journal), Sidrón Cave, Single-nucleotide polymorphism, Social stratification, Spain, Terminus post quem, Thymine, West Africa, Whole genome sequencing, X chromosome, Y chromosome, Y-chromosomal Aaron. Expand index (16 more) » « Shrink index
Adam (ʾĀdam; Adám) is the name used in the opening chapters of the Book of Genesis for the first man created by God, but it is also used in a collective sense as "mankind" and individually as "a human".
Adam's Curse: A Future Without Men (also known as Adam's Curse: A Story of Sex, Genetics, and the Extinction of Men) is a 2003 book by Oxford University human genetics professor Bryan Sykes expounding his hypothesis that with the declining sperm count in men and the continual atrophy of the Y chromosome, within 5,000 generations (approximately 125,000 years) the male of the human species will become extinct.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
The American Journal of Human Genetics is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal in the field of human genetics.
Archaeogenetics is the study of ancient DNA using various molecular genetic methods and DNA resources.
There is evidence for interbreeding between archaic and modern humans during the Middle Paleolithic and early Upper Paleolithic.
An autosome is a chromosome that is not an allosome (a sex chromosome).
A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.
Bryan Clifford Sykes (born 9 September 1947) is a Fellow of Wolfson College, and Emeritus Professor of Human Genetics at the University of Oxford.
Central Africa is the core region of the African continent which includes Burundi, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Rwanda.
The taxonomical genus Pan (often referred to as chimpanzees or chimps) consists of two extant species: the common chimpanzee and the bonobo.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Coalescent theory is a model of how gene variants sampled from a population may have originated from a common ancestor.
In statistics, a confidence interval (CI) is a type of interval estimate, computed from the statistics of the observed data, that might contain the true value of an unknown population parameter.
In genetics, a deletion (also called gene deletion, deficiency, or deletion mutation) (sign: Δ) is a mutation (a genetic aberration) in which a part of a chromosome or a sequence of DNA is lost during DNA replication.
A genealogical DNA test is a DNA-based test which looks at specific locations of a person's genome in order to determine ancestral ethnicity and genealogical relationships.
Genetic genealogy is the use of DNA testing in combination with traditional genealogical methods to infer relationships between individuals and find ancestors.
Genetic recombination (aka genetic reshuffling) is the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent.
The Genographic Project, launched on April 13, 2005 by the National Geographic Society, is an ongoing genetic anthropological study that aims to map historical human migration patterns by collecting and analyzing DNA samples.
Genome Research is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
Haplogroup A is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
Haplogroup BT M91, also known as Haplogroup A1b2 (and formerly as A4, BR and BCDEF), is a Y-chromosome haplogroup.
Haplogroup CT is a human Y chromosome haplogroup, defining one of the major paternal lineages of humanity.
Homo erectus (meaning "upright man") is an extinct species of archaic humans that lived throughout most of the Pleistocene geological epoch.
Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.
Human genetics is the study of inheritance as it occurs in human beings.
In human genetics, a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup is a haplogroup defined by mutations in the non-recombining portions of DNA from the Y-chromosome (called Y-DNA).
In genetic genealogy, the identical ancestors point (IAP) or all common ancestors (ACA) point is the most recent point in a given population's past where each individual then alive turned out to either be the ancestor of every individual alive now or has no currently living descendants.
In genetics, an insertion (also called an insertion mutation) is the addition of one or more nucleotide base pairs into a DNA sequence.
The Maghreb (al-Maɣréb lit.), also known as the Berber world, Barbary, Berbery, and Northwest Africa, is a major region of North Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania.
Matrilineality is the tracing of descent through the female line.
The Mbo people are an Bantu group of the Mbo plain, Littoral Region, Moungo Division, Nkongsamba and Melong subdivisions and in the West Region, Menoua Division, Santchou Subdivision and Upper Nkam Division, Kekem Subdivision of Cameroon.
Meiosis (from Greek μείωσις, meiosis, which means lessening) is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
In human genetics, the Mitochondrial Eve (also mt-Eve, mt-MRCA) is the matrilineal most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of all currently living humans, i.e., the most recent woman from whom all living humans descend in an unbroken line purely through their mothers, and through the mothers of those mothers, back until all lines converge on one woman.
