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The X chromosome is one of the two sex-determining chromosomes (allosomes) in many animal species, including mammals (the other is the Y chromosome), and is found in both males and females. [1]

45 relations: Allosome, Barr body, Base pair, Charge-coupled device, Chromosome, Clarence Erwin McClung, Confocal laser scanning microscopy, DAPI, DNA, Egg cell, Embryo, Euchromatin, Firebug, G banding, Gene, Genetic disorder, Hermann Henking, Intellectual disability, Intelligence quotient, Karyotype, Klinefelter syndrome, Lisch epithelial corneal dystrophy, List of X-STR markers, Megalocornea, Meiosis, Monosomy, Mutation, Nature (journal), Sex linkage, Sex-determination system, Spermatozoon, Staining, Testicle, Testis determining factor, Testosterone, Triple X syndrome, Turner syndrome, X-inactivation, X-linked endothelial corneal dystrophy, X0 sex-determination system, XX male syndrome, XY sex-determination system, Y chromosome, 48, XXXX, 49, XXXXX.


An allosome (also referred to as a sex chromosome, heterotypical chromosome, heterochromosome, or idiochromosome) is a chromosome that differs from an ordinary autosome in form, size, and behavior.

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Barr body

A Barr body (named after discoverer Murray Barr) is the inactive X chromosome in a female somatic cell, rendered inactive in a process called lyonization, in those species in which sex is determined by the presence of the Y (including humans) or W chromosome rather than the diploidy of the X or Z. The Lyon hypothesis states that in cells with multiple X chromosomes, all but one are inactivated during mammalian embryogenesis.

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Base pair

Base pairs (unit: bp), which form between specific nucleobases (also termed nitrogenous bases), are the building blocks of the DNA double helix and contribute to the folded structure of both DNA and RNA.

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Charge-coupled device

A charge-coupled device (CCD) is a device for the movement of electrical charge, usually from within the device to an area where the charge can be manipulated, for example conversion into a digital value.

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A chromosome (''chromo-'' + ''-some'') is a packaged and organized structure containing most of the DNA of a living organism.

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Clarence Erwin McClung

Clarence Erwin McClung (April 5, 1870 – January 17, 1946) was an American biologist who discovered the role of chromosomes in sex determination.

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Confocal laser scanning microscopy

Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM or LSCM) is a technique for obtaining high-resolution optical images with depth selectivity.

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DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) is a fluorescent stain that binds strongly to A-T rich regions in DNA.

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a molecule that carries most of the genetic instructions used in the development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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Egg cell

The egg cell, or ovum, is the female reproductive cell (gamete) in oogamous organisms.

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An embryo is a multicellular diploid eukaryote in its earliest stage of development, from the time of fertilization through sexual reproduction until birth, hatching, or germination.

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Euchromatin is a lightly packed form of chromatin (DNA, RNA and protein) that is rich in gene concentration, and is often (but not always) under active transcription.

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The firebug, Pyrrhocoris apterus, is a common insect of the family Pyrrhocoridae.

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G banding

G-banding, G banding, or Giemsa banding is a technique used in cytogenetics to produce a visible karyotype by staining condensed chromosomes.

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A gene is a locus (or region) of DNA that encodes a functional RNA or protein product, and is the molecular unit of heredity.

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Genetic disorder

A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome, especially a condition that is present from birth (congenital).

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Hermann Henking

Hermann Henking (1858 - 1942) was a cytologist who discovered the X chromosome in 1890 or 1891.

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Intellectual disability

Intellectual disability (ID), also called intellectual development disorder (IDD) or general learning disability, and formerly known as mental retardation (MR), is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning.

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Intelligence quotient

An intelligence quotient (IQ) is a score derived from one of several standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence.

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A karyotype (from Greek κάρυον karyon, "kernel", "seed", or "nucleus", and τύπος typos, "general form") is the number and appearance of chromosomes in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell.

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Klinefelter syndrome

Klinefelter syndrome or Klinefelter's syndrome (KS) also known as 47,XXY or XXY, is the set of symptoms that result from two or more X chromosome in males.

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Lisch epithelial corneal dystrophy

Lisch epithelial corneal dystrophy (LECD), also known as band-shaped and whorled microcystic dystrophy of the corneal epithelium, is a rare form of corneal dystrophy first described in 1992 by Lisch et al.

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List of X-STR markers

The following X-STR markers are used in genealogical DNA testing and other forms of relationship testing.

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Megalocornea (MGCN, MGCN1) is an extremely rare nonprogressive condition in which the cornea has an enlarged diameter, reaching and exceeding 13 mm.

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Meiosis is a specialized type of cell division which reduces the chromosome number by half.

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Monosomy is a form of aneuploidy with the presence of only one chromosome from a pair.

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In biology, a mutation is a permanent change of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British interdisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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Sex linkage

Sex linkage is the phenotypic expression of an allele related to the chromosomal sex of the individual.

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Sex-determination system

A sex-determination system is a biological system that determines the development of sexual characteristics in an organism.

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A spermatozoon (pronounced, alternate spelling spermatozoön; plural spermatozoa; from σπέρμα "seed" and ζῷον "living being") is a motile sperm cell, or moving form of the haploid cell that is the male gamete.

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Staining is an auxiliary technique used in microscopy to enhance contrast in the microscopic image.

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The testicle (from Latin testiculus, diminutive of testis, meaning "witness" of virility, plural testes) is the male gonad in animals.

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Testis determining factor

Testis-determining factor (TDF), also known as sex-determining region Y (SRY) protein, is a DNA-binding protein (also known as gene-regulatory protein/transcription factor) encoded by the SRY gene that is responsible for the initiation of male sex determination in humans.

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Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group and is found in humans and other vertebrates.

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Triple X syndrome

Triple X syndrome (also known as triplo-X, trisomy X, XXX syndrome, 47,XXX aneuploidy) is a form of chromosomal variation characterized by the presence of an extra X chromosome in each cell of a human female.

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Turner syndrome

Turner syndrome (TS) also known as Ullrich–Turner syndrome, gonadal dysgenesis, and 45,X, is a condition in which a female is partly or completely missing an X chromosome.

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X-inactivation (also called lyonization) is a process by which one of the two copies of the X chromosome present in female mammals is inactivated.

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X-linked endothelial corneal dystrophy

X-linked endothelial corneal dystrophy (XECD) is a rare form of corneal dystrophy described first in 2006, based on a 4-generation family of 60 members with 9 affected males and 35 trait carriers, which led to mapping the XECD locus to Xq25.

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X0 sex-determination system

The X0 sex-determination system is a system that determines the sex of offspring among grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches, and some other insects.

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XX male syndrome

XX male syndrome (also called de la Chapelle syndrome, for Albert de la Chapelle, who characterized it in 1972) is a rare sex chromosomal disorder.

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XY sex-determination system

The XY sex-determination system is the sex-determination system found in humans, most other mammals, some insects (Drosophila), and some plants (Ginkgo).

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Y chromosome

The Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes (allosomes) in mammals, including humans, and many other animals.

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48, XXXX

XXXX syndrome (also called tetrasomy X, quadruple X, or 48, XXXX) is a rare chromosomal disorder caused by the presence of four X chromosomes instead of two X chromosomes.

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XXXXX syndrome (also called pentasomy X or 49,XXXXX) is a type of aneuploidy (an abnormal number of chromosomes) which results in the presence of three additional X chromosomes.

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Redirects here:

Chromosome X, Chromosome X (human), Chromosomes, human, x, Human X chromosome, Human chromosome X, X Chromosome, X chromosomes, X-chromosome.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X_chromosome

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