The molecular clock is a technique that uses the mutation rate of biomolecules to deduce the time in prehistory when two or more life forms diverged.
Molecular evolution is the process of change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations.
In cladistics, a monophyletic group, or clade, is a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor.
In biology and genealogy, the most recent common ancestor (MRCA, also last common ancestor (LCA), or concestor) of any set of organisms is the most recent individual from which all the organisms are directly descended.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
National Geographic (formerly the National Geographic Magazine and branded also as NAT GEO or) is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society.
National Geographic (formerly National Geographic Channel and also commercially abbreviated and trademarked as Nat Geo or Nat Geo TV) is an American digital cable and satellite television network that is owned by National Geographic Partners, majority-owned by 21st Century Fox with the remainder owned by the National Geographic Society.
Neanderthals (also; also Neanderthal Man, taxonomically Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo, who lived in Eurasia during at least 430,000 to 38,000 years ago.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Nucleobases, also known as nitrogenous bases or often simply bases, are nitrogen-containing biological compounds that form nucleosides, which in turn are components of nucleotides, with all of these monomers constituting the basic building blocks of nucleic acids.
In genetics, paternal mtDNA transmission and paternal mtDNA inheritance refer to the incidence of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) being passed from a father to his offspring.
Patrilineality, also known as the male line, the spear side or agnatic kinship, is a common kinship system in which an individual's family membership derives from and is recorded through his or her father's lineage.
A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.
Polygyny (from Neoclassical Greek πολυγυνία from πολύ- poly- "many", and γυνή gyne "woman" or "wife") is the most common and accepted form of polygamy, entailing the marriage of a man with several women.
A population bottleneck or genetic bottleneck is a sharp reduction in the size of a population due to environmental events (such as earthquakes, floods, fires, disease, or droughts) or human activities (such as genocide).
The term "present-day" (as an adjective) or "present day" (as a noun) is used to describe the approximate period of time that surrounds the present.
In paleoanthropology, the recent African origin of modern humans, also called the "Out of Africa" theory (OOA), recent single-origin hypothesis (RSOH), replacement hypothesis, or recent African origin model (RAO), is the dominant model of the geographic origin and early migration of anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens).
The Sardinians, or also the Sards (Sardos or Sardus; Italian and Sassarese: Sardi; Catalan: Sards or Sardos; Gallurese: Saldi; Ligurian: Sordi), are the native people and ethnic group from which Sardinia, a western Mediterranean island and autonomous region of Italy, derives its name.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
The Sidrón Cave (Cueva del Sidrón) is a non-carboniferous limestone karst cave system located in the Piloña municipality of Asturias, northwestern Spain, where Paleolithic rock art and the fossils of more than a dozen Neanderthals were found.
A single-nucleotide polymorphism, often abbreviated to SNP (plural), is a variation in a single nucleotide that occurs at a specific position in the genome, where each variation is present to some appreciable degree within a population (e.g. > 1%).
Social stratification is a kind of social differentiation whereby a society groups people into socioeconomic strata, based upon their occupation and income, wealth and social status, or derived power (social and political).
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Terminus post quem ("limit after which", often abbreviated to TPQ) and terminus ante quem ("limit before which", abbreviated to TAQ) specify the known limits of dating for events.
---> Thymine (T, Thy) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA that are represented by the letters G–C–A–T.
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
Whole genome sequencing (also known as WGS, full genome sequencing, complete genome sequencing, or entire genome sequencing) is the process of determining the complete DNA sequence of an organism's genome at a single time.
The X chromosome is one of the two sex-determining chromosomes (allosomes) in many organisms, including mammals (the other is the Y chromosome), and is found in both males and females.
The Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes (allosomes) in mammals, including humans, and many other animals.
Y-chromosomal Aaron is the name given to the hypothesized most recent common ancestor of the majority of the patrilineal Jewish priestly caste known as Kohanim (singular "Kohen", also spelled "Cohen").
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
Adam's DNA, Genetic Adam, Human Y-MRCA, Mitochondrial Adam, Scientific Adam, Scientific adam, Y Chromosome Adam, Y chromosomal Adam, Y chromosome Adam, Y-Adam, Y-Chromosomal Adam, Y-MRCA, Y-chromosomal adam, Y-chromosomal most recent common ancestor, Y-chromosome Adam, Y-mrca.